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Nov 21, 2017 Formal analysis art history,
It is claimed that consumers are being manipulated by formal analysis art history big corporations and their brands. Moral Of Hamlet. Quite the contrary. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. BRANDS are in the dock, accused of all sorts of mischief, from threatening our health and formal analysis destroying our environment to corrupting our children. Brands are so powerful, it is alleged, that they seduce us to look alike, eat alike and moral of hamlet be alike. At the same time, they are spiritually empty, gradually (and almost subliminally) undermining our moral values. This grim picture has been popularised by formal analysis a glut of anti-branding books, ranging from Eric Schlosser's “Fast Food Nation” and Robert Frank's “Luxury Fever” to “The World is Not for moral of hamlet Sale” by analysis Francois Dufour and a RĂ©sume Jose Bove—a French farmer who is formal, best known for blood tester vandalising a McDonald's restaurant.
The argument has, however, been most forcefully articulated in Naomi Klein's book “No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies”. Not since Vance Packard's 1957 classic “The Hidden Persuaders” has one book stirred up so much antipathy to marketing. Its author has become the formal analysis art history spokesman for a mockingbird a worldwide movement against multinationals and their insidious brands. Britain's Times newspaper rated her one of the world's most influential people under 35. Published in at least seven languages, “No Logo” has touched a universal nerve. Product placement in books: Homer did it first Sep 6th 2001 Brands: The case for brands Sep 6th 2001 Eating habits: Mac attack Feb 15th 2001 Marketing: Guerrillas in formal our midst Oct 12th 2000 Cheesed off Jan 27th 2000 Spending and happiness: Money can buy it Mar 11th 1999.
Its argument runs something like this. In the new global economy, brands represent a huge portion of the value of a company and, increasingly, its biggest source of bob ewell profits. So companies are switching from formal analysis art history, producing products to marketing aspirations, images and lifestyles. A RĂ©sume Essay. They are trying to art history become weightless, shedding physical assets by shifting production from their own factories in the first world to other people's in the third. These image mongers offer “a Barbie world for adults” says Ms Klein, integrating their brands so fully into our lives that they cocoon us in a “brandscape”.
No space is untouched: schools, sports stars and even youth identity are all being co-opted by karangan brands. “Powerful brands no longer just advertise in art history a magazine, they control its content,” says Ms Klein. Now they are the target of a backlash. A new generation of activists is rising up and attacking, not governments or ideologies but brands, directly and often violently. What. Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart and McDonald's have been rounded on over issues ranging from racism to child labour to formal art history advertising in schools. Less a product, more a way of life.
In one sense it is easy to understand why Ms Klein and her camp feel as they do. The word “brand” is everywhere, to the point where Disney chairman Michael Eisner calls the term “overused, sterile and unimaginative”. Products, people, countries and companies are all racing to turn themselves into brands—to make their image more likeable and understandable. British Airways did it. Target and Tesco are doing it, while people from Martha Stewart to Madonna are branding themselves.
Britain tried to become a brand with its “Cool Britannia” slogan, and Information on Falsifying Wally Olins, a corporate-identity consultant and co-founder of Wolff Olins, a consultancy, even wants to have a crack at branding the analysis European Union. At the very least, Ms Klein overstates the case. Brands are not as powerful as their opponents allege, nor is the public as easily manipulated. The reality is more complicated. Indeed, many of the established brands that top the Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume league tables are in trouble, losing customer loyalty and value. Formal Analysis Art History. Annual tables of the world's top ten brands used to change very little from year to year.
Names such as Kellogg's, Kodak, Marlboro and Nescafe appeared with almost monotonous regularity. Now, none of these names is in the top ten. Kellogg's, second less than a decade ago, languishes at 39th in the latest league table produced by Interbrand, a brand consultancy. Of the 74 brands that appear in the top 100 rankings in both of the past two years, 41 declined in value between 2000 and 2001, while the to kill a mockingbird combined value of the 74 fell by $49 billion—to an analysis estimated $852 billion, a drop of more than 5%. Information On Falsifying Essay. Brands fall from grace and newer, nimbler ones replace them. Meanwhile, consumers have become more fickle.
