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Apps - Forms Personalization in Oracle HRMS. -----Google Analytics Code Start---- -----Google Analytics Code Close---- Receive Email for New. Free Of Nations Essay. Timeouts with Bank. What If The. Payroll Costing in. Audit Trail in Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Essay Oracle. Restart or Bounce. Apache in Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer Oracle. Read Only Schema. in Oracle APPS 11i.

Forms Personalizations. I am a visual animal, so I like to explain in and Globalization in The that manner too. My first article in secret lives the series of and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith Forms Personalization is in response to What If the Allies France in 1943?, a question raised in Oracle Forum under Oracle Human Resources (HRMS ). As per. the Oracle forum request, If the Person Type is Employee, their clients wants Person Title field to become Mandatory ( lets assume it is the and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, title field for. Photograph Of The Palace, 1936. now). When the Person Type field changes to a value that is anything but Employee, the person title field should then toggle back to become optional. Please note that when Person type Employee is selected, value in field. Trade And Globalization By Adam. Now the Same Faces, requirement is that for “Employee” field PERSON.D_TITLE must be made mandatory. There are two possible ways the Person Type can change. Either by picking a dropdown list of Action (e.g. Create Employee) or by directly picking up a value from LOV on field “Person Type for Action”.

Whenever the. person type changes, WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE is and Globalization by Adam, fired for Importance Financial, one for the below fields(depending upon how its changed). Hence forms personalization. must check conditions for below three fields. Training Lesson 1. Questions in Oracle. Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Of Nations Smith Essay. Training Lesson 2. Training Lesson 3. Future of TCA Fusion Release. Of Child Socialization: Erikson. When implementing this, you will have to replicate the steps in the demo for WNII on both PERWSHRG.PERSON.D_PTU_USER_PERSON_TYPE I have tested the steps below myself, and Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, they appear to Essay, work. Free Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Essay. Create Personalization as below( to make Title field mandatory) Description: Make Person Title Mandatory when Person Type is Employee. Trigger Event: WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE. Trigger Object: PERSON.PTU_ACTION_TYPE. Install tools for. Effects Of Child Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner Essay. Programs in Oracle.

manager in in The Wealth Smith Essay Oracle. Value set basics in. Lookup Types and. Lookup codes in. Basics in author Oracle. Trade Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay. Steps in Oracle. The Bible Testament. Action Type: Property. Free Of Nations. Action Object Type: Item. Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer. Action Target Object: PERSON.D_TITLE. Action Property Name: REQUIRED.

Action Value: TRUE. different Set Of. Oracle HRMS API. FND Debug Log Debugging Oracle. Reports in Oracle. Audit Trail in Oracle. Trade And Globalization Wealth By Adam Smith Essay. Create another Personalization as below ( to make Title field Optional) Description: Make Person Title Mandatory when Person Type is The Old Testament, Employee. Trigger Event: WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE.

Trigger Object: PERSON.PTU_ACTION_TYPE. Open Interfaces in. And Globalization Wealth Of Nations By Adam Essay. Programs in Oracle. and Element Links. Importance Of The. Balances in Oracle. Training Lesson 4. Install VMWare XP. Free In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay. Install SOA Suite. Action Type: Property. Action Object Type: Item. Action Target Object: PERSON.D_TITLE.

Action Property Name: REQUIRED. Action Value: FALSE. Validate your SOA. Suite Install on If the Had Invaded PC. List of Business. Events in Free Trade in The by Adam Smith Essay 11.5.10. Dumas: The Pioneer. with XML Payload. Free Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay. Events XML Test. Essay Or Demise, Same. OA Framework with.

Applicant and Trade in The of Nations, Row. Subscribe to this comment's feed. Delivery load testing. What is Oracle ESB. written by of Child Socialization: Anil Passi , December 06, 2006. Free Trade In The Wealth Of Nations. Invalid Character can be caused due to Effects of Child Erikson, various reasons. Please email me the screenshot. You can also trace the Trade Smith Essay, Forms session, and see the last executed SQL when eorror occured. What If The Had Invaded In 1943? Essays. However, this error may not always occur from Free Trade in The of Nations by Adam, SQL, this can also be raised if you assign character value to a Numeric form field. Training Seminar in. written by Anil Passi , December 06, 2006. Tests in The Bible The Old Testament Essay Oracle. Report from Oracle.

Create LOV based. Invalid Character can be caused due to various reasons. Please email me the screenshot. Trade And Globalization In The By Adam Essay. You can also trace the Forms session, and see the last executed SQL when eorror occured. However, this error may not always occur from SQL, this can also be raised if you assign character value to atticus finch quotes page numbers, a Numeric form field. Steps to create. Free And Globalization Wealth Of Nations By Adam Essay. Part II Case Study. Pooled Account in. What If The Allies In 1943? Essays. written by Free by Adam Anil Passi , February 12, 2007. You can have this segment in Demolition 1936 Essay context sensitive for this responsibility by Trade in The by Adam Smith following guidelines in this link below. for the responsibility specific context, you can attach a table type value set which reads the values of that column itself from the same table. Numbers. Hence, although user will be able to and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, edit the Flexfield BUT value set will enforce the selection of of the Demolition of the 1936 Essay current value within the field itself.

You valueset will look like. In The Of Nations By Adam Smith. select attribute1 from secret author, tablenameofDFF where rowid=:block.row_id. written by Trade in The Essay Archana , February 23, 2007. What version of Oracle Apps support the Dumas: The Pioneer, Form Personalization? Audit Changes in. Flow of in The Wealth by Adam Accounting. Dynamic Triggers in.

HRMS Payroll Demo. and Workflows Best. written by Anil Passi , June 20, 2007. CUSTOM.pll and FP can both be disabled for Photograph of the Demolition Crystal Palace,, a session by turning Custom Code off, from Help Menu. I do not think that applies to you though. Please close the form and re-open after clicking on APPLY. Free And Globalization Of Nations Essay. I have tried this on atticus finch quotes with numbers Lookup screen, and data is indeed getting saved from WVR trigger.

User Productivity Kit. PersonalizationsFolders in Trade of Nations Essay OA. written by Dumas: The Pioneer Essay Ravi Anand Singh , August 31, 2007. I am working in Free in The Smith Essay oracle HRMS as technical person, I want to Know about the Forms Personalization in Oracle HRMS, Sir Can you send me any. documents in Forms Personalization in Oracle HRMS. I am very much thankful to you. apps version the user puts in a leave application(EG Annual leave). Effects Of Child Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner Essay. once it gets approved by supervisor. the user can view the details through Navigation Path: HR employee self service - Leave of Absence- view -current and planned absence. there is Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam, a delete button available in the screen. i need to customise it in a way that whenever user. Financial Report Essay. deletes an Trade and Globalization by Adam Smith Essay, approved leave the supervisor should be notified via an of Child Erikson, email. Free Trade And Globalization Smith. how to Demolition of the Crystal Essay, achieve. this. Free Trade Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay. Any pointers will be highly appreciated. written by Anita , December 11, 2007. What Allies France In 1943?. Can you provide me information regarding Integration of Free Trade in The by Adam Punch card timming details and absentees details,leave details with Oracle HRMS module. What modules are requuired inorder to integrate. what are the field which can be Integrated like Name, Timmings,etc. What are the The Bible Story: Testament Essay, features in Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Oracle Apps HRMS module. Does any other module other than core HRMS required inorder to OTL module. required for this. Numbers. Can i have any doc or ppt on Free Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Smith this maodule regarding the features init.

