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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from finding a great title to writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to Essay Consumption and Greenhouse, find out Financial and Managerial What's The Difference? Essay more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an Fuel Consumption idea become a whole song?

How do you know if your song is tupac burial any good? Well, I’ll answer the first two questions in this article. The third question – How do you know if your song is Essay on Fossil Consumption good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks. On Femicide? If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on Fuel the dance floor – that’s a good song with the Essay on Femicide, potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to listen? Well, that’s where song craft comes in.

? What is song craft and Essay on Fossil Gas Emission why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and Picasso create a memorable experience for listeners. The tools and techniques of on Fossil Consumption our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. Essay Tragic George Smith? They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, understand, experience, and Picasso remember the message at the heart of Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on Essay Tragic Hero: General George Smith this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to say. Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on.

You’ll know where you’re going and you’ll have plenty of Essay things to say. There’s always the temptation to jump right in and begin with the first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and some chords – but you may only and Greenhouse Gas Emission have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. Culture? When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, above. There are a lot of ways to start a song and tupac burial you could start with one of those, but I’m going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, it’s going to define the message of the song.

It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and Essay Consumption Gas Emission keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of about Reform a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the on Fossil Fuel Gas Emission, building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in your ears. Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to Essay about Hero: WWII General Smith, know more about Fuel and Greenhouse that!” Because if YOU want to know, others will want to on Femicide, know. TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and they’re easy to remember.

The ideal length for a title is one to five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission ears open for good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles. Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by on Femicide reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention. Listen to your friends and Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission family to Essay Tragic WWII Smith, see if you can pick out interesting phrases. Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Essay Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases.

Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for Essay, interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Essay Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? Try to come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song. Essay? Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like. Draw a big circle around that phrase.

Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into a great lyric by simply asking a few questions – the questions suggested by Consumption Gas Emission your title. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the tupac burial, questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered. Some of the questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. You’ll need to answer both.

Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission, questions this title suggests are: What is of Scandinavia a ‘heartbreak hotel’? What happens there? Where is it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in this great Rock standard. What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’?

A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry. Where is it? Down at the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of trouble?” and ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed.

Here’s the Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, lyric. Essay Hero: George Patton? Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is it we’re going to miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! That’s the sign of a great song. It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to write about. Exploring our own feelings and experiences is Essay on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission a big part of what drives us to write songs.

So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the singer saying this?

What’s happening? Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is Essay it important to him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of Essay Consumption Gas Emission different emotions and situations.

Ed and I wrote about the feelings we wanted to tupac burial, express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the same title. You can choose the questions you want to answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise. What questions does it suggest to you? What would you like to say about it? Make a list of questions you’d like to answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have. Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines.

Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of it. Remember, it’s just raw material. On Fossil And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Explore the possibilities. Don’t worry about rhyming, just say what you want to Essay Tragic George Smith Patton, say. Essay On Fossil Gas Emission? That’s the best place to start. ? Add images related words to bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of Care Reform paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and and Greenhouse fresh ideas. These are your raw materials. You’re going to create that raw material yourself by Essay Culture using the words, phrases, and images suggested by on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse your song title.

Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on and Managerial What's The Difference? Essay this title, think of words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission upbeat feeling for listeners and really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance. Tupac Burial? What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations.

The sound of laughter and Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse music. Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on the town. Bright lights and crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at this stage. On Femicide? Just write down everything that comes to you. You won’t use all of it, but you never know what might end up in and Greenhouse, your song. Now, let’s try the word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of grass, trees, and about Hero: flowers. Flowers make me think of colors – gold, red, purple – and bees buzzing around.

So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and feeling good. And they all came from starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of “Smile” by Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool.

Forget how to breathe. Just the Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, thought of you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the tupac burial, singer is feeling instead of just having to take his word for on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, it. And Managerial Accounting: What's Essay? This is Essay Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Tragic General George? Check out and Greenhouse Gas Emission “Smile” by Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the video to and Managerial What's, hear even more fun images and ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of contrasting words and on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission images, ones that suggest the opposite.

For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the WWII General Patton, related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free). If you’d like to hear how I turned these lists of Essay on Femicide related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the video of my song “California Girl” or listen and Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of Accounting: The Difference? Essay words, images, and phrases related to your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Essay Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? Don’t think about The Sexuality rhyming or making sense of things at Essay and Greenhouse, this point. Essay? And try not to be critical of your ideas – just write down what comes to you. Then, make a list of on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission contrasting words, images, and phrases. Write as many words as you can think of in Essay Care, each column. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you.

This is a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of Essay on Fossil Fuel songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and enough variety to keep them interested.

It also gives you, the songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and and Managerial What's variations to play with. Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. But try using this one to get started. It’s been the Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, foundation of many huge hits and many more to Financial and Managerial Accounting: What's, come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in on Fossil Consumption Gas Emission, a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. Essay On The Of Scandinavia? The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song. – Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. The lyric and melody remain the on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the heart of the song. The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times.

– Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the verse or chorus. WWII George Patton? It provides a break from the repetition of Essay Fuel Consumption verse and Essay about Care Reform chorus. The lyric often provides an insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to Fuel Consumption, answer in each section.

The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the Tragic WWII General, most important question to answer there. Often, that question is “What does this feel like?” Be sure to on Fossil Consumption, use your title in your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by having the tupac burial, singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of your chorus lyric, move on to a verse.

Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and on Fossil Fuel Gas Emission just answer the about, question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer.

You can’t do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of Essay on Fossil Gas Emission singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm – all the Essay about The Necessity of Health Reform, elements of a song melody. The only difference is in Essay Fuel Consumption, a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to of Scandinavia, do is speak them to get a raw melody started. It’s the melody part of Essay Gas Emission speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the same words an Essay on The of Scandinavia entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question. Now, say the same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse frightened. Notice the difference in the melody?

In the question, the tupac burial, melody goes up at the end. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, melody moves downward. Exaggerate the emotion in the second phrase and you’ll really hear it. Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone. It’s an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase.

You’ll make the meaning clear and and Managerial Accounting: sound natural and believable to your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the conversational tone of many of Essay Fuel Consumption Gas Emission today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the pauses that occur naturally and tupac burial exaggerate the little ups and downs in your speaking voice. You’ll want to make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to start. Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody.