A study of American lifestyles by DDB , an formal art history advertising agency, found that the percentage of Information on Falsifying Essay consumers between the formal analysis ages of 20 and 29 who said that they stuck to on Falsifying well-known brands fell from formal, 66% in 1975 to 59% in 2000. The bigger surprise, though, was that the percentage in the 60-69 age bracket who said that they remained loyal to well-known brands fell over the same period, from 86% to kepentingan 59%. It is not only the young who flit from brand to brand. Every age group, it seems, is art history, more or less equally disloyal. The result is conflict 451, that many of the world's biggest brands are struggling. If they are making more and more noise, it is out of desperation.
As they move from merely validating products to encapsulating whole lifestyles, brands are evolving a growing social dimension. In the formal art history developed world, they are seen by some to have expanded into the vacuum left by the decline of bob ewell to kill a mockingbird organised religion. Formal Analysis Art History. But this has made brands—and the multinationals that are increasingly identified with them—not more powerful, but more vulnerable. Consumers will tolerate a lousy product for far longer than they will tolerate a lousy lifestyle. Historically, building a brand was rather simple. A logo was a straightforward guarantee of what is demand quality and consistency, or it was a signal that a product was something new. For that, consumers were, quite rationally, prepared to pay a premium. “Brands were the analysis first piece of consumer protection,” says Jeremy Bullmore, a long-time director of moral of hamlet J. Walter Thompson, an advertising agency. “You knew where to go if you had a complaint.” Even the central planners in the old Soviet Union had to establish “production marks” to stop manufacturers cutting corners on quality. Brands also helped consumers to buy efficiently. As Unilever's chairman Niall FitzGerald points out: “A brand is formal analysis, a storehouse of trust. That matters more and more as choices multiply.
People want to simplify their lives.” This implicit trade-off was efficient and profitable for companies too. Information On Falsifying Essay. Building a brand nationally required little more than an occasional advertisement on a handful of television or radio stations showing how the product tasted better or drove faster. There was little regulation. It was easy for brands such as Coca-Cola, Kodak and Marlboro to become hugely powerful.
Because shopping was still a local business and competition limited, a successful brand could maintain its lead and high prices for years. A strong brand acted as an effective barrier to entry for others. In western markets, over time, brand building became much trickier. As standards of manufacturing rose, it became harder for formal art history firms to differentiate on quality alone and so to charge a premium price. This was particularly true of packaged goods like food: branded manufacturers lost market share to retailers' own brands, which consumers learned to trust. Nor were traditional branded products any longer the only choice in karangan perpaduan town.
As shoppers became more mobile and art history discovered more places to buy, including online websites, they switched products more often. Brands now face competition from the most unexpected quarters, says Rita Clifton, chief executive of Interbrand: “If you were a soap-powder company years ago, your competition would come from the moral of hamlet same industry and probably the same country. Now it could be anyone. Who'd have thought that Virgin would sell mobile phones, Versace run hotels or Tesco sell banking services?” Even truly innovative products can no longer expect to keep the market to art history themselves for long. Gillette spent $750m and seven years developing its three-bladed Mach 3 men's razor, for perpaduan which it charged a fat premium. But only formal analysis, months later it was trumped by Asda, a British supermarket that came out with its own version for a fraction of the price.
Consumers are now bombarded with choices. Sugar. They are “commercials veterans”, inundated with up to 1,500 pitches a day. Far from being gullible and formal art history easily manipulated, they are cynical about marketing and economics less responsive to formal analysis art history entreaties to buy. A RĂ©sume. “Consumers are like roaches,” say Jonathan Bond and Richard Kirshenbaum in their book “Under the analysis Radar—Talking to Today's Cynical Consumer”. “We spray them with marketing, and for a time it works. Then, inevitably, they develop an immunity, a resistance.” Some of the Information most cynical consumers, say the formal authors, are the young. Nearly half of all American college students have taken marketing courses and “know the diabetes blood sugar enemy”. For them, “shooting down advertising has become a kind of sport.” Consumers are also harder to reach.
They are busier, more distracted and have more media to choose from. And they lead lives that are more complicated and less predictable. A detergent can no longer count on its core consumer being a white housewife. Analysis Art History. Against this background, it has never been harder to develop or even just sustain a brand. Kepentingan. Coca-Cola, Gillette and Nike are prominent examples of the many that are struggling to increase volumes, raise prices and boost margins. Marketers have to take some of the analysis art history blame. While consumers have changed beyond recognition, marketing has not. Elliott Ettenberg, author of a forthcoming book on the decline of marketing says: “Everything else has been reinvented—distribution, new product development, the supply chain. But marketing is stuck in the past.” Even in perpaduan America, home to nine of the formal world's ten most valuable brands, it can be a shockingly old-fashioned business. Marketing theory is still largely based on the days when Procter Gamble's brands dominated America, and its advertising agencies wrote the rules.
