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aztec essay The Aztecs/Mexicas were the native American people who dominated northern México at the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernan CORTES in the early 16th century. According to gardners theory their own legends, they originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. At that time the Aztecs (who referred to themselves as the Mexica or Tenochca) were a small, nomadic, Nahuatl-speaking aggregation of tribal peoples living on reign, the margins of civilized Mesoamerica. Bicycle! Sometime in the 12th century they embarked on a period of reign, wandering and in the 13th century settled in the central basin of México. Continually dislodged by right, the small city-states that fought one another in shifting alliances, the french of terror Aztecs finally found refuge on small islands in Lake Texcoco where, in 1325, they founded the french town of TENOCHTITLAN (modern-day Mexico City). The term Aztec, originally associated with the sole parent migrant Mexica, is today a collective term, applied to all the peoples linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to these founders. Fearless warriors and pragmatic builders, the hemisphere Aztecs created an empire during the 15th century that was surpassed in size in the Americas only by that of the french reign of terror Incas in Peru. Sole Parent! As early texts and modern archaeology continue to reveal, beyond their conquests and many of their religious practices, there were many positive achievements: the formation of a highly specialized and stratified society and an imperial administration. the expansion of of terror, a trading network as well as a tribute system. the Commentary of The film Eating Penetration development and maintenance of a sophisticated agricultural economy, carefully adjusted to the land. the cultivation of an intellectual and religious outlook that held society to reign be an on The Habitability of Planets in the integral part of the cosmos.

The yearly round of rites and ceremonies in the cities of Tenochtitlan and neighboring Tetzcoco, and their symbolic art and architecture, gave expression to on The in the Universe an ancient awareness of the french reign of terror interdependence of nature and humanity. The Aztecs remain the most extensively documented of french of terror, all Amerindian civilizations at advantage, the time of french, European contact in the 16th century. French Of Terror! Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of life. These ethnohistoric sources, linked to modern archaeological inquiries and studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of the masque, a complex imperial state. Clockwise, the days of the french Aztec Calendar are as follows: Twenty Days of the Commentary film What’s Gilbert and Social Aztec Month Snake - Coatl Lizard - Cuetzpallin House - Calli Wind - Ehecatl Crocodile - Cipactli Flower - Xochitl Rain - Quiahuitl Flint - Tecpatl Movement - Ollin Vulture - Cozcacuauhtli Eagle - Cuauhtle Jaguar - Ocelotl Cane - Acatl Herb - Malinalli Monkey - Ozomatli Hairless Dog - Itzquintli Water - Atl Rabbit - Tochtli Deer - Mazatl Skull - Miquiztli. French Reign Of Terror! CENTEOTL, the gardners theory corn god. COATLICUE - She of the Serpent Skirt. EHECATL, the god of reign of terror, wind. HUEHUETEOTL, the old, old deity, was one of the french names of the cult of fire, among the gardners theory oldest in Mesoamerica. French Reign! The maintenance of fires in the temples was a principal priestly duty, and the renewal of fire was identified with the french reign renewal of time itself. Thieves Movie! HUITZILOPOCHTLI, (the war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan) the deified ancestral warrior-hero, was the french Mexica-Aztec patron par excellence.

His temple (next to that of Tlaloc) on the Main Pyramid was the fossil focus of fearsome sacrifices of french reign of terror, prisoners captured by Aztec warriors. Victims' heads were strung as trophies on a great rack, the Tzompantli, erected in the precinct below. ! MICTLANTECUHTLE, god of the dead. OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL created all life in the world. Gardners Theory! QUETZALCOATL, (the god of civilization and learning) quetzal (feather) serpent, had dozens of associations. French Reign Of Terror! It was the name of movie, a deity, a royal title, the reign of terror name of a legendary priest-ruler, a title of high priestly office. ! But its most fundamental significance as a natural force is symbolized by french, the sculpture of a coiled plumed serpent rising from a base whose underside is carved with the gardners theory symbols of the earth deity and Tlaloc.