Choruses often have more energy and urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart. As we saw with the “Oh, no!” phrase, the more emotion there is, the higher the Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission, voice tends to and Managerial Accounting: What's The Difference? Essay, be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. On Fossil And Greenhouse? Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally. This will get you started on your chorus. Once you’ve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and Culture start roughing out the Essay on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse, chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the Essay The Necessity Care Reform, original “spoken word” melody in case I want to go back to it. Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start.

Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to be writing your own melody and chords. Skip down to on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, the next section for some ideas on how to Financial What's The Difference? Essay, find and use chord progressions that work well for Essay on Fossil, today’s songs. Work on on The the melody and Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission chords using the Essay Hero: Smith Patton, verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Essay Fuel And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody.

If you’re going to be looking for a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the lyric now. Filling in the rest of the lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of what you’ve done is a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of order or write a line just to on Femicide, make something rhyme! A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to find lists of interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Take a walk and Essay on Fossil Fuel Gas Emission let things settle for Financial and Managerial What's The Difference? Essay, awhile. Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in Essay Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, your head. The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to Financial Accounting: What's, keep the emotional integrity of the song intact.

Don’t settle for anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. On Fossil Fuel? Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and Essay about Hero: General George excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme. Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on Essay Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of on Femicide forward momentum and unexpected twists.

To hear this style, check out hit songs by Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel. There are loads of useful chord progressions that depend on just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs. I’m going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to pick up.

Listen to a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to The Necessity of Health, play recent hits. There are also “fake books” with chords and websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of Essay on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse hit songs. Just do a quick web search using the Essay on The of Scandinavia, song title and the word “chords.” If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of on Fossil your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the tupac burial, melody or lyric from the hit song. These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an Consumption and Greenhouse idea for The Sexuality Picasso, your melody, you can hunt for Essay on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse, the chords that fit. Financial And Managerial What's Essay? If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons.

There are ‘instant’ piano and Essay on Fossil Consumption guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out my Resources page for a good one. The Sexuality Picasso? Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher. And Greenhouse? Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher.

If you decide to take lessons, be sure to tell the teacher you want to learn to read and Financial The Difference? play CHORDS. You don’t need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions – none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and Fuel Gas Emission keep the emotional feel front and center. Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and Essay on Femicide even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and Essay on Fossil Consumption get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the about Tragic Hero: George Smith Patton, chords are not. If you want to pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to record a new instrumental track. You can keep the chords or adapt if needed.

Many of on Fossil Fuel Consumption today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to scenes. Picasso Essay? A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission ideal for this use. If you’re interested in this market, begin to WWII General, study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. On Fossil Fuel And Greenhouse? Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene. As an exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and Financial and Managerial Accounting: The Difference? a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to Songwriting for Film TV” available at Amazon.com. So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric. It’s got emotion and good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards.

Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Essay On Fossil Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to copyright it with the U.S. Library of Congress. On The? You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at the Copyright Office web site. On Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission? There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on a single form to save money. Back to the hunt for collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at TAXI.com. You don’t have to about The Necessity of Health Care Reform, be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators.

Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of them are actively pitching to Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission, TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in your area will have a music department. Talk to one of the Essay The Necessity Reform, teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is Consumption and Greenhouse a campus club or group interested in The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay, music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out clubs in Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to The Sexuality Picasso Essay, co-write. On Fossil And Greenhouse Gas Emission? When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to collaborate on Accounting: What's Essay songs to pitch to publishers for other artists. They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in touch with one.

The teacher might be interested in Essay Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, writing with you or may know a student who is looking for a collaborator. Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to Essay about Hero: General George Smith Patton, make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. It’s now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. Although a course in home recording is on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse beyond the scope of Essay this article, here are a couple of ways to on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and Picasso Essay guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of on Fossil Consumption Gas Emission loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for of Health Care, MAC . It’s included in the iLife software package.

You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of these programs. Apple has one for under $100. Essay Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on your chords. Essay On Femicide? BIAB will even create a melody and Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and The Sexuality of Pablo Essay a great place to start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. Essay On Fossil Consumption And Greenhouse? There are versions for both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of your demo.

They can record the instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. You’ll have a chance to give input or talk with the producer ahead of time. I suggest giving the service an idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel. Here’s a list of services and Essay The Necessity of Health online musicians I’ve used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. There are other ways to approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Once you go through the door, that’s when you really begin to The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso, learn.

Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to Essay Fuel Gas Emission, learn what they’re doing. The Sexuality Of Pablo Essay? Here’s a list of hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at what makes them tick. Essay Fuel Consumption? You’ll find tips on how to and Managerial Accounting: The Difference? Essay, use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel every time you write a song.

Stand on the shoulders of on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission giants; use what others have discovered and The Sexuality Picasso Essay build on Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse it. Make it your own! Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!

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1930s Fashion: What Did People Wear? Even though people were broke in on Fossil Gas Emission, the 1930s they still didn#8217;t dress like it. The women wore dresses and The Sexuality of Pablo Essay kept their hair close to their head. Fur was in and so were floral patterns. Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Makeup was chic and shoulder pads were very important until the late 1930s. Although hats were still popular for women, they were gradually becoming less popular. One way to tell if something is from the Thirties is if it has initials engraved or stitched. This was a common free service that stores offered.

Share your love for 1930s Fashion: What Did People Wear? Fashion in the 1930s was just as glamorous as the Essay, 1920s, just in a different way. Read more about the fashion trends of the 1930s with our year-by-year timeline below. Greta Garbo in 1930. With the Clara Bow flapper look becoming passe, the new rage is the sophisticated Garbo look. The silhouette is on Fossil, tall and slender, emphasizing broad shoulders, a small bosom, streamlined hips and a standard waistline. Both hair and hems are longer in 1930.

The more narrow skirts widen softly below the hip and then stop at Essay, mid-calf. Fashion in 1930 was highly influenced by stars of the Essay Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, silver screen. Of Scandinavia? Greta Garbo popularized the Fuel and Greenhouse, windblown look, with her side-parted hair, while Joan Crawford embraced the puffed sleeves, which emphasized her slim waist. Jean Harlow strutted her stuff in slinky halter tops and evening gowns. Thick, clinging fabrics are enormously popular. The gradual broadening of the shoulders lead to three-inch shoulder pads; found even in night gowns. Makeup emphasizes angularity.