Those rules focused on moral of hamlet the product and analysis where to sell it, not the customer. The new marketing approach is to build a brand not a product—to sell a lifestyle or a personality, to is demand economics appeal to analysis emotions. But this requires a far greater understanding of human psychology. It is a much harder task than describing the Information on Falsifying virtues of a product. Sweden's Absolut Vodka, one of the art history world's biggest spirits brands, demonstrates this well. Its clever, simple ads featuring its now famous clear bottle were dreamt up long before the vodka was fermented. Goran Lundqvist, the is demand company's president, says that Absolut's wit, rather than its taste, is the reason for the spirit's success: “Absolut is a personality,” he claims. Formal Analysis Art History. “We like certain people, but some people are just more fun and interesting.” Other products have also succeeded in touching the in fahrenheit 451 emotions. Fans of Ben Jerry's ice cream, for example, think that it is hip for its ethical stance, while many Harley Davidson owners are literally in love with their machines. The trouble is that most marketers have to formal struggle to create such feelings for their brands. Karangan Perpaduan. Many firms, most notably banks, mistake inertia for liking. Others, such as Coca-Cola and McDonald's, complacent from analysis, past success, find it difficult to admit that their customers are drifting away to newer offerings.
Yet others, panicking that they need to do something, reinvent themselves and diabetes tester unwittingly lose the essence of their appeal. Formal Analysis. Old-fashioned market-research methods help explain such mistakes. Focus groups, for example, are poor at is demand rooting out the real reasons why people like brands, but they are still heavily used. The attempt by brands to adopt a social component—to embrace a lifestyle—is giving consumers a lever to formal analysis influence the behaviour of the companies that stand behind them. The “No Logo” proponents are correct that brands are a conduit through which influence flows between companies and consumers. But far more often, it is karangan kepentingan, consumers that dictate to companies and ultimately decide their fate, rather than the other way round. Think of the failure of analysis art history such high-profile product launches as “New Coke”; the disastrous effect on Hoover of a badly-designed sales promotion in is demand Britain a few years ago; or the boycott of genetically modified foods by art history Europe's consumers. The Internet also provides some telling examples.
Dotcoms such as Webvan and Kozmo were lauded for what the speed with which they built their brands. Unconstrained by the need to make profits, however, such companies built customer loyalty artificially. Once business reality returned, they were revealed as unsustainable promises. Formal Analysis. Consumers, it turned out, were not gullible. In Fahrenheit. As Mr Olins says: “Is the brand immoral, can it get us to do things we don't want to? No. When we like a brand we manifest our loyalty in cash.
If we don't like it, we walk away. Customers are in charge.” The truth is that people like brands. They not only simplify choices and formal guarantee quality, but they add fun and interest. Diabetes. “In technocratic and colourless times, brands bring warmth, familiarity and trust,” says Peter Brabeck, boss of Nestle. They also have a cultish quality that creates a sense of belonging. Formal Art History. “In an irreligious world, brands provide us with beliefs,” says Mr Olins. “They define who we are and signal our affiliations.” Jim McDowell, head of marketing at BMW North America, says that when young people visit a 3Com-sponsored baseball stadium or a Continental Airlines' hockey arena, they realise that “some of the best things they have ever experienced have come through brands.” Since brands and moral of hamlet their corporate parents are becoming ever more entwined—both in the public perception and commercial reality—it follows that consumers can increasingly influence the behaviour of companies.
Arrogance, greed and analysis art history hypocrisy are swiftly punished. Popular outrage forced Shell to retreat over the scrapping of its Brent Spar oil platform and its activities in Nigeria. Nike has had to revamp its whole supply chain after being accused of what is demand running sweatshops. Even mighty Coca-Cola has been humbled. Told of a contamination incident in Belgium, its then-boss, Doug Ivester, is said to analysis have dismissed it with the karangan kepentingan comment: “Where the fuck is formal, Belgium?” A few months later, after a mishandled public-relations exercise that cost Coke sales across Europe, he was fired. “It is Information Essay, absurd to art history say that brands can be too powerful,” concludes Interbrand's Ms Clifton. “Brands are the ultimate accountable institution. Conflict In Fahrenheit. If people fall out of love with your brand, you go out of business.” This ultimately makes brands highly effective tools through which to bring about change. Rafael Gomez, professor of formal analysis art history marketing at the London School of Economics, points out that companies like Nike have been forced to invest heavily in improving their manufacturing standards in order to protect their brands. World Bank studies show that brands have been a boon for developing economies, because it is the branded multinationals that pay the best wages and have the best working conditions.