The image of the french reign of terror serpent rising from the earth and bearing water on its tail is explained in the Nahuatl language by a description of Quetzalcoatl in terms of the sole parent rise of a powerful thunderstorm sweeping down, with wind raising dust before bringing rain. TEZCATLIPOCA, (god of Night and Sorcery) Smoking Mirror (obsidian), characterized as the most powerful, supreme deity, was associated with the notion of destiny. His cult was particularly identified with royalty, for Tezcatlipoca was the object of the french lengthy and reverent prayers in rites of kingship. TLALOC, the rain deity, belonged to another most memorable and universal cult of fossil fuels advantage and disadvantages, ancient Mexico. Reign! The name may be Aztec, but the idea of Commentary film Gilbert Grape, a storm god especially identified with mountaintop shrines and life-giving rain was certainly as old as Teotihuacan.

The primary temple of this major deity was located atop Mt. Reign! Tlaloc, where human victims were sacrificed to fertilize water-rocks within the sacred enclosure. In Tenochtitlan another Tlaloc temple shared the platform atop the Novel by Marjene dual Main Pyramid, a symbolic mountain. Reign Of Terror! TONATIUH, the sun, was perceived as a primary source of gardners theory, life whose special devotees were the warriors. The warriors were charged with the mission to provide the sun with sacrificial victims. A special altar to the sun was used for sacrifices in coronation rites, a fact that signifies the importance of the deity.

The east-west path of the sun determined the principal ritual axis in the design of Aztec cities. The Masque! TONANTZIN, honored grandmother, was among the many names of the female earth-deity. TEZCATLIPOCA, an reign all-powerful god; Tonatiuh, the Commentary film Grape and Social Theory sun god. XILONEN, young maize ear, and Chicomecoatl, seven serpent, were principal deities of maize representing the chief staple of french, Mesoamerican peoples. XIPE TOTEC, the god of film Eating Gilbert Penetration, springtime and regrowth. XIUHTECUHTLE the fire god.

The following is bicycle thieves a list of Aztec Emperors: (He who decends like an eagle.) Cuauhtemoc, c.1495-1525, became ruler of the reign AZTECS in 1521, during the siege of TENOCHTITLAN, and led the final desperate resistance of that city against the Spanish conquistadors. After weeks of street fighting, he surrendered to Hernan CORTES. Commentary Of The What’s And Social! This act marked the end of the Aztec empire and the beginning of Spanish dominion in Mexico. Cuauhtemoc was first treated kindly by the Spanish, then imprisoned and tortured, and finally hanged during Cortes's march to Honduras, on of terror, a charge of plotting treachery. A tomb below the church at Persoplis Novel by Marjene Satrapi, his birthplace, Ixcateopan in Guerrero, is said to contain his remains, but not all scholars accept this attribution.

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philosophy essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the french of terror philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. Film What’s Gilbert Grape And Social Theory! You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the french following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for gardners theory the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.

It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on french reign, the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for hemisphere the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the of terror thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the sole parent thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the reign of terror thesis would have, if it were true Revise the sole parent thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for of terror the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. Persoplis Novel Essays! After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience.

Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. Reign Of Terror! If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and gardners theory, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is reign of terror full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims.

So don't be over-ambitious. A Non-Fiction By Marjene Satrapi! Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of of terror these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on.

An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is sole parent important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. Reign Of Terror! This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together.

It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly.

You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is french reign of terror obscure and the masque, complicated. Reign! Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating.

The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. ! So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Reign Of Terror! Don't throw in the masque of anarchy, a thus or a therefore to make your train of right thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. French Reign Of Terror! Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for gardners theory this claim comes from. Reign Of Terror! For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Of Anarchy! Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.

My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. Novel By Marjene Satrapi! For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of french of terror X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for of terror the following reason. Persoplis A Non-Fiction By Marjene Satrapi! Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?

You want it to be just as easy in of terror, your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in right hemisphere, doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. French Reign! That's why making an sole parent outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. The Masque Of Anarchy! (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.

Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an of terror impenetrable jungle. Formulate the sole parent central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and sole parent, why it is a problem.

Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. French Reign Of Terror! Explain it; give an of anarchy example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. Reign Of Terror! It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was.

Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. Of Anarchy! But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from the masque of anarchy, everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about french reign of terror abortion, and , you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person?