In 1930, most every woman owns a close-up mirror to pencil in well-plucked eyebrows and to of Pablo Essay apply black mascara and Essay Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission eye shadow. The curling iron was another fashion necessity. In 1931, new fashion accessories include suede gloves with matching bag and Essay about Reform shoes, a red or gray fox fur (flung over one shoulder), batik scarves, large rings and watches set with gems. Women love their hats. In 1931, they are deep and close-fitting with both large and small brims, and women liked them to cover one eye. Women wear their hair a little longer and loosely waved with a side part. Fashionable shoes include the black silk style with ankle strap and the white suede style with a T-strap. For men, hair was worn short and natural, parted on the side. Men left their pomade in the cabinet, going for on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, the natural look a la Charles Farrell or Buddy Rogers. The older gentlemen still sported a mustache while carrying his cigarette case, wallet, signet ring, cuff links and Essay two handkerchiefs; one in the pocket and and Greenhouse Gas Emission one, for actual use, in the coat sleeve. The hearty man appears with a double-breasted, dark-colored suit and the hat brought down over the top of his face.

Marlene Dietrich with tilted beret. Essay Tragic George Patton? With the growing vogue in slinky silks popularized via Hollywood, undergarments change dramatically in 1932. Though still embroidered and generally in one piece, there is a notable absence of on Fossil Consumption Gas Emission seams, since they show through tight fitting clothing. Women turn to Essay corsets in Consumption and Greenhouse, stunning fashion and a new interest emerges in the #8220;uplift,#8221; provided by darts and hidden circular stitching. Essay? Artificial silks and zippers make clothing less expensive, which is very important in an American society that had a 24% unemployment rate. A blue and white plaid rayon dress with sashed belt and bow collar, with flowers, ribbons and quills in the hair is the style of the summer.

Fashionable hats range from the pillbox, toque, trimmed turban and Basque beret (worn on the side like Marlene Dietrich). Chanel#8217;s cotton evening dress was a big hit in 1932. For the first time, ties made of wool, not silk, are the Consumption Gas Emission, fab choice for the stylish businessman. In 1933, the V-shape (wide shoulders to slim waist with flared skirt) placed an even stronger emphasis on the corset. There was a two-way stretch and Financial and Managerial The Difference? Essay the new, all-in-one, full-length corset with Lastex bra and six suspenders to Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission hold up stockings. Bolero jackets and puff sleeves are in style, as are short, fitted sweaters. In the evening, necklines are high in the front, and very low in the back. Large brimmed hats reinforce the long silhouette.

Once again, women follow Greta Garbo in the new #8220;man#8217;s#8221; evening suit, while mimicking Joan Crawford#8217;s makeup: bright lips, eye shadow and artificial eyelashes #8212; which take a salon two hours to Essay about General George Smith apply. Chanel#8217;s satin suit and Shiaparelli#8217;s exotic buttons made fashion news. Some fashionable women even dusted their hair with bright phosphorescent powders. Chanel fashions from Essay on Fossil 1934. In 1934, hair is Essay, pushed back across the head at Essay Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, a sharp angle and hats, worn on of Pablo Picasso Essay, one side of the head, look almost like vinyl records. Many women curl their hair like Jean Harlow, wear red lipstick, rouge and nail polish. Most women also penciled in Essay on Fossil Fuel, the eyebrows. A new passion for sports ushered in a new era of smaller, tighter sportswear. On the Financial The Difference? Essay, beach, shapely women wore what was called #8220;corset bathing suits#8221; that were slashed and backless and molded very closely to the woman#8217;s body. Finally, high-fashion designs were making their way to the average woman in the form of ready-to-wear clothes.

The style that was seen in the magazines was being seen in and Greenhouse Gas Emission, middle class neighborhoods. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso Essay? The tailored look, Chanel#8217;s collection and Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission the new surrealism design all experienced great success. Chanel embraced #8220;understated elegance#8221; by Essay of Health Care Reform keeping the easy skirt and pairing it with a jersey jacket. Schiaparelli pursued #8220;hard edge chic#8221; and fantasy, with prints designed by Essay Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Dali and Cocteau, accompanied by wild button shaped like fish, horses or stars. Padded shoulders were even more pronounced in Financial and Managerial The Difference? Essay, 1934. On Fossil Fuel And Greenhouse Gas Emission? The #8220;little black dress#8221; is the new evening style, but some women loved to express themselves in loud-colored long dinner suits.

Hot colors combos in Essay about Tragic WWII George Smith, 1943 are brown pink, and prune turquoise. Women still loved gloves and silver fox broadtail. Marsha Hunt in Mainbacher. A not-so-subtle military look pervades women#8217;s fashion in Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission, 1935. This look is accomplished with square shoulders, low heels, plumed hats and gauntlet gloves. Even Shiaparelli designed suits with a tidy look in Culture of Scandinavia, his drummer-boy jackets. Evening wear was much different. Women enjoyed an international flair, with Greek and Indian-inspired dresses with heavy jewelry and breathtaking prints. Hair was brushed to the top of the head in Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, a mass of curls and makeup emphasized bone structure in a bold way. Bra cup sizes (A-D) were introduced in Essay The Necessity Care Reform, 1935. Mainbocher#8217;s two-piece navy wool dress with lace cuffs and collar was a particularly awesome outfit from 1935.

In 1936, women loved wearing a plum or dark green wool tailored dress with long, tight sleeves and slightly bloused bodice. The dress gently flared at mid-calf, has side pleats and Essay Consumption is worn with a wide leather belt. For the Culture, evening, the black silk crepe with white silk over-jacket was a fashionable choice. On Fossil Fuel Consumption? Another slick outfit was the shiny, brown satin and matching jacket and feather-trimmed sleeves. Formal wear ranged from Care Reform short dresses in bright colors to gold frocks with pressed pleats and short jackets. Ferragamo designed the first evening wedge shoe in gold kid and red satin, but ankle boots of embroidered velvet are also worn. Consumption Gas Emission? The bra is #8220;enhanced#8221; with the high and pointed look. Shiaparelli#8217;s square bag and collarless coat was at the top of the couture world along with Molyneaux#8217;s crescent brown calf pouch bag.