Those countries that are more open to trade and foreign investment, such as the Asian tigers, have shown faster increases in living standards than relatively closed countries such as much of Africa. Brands of the diabetes sugar tester future will have to formal analysis art history stand not only for product quality and a desirable image. They will also have to signal something wholesome about the company behind the brand. “The next big thing in brands is social responsibility,” says Mr Olins, “It will be clever to say there is bob ewell a mockingbird, nothing different about our product or price, but we behave well.” Far from being evil, brands are becoming an effective weapon for holding even the largest global corporations to account. If we do not use them for that purpose, as Mr Olins puts it, “we are lazy and indifferent and we deserve what we get.” Fittingly, brands will then have come full circle.
The founders of some of the world's oldest—Hershey, Disney, Cadbury and Boots, for analysis example—devoted their lives and company profits to social improvements, to building spacious towns, better schools and bigger hospitals. Moral Of Hamlet. The difference in the future will be that it will be consumers, not philanthropists, who will dictate the social agenda. Far from being instruments of oppression, they make firms accountable to consumers. America, China and missile defences. The single-minded pursuit of missile defences makes America a danger to itself. The United States should be helping Colombia not to banish drugs but to build a better army.
Rich countries should recognise the benefits of immigrants and keep the costs in perspective. The Hewlett-Packard/Compaq merger points to the end of the personal-computer era. The constructive bit of George Bush's presidency may be over formal art history, already. But that does not make him a. The race to replace Rudy Giuliani. But is anybody really listening to economics the current mayoral candidates? Redistricting may tighten the Democrats' hold on California, but it won't help them win the House.
A no-nonsense candidacy and a hard race ahead of her. The contest to analysis succeed Jim Gilmore will get closer and bob ewell ever more brutal. New weapons in the war between wolves and ranchers: poison and noise. George Bush's Latino strategy makes sense—but not for the reasons you might think. With less than a year still to serve, President Andres Pastrana must watch opinion hardening against. Facing rising crime, some Latin American police forces are reforming, while others resort to. An unofficial death penalty. Exchange rates sometimes reveal half-truths.
The ostracised woo the analysis small. Junichiro Koizumi flounders as the economy worsens. John Howard's “Pacific solution” Signs of is demand economics a thaw on the Korean peninsula. Thailand's armed forces show signs of formal analysis reasserting themselves. Court demands a clean getaway. Cleaning up the site where the Soviet Union tested its atomic weapons. Life in one part of Pakistan is almost as austere as under the regime next door. President Alexander Lukashenka (above) looks set to karangan win a rigged election. Bad news for. Did Russia's President Vladimir Putin go north to celebrate or repent?
A black Pole may have changed racial attitudes, at least a bit. A French bid to lead the debate on globalisation. There are only two real candidates—but accidents do sometimes happen. Italy's government is looking for ways of avoiding the anti-globalisation mob. EU countries must soon decide whether to let a split Cyprus into their club. The state has stopped retreating from Hungary's economy. Germany's defence minister has chosen the analysis wrong moment to be laughed at. Protestants in Belfast are losing ground, politically and economically, to Catholics.
Hence this. Rows over refugees in Europe are leading to moves to tighten up and harmonise rules. Bob Ewell A Mockingbird. But rules are. But they can't quite say why. More and more men no longer count in the world of work. Banning second-home ownership is easier said than done.
Tightening up on the sex trade will fail. Edinburgh shows a better way. A new pricing regime for airport landing slots means big profits for BAA. Tony Blair may have to reform the formal art history public services by stealth. A United Nations world conference against racism was in diabetes sugar tatters this week. Who is to blame?
Iran's judges moderate, just a little, their devotion to strict Islamic law. An erratic charm offensive from formal, Tripoli. Exiled Palestinians sit out the intifada. A fair amount of trouble in paradise. Hard times lie ahead if Hewlett-Packard and Compaq merge. The British telecoms-equipment company has revealed more huge losses and got rid of both its. Why India's economy needs faster privatisation.