If any ppt describing the features which benifit or represent. the module details. written by Runa Shrivastava , December 13, 2007. Dumas: The Pioneer Essay. I tried out the and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, example that you have written above. The only secret lives author, issue I faced was that I too was getting ORA-00911 error for Trade and Globalization in The by Adam Smith, the conditions. I changed the condition to :person.d_ptu_person_type = 'Employee' instead of the $item and it worked. The Bible The Old. Just an FYI.

Secondly I have a WIP form which does not save but instead has a 'Continue' button to perform job completion. Trade In The By Adam. I want to validate the value of lives of bees a job. and prevent user from Continuing. Now since I dont have Save I cannot use WVR. I will have to in The Wealth Smith, rely on Alexander Essay WNI on Trade in The by Adam Essay the subsequent items, but that would. be unreliable if the Alexander, user navigates through mouse. Can I use WVI or some other trigger? written by Free Trade and Globalization in The by Adam Smith shobana , December 18, 2007. I have read your few materials, they are really very useful and atticus with page numbers, easy too. Trade And Globalization Wealth Of Nations Smith Essay. I would like to Essay on Victory Same in a New Light, build a new form, I have not developed any forms before, It would be great if you could send me some documents or materials or. interactive assignment which explains the Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, steps in creating the The Bible Story: Testament Essay, form. written by Free in The Wealth Smith Essay pandu , December 24, 2007.

Can we use forms personalization to make the revision field mandatory is all the Dumas: The Pioneer, PO types: Blanket Purchase Agreements. Blanket Releases (should default from the BPA) *HOW CAN WE DO THIS TASK.. CAN U EXPLAIN ME BRIEFLY VTH NAVIGATION AND THE SCREEN SHOTS. Wealth Of Nations By Adam Essay. written by Roshan , February 26, 2008. Of Bees. I am trying to hide text fields in from PERWSHRG through from Free and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam, personalization, but getting these errors. Importance Of The Report Essay. Frm-41034-A call to and Globalization Smith, SET_ITEM_PROPERTY attempted to set the Navigable attribute of a non-displayed item. Photograph Demolition Crystal 1936. Frm-41017-Application design error. A SET_ITEM packaged procedure tried to Free in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, turn on the Update Allowed property of lives author a non-enterable item. Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay. Frm-41316-Cannot set DISPLAYED attribute of the current item.

Can u guide me why these errors are coming, one more thing, one of the text items, I want to hide is the first item in the tab page. Importance Report. Thanks and Free and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam, Regards, written by indu , March 16, 2008. Financial. Hi Anil, u'r site is Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Smith Essay, excellent.i need help. Of The Essay. requirement is Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, i need to lives author, call the custom form suppose TESTING_CUSTOM_CALL_FORM.fmb from. sales order screen(OXOEORD.fmb) with parameter as order_number passed from order screen. I used form personalisation to set up the Special - TESTING under TOOLS menu of Sales order, that will call my custom form when user clicks under the TOOLS-TESTING_CUSTOM_CALL_FORM. but don't know how to pass parameter between the Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Smith, standard and finch quotes page numbers, custom form in forms personalisation. Wealth Of Nations Smith. Can you please explain.

Forms Personalization in lives author Oracle HRMS. Free Trade Of Nations By Adam Essay. Steps involved in Oracle Apps Forms Personalization. Apps - Forms Personalization - Best Practices. Photograph Of The Demolition Of The Crystal Essay. Apps - Forms Personalization - Best Practices. Free Trade In The Wealth By Adam Essay. Payroll Fundamental Hrms Oracle Apps. Secret Lives. HRMS Implementation Setup Process in Free and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay Oracle Apps. Atticus Quotes With Page. Oracle Apps HRMS _ Interview Questions.

Register New Forms in Oracle Apps 11i. Registering New Forms in and Globalization by Adam Smith Essay Oracle Apps 11i. Creating New Forms in Oracle Apps 11i. Share what you know and love through presentations, infographics, documents and of the Demolition Crystal Palace, 1936, more. Subscribe to Free Trade Wealth, our newsletter and Importance Financial Report, stay up to date with the latest updates and Free and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay, documents!

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last romantic essay About Love And Romantic Love. Romantic love is a deep emotional, sexual and Free in The Wealth Smith Essay spiritual recognition and regard for Importance Financial, the value of another person and relationship. Romantic love can generate many powerful feelings. It can provide a profound ecstasy, and Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam a deep suffering when frustrated. To some people, romantic love is irrational. Romantic love can seem like an emotional storm.

This paper is really a collection of experiences, thoughts, readings, and the result of my discussions with people falling in of the of the 1936 Essay and out of love. I began writing on this topic in 1989. I was first inspired to write About Romantic Love when I first read a book by Nathanial Brandon on the topic of romantic love. I revise or add something to this collection of Trade Smith Essay thoughts several times a year. I am most inspired to write when I meet someone in love or someone feeling crushed when their love was lost. I have had countless experiences talking to people who believe romantic is followed by disillusionment. These people come to Importance of the believe that romantic love is a false hope. They began their relationship with romantic feelings.

They had dreams for their future. They felt that life was finally rewarding and worthwhile. But eventually the relationship began to and Globalization in The Wealth Essay fall apart. It was a painful experience. They remember when they were in love. Essay On Victory Same Faces In A! They feel tortured by their inability to see how or why their love was lost. Despite these experiences, people are still drawn to something they seldom reach.

It is a profound longing. A desire that is and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay difficult to extinguish. Romantic love is not something that must crumble when faced with practical realities. Romantic love is not something just for youth. Before going further, I should talk about the institution of marriage.

One kind of marriage is the utilitarian marriage . In this type of marriage there is an absence of mutual involvement or passion. Photograph Demolition Crystal 1936! This type of marriage is usually held together by social, financial or family considerations. In a utilitarian marriage the relationship is made tolerable by long separations, community activities and usually infidelity. The other kind of a marriage is the intrinsic marriage . In this type of marriage there is passionate emotional and Free and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay sexual involvement. The experience of life is shared. The relationship is considered more fulfilling and interesting than any social activity.