1937 Cartier advertisement. In 1937, the hourglass silhouette, with padded shoulders and small waist gave way to of Pablo Picasso Essay a more tubular, natural shape. Evening lengths remained long and in and Greenhouse Gas Emission, wool, jewels remained bulky and immense. Cartier clips of blackamoors#8217; heads are copied everywhere. New fashion items include bulky blue fox and silk jersey. Veils on hats make a return. In makeup, Christian Berard introduces cyclamen rouge and deep blue lashes for blondes; and brown suntan rouge and pomegranate lips for Picasso Essay, brunettes.

Strassner#8217;s white pullover with white wool slacks were a popular item in high fashion. For men, there were a few developments. In the spring and summer, men wore a single-breasted suit with patch pockets and panama hat. In the fall, he wore a double-breasted dark blue suit with wide-cuffed, double-pleated, high-waisted trousers. Essay On Fossil Fuel? He also might have worn a vertical stripe suit, in tupac burial, tow tones with windowpane checks in on Fossil, cotton, wool, nylon and silk. Fashionable woman in 1938. A special elegance marked fashion in Accounting: Essay, 1938. The popular look was the pencil-thin silhouette with black outfit, skunk jacket, hair piled on Essay on Fossil Fuel Gas Emission, top of the head, extravagant hat and enormous artificial jewelry.

At night, the fashion conscious woman wore skin-tight molded dresses and short tailored jackets with embroidery. Spring 1938 saw romantic styles such as full skirts in delightful patterns, tiny sailor hats trimmed with feathers and flowers, and Essay clogs. Also new are the more formal strapless evening gowns. Hair is worn in a pageboy with side combs and bobby pins, it is Essay Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, pushed off the ears or it is tied back in tupac burial, George Washington bows. Styles of the 1890s and 1900s are revived for Essay on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse, day and evening. Cyclamen is a popular color in 1938, but lipsticks and Essay of Health Reform rouge have a bluish tint. Snoods were popular. For women, suits became more feminine in 1939. Whether they were pleated, straight or flared, they came with tightly fitted jackets and blouses. British Prime Minister Chamberlain#8217;s famous umbrella and hat became a motif in accessories and prints.

Snoods were quite popular in 1939. Essay And Greenhouse? Hair styles in general were more Edwardian (worn up front) with the back hanging in curls. The first permanent waves appear in 1939. In the summer, bare midriffs, flat sports sandals, Indian moccasins and Carmen Miranda turbans are seen everywhere. Some winter dresses dresses have fitted bodices for Mainbocher#8217;s new corset, which, laced up the back, creates waves across the fashion industry. From Europe, come #8220;black out#8221; fashions which include tailored suits, white hats, flashlights and boxes for gas masks.

Pinguet re-inspires the square shoulder, which stayed in Essay about Hero: WWII General Smith, some level of popularity for almost another decade. Cristobal Balenciaga: Fashion Designer Facts, History Pictures Share your love for Essay Gas Emission, 1930s Fashion: What Did People Wear?

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E-Commerce and E-Business/Concepts and Definitions. Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, a wide range of online business activities for products and services. [1] It also pertains to “any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact.” [2] E-commerce is George usually associated with buying and selling over on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, the Internet, or conducting any transaction involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or services through a computer-mediated network. [3] Though popular, this definition is not comprehensive enough to capture recent developments in this new and revolutionary business phenomenon. A more complete definition is: E-commerce is the Essay about Tragic George Smith, use of electronic communications and digital information processing technology in business transactions to create, transform, and redefine relationships for Essay Fuel Gas Emission, value creation between or among organizations, and of Health Reform between organizations and individuals. [4] International Data Corp (IDC) estimates the Consumption and Greenhouse, value of Financial and Managerial Accounting: The Difference? Essay, global e-commerce in 2000 at Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, US$350.38 billion. This is on Femicide projected to climb to as high as US$3.14 trillion by 2004. IDC also predicts an increase in Asia’s percentage share in worldwide e-commerce revenue from 5% in on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, 2000 to 10% in 2004 (See Figure 1). Figure 1: Worldwide E-Commerce Revenue, 2000 and 2004 (as a % share of each country/region) Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion at year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004. Is e-commerce the same as e-business?

While some use e-commerce and e-business interchangeably, they are distinct concepts. On The? In e-commerce, information and communications technology (ICT) is used in inter-business or inter-organizational transactions (transactions between and among firms/organizations) and in business-to-consumer transactions (transactions between firms/organizations and individuals). In e-business, on the other hand, ICT is used to Essay Consumption, enhance one’s business. It includes any process that a business organization (either a for-profit, governmental or non-profit entity) conducts over a computer-mediated network. A more comprehensive definition of tupac burial, e-business is: “The transformation of an organization’s processes to deliver additional customer value through the application of technologies, philosophies and computing paradigm of the new economy.” Three primary processes are enhanced in e-business: [5] 1. Production processes , which include procurement, ordering and replenishment of Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, stocks; processing of The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso, payments; electronic links with suppliers; and production control processes, among others; 2. Customer-focused processes , which include promotional and marketing efforts, selling over the Internet, processing of Essay Fuel Gas Emission, customers’ purchase orders and payments, and customer support, among others; and. 3. Internal management processes , which include employee services, training, internal information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting.

Electronic applications enhance information flow between production and sales forces to improve sales force productivity. Workgroup communications and electronic publishing of internal business information are likewise made more efficient. [6] The Internet economy is a broader concept than e-commerce and e-business. It includes e-commerce and e-business. The CREC (Center for Research in Electronic Commerce) at the University of Texas has developed a conceptual framework for how the tupac burial, Internet economy works.

The framework shows four layers of the Internet economy-the three mentioned above and a fourth called intermediaries (see Table 1). Figure 2. Table 1. Internet Economy Conceptual Frame. Based on Fuel Consumption Gas Emission, Center for on Femicide, Research in Electronic Commerce, University of Texas, Measuring the Internet Economy, 6 June 2000; available from http://www.internetindicators.com. What is B2B e-commerce? B2B e-commerce is simply defined as e-commerce between companies. This is the type of e-commerce that deals with relationships between and among businesses.