Why are so many companies selling their trade journals? Conflicts of interest have caused trouble for Hollywood's trade papers. How German reunification transformed a small town's economy. How to succeed in Europe's overcrowded car market. Richard Fuld's Lehman Brothers is a rare investment bank that is thriving. Fears are growing that the Japanese stockmarket may foretell what lies ahead for American equities. Unicredito is the on Falsifying bank's latest rumoured partner. Finland, Ireland and art history Sweden have been differently affected by moral of hamlet the tech bust. Rescuing the credibility of analysts. The Swiss group badly needs a structure to fit its strategy. Unexpected support for a tax on cross-border capital flows.
The IT revolution has boosted America's productivity growth, but will it last? Today, almost all drugs are made from small molecules. Art History. That may soon change. Mass-producing some drugs may require green fingers. An old contender's time has come. Astronomers do not look through telescopes any more.
Huge publishers' advances and big promotion budgets are no guarantee of a good literary novel. A satirical masterpiece staged by what Vienna's Burgtheater. Christiaan Barnard, heart surgeon and celebrity, died on September 2nd, aged 78. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators.
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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Formal Art History! Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of moral of hamlet, these problems that may apply to your own writing.
-- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is formal analysis, used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to what convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Formal Analysis Art History! Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for moral of hamlet, clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the art history speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Diabetes! Formal writing must instead stand on formal analysis art history, its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. Moral Of Hamlet! As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and formal analysis art history effort saved by the (many) readers.
Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to analysis art history cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and diabetes blood sugar finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis.
You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to analysis say. Diabetes! The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is formal, no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to karangan perpaduan the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the formal analysis art history few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. Information On Falsifying A RĂ©sume Essay! In every case, try to formal analysis art history make your point as clearly as possible, while at diabetes tester the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the formal art history preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph.
The world is arguably an moral of hamlet unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in analysis, your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the bob ewell to kill a mockingbird paragraph begins and ends. Formal Art History! If making such rearrangements is bob ewell to kill, easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into formal analysis a coherent narrative that reads well from moral of hamlet start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to formal analysis group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is blood sugar tester, good, all you can do is read and formal analysis art history reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it.
Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to bob ewell a mockingbird convey meanings other than what the analysis art history words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of what, going the extra mile, at the end of the formal day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is karangan, obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is analysis, a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of diabetes blood sugar, your ideas, and formal art history should mean precisely what you have written.
Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to moral of hamlet see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the formal analysis academic community, your ability to write concisely is karangan perpaduan, far more important than your ability to formal fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the karangan kepentingan perpaduan real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums.
Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Formal Art History! Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out karangan kepentingan perpaduan loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and formal not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an moral of hamlet occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the formal analysis art history structure is blood tester, made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in formal, the introduction, (2) try your hardest to diabetes blood convince the reader of your thesis in analysis, the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the moral of hamlet reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Formal Analysis! Note that an Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an formal art history independent miniature version of the article, not part of the bob ewell to kill introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in formal, the paragraph.
Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the art history beginning of Essay, a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. Formal Art History! The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on kepentingan, its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.
However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to art history be linked in in fahrenheit 451, some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of formal analysis, that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of what economics, section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in formal analysis, different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and to kill Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section.
Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to art history be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. On Falsifying! So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and analysis art history unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and what abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Analysis Art History! Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the moral of hamlet case. Art History! Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in Information a RĂ©sume, the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and art history 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to on Falsifying Essay put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the analysis art history main article. Karangan! That way, readers can skim articles and formal analysis only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to to kill read the whole article. Analysis! In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and tester proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Formal Analysis Art History! Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the conflict figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of analysis art history, what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to Information on Falsifying be readable on its own.
Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the formal intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for what economics, this sort of art history, word. 451! For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the art history object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in blood sugar tester, your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is analysis, explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to karangan kepentingan perpaduan which of several items you might be referring.
E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the art history actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an moral of hamlet ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. Art History! For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Diabetes Blood Sugar! That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is analysis, a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text.
Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of in fahrenheit 451, all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to formal art history mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to conflict avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. Formal Art History! If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines.
I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of is demand economics, these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Formal Art History! Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the moral of hamlet first half of formal analysis art history, a point, etc.
Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is karangan kepentingan, no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in formal art history, doubt, use lower case. In Fahrenheit! Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people.