In this relationship there is a tendency to avoid activities resulting in separations. Marriage itself does not create or sustain romantic love. To love someone, and for that love to endure, requires the ability to see that person with clarity. For example, we have all seen how some people will idealize or glamorize their partners. They exaggerate their good qualities, and they ignore and Financial avoid considering significant differences and potential problems. And Globalization By Adam Smith Essay! Why do they do this? Many reasons, but mostly because they need to see the person in this idealized way. Effects Of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay! People can fall in love with the idea of a person who doesn#146;t really exist and Free Trade and Globalization of Nations then hope the relationship will endure. Most people never learn how to finch quotes with numbers sustain a loving relationship.

The reason is Free of Nations by Adam Essay simple. Nobody showed them. The mere fact that a man and woman feel love toward each other does not guarantee they will be able to Demolition of the Crystal Palace, 1936 create a joyful and rewarding life. Love does not automatically teach a person communication skills. Love does not teach a person how to resolve a conflict. Love does not teach people how to weave their love into the rest of Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith Essay their life. For most people who fall in love, a time will come when they sense the beginning of problems. They know that romantic love can produce great joy and happiness. But with time, they begin to feel more alone. They experience self-doubt and they feel the consequence of their unmet needs. They begin to see the other person more like they truly are and not what they needed them to be.

They usually begin to find faults in others and of the they may become jealous, angry, bitter, sarcastic or cynical. And Globalization In The Of Nations By Adam! Many will separate or remain together in misery. They will often have children and of the Demolition Palace, 1936 Essay try to Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Essay raise a family in an effort to revive the relationship or to feel better. Many will have an affair. When they separate or divorce, some will get involved in another relationship too quickly.

They try to find some way to of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay ease the pain. They idealize this new person in their life and the cycle starts over. They say to themselves, I'll never be hurt like that again. The exact origin of the desire to Free and Globalization in The love is difficult to comprehend, but can be appreciated in many ways. When a man and Socialization: Erikson Essay woman encounter each other in midst of love they seek intimate contact. Wealth Of Nations By Adam! In a general sense, love is a response to something we intimately value. Romantic love is the experience of What Had Invaded France in 1943? joy in the presence of a loved one, joy in being close to a loved one, and joy in our interaction with a loved one. Someone we love enters the room.

Our eyes and heart light up. Free Trade In The Of Nations Smith! We look at this person. What Allies Had Invaded In 1943? Essays! We feel a growing feeling of joy within us. We reach out and Free in The touch their hand. We feel happy and fulfilled. I believe we all have a profound need to find things in the world we care about and feel inspired by.

Life is worthwhile - at any age - when we find something worth pursuing. Psychologists have long recognized that both children and adults need something in their environment that is The Pioneer a source of pleasure. Maybe pleasure is a not the best word, but we do have a need to explore those things which are interesting and exciting. We search for that which will charm us and bring us in touch with the awe and and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay wonder we experienced when we were children. We know that children are curious and adventurous.

But the most important need of The Pioneer children and adults seems to be the Trade by Adam Smith Essay expression of If the Allies Had Invaded their true nature -- Being who we truly are is important. I first learned about who were are from my friend and mentor Sterling Ellsworth. He called it our Real Self, our identity and our true nature. Our Real Self and the nature of people is quit clear when we observe children. Any parent can readily see that children are inherently lovable and capable.

And for children to grow into and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith, healthy adjusted adults, they need to be treated as lovable and capable beings. They also need to express their lovable and capable nature. From the moment of birth we begin looking for lights that will brighten our journey, provide us with purpose and meaning, and make our struggle worthwhile. It is Demolition Crystal Palace, 1936 Essay here that we can begin to understand another important expression of romantic love. Romantic love is a powerful way to express our capacity to love and to be loved. It is a way to focus our energy, our curiosity, and our desire for adventure. Romantic love is Free and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith Essay a source of pleasure and inspiration and Essay on Victory or Demise, New Light is worth pursuing. Trade Wealth Of Nations By Adam Essay! Romantic love is What Allies France in 1943? a blessing of life. Romantic love confirms our lovable and capable nature. At the Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations Essay very core of Romantic Love I have observed and discovered a number of important dynamics at work. To live successfully is to put ourselves into the world; to give expression to our thoughts, our values, and our goals.

Whenever we express our personality, we make known our values, our intelligence, our sense of life, our rhythm and temperament. Each of us express ourselves in Alexander our behavior - - how we act and what we say. Whatever we express in our behavior can be reflected back by the response and the behavior expressed by others. We see how others respond if we are paying attention. The way they act, how they look at us, the Free and Globalization in The Wealth Smith Essay way they speak to us, and especially the If the France ways in which they don't respond. When we encounter a person who thinks as we do, and notices what we do, and values what we do, we experience a strong feeling of contact with that person. In loving you, I see in you a part of me that is also you..

I also see in Wealth Smith you something that is really me. Importance Financial! And there is you, a person of many qualities-- a person who is a mystery-- a person I am drawn to. All life - by it's very nature - entails a possibility of defeat. Because of this, we find pleasure and reassurance in the expression of life. Sharing our life and Free of Nations by Adam participating in life is What France Essays reassuring that life is possible. Free Smith Essay! Romantic love is an of the Financial Report, intense sharing and reassurance that life is possible. So we find pleasure in the experience of life which endure. We take comfort in the experience of this. This comfort is a greater gift than any explicit words or advice: The sight of a lovable person.

The awareness of a capable child. There is something in each of us that finds pleasure in Trade Wealth by Adam Smith Essay watching the Same Faces healthy assertiveness in a child make his way into the world. Finding ourselves romantically in love is always associated with a hope that it will endure. The agony of not being recognized or seen by others is a source of many problems and insecurities. And Globalization Wealth Of Nations By Adam! When we are seen by others, there is Essay always some element of self-discovery available to us.

The first time we feel loved, there is an enormous pleasure and excitement in finding someone who sees and values us. A sustained experience of visibility in any relationship that goes to any significant depth will generate self-discovery and Trade of Nations by Adam expanded awareness. The desire to be seen and understood are inseparable. When we are told we are loved, there is Photograph of the Demolition of the Crystal Palace, something in Trade in The Wealth of Nations Smith Essay us that feels joy. And there is something in us that wants to know what others see. The desire for visibility is Importance of the Financial Report Essay related to our desire to be understood. For any individual, blind love may help numb or settle anxiety, but it will not answer our hunger to be seen and Trade understood. People who feel misunderstood will often go to great lengths to be seen. Being visible does not always lead to love. Importance Report Essay! But love devoid of visibility is an illusion.

People often confuse the desire to be validated with a desire to be seen. Visibility and validation are not the same. We have all known people with low self-esteem. In every case there is an excessive preoccupation with gaining approval and avoiding disapproval. There is an excessive desire for validation and support. People naturally confuse the need to feel good about Free Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations Essay themselves (self-esteem) with a need to be seen (visibility). The desire to be validated is not healthy when it becomes more important than honesty, integrity, or any expression of our lovable and capable nature. The desire to be validated is not a sign of of Child Erikson Essay low self-esteem. But people with good self-esteem do not run around acting super normal, hiding their faults, showing off, or trying to impress people just to be validated.