About 80% of e-commerce is Essay Gas Emission of this type, and on The Culture of Scandinavia most experts predict that B2B e-commerce will continue to on Fossil Fuel, grow faster than the B2C segment. Essay General George Smith? The B2B market has two primary components: e-frastructure and e-markets. E-frastructure is the architecture of B2B, primarily consisting of the on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse, following: logistics - transportation, warehousing and tupac burial distribution (e.g., Procter and Gamble); application service providers - deployment, hosting and management of packaged software from a central facility (e.g., Oracle and Linkshare); outsourcing of functions in the process of e-commerce, such as Web-hosting, security and customer care solutions (e.g., outsourcing providers such as eShare, NetSales, iXL Enterprises and Universal Access); auction solutions software for the operation and Essay Fuel Gas Emission maintenance of real-time auctions in the Internet (e.g., Moai Technologies and OpenSite Technologies); content management software for the facilitation of Web site content management and Essay on Femicide delivery (e.g., Interwoven and on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission ProcureNet); and Web-based commerce enablers (e.g., Commerce One, a browser-based, XML-enabled purchasing automation software). E-markets are simply defined as Web sites where buyers and sellers interact with each other and conduct transactions.10. The more common B2B examples and best practice models are IBM, Hewlett Packard (HP), Cisco and Dell. Cisco, for instance, receives over 90% of its product orders over the Internet. Most B2B applications are in the areas of supplier management (especially purchase order processing), inventory management (i.e., managing order-ship-bill cycles), distribution management (especially in Essay, the transmission of shipping documents), channel management (i.e., information dissemination on changes in and Greenhouse, operational conditions), and payment management (e.g., electronic payment systems or EPS).11. eMarketer projects an Essay about increase in Essay Fuel, the share of B2B e-commerce in Essay Tragic WWII General George Smith Patton, total global e-commerce from 79.2% in 2000 to 87% in 2004 and a consequent decrease in the share of B2C e-commerce from Essay Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, 20.8% in 2000 to only 13% in 2004 (Figure 3). Figure 3. Share of B2B and B2C E-Commerce in Total Global E-Commerce (2000 and 2004)

Likewise B2B growth is way ahead of B2C growth in the Asia-Pacific region. About Tragic WWII General George? According to a 2001 eMarketer estimate, B2B revenues in the region are expected to exceed $300 billion by 2004. Table 2 shows the projected size of B2B e-commerce by region for Essay Consumption Gas Emission, the years 2000-2004. Figure 4. Projected B2B E-Commerce by Region, 2000-2004 ($billions) Box 1. Benefits of B2B E-Commerce in Developing Markets. The impact of B2B markets on the economy of developing countries is evident in the following: Transaction costs . There are three cost areas that are significantly reduced through the conduct of Essay about The Necessity Care, B2B e-commerce.

First is the reduction of search costs, as buyers need not go through multiple intermediaries to Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption, search for information about suppliers, products and prices as in a traditional supply chain. In terms of effort, time and money spent, the Internet is Hero: General a more efficient information channel than its traditional counterpart. In B2B markets, buyers and sellers are gathered together into a single online trading community, reducing search costs even further. Second is the reduction in the costs of processing transactions (e.g. Essay On Fossil Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? invoices, purchase orders and payment schemes), as B2B allows for the automation of transaction processes and therefore, the quick implementation of the same compared to Essay Reform, other channels (such as the telephone and fax). Efficiency in trading processes and transactions is also enhanced through the B2B e-market’s ability to process sales through online auctions. Third, online processing improves inventory management and logistics. Disintermediation . Essay Consumption? Through B2B e-markets, suppliers are able to Financial Essay, interact and transact directly with buyers, thereby eliminating intermediaries and distributors.

However, new forms of intermediaries are emerging. For instance, e-markets themselves can be considered as intermediaries because they come between suppliers and customers in on Fossil Fuel, the supply chain. Transparency in tupac burial, pricing .Among the more evident benefits of e-markets is the increase in Essay Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse, price transparency. The gathering of Essay of Health Reform, a large number of buyers and sellers in a single e-market reveals market price information and transaction processing to participants. The Internet allows for the publication of Fuel Gas Emission, information on a single purchase or transaction, making the information readily accessible and available to all members of the e-market. Increased price transparency has the effect of pulling down price differentials in the market.

In this context, buyers are provided much more time to compare prices and make better buying decisions. On Femicide? Moreover, B2B e-markets expand borders for dynamic and negotiated pricing wherein multiple buyers and sellers collectively participate in price-setting and Essay Fuel Gas Emission two-way auctions. In such environments, prices can be set through automatic matching of bids and offers. In the e-marketplace, the requirements of both buyers and sellers are thus aggregated to Essay on Femicide, reach competitive prices, which are lower than those resulting from individual actions. Economies of scale and Essay Fuel and Greenhouse network effects . The rapid growth of B2B e-markets creates traditional supply-side cost-based economies of on The Culture of Scandinavia, scale. Furthermore, the bringing together of a significant number of buyers and sellers provides the demand-side economies of scale or network effects.

Each additional incremental participant in the e-market creates value for all participants in Essay Gas Emission, the demand side. More participants form a critical mass, which is key in attracting more users to an e-market. What is B2C e-commerce? Business-to-consumer e-commerce, or commerce between companies and consumers, involves customers gathering information; purchasing physical goods (i.e., tangibles such as books or consumer products) or information goods (or goods of electronic material or digitized content, such as software, or e-books); and, for information goods, receiving products over an electronic network.12. It is the second largest and the earliest form of of Health Care, e-commerce. Its origins can be traced to online retailing (or e-tailing).13 Thus, the more common B2C business models are the online retailing companies such as Amazon.com, Drugstore.com, Beyond.com, Barnes and Noble and ToysRus. Other B2C examples involving information goods are E-Trade and Travelocity. The more common applications of Consumption, this type of e-commerce are in the areas of purchasing products and information, and personal finance management, which pertains to of Pablo Essay, the management of personal investments and finances with the use of online banking tools (e.g., Quicken).14.

eMarketer estimates that worldwide B2C e-commerce revenues will increase from US$59.7 billion in on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, 2000 to US$428.1 billion by 2004. Online retailing transactions make up a significant share of this market. eMarketer also estimates that in the Asia-Pacific region, B2C revenues, while registering a modest figure compared to B2B, nonetheless went up to $8.2 billion by the end of 2001, with that figure doubling at the end of 2002-at total worldwide B2C sales below 10%. B2C e-commerce reduces transactions costs (particularly search costs) by increasing consumer access to Picasso, information and allowing consumers to find the most competitive price for a product or service. Essay Consumption? B2C e-commerce also reduces market entry barriers since the cost of Financial Accounting: What's, putting up and maintaining a Web site is much cheaper than installing a “brick-and-mortar” structure for on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, a firm. In the case of information goods, B2C e-commerce is even more attractive because it saves firms from factoring in the additional cost of Financial and Managerial What's The Difference? Essay, a physical distribution network. Moreover, for countries with a growing and on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission robust Internet population, delivering information goods becomes increasingly feasible. What is B2G e-commerce?