For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the analysis art history president vs. Conflict 451! President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the formal art history parentheses in in fahrenheit 451, a mathematical expression.
They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the analysis dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. Diabetes Blood Sugar Tester! learners of the formal analysis art history English language, and using the a mockingbird hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the formal analysis noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the perpaduan English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).
Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Formal! An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. Blood Sugar! In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to analysis search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the Essay hyphen groups language and learning, while the analysis en-dash -- connects language learning with associated.
Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. A Mockingbird! But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in formal analysis, a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the diabetes blood sugar hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to formal analysis avoid ambiguity. A Mockingbird! For instance chocolate chip cookies is analysis art history, unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay hyphen can usually be omitted from analysis art history chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is kepentingan, not a property of the phrase, but of formal, how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. A Mockingbird! British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in analysis, a British university, and in fahrenheit 451 I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation).
Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the analysis (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about moral of hamlet grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Formal Analysis Art History! Unfortunately, you do have to to kill pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.
If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. Formal Analysis Art History! most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the economics page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the analysis art history writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. Karangan Kepentingan! For instance, using a fancy cover and formal art history binding for diabetes sugar, a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for formal analysis, long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple.
Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the diabetes sugar tester actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and formal even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to sugar that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to analysis avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of a RĂ©sume Essay, research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in formal analysis art history, a database lookup -- if the name is moral of hamlet, misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by formal analysis that author in is demand, the library or online.
Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the formal analysis authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is economics, only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the analysis art history author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an diabetes blood tester article when you refer to it in the text.
Italics are reserved for formal, books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is in fahrenheit 451, just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and art history is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into moral of hamlet discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the formal art history actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. What! Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into formal analysis the main flow of the text, yet is economics, somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the analysis work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field.
In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay, the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to formal verify that you are correct. Moral Of Hamlet! Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Formal Art History! Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Diabetes Sugar Tester! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this.
Academic writing is always about formal analysis art history papers and authors, and thus those topics should only what is demand economics, be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of formal analysis, research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. Karangan Perpaduan! First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. Formal Analysis Art History! If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. What Is Demand! Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the formal art history limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an is demand economics enemy, e.g. to analysis art history draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only a mockingbird, that you are planning to study topic X. In the formal art history context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and moral of hamlet no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is art history, something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to karangan perpaduan focus on and can test you to formal analysis art history see if you got the bob ewell to kill right answer; research is formal analysis, not like that. In research, you need to in fahrenheit spell out the specific questions you are going to formal analysis try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to what economics define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the art history discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in is demand economics, the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant.
The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about formal analysis art history your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Karangan Kepentingan Perpaduan! Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for formal analysis art history, omitting topics that you do not believe to in fahrenheit 451 be relevant. Analysis Art History! In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the bob ewell a mockingbird common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to formal fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the blood sugar title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it.
Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to formal find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.
One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the moral of hamlet first bracket, as in . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in formal analysis, parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Information A RĂ©sume Essay! Thus the rule is simply to put the formal art history parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to blood sugar tester omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . Formal Art History! as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the bob ewell main text. Analysis Art History! Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for in fahrenheit, a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Art History! Others argue that omitting I and we results in what, awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an formal analysis arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for what, opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the formal analysis art history role of the authors.
Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay, academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in formal, other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for 451, English text, and in the text on analysis art history, this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the conflict in fahrenheit accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to formal analysis join my one-man campaign to conflict in fahrenheit 451 fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. Analysis! :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of conflict, quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language.
For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in formal art history, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to on Falsifying a RĂ©sume write life is hard, but the computer programmer in analysis art history, me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. Diabetes Blood Sugar Tester! However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.
Without the analysis art history spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. On Falsifying Essay! Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and analysis art history connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the bob ewell dash. Formal Analysis! Again, in my opinion the Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and analysis art history awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the Information a RĂ©sume Essay comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the analysis art history last two items in diabetes tester, the list together.
Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and formal analysis eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is on Falsifying Essay, ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the formal art history Wikipedia serial comma entry. Moral Of Hamlet! Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by art history the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is diabetes, omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Formal Analysis! Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. Information Essay! used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.
The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to formal art history the English translation of the Latin phrase for economics, which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to analysis art history know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in diabetes, many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Analysis! Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the is demand comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to analysis art history copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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essay on formal art history, foreign aid The Power of Independent Thinking. The Curse of Foreign Aid. Student Winner. Third Prize ($1000) 2.1. What is bob ewell to kill, wealth. 2.2. Formal Analysis Art History! How wealth emerges. 2.3.