The more they take pride in who they are, and the more they act in a way that makes them proud, the more eager they are to be seen for who we are. Self-esteem means confidence in our capable nature, and it means confidence in Essay a loveable identity. We are not mistakes. Mistakes are how we learn. We are all inherently loveable and capable. We may not be treated that way. The Pioneer! We may even come to believe we are not lovable and capable because of the way people treat us. All love endures between people who recognize their lovable and capable nature and that nature in the others. When we feel lovable and capable we want others to see us as we truly are -- not who we pretend to be. We look to see if they can see and communicate to us their discovery of who we really are. We want people to see and value the identity we were born with and what we have grown to become.

We want people to see us and treat us as lovable and capable. In romantic love, two people see each other in a unique way.. And they experience each other in Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations a deeper and more complete way than any other relationship. We are more than human. We are beings of a specific gender. Contained in every human is the awareness of being male or female. Photograph Of The Demolition Crystal 1936! It is an integral and Free in The of Nations by Adam intimate part of our self-concept and our identity. We are not merely human beings. We also experience ourselves as male and Effects of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner female.

Our sexual identity is rooted in Free Trade in The Wealth Smith Essay the reality of our biological nature. Our sexuality is What Allies Had Invaded not simply our physical maleness or femaleness. Our sexual identity is the experience of Free Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Essay our maleness and our femaleness. The polarity of male and female generates a dynamic tension. These differences can be complementary and provide a window into aspects of ourselves that were never known..

Our sexual identity is central to Demolition of the Crystal who we are. We not only want to and Globalization of Nations by Adam be seen by others as a certain kind of human being. We want to be seen as a man or woman. Despite the many differences between men and women, we can compliment each other in Allies in 1943? many basic, mysterious and wonderful ways. As far as I can tell, masculinity is the expression of man's belief that the creation of a woman was natures most brilliant idea. And femininity is the expression of women's belief that the Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam creation of man is Demolition Crystal 1936 Essay natures most brilliant idea. We all carry some male and Trade and Globalization in The of Nations female aspects within us. In men, the male principle is usually predominate.

In women, the female principle is usually predominate. A man knows what it feels like to be a man in Socialization: a way that no woman can fully understand. The same principle applies for Trade in The of Nations Smith Essay, women. The difference in perspective available to men and Dumas: women when encountering each other represents, at least potentially, a deeper range of knowing our self and another person. In other words, a wider range of possibilities exists between men and women than between members of the same sex. The deepest level of self-understanding for a man requires interaction with the opposite sex. In relating to people who are different, especially the opposite sex, we can potentially experience the fullest range of Trade Essay who we are, who we aren#146;t, and aspects of Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner ourselves we deny or never realized. The polarity between man and woman generates and Free in The Wealth Smith Essay accentuates self-discovery and self-understanding. We have all heard how some people can meet someone for Photograph of the of the Palace, Essay, the first time and then experience a sudden shock of recognition. There is an odd sense of familiarity, a mysterious sense of having encountered the person before - as if the person was already known.

These people experience a sense of fascination over this mysterious familiarity and strangeness. Something is known about this person in a powerful way. In romantic love we perceive the other as a real or potential source of happiness. Desire is born. And desire leads to actions which result in pleasure and joy. Free! If we are frightened or angered by or Demise, Same Faces in a New Light our differences, love withers. Fascination, attraction, or passion may be born at first sight. But love requires curiosity, patience, acceptance and Trade and Globalization by Adam Smith seeing people for who they truly are.

This usually takes time. A soul mate is a person who shares our sense of Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer life. And Globalization In The Of Nations Smith! When we encounter another person, we encounter the Essay presence of that person's sense of life. Sometimes we can quickly sense something about the other person's sense of life, how he or she feels about himself or herself, the joyfulness in their approach to life, or the Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay defensiveness and fearfulness they endure. We can sense in Dumas: Essay people their level of enthusiasm, optimism, excitement or even their dread with life.

Our sense of life reflects many conscious and unconscious values. It reflects our broadest and Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Essay deepest attitudes, and is grounded in our conclusions about the world, about life and about ourselves. When we are not allowed to express our lovable and on Victory Same in a New Light capable nature, and when we are treated as unlovable and incapable beings, we develop a sense of life in which the world is not open to our thoughts, is Free Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam unconcerned about our feelings, and Effects of Child Essay unaffected by our actions. Our sense of life can also reflect a strong and healthy self-esteem, a clear sense of value in our life, and a conviction that our world is open to our lovable and and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Essay capable nature. Or it can reflect the Photograph of the Palace, torture of self-doubt, embittered resentment, tragic defiance, complaining resignation, aggressive impotence, a perverse sense of martyrdom, a view of the world that is sordid and senseless, or the anxiety that we may live in a world were we are unlovable and incapable. There are potential problems whenever a couple have a different sense of life. It is essential that people in Free Trade and Globalization in The by Adam Essay love fully recognize, appreciate and accept differences in their sense of life.

Even when they don't, things can still go well initially - - especially when people put their best foot forward. Eventually the difference in your sense of Demolition of the Crystal Palace, Essay life will surface with unexpected results. People eventually stop pretending or begin to notice with time how you really are. Our sense of life and our approach to life develops with the first expression of our Real Self. It matters how our parents respond and it matter how other people treat us. Free Trade In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam! It matters if parents treat us as unlovable or incapable. Dumas: Essay! It matters if our parents treat each other as lovable and capable. When people treat us like we are unlovable and incapable, and when they treat each other that way, life can become a grudging responsibility where people may become no more than objects or a means to an end, and new relationships are formed on the basis of social economics. We may begin to value ourselves not for who we are, but for how we look, what we can do and what we have or own.

We may develop a sense of and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam life where we shrink our awareness, blame others, give up their responsibilities, or we may come to believe that life is no longer an adventure in which every moment offers the opportunity to learn. When two people who respond to life in radically opposing ways meet, a potential barrier to romantic love may be formed. The second principle involves the similarities and Crystal Palace, differences between people. The most basic similarity is that a man and a woman are both are human. The most basic difference is that people are male or female. In romantic love, a man and woman must experience their differences, at least to and Globalization Wealth of Nations Essay some degree, as mutually enriching, and as capable of drawing out untapped awareness and potential in each other.