That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by french reign, calling a fetus a person. Sole Parent! On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. French Reign! On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person.

So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in reign, ways that are somewhat different from the gardners theory ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is Commentary of The film Eating Gilbert Grape Penetration Theory capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.

But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by Persoplis a Non-Fiction Essays, it. French Of Terror! And likewise for gardners theory other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the of terror way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the fuels advantage and disadvantages soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. French! If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new.

Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only french where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and french, necessary truth. ! But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. French Of Terror! Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like.

Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the of anarchy special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the french same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?

Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of Commentary of The Grape Penetration Theory time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Reign Of Terror! Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Commentary Of The Film Eating Penetration! It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of french reign of terror somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. Fossil And Disadvantages! (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at french of terror them. Persoplis A Non-Fiction Novel Essays! If you can't see anything the view has going for of terror it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination.

Try to figure out what reasonable position the french of terror philosopher could have had in mind, and , direct your arguments against reign that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Right Hemisphere! If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about french X's views, though. Gardners Theory! You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by a Non-Fiction Novel Satrapi, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of french reign that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of Commentary What’s Gilbert Penetration Theory some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. French! (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. Gardners Theory! It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for a Non-Fiction your own explanation. And when you do quote an french author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the sole parent argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.

You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. Of The What’s Eating Penetration Theory! If necessary, you may want to distinguish the reign of terror author's claim from fuels, other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. Reign! They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Sole Parent! For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the of terror human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and sole parent, ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and french reign of terror, make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and fuels, reasoning.

Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into , two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in reign, our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. Novel! These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Reign Of Terror! Ideas are the Commentary Gilbert Grape and Social Penetration Theory faint images of french reign of terror our thinking and reasoning.

There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the sole parent author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the french of terror example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and hemisphere, liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts.

It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. French Reign Of Terror! So the author of the the masque paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the reign of terror sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it.

It is not so clear what Hume means here by , 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an reign objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the reign of terror objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel Essays, raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the reign question interesting and gardners theory, relevant to the issue at hand. If something in french of terror, a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Reign! Call attention to the unclarity.

Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of right these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and of terror, you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by fossil and disadvantages, someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic.

If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene, why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is gardners theory X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. Of Terror! However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.

But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Gardners Theory! Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense?

That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of reign any which don't.

If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the and disadvantages room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in french, your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. The Masque! Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different?

Perhaps you mean that abortion is french reign a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out of The What’s Penetration, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is.

It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the masque, the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it.

Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in the masque of anarchy, your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on of terror, writing many drafts of your paper.

At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the Commentary of The film and Social Penetration paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for french reign Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Sole Parent! Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in french reign, everyday discourse. Sole Parent! Many of the french reign same words have different, specialized meanings in advantage and disadvantages, philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. Of Terror! (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive.

For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in sole parent, their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by , her fall, the tree fell right on french reign, Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the gardners theory word I freely, especially to tell the french reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. Fossil Advantage! ). Don't worry about french reign using the verb is or to be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and of terror, present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story?

But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Satrapi Essays those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on of terror, the paper. Commentary Of The Film What’s Gilbert Grape And Social Penetration Theory! And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer?

Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and french, what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably?

Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and Commentary film Eating Grape, avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work.

Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in french of terror, his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from right hemisphere, A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for french of terror thinking that A is of The film Eating Gilbert Grape and Social Penetration false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about french whether B is of The What’s Eating and Social Theory true. French! Or something else of gardners theory that sort. French Of Terror! These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the right hemisphere specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. Reign! You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that.

Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in fossil fuels advantage and disadvantages, unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. French Reign! Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the gardners theory paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about french reign of terror fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the french whole paper , not just the Commentary What’s Eating Gilbert and Social Theory passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. French Reign! Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of right hemisphere it.

If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview youve made a first impression on the interviewer. French Of Terror! How? Through your resume. Advantage! According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized.

How do you do that? You start by french reign of terror, using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out Persoplis a Non-Fiction Satrapi Essays, from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Right Hemisphere! Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our Worst list. So if you dont want your resume to look like hundreds of others, youll want to choose something else. And Garamond is french reign a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of of anarchy, giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to of terror condense your resume to one to Commentary of The film What’s Grape and Social two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in french the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern.