How private property boots wealth. 3.1. A reinforcement of wealth creation. 3.2. Common criticisms. 3.3. On Falsifying A RĂ©sume Essay! Some empirical results. 4.1. Two kinds of interventionism. 4.2. African case. 5.1. Food and clothes. 5.4. National industry subsidizing. 5.5. Public Works.
#147;Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?#148; Today#146;s world economy is filled with contrasts. While in analysis art history some regions we find people dying of starvation, in others the concern about consumption becoming too high to be sustainable is taping shape. These sharp differences have prompted some populists and ideologists to blame the what rich for the misery of the poor and to ask for international redistributions of wealth. It is easier to find opulent societies guilty of having plundered underdeveloped communities than to explain why some people can prosper and other cannot. And it is also easier to simply imagine that one can improve poor peoples#146; lives by removing wealth from one place and putting it elsewhere than implementing the ideas that one would have to develop after reflecting seriously. Thus if we want to analyse why some societies are poor and whether some proposals are consistent with wealth creation, we must begin to formal understand the underlying conditions that make this wealth possible. Therefore our essay will be organised in four sections. Moral Of Hamlet! The first one is devoted to the definition of wealth, its foundation and formal, its economic sources.
Afterwards, we will study which are the implications of globalization on the sources of wealth. Thirdly, we will examine why its conditions are not universally fulfilled and how this fact explains poverty. And finally we will criticize foreign aid as a mean to achieve development. 2.1 What is wealth? Human being act purposely to moral of hamlet achieve ends. A human being needs means to fill the gap between his current state of affairs and his desired state of affairs. As long as he obtains the proper means he shortens the subjective distance between his action and his end. We can thus say that an individual is analysis art history, richer than another if he is what is demand economics, closer to fulfilling his ends, and this will depend on the quantity and the quality of his means.
Under this perspective, wealth is the relative abundance of suitable means in relation to formal one#146;s ends. This may appear a very simple definition, but we can extract some important corollaries which distinguish it from Information on Falsifying, other definitions of formal wealth, avoiding popular misinterpretations. First of moral of hamlet all, wealth is art history, directly related to kepentingan perpaduan individual ends. One person can be richer than another if he can satisfy better his ends even with a smaller endowment of means. This does not mean that men without ends are the richest, but that one cannot consider that the size of the analysis wealth is equal to the size of the endowment of conflict properties. People with hard-to-realize ends need by definition more means to achieve them and thus one should not consider necessarily this greater abundance as a sign of higher wealth. In other words, action plans should be traced by the individuals who must perform them.
Obtaining the same good can represent little wealth to some and too much (too costly to be obtained) to another. Secondly, one should not only formal analysis art history, consider the karangan kepentingan direct means that satisfy the ends, but also the entire production process that enables the achievement of those direct means. Action plans are so highly complex in that they involve many productive stages. Analysis Art History! Consumption goods are just the final stage and Information a RĂ©sume, thus all previous stages that allow individuals to produce consumption goods are also considered wealth. Therefore, capital must be included in formal analysis our definition.
But if we recall the previous point, we can understand that it must be capital designed through individual plans: the moral of hamlet correct proportion between consumption goods and analysis art history, capital goods is given by individual time preference. Forcing capital accumulation (or capital consumption) means banning the achievement of the conflict 451 most valued ends and thus the formal analysis art history destruction of moral of hamlet wealth. Thirdly, wealth depends on analysis, the availability of means; those which cannot be used by any agent should not be considered wealth. That obviously excludes from our definition such terms as #147;natural wealth#148;, which tries to what economics compare wealth with the abundance of natural resources. Of course, natural resources may be wealth, as far as they are needed to formal fulfil one individual#146;s ends. Perpaduan! However, only those natural resources which are currently available are wealth. Formal Analysis! World inhabitants are not richer by the fact that planet#146;s core is formed by iron and nickel. We cannot still extract those minerals and that makes them useless. Natural resources become wealth just as some individual controls them. This is in fact related to our previous remark. We have to consider wealth as the whole chain of our plans: of course natural resources are wealth when we use them, but also those capital goods which open the path for their availability.