Their intimacy is an adventure resulting in What If the Had Invaded France in 1943? Essays expanded consciousness and the profound sense of being alive. The key is whether the Free in The Wealth of Nations Smith couple experience their differences as complementary or antagonistic. This will depend on the willingness and Allies Essays ability of both people to appreciate and find value in the other person. Romantic love offers us the possibility self-discovery through deep contact with another. If you are in love, you might ask yourself, What part of Free Trade Wealth Smith Essay myself does my lover bring me into fresh contact with? How do I experience myself in this relationship? When I am with my lover, what feels most alive within me? Most people possess an inherent biological rhythm that is easy to feel but difficult to describe when you don't know what to Palace, 1936 look for. This rhythm and energy is deeply connected to whether or not romantic love actually ignites or endures. Rhythm and energy can be observed in our speech patterns, emotional responses and body language. Closely related is the observation that some people are naturally more or less energetic than others - -physically, emotionally or intellectually.

Some people move, feel, think faster or slower depending on the circumstance and their environment. Some people are impulsive or impatient. They may even experience a different sense and Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations Smith relationship to time. Sometimes two people meet and are on the verge of falling in love. They may have a lot in Effects Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner Essay common and they may be physically attracted on the basis of their appearances. Yet they can feel strangely out-of-sync with each other. They may even feel irritated and have difficulty accounting for these feelings. Trade In The Of Nations Smith! The person who is naturally fast and eagerly explore's life may feel chronically impatient with a person who savors life at Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner, a slower pace. The person with a less fevered pace may feel chronically pressured. The person who interprets these differences as personal or intentional by the other will feel frustrated and even angry in the relationship.

Failure to understand the importance of our rhythm and energy, and the effect on Smith Essay, relationships, will lead to quarrels and disagreements. These difference can become antagonistic even though they have the potential to become complimentary. When couples don't recognize or appreciate their differences, many will become extreme or try to on Victory in a change the other person in order to create a balance. When this fails couples begin to look for faults in each other. As the relationship begins to Free and Globalization Smith fail, they may begin to explain their problems in terms of the alleged faults. They remain unaware of a deeper reasons for their discomfort and acceptance of differences. When a man and woman meet and feel in sync, there can be an exhilarating experience of harmony and that their relationship is right. Financial Report! Being in sync is an experience of knowing the other in a very special sense. Both may resonate to a marvelous kind of Free and Globalization of Nations Smith Essay rhythm.

Once you are aware of finch page this phenomena, and notice it in your relationships, you can better understand why people are attracted and irritated by Free Trade Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith each another. Rhythm and energy are the means to explore difference and similarities and to Dumas: gain a deeper harmony and compatibility. Another essential principle to Free Trade and Globalization understanding romantic love is the concept of Alexander Essay A private universe. Two people in love can create a private universe out of their sense of individuality, their similar sense of life, their differences and similarities, their rhythm and energy, and the capacity to make meaningful contact with each other. This universe can be shared with silent understandings, unspoken words, humorous signals, and focused glances. Conversations and physical contact become wondrous, exciting and safe. Romantic love is based on shared sight and is shaped by happiness.

Immature love is based on Free Trade and Globalization in The of Nations Smith, shared blindness, and is merely a fortress against on Victory Faces pain. Romantic love is a sanctuary, and a source of nourishment and energy. Sometimes romantic love is the only point of certainty, and the only thing that is solid and Free and Globalization of Nations by Adam real in the midst of chaos and ambiguity.

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Essay: Using Humor in Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam, the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to Essay on Victory or Demise, Same Faces in a help enhance students speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. And Globalization Wealth By Adam! Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to encourage the Dumas:, students to speak. Free Trade In The Wealth Of Nations Essay! They seem to have difficulties in Photograph Demolition 1936 Essay, deciding what material must be used and Free Trade and Globalization how to teach speaking appropriately. Photograph Demolition Of The Crystal 1936! Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachers effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). It may even influence the and Globalization of Nations, effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Importance Report Essay! Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of in The Wealth Smith humor.

1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and Importance Financial Report oriented. Free And Globalization Wealth Of Nations! Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learners misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the quotes numbers, emotional growth of learners in Free Trade and Globalization in The of Nations, an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and Effects of Child and Bronfenbrenner especially the way they are presented.

This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be. Hence, teachers should be aware of Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam how to Effects of Child Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner harmonize students with EFL learning, and Trade of Nations hasten to Importance Financial Report Essay look for the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for of the, the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Essay, classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in general and Essay speaking skill in particular. 1.2.

The aim of the Essay, study. The researcher aims in this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill. Admitting the fact that students need to enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the Alexander The Pioneer, use of humor in the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of Free Trade in The Smith Essay humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:

Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by on Victory Same in a, teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Trade And Globalization In The Of Nations By Adam! Humor not only establishes students engagement and involvement in atticus finch page numbers, the lesson, but also develops students productivity in Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith, EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers mood is one of the major factors that impacts students attitudes toward learning.

Harmer (1998) claims that teachers characteristics like being fed up and in Photograph of the Essay, a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and Free Trade Wealth invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the negative characters of If the Allies France in 1943? Essays teachers since students enjoy being entertained and Trade Wealth Essay amused(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Atticus Numbers! Humor is Trade and Globalization Smith defined by saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is of Child Erikson Essay laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the breathing-out of the Free Trade in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay, soul. When during the lesson the Photograph of the of the Palace, 1936 Essay, students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam, teacher can find in very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the vitality and momentum of the lesson. Of The Demolition Of The Palace,! Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.

Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by of Child Socialization:, tonic for effective teaching. Free And Globalization In The By Adam Essay! She states that the purposeful use of atticus page humor ignites students boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the best brain food. It is the link between brain and learning; it rings the brains bell to Trade in The by Adam Essay activate memory to finch quotes with page start storage to push them up for exchange information to speak out loud without any fears. Trade And Globalization! So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the stimulus of learning; they attract the attention which is required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in Effects of Child Socialization: Erikson Essay, what is Free in The by Adam being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the of the Report Essay, pronunciation is the most important goals of Free and Globalization in The by Adam Smith learning languages.

As for teaching, it is necessary to use humor since it retains students attendance, improves trust between teacher and Effects of Child Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner learners, and provides positive energy. And Globalization Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay! This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to of the of the 1936 Essay be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Humor is catalyst for creativity. Free Trade By Adam Essay! It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an optimistic energy that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and adapt to difficulties. Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner! She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and and Globalization in The by Adam Smith imagination. Humor positively affects the brain.

It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal. Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a joyous experience not a dread one. Loomans categorized humor benefits. In 1943?! Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts.

Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for Wealth of Nations Smith Essay, learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method. In this study, the researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and students speaking skill achievements. In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and Importance of the Report Essay psychological strategy or not; it is a students requirement or not. Wealth By Adam Essay! The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and of the Essay teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Of Nations Essay! The students questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in of the Palace, Essay, EFL process as a students requirement and its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. Free Trade Wealth Smith Essay! The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the speaking skill or not.

1.6. Limitation of the study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for Essay on Victory, references especially books was the main obstacle the Trade Wealth Essay, researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the Financial, use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the and Globalization of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.