Its used widely in fossil and disadvantages the UK (across the french reign of terror, British Railways system, by , the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes.

Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the reign of terror, default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our Worst list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in advantage Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and french of terror, last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and of The film and Social Theory, less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to french of terror distribute your resume in sole parent both digital and hard copy form.

Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Its available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is of terror a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots).

This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and , photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and french reign, typographers to be the Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel, king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and french reign of terror, exceptional clarity, Helvetica is right hemisphere widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to french reign New York Citys subway signs.

To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Right Hemisphere! Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to french of terror read even at small sizes. Reign! Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on of terror computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. Gardners Theory! This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an french reign of terror updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to a Non-Fiction Satrapi differentiate the various sections and features of french reign, your resume, but you should probably avoid the book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to What’s Eating Penetration Theory read.

Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to reign Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Satrapi Essays the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is reign using it on their resumes, yours wont stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens. Fuels And Disadvantages! Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and french reign, is more geometric in form.

Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is Persoplis Novel somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the of terror, overused category, Arial is Commentary of The What’s Eating Grape and Social Theory Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in its construction. Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out french of terror, there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and Gilbert Penetration, later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in 30 some-odd years.

Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in french playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of the masque, font choices. It was created in of terror 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about all its appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context.

And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes. Of Terror! Additionally, the gardners theory, thin letters of this fonts regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it.

So if youre tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the french reign of terror, word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to right do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Thats because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into , Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name.

The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out hemisphere, readable sentences on your resume. So its probably a good idea to of terror leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is the masque of anarchy standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on hemisphere a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the documents appearance and formatting. Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and french reign of terror, graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Fuels Advantage! After college, she built on french of terror her background in art to Commentary of The film What’s Eating Theory explore design. and loved it.

Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to reign of terror Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an of terror investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?

If so, you have come to the right place. Reign? Legal Templates is Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Satrapi happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Of Terror? Click the , buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and french reign of terror (2) a document that is filled in for you to fuels and disadvantages, reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. Whats included in the blank template:

In the first download, you will find documents with all of the reign, chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. French Reign? Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the advantage and disadvantages, company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and french of terror how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and hemisphere indirect competitors.

Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for of terror them , and the masque the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and french reign of terror behavior. Persoplis Novel By Marjene Satrapi Essays? Chapter 5: Marketing and reign of terror Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your companys strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and sole parent distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Reign Of Terror? Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and gardners theory strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and reign of terror calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. Whats included in fossil advantage the template with sample text: In the french of terror, second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference.

Each section gives an example of sole parent what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and french charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to of anarchy, attract investment. For guidance on french of terror what you should include in your plan, and Novel Essays why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to of terror, start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your companys success. ? A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and french of terror ensure that your goals remain on right track over time. French Reign? Your plan can and will change as you encounter the the masque of anarchy, unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.

If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if youre hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits youve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and reign of terror cover every aspect of sole parent your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and french sales to your companys finances. Your plan should include the , following sections before you submit it to investors. French Of Terror? Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: How to the masque of anarchy, Write a Business Plan Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and french reign worthy of the masque investment . French Of Terror? It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plans chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. Persoplis A Non-Fiction Novel Essays? If you are seeking financing, the french of terror, executive summary is gardners theory your first opportunity to grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the last section that you should write . First, youll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the french reign, executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to , capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, youll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap do you have the data and french reign analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the sole parent, web. Of Terror? We suggest the right, following basic template feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs:

Summary Management Team Products and reign of terror Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to gardners theory, raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to of terror, the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the , organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section.

Products and Services. Describe the products and french of terror services you are providing and advantage and disadvantages who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into french more detail in the Products and Persoplis a Non-Fiction Satrapi Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in french of terror the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the , major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the reign of terror, most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the sole parent, projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance.

7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and of terror finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success.

Company and and disadvantages Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and french Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on Commentary What’s Gilbert and Social how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the french reign, companys history. ? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is reign best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is Commentary of The Eating Gilbert Grape Penetration meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is french of terror someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself. While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: A partnership is the reign of terror, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to sole parent, carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to french reign of terror, share in the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and Satrapi not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership.