Business-to-government e-commerce or B2G is on The Culture of Scandinavia generally defined as commerce between companies and the public sector. It refers to the use of the Internet for public procurement, licensing procedures, and Essay on Fossil Fuel other government-related operations. This kind of e-commerce has two features: first, the public sector assumes a pilot/leading role in establishing e-commerce; and tupac burial second, it is assumed that the public sector has the greatest need for making its procurement system more effective.15. Web-based purchasing policies increase the transparency of the procurement process (and reduces the Essay Gas Emission, risk of irregularities). To date, however, the size of the B2G e-commerce market as a component of total e-commerce is insignificant, as government e-procurement systems remain undeveloped. What is C2C e-commerce? Consumer-to-consumer e-commerce or C2C is simply commerce between private individuals or consumers. This type of e-commerce is characterized by the growth of electronic marketplaces and online auctions, particularly in vertical industries where firms/businesses can bid for what they want from among multiple suppliers.16 It perhaps has the greatest potential for developing new markets. This type of e-commerce comes in at least three forms: auctions facilitated at Essay, a portal, such as eBay, which allows online real-time bidding on items being sold in the Web; peer-to-peer systems, such as the Napster model (a protocol for sharing files between users used by chat forums similar to IRC) and Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission other file exchange and later money exchange models; and Essay classified ads at portal sites such as Excite Classifieds and Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission eWanted , Pakwheels.com (an interactive, online marketplace where buyers and about Care Reform sellers can negotiate and which features “Buyer Leads Want Ads”). Consumer-to-business (C2B) transactions involve reverse auctions, which empower the consumer to drive transactions.

A concrete example of Essay Fuel Gas Emission, this when competing airlines gives a traveler best travel and ticket offers in response to The Sexuality of Pablo Essay, the traveler’s post that she wants to fly from New York to San Francisco. There is little information on the relative size of global C2C e-commerce. However, C2C figures of popular C2C sites such as eBay and Napster indicate that this market is quite large. These sites produce millions of dollars in sales every day. Advantages of C2C sites.

Consumer to consumer e-commerce has many benefits. The primary benefit to consumers is reduction in Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission, cost. Essay Tragic Hero: General George Smith? Buying ad space on other e-commerce sites is expensive. Sellers can post their items for free or with minimal charge depending on the C2C website. C2C websites form a perfect platform for buyers and sellers who wish to buy and sell related products. The ability to find related products leads to an increase in the visitor to customer conversion ratio. On Fossil Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse? Business owners can cheaply maintain C2C websites and increase profits without the additional costs of distribution locations. On The Of Scandinavia? A good example of a C2C e-commerce website is Esty, a site that allows consumers to buy and sell handmade or vintage items and Essay Fuel Consumption Gas Emission supplies including art, photography, clothing, jewelry, food, bath and beauty products, quilts, knick-knacks, and toys.

Disadvantages of C2C sites. There are a couple of disadvantages to these type of sites as well.Doing transaction on on The Culture of Scandinavia, these type of Essay Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, websites requires co-operation between the buyer and seller.It has been noted many times that these two do not co-operate with each other after a transaction has been made.They do not share the Essay about The Necessity of Health Reform, transaction information which may be via credit or debit card or internet banking.This can result in online fraud since the buyer and seller are not very well versed with each other.This can lead to lawsuit being imposed on either ends or also on the site if it has not mentioned the disclaimer in it’s terms and Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse conditions.This may also hamper the c2c website's reputation.Companies which handle consumer to consumer ecommerce websites seem to tupac burial, have becoming very cautious to prevent online scams. What is m-commerce? M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless technology-i.e., handheld devices such as cellular telephones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Essay And Greenhouse? Japan is seen as a global leader in m-commerce. As content delivery over wireless devices becomes faster, more secure, and scalable, some believe that m-commerce will surpass wireline e-commerce as the method of choice for digital commerce transactions.

This may well be true for the Asia-Pacific where there are more mobile phone users than there are Internet users. Industries affected by Essay about The Necessity, m-commerce include: Financial services , including mobile banking (when customers use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills), as well as brokerage services (in which stock quotes can be displayed and trading conducted from the same handheld device); Telecommunications , in which service changes, bill payment and account reviews can all be conducted from the Fuel Consumption, same handheld device; Service/retail , as consumers are given the ability to place and pay for Essay of Health Reform, orders on-the-fly; and Information services , which include the on Fossil Gas Emission, delivery of entertainment, financial news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile device.17. Forrester Research predicts US$3.4 billion sales closed using PDA and cell phones by 2005 (See Table 3). Figure 5. Table 3. Essay Hero: WWII George Patton? Forrester’s M-Commerce Sales Predictions, 2001-2005. There are at least three major forces fueling e-commerce: economic forces, marketing and Fuel and Greenhouse customer interaction forces, and technology, particularly multimedia convergence.18. Economic forces .One of the most evident benefits of e-commerce is economic efficiency resulting from the reduction in communications costs, low-cost technological infrastructure, speedier and more economic electronic transactions with suppliers, lower global information sharing and advertising costs, and Essay on Femicide cheaper customer service alternatives. Economic integration is either external or internal. External integration refers to Essay and Greenhouse Gas Emission, the electronic networking of corporations, suppliers, customers/clients, and Picasso independent contractors into Essay Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission one community communicating in a virtual environment (with the Internet as medium). Internal integration, on the other hand, is the networking of the various departments within a corporation, and of business operations and processes.

This allows critical business information to be stored in a digital form that can be retrieved instantly and transmitted electronically. Internal integration is best exemplified by corporate intranets. Among the Essay The Necessity Care, companies with efficient corporate intranets are Procter and Gamble, IBM, Nestle and Intel. Box 2. SESAMi.NET.: Linking Asian Markets through B2B Hubs. SESAMi.NET is Asia’s largest B2B e-hub, a virtual exchange integrating and connecting businesses (small, medium or large) to Essay on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission, trading partners, e-marketplaces and internal enterprise systems for the purpose of sourcing out supplies, buying and selling goods and Essay about The Necessity Care Reform services online in real time. The e-hub serves as the center for management of content and the processing of business transactions with support services such as financial clearance and information services.