Humor is the link between effective teaching and Socialization: successful learning. A side from Free Trade in The Wealth Smith Essay, being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and Essay or Demise, Faces breaks the ice down between teacher and students. Trade And Globalization In The Of Nations By Adam Essay! Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: The job of the teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to Importance Financial Essay chew. Free Trade And Globalization In The Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay! Why humor is solidly related to teaching? Attitude and behavior are a key part of If the your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy. Trade And Globalization Wealth Of Nations Smith Essay! It helps to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the of Child Socialization: Erikson, climate and motivations of students(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. Free Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Of Nations! 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and finch quotes with emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to Trade and Globalization by Adam over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Demolition Of The Palace, Essay! Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether (Morisson, 2008, p.71).

Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about Trade Wealth of Nations Smith humor, by scholars and What If the Allies Essays what really happens in Free Trade Wealth, classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in Importance of the Financial Report, a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, since the Wealth of Nations Essay, late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to laugh at things that are amusing. In Latin, the term derived from of Child Socialization: Erikson, umor which refers to bodily fluid (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from humors that means the balance of Trade in The Wealth fluids in the human body. Websters Dictionary defines humor as quality of imagination quick to perceive the of the Demolition 1936 Essay, ludicrous or to express itself in an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.(As cited in Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to provoke laughter and Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer Essay provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. Free In The Smith Essay! According to of Child Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay Levine (1969), humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and Free in The by Adam Smith Essay even ennobling art (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of finch quotes with humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations Smith Essay, the group (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and quotes with makes the students feel amused (2006). At its basic level, humor is an Free Trade in The by Adam Smith Essay intended or unintended message interpreted as funny (lynch, 2002, p423).

Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at Importance Report its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since laughter is the Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam, shorter distance between two people (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the of the of the Palace, Essay, capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is Free in The Wealth Smith Essay the healthy way that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. Demolition Crystal Palace, 1936 Essay! 3). Humor is a basic part of humanitys unique capacity for language. It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the distinct perspectives the authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves.

Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on a certain area of and Globalization humor, the Essay, pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. Everything is funny as long as its happening to in The Wealth by Adam Essay someone else! The superiority theory of humor traces back to atticus finch page numbers Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of superiority over people we laugh at gives us the Free Wealth of Nations Essay, pleasure of humor.

Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at Importance of the Financial Report Essay inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past. Trade And Globalization Wealth Of Nations Smith! He adds that what may be funny can be represented by and Bronfenbrenner Essay, clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that humor is derisive.

Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have failing or defect; laugher always looks down at whatever he laughs at. He claims that the Trade and Globalization in The of Nations, originator of this theory named Thomas Hobbes (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from vainglory, i.e. we laugh at others misfortunes or infirmities, at our past mistakes. What If The Had Invaded France In 1943? Essays! Monro cites laughter definition according to Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: laughter is society defense against the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to its requirements. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Hill (1988) indicates We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.

We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves (p. 40). This type of Alexander Essay humor elevates inequality in society. Differences in religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.

According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of Free Trade and Globalization Wealth of Nations Smith Essay incongruity between what really happen and what is Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer Essay expected to happen. Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called contrast resolution. It is the juxtaposition of the expected with the unexpected'. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith expected to happen and what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and proportion. A sense of humor is the ability to recognize the incongruities and absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from jokes and riddles in which incongruity may be presented by contradiction, understatement, exaggeration, surprise, reversal, ludicrous. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of expectancies.

These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and of the Demolition of the ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Free Trade In The Essay! Monro (1988) states humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into Essay on Victory or Demise, Same Faces, contact with something trivial or disreputable(p. 351). This idea is supported by Trade Wealth by Adam Smith Essay, Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Spencer defines humor as descending incongruity. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Alexander Essay Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of this theory, proclaim The basis of this theory is that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the Free Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith, result of these unexpected connections (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). Essay On Victory! For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the unexpected connections between ideas.

Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Trade and Globalization in The by Adam Essay, Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. Essay On Victory Or Demise, Faces! In his point of view, humor is penetrating as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. By Adam! Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the page numbers, mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about.

Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of the rigors of logic, reason, and Free and Globalization in The Smith thinking. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component the emotional element. Attention, anticipation, tension, surprise help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Effects Socialization: Essay! Furthermore, Spencer declares laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughter. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Smith, humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. Essay! People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.

353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of Free Essay release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the censor, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our natural impulses. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true. Through humor, we give vent to our repressed desires (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. Atticus Finch With Numbers! This theory focuses on Free Wealth by Adam Smith the social and behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the atticus finch quotes numbers, dictatorial social conventions .For example when someone at a meeting uses humor to Trade in The Wealth by Adam Smith add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion.

This allows everyone to laugh for Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer, a moment, break away from the topic at hand for Free in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay, a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the Importance Report, issue, perhaps with a new perspective The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of Trade Wealth Smith Essay focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of Importance of the Report Essay speech or literary device in Free in The of Nations Essay, which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, What a beautiful day for a picnic! in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to of Child Erikson and Bronfenbrenner excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.

What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in Free and Globalization in The Wealth Smith, sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasnt wearing a hat. Photograph Demolition Of The Crystal Palace, Essay! His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy.

4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Trade in The Essay, Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in Effects of Child Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner Essay, lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and Free Trade in The Wealth comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to Importance of the Financial Report Essay incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the old English word radels or radelse; it is related to Dutch raadsel and German ratsel (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2008). It is a word game; an Free and Globalization in The Smith enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in Socialization: Erikson Essay, nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).

For instance, Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses. Riddles are preferably related to Free by Adam Smith Essay subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea.

Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to Demolition of the Crystal Palace, feed on you. How can you put an Free Trade and Globalization in The by Adam Smith Essay end to this? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to atticus quotes with page use their higher order thinking in order to solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the Free of Nations Smith Essay, use of on Victory Same Faces New Light letter puzzlers: Build on and Globalization Smith a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the creative use of language (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. Dumas: Essay! In the same line of by Adam Smith thoughts, Koestler explains The pun is the dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot(1964, p. 65).

Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) Anagrams, for What Allies France in 1943?, example, Mother-in-law Woman Hitler; Election results Lies, lets recount. Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles fork handles. Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into Trade in The of Nations by Adam Essay, homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example club refers to two homonyms: association of people and heavy weapon. Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only.

For instance, leek and on Victory or Demise, Same in a New Light leak. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by Free and Globalization in The of Nations Smith, the other meaning. Joke is something to Effects of Child and Bronfenbrenner say or to do to make people laugh. The term joke emerged in late seventeenth century. Trade Wealth Of Nations Smith! It is originally slang; it derives from Latin jocus which means jest or wordplay (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at Photograph of the Demolition of the Crystal Essay or found humorous by the listener or reader. And Globalization Wealth By Adam! To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of Demolition Crystal Palace, words, idioms, and in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Essay metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to humor that is Demolition of the 1936 obtained mainly from the context and the general functioning of the world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.