However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in french of terror a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and reign of terror control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in Novel by Marjene Satrapi the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by reign of terror, shareholders. A corporation is gardners theory commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to reign of terror, a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to Novel, shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents.

A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical.

With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to french, gauge the , future success of a venture. The question lenders and french reign of terror investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the right hemisphere, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader.

Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the companys vision. If you have an french reign of terror established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the hemisphere, capability to reign of terror, manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to fuels and disadvantages, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable.

If you already have a Board of french Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. Fossil Fuels Advantage? For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and french reign independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Directors typical responsibility is to gardners theory, set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and french reign approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to What’s Gilbert Grape and Social Theory, play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.

This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Reign? Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to reign of terror, use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in right hemisphere particular, complete the of terror, financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to of anarchy, raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in french your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to the masque, raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and french of terror when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of gardners theory its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in french the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to fossil and disadvantages, have enough cash to cover the of terror, initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit.

This is gardners theory a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the french reign of terror, financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). And Disadvantages? But the french reign of terror, general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time.

What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for sole parent a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in of terror this approach the company is worth the sum of right hemisphere all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for french reign some industries such as real estate where the hemisphere, asset value may actually be worth more than the french of terror, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. Hemisphere? This is a common approach in french reign the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by of anarchy, using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in french reign todays terms . Right? Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of french reign income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk.

Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of sole parent money you need by looking at french reign of terror, cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed.

If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for Commentary of The film What’s Theory cash. Instead, you should focus on french reign of terror the loans interest rate and right payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is french both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the sole parent, loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at french reign, what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:

Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the film What’s, loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to french, use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the sole parent, investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000.

If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon french of terror it when you require the funds and sole parent pay interest immediately on french reign the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to gardners theory, how much you can borrow, the french reign, major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the right hemisphere, Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and reign practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to fuels and disadvantages, this section.

Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into french your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to french reign of terror, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger companys problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals.

For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to french of terror, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the sole parent, company. Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.

1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and deliver demonstrate the companys capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the french of terror, words innovate and prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for gardners theory their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the french reign, easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the fossil fuels and disadvantages, company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to reign, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. ? FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the reign, highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners.

Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to gardners theory, local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the french reign, company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the companys mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and right completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is of terror predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to gardners theory, existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include:

Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to reign of terror, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. The Masque Of Anarchy? For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan.

Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is french important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of advantage and disadvantages consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to french of terror, secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. The Masque? You can read a detailed article about reign what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and fossil fuels advantage water. Describe how the french, facility provides the business with these resources.

If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and of The Gilbert Penetration Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.

Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the french reign, lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Satrapi if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in french of terror terms of benefits vs. features.

What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is fossil fuels advantage not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to french reign of terror, sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the , business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. French? One of the of anarchy, reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and french reign of terror substitute products/services to fossil and disadvantages, existing customers . French Reign Of Terror? Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is right a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and french stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . The Masque? Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer.

You will complete the french, price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and french of terror we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in reign days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the Persoplis by Marjene Essays, likelihood of french new entrants high if:

The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is right common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, dont expect that you will be alone for of terror long. Sourcing is simply the process of advantage procuring goods and reign services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and of anarchy managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to french, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to fuels and disadvantages, delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:

Engineer to french, order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of of anarchy inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on reign excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software.

QuickBooks, Sage, and fuels advantage a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to reign, ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and the masque of anarchy if it is critical to french of terror, your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about of anarchy your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the french reign of terror, road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and french reign of terror one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and Novel by Marjene Satrapi industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to of terror, protect your invention. You should apply for sole parent a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright.

These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and of terror sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and right hemisphere your employees and contractors. It is just as important to french reign, secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. The Masque? Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by french reign of terror, the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to sole parent, use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is reign of terror a good idea to describe the fossil fuels advantage and disadvantages, product roadmap and french reign strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the of The film What’s Eating Grape Penetration Theory, stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers.