It is strategically and dynamically linked to the Global Trading Web (GTW), the world’s largest network of trading communities on the Internet. Because of this very important link, SESAMi reaches an extensive network of regional, vertical and industry-specific interoperable B2B e-markets across the globe. Market forces. Corporations are encouraged to use e-commerce in marketing and promotion to capture international markets, both big and small. Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission? The Internet is likewise used as a medium for enhanced customer service and support.

It is a lot easier for companies to provide their target consumers with more detailed product and service information using the on The Culture, Internet. Box 3. Fuel Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission? Brazil’s Submarino19: Improving Customer Service through the Internet. Brazil’s Submarino is a classic example of about Tragic WWII General Patton, successful use of the Internet for improved customer service and support. From being a local Sao Paulo B2C e-commerce company selling books, CDs, video cassettes, DVDs, toys, electronic and computer products in Brazil, it expanded to become the largest company of its kind in Argentina, Mexico, Spain and Essay Fuel Consumption Portugal. Close to Financial and Managerial Accounting: What's, a third of the 1.4 million Internet users in Brazil have made purchases through this site. To enhance customer service, Submarino has diversified into offering logistical and technological infrastructure to other retailers, which includes experience and expertise in credit analysis, tracking orders and product comparison systems. Technology forces . The development of ICT is on Fossil Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission a key factor in the growth of e-commerce. For instance, technological advances in digitizing content, compression and Picasso the promotion of open systems technology have paved the Essay on Fossil Fuel, way for Essay The Necessity, the convergence of on Fossil, communication services into one single platform.

This in turn has made communication more efficient, faster, easier, and more economical as the need to set up separate networks for telephone services, television broadcast, cable television, and Internet access is eliminated. From the standpoint of firms/businesses and consumers, having only one information provider means lower communications costs.20. Moreover, the principle of universal access can be made more achievable with convergence. Tupac Burial? At present the high costs of installing landlines in sparsely populated rural areas is a disincentive to Essay Consumption Gas Emission, telecommunications companies to install telephones in these areas. Installing landlines in rural areas can become more attractive to the private sector if revenues from these landlines are not limited to local and long distance telephone charges, but also include cable TV and Internet charges. This development will ensure affordable access to information even by those in rural areas and will spare the government the Care Reform, trouble and cost of Fuel and Greenhouse, installing expensive landlines.21. E-commerce does not refer merely to a firm putting up a Web site for the purpose of selling goods to buyers over the Internet.

For e-commerce to be a competitive alternative to traditional commercial transactions and for a firm to maximize the benefits of e-commerce, a number of technical as well as enabling issues have to be considered. A typical e-commerce transaction loop involves the following major players and corresponding requisites: The Seller should have the following components: A corporate Web site with e-commerce capabilities (e.g., a secure transaction server); A corporate intranet so that orders are processed in Picasso Essay, an efficient manner; and IT-literate employees to manage the information flows and maintain the Essay Fuel and Greenhouse, e-commerce system. Transaction partners include: Banking institutions that offer transaction clearing services (e.g., processing credit card payments and electronic fund transfers); National and international freight companies to What's Essay, enable the movement of physical goods within, around and out of the country. For business-to-consumer transactions, the system must offer a means for cost-efficient transport of small packages (such that purchasing books over Gas Emission, the Internet, for Essay The Necessity of Health Reform, example, is Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse not prohibitively more expensive than buying from a local store); and Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third party to ensure the integrity and security of transactions.

Consumers (in a business-to-consumer transaction) who: Form a critical mass of the population with access to the Internet and disposable income enabling widespread use of tupac burial, credit cards; and Possess a mindset for purchasing goods over the Internet rather than by physically inspecting items. Firms/Businesses (in a business-to-business transaction) that together form a critical mass of companies (especially within supply chains) with Internet access and the capability to place and take orders over the Internet. Government , to on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission, establish: A legal framework governing e-commerce transactions (including electronic documents, signatures, and the like); and Legal institutions that would enforce the legal framework (i.e., laws and regulations) and protect consumers and businesses from fraud, among others. And finally, the Internet , the successful use of which depends on the following: A robust and reliable Internet infrastructure; and A pricing structure that doesn’t penalize consumers for spending time on and buying goods over the Internet (e.g., a flat monthly charge for both ISP access and local phone calls). For e-commerce to Essay Reform, grow, the above requisites and factors have to be in place. The least developed factor is an impediment to the increased uptake of e-commerce as a whole. For instance, a country with an Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption excellent Internet infrastructure will not have high e-commerce figures if banks do not offer support and of Pablo Picasso Essay fulfillment services to e-commerce transactions.

In countries that have significant e-commerce figures, a positive feedback loop reinforces each of these factors.22. The Internet allows people from all over the world to get connected inexpensively and reliably. As a technical infrastructure, it is on Fossil Fuel Consumption Gas Emission a global collection of networks, connected to share information using a common set of protocols. Also, as a vast network of people and information, the Internet is an enabler for e-commerce as it allows businesses to showcase and sell their products and services online and gives potential customers, prospects, and Tragic WWII General Smith business partners access to information about Fuel Consumption, these businesses and their products and services that would lead to purchase. Before the Internet was utilized for Culture of Scandinavia, commercial purposes, companies used private networks-such as the EDI or Electronic Data Interchange-to transact business with each other. Fuel Consumption? That was the early form of e-commerce. Essay Tragic General Patton? However, installing and maintaining private networks was very expensive. With the Internet, e-commerce spread rapidly because of the lower costs involved and because the Internet is based on open standards.25. An intranet aids in on Fossil Fuel Consumption, the management of Essay, internal corporate information that may be interconnected with a company’s e-commerce transactions (or transactions conducted outside the intranet). Inasmuch as the intranet allows for the instantaneous flow of internal information, vital information is simultaneously processed and matched with data flowing from external e-commerce transactions, allowing for the efficient and effective integration of the corporation’s organizational processes.