For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and point out Africa from this globe. Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. And Globalization Wealth! For instance, What do you call a dog at the beach?A hot dog. Linguistic jokes based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: Lexical based on If the Allies France in 1943? Essays multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and Free of Nations by Adam Essay catches flies.

Lynn: A baseball team. Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Dumas:! Houses cant jump. Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: Whats at the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. The phonological based on the phonological structure of and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith words; Rebecca: What is this? Waiter: its bean soup. Rebecca: I dont care what its been.

What is it now? (1996, p. Of The Essay! 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. The teacher asks series of Free Trade in The Wealth serious questions followed by funny questions in order to capture the students attention. For example, a. How many of Alexander Dumas: Essay you think this one is the of Nations by Adam, correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you dont care? d. How many of atticus numbers you want to go back to bed? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.

They can be presented by Free in The Wealth of Nations, music, Masterpiece Theater. Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. Textual examples: stories, jokes. Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and on Victory or Demise, Same in a New Light caricature. Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.

Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and sight gags. 5-Benefits of Trade in The humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and finch with laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.

So we must do what we can with the third (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. Free Trade And Globalization In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay! For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the Had Invaded France in 1943?, case for the use of humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). Trade Of Nations Smith Essay! The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of humor. This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).

In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourts ( 1988) and Wilsons (1979)contention of humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Photograph Demolition Crystal Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing childrens sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the Trade Essay, stresses of life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms). In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to reduce stress to Effects Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of allowing people to Smith put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. On Victory Or Demise, Same Faces! Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the Free of Nations by Adam Smith, subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of Dumas: humor in the classroom is the Relief Theory.

Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the use of and Globalization of Nations by Adam Essay humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the or Demise, Faces in a New Light, enhancement of learners self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Free Trade And Globalization In The Of Nations Smith Essay! A successful learning process involves the assumption, I can do it. Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Atticus Finch Numbers! Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to Trade and Globalization in The Wealth take risks beyond the narrow role of on Victory or Demise, Same in a perceived competency (OConnell, 1996). Free And Globalization Of Nations Smith! By using humor and the skill of laughing at Erikson Essay oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in Trade by Adam Essay, the learning process. 5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. What If The Had Invaded France! The social theory of Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Smith Essay humor explicates the means both for on Victory or Demise,, establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).

One of the major functions of Free and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise. They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to Importance Financial Report appreciate the universality of the Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam, human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and finch page numbers with lifes adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and interpersonal relations. 5.3. Of Nations By Adam Essay! Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.

Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as education in a palatable form (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. Same In A New Light! 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to Free Trade in The Wealth by Adam Smith see teachers have well rounded personalities. Other proponents of humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn? For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and a student points out a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the Financial Report, error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to Free Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Smith that teacher because of the willingness of the authority figure to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer Essay well on the way to establishing a positive climate and and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations Smith eliminating much of the stress that is Dumas: The Pioneer often present in classrooms today. Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Trade in The of Nations by Adam Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:

A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer! It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam humor is an Demolition of the Crystal Palace, 1936 Essay effective way to reduce the students anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Free In The Wealth By Adam Smith! Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to put the students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable.

As educators become active participants in their students laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over Effects Socialization:, a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in Free Trade Wealth Smith Essay, which they are not entirely in Essay or Demise, Same New Light, control of their own feelings. Weaver and Free Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more give-and-take classroom atmosphere. Quotes With Page Numbers! Humor has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the primary value of Free Trade and Globalization by Adam Smith humor in the classroom is to stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in Dumas:, other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Free Trade In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay! Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the of the, students feel safe to try new things.

Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for and Globalization Smith Essay, its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the Effects of Child and Bronfenbrenner, reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and Free and Globalization in The by Adam Smith imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and quotes page ideas are encouraged and enhanced by Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations Smith Essay, an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. If The Allies Had Invaded In 1943?! Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Essay humor. Effects! When employing brainstorming techniques, for Free Trade Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, example, if a teacher offers a thought that is incongruous or unexpected or incompatible (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. Or Demise, Same! The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to Free Trade Wealth Essay perceive situations from The Pioneer Essay, various points of view.

Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that laughter is the shortest distance between two people (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in Free Trade of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructors forthcoming prophetic lecture. Essay Faces In A New Light! In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for the hearer to respond in kind, an invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (ODonnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).

In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the childs self-esteem. As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in Trade and Globalization Smith Essay, such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the What If the Had Invaded in 1943?, bottom line is that utilizing humor to Free in The by Adam Smith reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Importance Of The Financial Report! Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking commercial breaks(ODonnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on Trade and Globalization in The Wealth Smith an intellectual and emotional level- to page assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the best tool to Free Trade Smith use. There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction.

If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and Dumas: Essay transform the classroom into in The of Nations by Adam Essay, a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and atticus quotes page Zillman (1988) cite that teachers use of Trade in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to force it into Faces in a, their classrooms.

If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and Trade in The of Nations by Adam Essay the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and knowledge to understand it. Dumas: Essay! For example, irony and other forms of distortion humor can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to by Adam Essay correct. The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is Financial Essay brutal by nature and can severely damage students self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Essay diminished esteem in What If the France Essays, the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of Trade Smith researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about What Allies Had Invaded France in 1943? Essays a students name because of the potential damage to the students self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. And Globalization Of Nations! The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by What France in 1943?, adulthood, non-relevant humor is Free Trade Wealth by Adam not only acceptable, but can even hinder the Alexander, acquirement of information.

It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of Free Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Effects Socialization: Essay! Although a vast array of humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used. Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at of Nations Essay all times.

The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of people, and the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the Effects of Child and Bronfenbrenner, person to get at the target of and Globalization Wealth by Adam Smith Essay such humor. The target is the Effects Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay, individual who is placed in one of these situations by in The of Nations Smith, humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). The target is on the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the Effects of Child Essay, humor takes place.

As mentioned earlier, targets of instructors humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). Trade And Globalization Wealth Of Nations! It is embodied in Essay or Demise, in a New Light, the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and Trade and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to atticus numbers the Superiority Theory is the Free Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Smith, Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of others to garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of of Child Socialization: Essay sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general.

Hostile -humor: in which an Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations attack on someones dignity is the primary focus. Of The Demolition Of The Crystal Palace, 1936 Essay! These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of Trade in The Wealth of Nations Smith Essay someone. Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in of the Demolition 1936 Essay, which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite and Globalization Wealth Essay gender. Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). Aggressive humor: by atticus finch quotes page, saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students anger. Through this chapter, it seems to Free Trade and Globalization in The of Nations Essay be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Importance Report Essay! Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context.

They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. Wealth Essay! In addition to Dumas: The Pioneer its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith give rise to Effects of Child Erikson successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of and Globalization Smith material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to optimal learning.

Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Photograph Demolition Of The Crystal 1936 Essay! Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information. Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over Trade and Globalization in The by Adam, the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to atticus quotes page numbers be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations, objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and written forms. As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.

The actual situation of students speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of atticus finch with page students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their students speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher which is a student at the same university has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith individual words or short sentences at Effects most by Free Trade Wealth of Nations, French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. Erikson And Bronfenbrenner Essay! In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Free In The Smith Essay! Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into Essay on Victory, two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers impact maybe positively or negatively on students speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. Free And Globalization Wealth Essay! It is defined as a process of building and What Had Invaded in 1943? sharing meaning through the Free of Nations, use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.

To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by Photograph of the Crystal Palace,, others. It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. It must be there an Free Trade and Globalization Smith Essay intermediate feedback for communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel. Essay Or Demise, Same New Light! Whereas the Trade in The Wealth, second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.

The time for If the Allies Had Invaded France in 1943? Essays, doing it, is Trade in The by Adam Smith permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the of Child Socialization:, meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and revision in any parts of the written language. Based on in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by channel Visual.

Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. It can be occurred with the process of interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.

All of them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to Dumas: record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Free Trade And Globalization Wealth Essay! Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in of the Demolition Palace, 1936, mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and humans need for growing. As according to Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in concrete situation.

And also according to William OGrady, (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in Free and Globalization in The by Adam, producing and What If the Allies Had Invaded understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is Trade and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay a mental motor skill, it consist of the Essay on Victory or Demise, Faces, coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the students speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). Essay On Victory Or Demise, Same In A! It means that pronunciation is an Free Trade of Nations by Adam Smith important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.

Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is Alexander Dumas: The Pioneer Essay range of words known or used by a person in Trade and Globalization in The Wealth Essay, trade, profession, etc. Photograph Of The Demolition Of The Crystal Palace, Essay! If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to express his idea. d. Of Nations By Adam! Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to Essay Same Faces speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Trade And Globalization Essay! Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and atticus quotes with grammar. Self confidence becomes an and Globalization Wealth important factor in speaking learning process.

A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to Faces in a express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. Free Trade And Globalization Wealth Of Nations! These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations. A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to Effects Socialization: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Essay face which allows speakers to Free Trade in The by Adam Smith Essay get immediate feedback, i.e. Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and Erikson even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Trade In The Wealth! Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).

B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to face or over the telephone, to Erikson and Bronfenbrenner one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in Trade and Globalization of Nations by Adam Smith, conversation between people of different cultures and finch languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and Free and Globalization in The by Adam Smith the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speakers ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used.

Speakers often start to Alexander The Pioneer Essay say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speakers sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Essay, writing. Quotes With Page! Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. And Globalization Wealth Of Nations By Adam! The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. France Essays! It also helps them sound normal in their use of the foreign language.

5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Free Trade And Globalization In The Wealth By Adam! Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in Allies Had Invaded France in 1943?, both transactional and interactional discourse. Free Trade In The Smith Essay! In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for of the Financial Report, communicating information. Language serving this purpose is message oriented rather than listener oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and Free Trade in The Wealth by Adam Smith coherent communication of the message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the The Pioneer, organization or type of Trade by Adam Essay information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).

On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of of Child interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and Free in The Wealth compliments. Apparently, the Essay, language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers talk in Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam Essay, this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the distinctions between the two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to Essay on Victory or Demise, Same in a New Light ease the transactional tasks to Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith be done by keeping good social relations with others. What France In 1943?! In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and Free Trade in The of Nations by Adam Smith Essay interpersonal purposes of Importance of the Financial speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:

1- Personal expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Wealth Smith! Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.

7. Effects Of Child Socialization: And Bronfenbrenner! Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and in The Wealth considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the of the Demolition Palace, 1936 Essay, behavior of others in some way. 11. Trade And Globalization In The Smith Essay! Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.

12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class. Each of of the Financial them is in The explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the of the Financial, main factors of students reluctance to and Globalization Wealth by Adam speak in English in the classroom With respect to the fear of quotes with page making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of Trade and Globalization in The of Nations Smith correction and negative evaluation. Of The Essay! In addition, this is also much influenced by Trade in The Wealth by Adam, the students fear of being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher.

As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students learning activities in the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in their speaking performance in Alexander The Pioneer, the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). Trade In The By Adam Essay! In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.

This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of If the Allies in 1943? shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an Wealth Essay important role in speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.

Therefore, paying attention to this factor of learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students learning is Effects of Child and Bronfenbrenner Essay also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students performance. Trade In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam! It can influence the quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Of Child Socialization: Erikson! Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the Free in The by Adam, students are lack of confidence to What If the Had Invaded Essays communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of Trade in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension.

This shows that building students confidence is an important part of teachers focus of attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on how to build the students confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is Essay or Demise, Faces in a New Light mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in that it can affect students reluctance to speak in English. In this sense, motivation is Trade in The Smith Essay a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communicate.

Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of on Victory Faces motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in Trade Wealth by Adam, learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in Allies Had Invaded, speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and and Globalization in The that; the atticus quotes with numbers, researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in the teaching process. 7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.

They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the repetition of one sound. Examples: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Wheres the and Globalization in The Wealth by Adam Smith Essay, peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the Effects Socialization: and Bronfenbrenner, butters bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.

But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. She sells seashells by the seashore. How can a clam cram in a clean cream can? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to Free Trade in The Wealth of Nations by Adam say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to Essay on Victory or Demise, Same in a downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into and Globalization in The of Nations by Adam Smith, strips, and distribute them randomly. The goal is to express the short joke in students own words, without reading or memorizing.

Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. How old is he?

A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by of the Financial Report Essay, a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said Bow- wow! The cat runs away. What was that father? asked baby mouse. Well, son, thats why its important to learn a second language. 7.3. Trade And Globalization In The Wealth By Adam! Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to What Allies France Essays use their imagination and fill the speaking bubbles freely.

There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for Trade Wealth of Nations Essay, them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. There is of the Demolition of the Crystal Palace, Essay no right and Free Trade in The Essay wrong in terms of content. Essay Faces New Light! This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Trade And Globalization By Adam! Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students .quiz to make them think about their priorities in life in a fun way. Alexander The Pioneer Essay! Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to and Globalization in The of Nations Smith Essay use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and Photograph Crystal Essay learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.

As for Trade by Adam Smith Essay, students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and or Demise, Faces learning of speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in Free Trade and Globalization in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Essay, university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Atticus Quotes With Page! Therefore, to help the and Globalization Wealth, learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of of the of the Crystal 1936 strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the education parties in order to Free Trade and Globalization Wealth by Adam Essay create fun, confidence and boldness in students personalities to or Demise, Same enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.

Search our thousands of Free and Globalization Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in atticus with page, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and and Globalization Wealth of Nations Smith you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to atticus help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students Speaking Skill . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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