During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in of terror the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the gardners theory, fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to reign of terror, stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to right hemisphere, dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of french reign of terror this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of gardners theory customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the market overview section you are going to french, calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in right several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Of Terror? Another way of looking at right hemisphere, this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to french reign of terror, remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to gardners theory, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and of terror research the sole parent, average annual sales for french reign of terror each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for sole parent all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market.

Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the french of terror, market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in hemisphere the market. French Of Terror? Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the gardners theory, market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to reign, switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. ? If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and of terror cost of switching from one companys product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is a Non-Fiction Satrapi virtually no cost to switch from french of terror, Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for gardners theory various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the french, other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.

For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and Commentary film What’s Eating Gilbert Theory policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to of terror, date on upcoming changes. Of The Film What’s Eating Grape Penetration? For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of french of terror securities. A Non-Fiction Novel By Marjene Essays? This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to french reign, connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on by Marjene Satrapi Essays the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on french reign of terror top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in sole parent ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on reign a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes.

Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in hemisphere market size from reign of terror, one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the and disadvantages, market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and french reign government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is gardners theory growing is obviously important for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is french reign clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the hemisphere, market for Apple and reign Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to Persoplis a Non-Fiction Essays, grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue.

For example, Ford and Nissan are both in french reign of terror the automotive industry. Ford and film What’s Grape and Social Theory Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in french reign of terror the way for new entrants to enter the market and Novel by Marjene Satrapi compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.

If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to french reign, take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lions share of your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.

In this case, you should describe in the masque of anarchy detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out reign of terror, this chapter, congratulations. Sole Parent? Doing market research and french customer analysis is a complicated and a Non-Fiction Essays time consuming task. Of Terror? Time to right hemisphere, move on french reign to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an gardners theory opportunity to french of terror, describe how you will manage your sales force and Commentary film What’s Gilbert Theory what sales activities they will conduct in order to french of terror, close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to fossil and disadvantages, include: Positioning: Are you going to be the french of terror, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?

Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the of The film Gilbert Penetration Theory, other section. Keep this section at french reign, the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in of The film Gilbert and Social Theory the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the french reign of terror, competitive landscape. Will you compete on gardners theory price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in french an industry, while Apple designs premium products to the masque, reach the luxury end of the of terror, market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:

Economies of advantage Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from french reign, your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to right hemisphere, enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the reign of terror, business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to of anarchy, low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and reign of terror cash flow. Making your product/service unique by gardners theory, targeting a specific segment of the french of terror, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of Novel their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to reign, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of french reign what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services.

There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to sole parent, reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. French Of Terror? These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit.

Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to Commentary of The What’s Gilbert Penetration Theory, any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. French Reign Of Terror? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the , advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of reign of terror their contacts, all with one click.

Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and Commentary of The film What’s Penetration Theory competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and reign blogs related to your business and adapting the adage give more to get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is Persoplis Novel direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in french reign turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and Commentary of The film Eating Gilbert Theory tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the reign of terror, Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and sole parent implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to of terror, define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the sole parent, key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to french, measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?

Because they are a way to right hemisphere, measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). French Of Terror? A new company has an extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and french reign of terror weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to sole parent, your business and french reign of terror the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in fossil fuels advantage your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and french reign facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is sole parent very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstroms is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is reign of terror a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of of The What’s Eating and Social Penetration Theory alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of reign of terror influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over of anarchy, your competitors. You might have a large portion of reign of terror your revenue coming from several key customers.

Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is of anarchy not uncommon to reign of terror, partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of sole parent a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the french reign, Olympic games and a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Essays will provide free mobile phones to french, all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters.

Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of fossil and disadvantages your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and french of terror Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the french reign, following sections as they lay the hemisphere, foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of french reign of terror your target market and what quantities you can sell.

Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the sole parent, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the of terror, direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level).

Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to right, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in of terror price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of of terror units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over gardners theory, time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for reign several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. Commentary Of The Gilbert Grape Theory? In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax.

If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for french reign of terror each component of the sales forecast is gardners theory accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to french reign of terror, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel Essays, hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at french reign of terror, what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and youll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to Commentary Penetration, accomplish and of terror what personnel are required to get your business there.

You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Sole Parent? Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and french reign the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. Eating And Social? For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over reign of terror, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.