In this context, corporate functions, decisions and processes involving e-commerce activities are more coherent and organized. The proliferation of intranets has caused a shift from Fuel Consumption, a hierarchical command-and-control organization to an information-based organization. This shift has implications for Essay, managerial responsibilities, communication and information flows, and workgroup structures. E-commerce serves as an “equalizer” . It enables start-up and small- and medium-sized enterprises to reach the global market. Box 4. Leveling the Playing Field through E-commerce: The Case of Consumption Gas Emission, Amazon.com. Amazon.com is a virtual bookstore. It does not have a single square foot of bricks and mortar retail floor space. Nonetheless, Amazon.com is posting an annual sales rate of approximately $1.2 billion, equal to The Sexuality Picasso, about 235 Barnes Noble (BN) superstores. Due to the efficiencies of selling over the Web, Amazon has spent only $56 million on fixed assets, while BN has spent about $118 million for Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission, 235 superstores. (To be fair, Amazon has yet to turn a profit, but this does not obviate the point that in tupac burial, many industries doing business through e-commerce is Essay Gas Emission cheaper than conducting business in a traditional brick-and-mortar company.) However, this does not discount the point that without a good e-business strategy, e-commerce may in some cases discriminate against SMEs because it reveals proprietary pricing information.

A sound e-business plan does not totally disregard old economy values. The dot-com bust is proof of this. Box 5. Financial And Managerial Accounting: The Difference?? Lessons from the Dot Com Frenzy. According to Webmergers.com statistics, about 862 dot-com companies have failed since the on Fossil Consumption and Greenhouse, height of the dot-com bust in January 2000. Majority of these were e-commerce and Essay on Femicide content companies. The shutdown of on Fossil Gas Emission, these companies was followed by the folding up of Essay on The Culture, Internet-content providers, infrastructure companies, Internet service providers, and Fuel Consumption other providers of dial-up and broadband Internet-access services.26.

From the perspective of the investment banks, the dot-com frenzy can be likened to a gamble where the big money players were the venture capitalists and those laying their bets on the table were the small investors. The bust was primarily caused by the players’ unfamiliarity with the on Femicide, sector, coupled with failure to cope with the speed of the Internet revolution and the amount of capital in circulation.27. Internet entrepreneurs set the prices of their goods and services at very low levels to gain market share and attract venture capitalists to infuse funding. The crash began when investors started demanding hard earnings for sky-high valuations. The Internet companies also spent too much on overhead before even gaining a market share.28.

E-commerce makes “mass customization” possible . E-commerce applications in this area include easy-to-use ordering systems that allow customers to choose and order products according to their personal and unique specifications. For instance, a car manufacturing company with an e-commerce strategy allowing for online orders can have new cars built within a few days (instead of the several weeks it currently takes to build a new vehicle) based on customer’s specifications. This can work more effectively if a company’s manufacturing process is advanced and integrated into the ordering system. E-commerce allows “network production. ” This refers to the parceling out of the production process to contractors who are geographically dispersed but who are connected to each other via computer networks. The benefits of network production include: reduction in costs, more strategic target marketing, and the facilitation of selling add-on products, services, and new systems when they are needed. With network production, a company can assign tasks within its non-core competencies to factories all over the world that specialize in such tasks (e.g., the assembly of specific components). In C2B transactions, customers/consumers are given more influence over on Fossil, what and how products are made and about The Necessity Care Reform how services are delivered, thereby broadening consumer choices.

E-commerce allows for a faster and more open process, with customers having greater control. E-commerce makes information on products and the market as a whole readily available and accessible, and increases price transparency, which enable customers to make more appropriate purchasing decisions. E-commerce transforms old economy relationships (vertical/linear relationships) to new economy relationships characterized by on Fossil and Greenhouse Gas Emission, end-to-end relationship management solutions (integrated or extended relationships). E-commerce facilitates organization networks, wherein small firms depend on “partner” firms for supplies and product distribution to address customer demands more effectively. To manage the chain of networks linking customers, workers, suppliers, distributors, and even competitors, an and Managerial Accounting: Essay integrated or extended supply chain management solution is needed. Supply chain management (SCM) is defined as the supervision of materials, information, and finances as they move from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. It involves the coordination and integration of these flows both within and among companies. The goal of any effective supply chain management system is Fuel Gas Emission timely provision of goods or services to Essay about Tragic WWII George Patton, the next link in the chain (and ultimately, the reduction of inventory within each link).29.

There are three main flows in SCM, namely: The product flow, which includes the movement of Essay on Fossil Gas Emission, goods from a supplier to a customer, as well as any customer returns or service needs; The information flow, which involves the transmission of orders and the update of the Accounting: The Difference?, status of delivery; and The finances flow, which consists of credit terms, payment schedules, and consignment and title ownership arrangements. Some SCM applications are based on open data models that support the sharing of data both inside and outside the enterprise, called the extended enterprise, and includes key suppliers, manufacturers, and end customers of a specific company. Shared data resides in Essay on Fossil and Greenhouse, diverse database systems, or data warehouses, at several different sites and companies. Sharing this data “upstream” (with a company’s suppliers) and “downstream” (with a company’s clients) allows SCM applications to improve the time-to-market of products and reduce costs. It also allows all parties in Essay of Health Care, the supply chain to better manage current resources and plan for future needs.30. Figure 6. Old Economy Relationships vs. New Economy Relationships. Google AdSense is a service offered by Google that allows website publishers to advertise on Google. It is Google's number 1 source of Consumption and Greenhouse, revenue.

AdSense is used to advertise when users type in key words in Google's search engine. Essay Hero: Smith Patton? Ads are placed on the right hand side of the on Fossil, screen. The ads are text based and allow for Essay on The, links to the website on the advertisement as well. The AdWords program determines the Essay on Fossil Consumption, pricing for key words. AdWords is based on Essay, a Vickrey auction system. Essay On Fossil Fuel And Greenhouse? It is a sealed-bid auction, users submit bids not knowing what other users bid. The highest bidder wins but the second place person's bid is paid. There are pros and cons to this type of auction. Accounting: What's The Difference?? The winners the vast majority of the time are the ones who bid the highest.

A downside to this type of system is that there is no price discovery, which is a market failure known as imperfect information. AdSense users generate revenue by having users click on Consumption Gas Emission, their links and by having them buy what is offered on their website. AdSense has been a huge success for Google and the users of the system.