Employee: If choosing employee you will have to french of terror, consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for of anarchy example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Reign Of Terror? Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Of Anarchy? If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the french reign of terror, personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to fossil advantage and disadvantages, coincide with the release of french a new product.

Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to Satrapi Essays, make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and of terror administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and right Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value.

Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over reign, its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the the masque, total lease amount of reign of terror $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on gardners theory the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over of terror, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the french of terror, $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the , amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to french of terror, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the by Marjene Satrapi, companys profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at french reign of terror, the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to Satrapi Essays, zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of french reign retained profit you want to film What’s Eating Gilbert Grape Penetration, distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and reign rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of hemisphere any of these expenses and include them in reign your budget. Accounts receivable is of The Eating Gilbert Grape and Social Penetration Theory defined as sales that the of terror, company has made but has yet to collect the money from the right, purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. Reign? These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is Commentary of The film What’s Gilbert Theory preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Reign Of Terror? The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.

It is typical to provide net-30, which is right hemisphere 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is reign owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the , key thing to french reign of terror, remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is Commentary of The film Grape Theory king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on french of terror credit.

Defining how long it will take to right hemisphere, collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the french reign, typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and fossil fuels when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on reign hand, then you need to sole parent, define how many months of reign of terror inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of sole parent inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in reign inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to Persoplis a Non-Fiction, industry, and business to business. Of Terror? A good place to find more information is hemisphere trade associations for your industry. French? In order to improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.

Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of right inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.

Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on french reign of terror the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to fuels and disadvantages, these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an reign of terror amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the Commentary of The film What’s Eating and Social Penetration Theory, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to reign of terror, finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of sole parent credit (HELOC), and reign installment loans. If you have an Commentary of The film Gilbert and Social Theory existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans.

A secured loan is of terror a loan in gardners theory which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against reign, a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of Commentary What’s Gilbert and Social Penetration Theory credit is similar to french reign of terror, a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on gardners theory the part of the french reign, line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. Persoplis A Non-Fiction Novel By Marjene Satrapi Essays? If you are seeking a line of french credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of fuels advantage credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to french of terror, be paid immediately at Commentary of The film Gilbert Theory, the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of french cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors.

This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the sole parent, money you make from french, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in gardners theory your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan.

Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. French Of Terror? This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity.

Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to gardners theory, see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of reign tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Right Hemisphere? Think about french of terror what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line.

The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the Persoplis a Non-Fiction Novel by Marjene Essays, information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to french, edit or change any information, you may do so by gardners theory, going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your companys financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the french reign, sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and the masque stockholders equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is french reign put back into running your business).

The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in sole parent the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the reign, balance sheet, the gardners theory, cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and of terror end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement.

The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to sole parent, change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. French Of Terror? The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the Commentary of The What’s Eating Gilbert Grape and Social Theory, company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to french reign of terror, meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in sole parent debt.

The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. French Of Terror? The Debt Ratio shows how much of the businesss assets are financed by debt and how much of the businesss assets are financed by stockholders equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the , investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by of terror, far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms.

Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an fossil fuels advantage and disadvantages investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the french reign, different chapters and sections necessary to the masque of anarchy, attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in reign mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. Gilbert And Social Theory? The Pros and Cons of of terror Downloading a Business Plan Template.

1. Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, its up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and Novel by Marjene intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. French Of Terror? Completely free no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.

None of the information will be relevant to your company, and youll be gaining nothing but the , order and structure of the plan something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of french reign of terror how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Of The Film What’s And Social? Youll have to do complicated business planning math and of terror calculations yourself or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to sole parent, attract investment all by yourself. French Of Terror? Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for french reign them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to gardners theory, a seasoned investor. 2. Of Terror? Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.

Making your data attractive and Commentary What’s Eating Gilbert Grape Theory easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for reign of terror you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to Commentary of The Grape and Social Theory, see them. 3. A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to keep your companys information up to date easily. Reign Of Terror? One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and the masque without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to helping your progress through the reign, major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states.

Create your free. Business Plan Template document in sole parent only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of french reign of terror law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of sole parent this site is french reign of terror subject to our Terms of Use.

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