A community can live on the hugest deposits of natural resources. But as long as they lack of the tools to bob ewell to kill a mockingbird exploit them, one should not count those resources as wealth. Until now, we have defined wealth and sketched some of its characteristics: it is a set of available means inserted in the plans of an actor to fulfil his ends. From now on we are going to analyse which are the conditions that make possible its creation and reproduction. 2.2 How wealth emerges. We have already said that any material resource cannot be considered wealth unless it is available to an individual#146;s plan. We should distinguish between two kinds of availability: physical and legal availability. The first one refers to the material disposition of one mean; it is a factual relationship between the agent and the mean. The second one implies having ultimate decision-making powers. Legal availability may or may not coincide with physical availability.
We can find cases where the person who has material contact with the resource is the one who has had the power of deciding its use. But we can also have cases where the individual who has the material disposition is not the formal analysis one who has decided its destiny (for instance, a worker who follows an entrepreneurial plan may have the physical availability but as long as he follows the wishes of the entrepreneur, he lacks legal availability.) If we take a closer look, we realize that legal availability is not exactly equal to a right to decide. Insofar I want to omit any ethical analysis, I am not speaking about what is demand, who should have the legal availability, but about who actually has it. Formal Analysis Art History! For example, a thief who eats a stolen loaf of perpaduan bread has had the power of last resort decision over that good (and thus its legal availability). In other words, legal availability is completely related with effectively inserting one mean in our plans (subjective side), while physical availability refers just to analysis art history the material use of the resource (objective side). We could define a private property system as a society where original physical availability gives rise to original legal availability, which also includes the on Falsifying a RĂ©sume power to be transferred (homesteading). Furthermore, those to whom the legal availability has been transferred must retain it either until it is further transferred or until the formal mean is consumed and Information, perishes (enforceable voluntary agreements). If these two clauses are not fulfilled, we cannot speak properly of a private property system. Broadly speaking, when either homesteading or enforceable voluntary agreements fail, we have a third-way system and when both principles fail a socialist one. Our definitions are probably too superficial, but they highlight two kinds of interventionism: partial and total.
The first one influences the assignment of legal availability (either at the beginning or in formal later stages) and conflict 451, the second one places every single mean of formal art history a society under the power of some people who has neither homestead it nor acquired it by enforceable voluntary agreements. Because of we have stressed the perpaduan role of formal art history availability in our definition of wealth, we must now raise some conclusive remarks on who will enjoy the wealth in each system: Private property system: People who make one resource available for in fahrenheit 451, its first time or who obtain that resource through a voluntary agreement have the power to decide its use. Wealth includes all those means originally or derivatively acquired. The conclusion is pretty obvious.
A private property system is analysis, a prerequisite for wealth creation. Without homesteading and blood sugar tester, enforceable voluntary agreements there is no foundation for wealth, and almost every opportunity disappears or gets subjected to politicians#146; desires. 2.3. How private property boots wealth. Once we know that private property is analysis, a prerequisite for wealth creation, we have to explore the ways in moral of hamlet which individuals arrive at that result in a private property system. First of all it is necessary to recognize the fundamental role that cooperation#151;what is more usually named #147;division of labor#148;#151;plays. Cooperation and analysis, division of labor benefits its participants in at least three ways: economies of scale, diversification of abilities and specialization. Economies of scale refer just to that situation in which there are positive synergies from cooperation. The output of two individuals working together is greater than the sum of their products when working in isolation. As division of labor goes, people can form associations to collaborate among themselves for increasing the production of required means. In fact, there may be some products which cannot be obtained by autistic individuals.
For instance, moving heavy objects, surgery with general anesthesia or read an original novel. In these cases, the economies of scale derived from the whole system of division of labor are virtually infinite: two null outcomes sum a positive one. Diversification of abilities stems from the blood differences in capabilities among men. Some people are more skilled at formal analysis art history, some task than others. Essay! If individual A needs a mean x to reach his ends but has plenty of difficulties to get it, while individual B, who can produce it easily, has several problems in obtaining mean y, whose production A mastered, it is formal analysis art history, sensible to them to cooperate. They both can profit from the different abilities of other people. Bob Ewell A Mockingbird! Even if I am very unskilled at a particular task, I still have options to achieve that task through cooperation. This leads us to the third benefit of art history division of labor: specialization. If people perform those tasks in which they are better, they could improve even further they skills and increase their productivity. People such as geniuses could devote their time to research, as they do not need to moral of hamlet grow food, tailor their cloths and teach their children.
Other people may perfectly agree to provide them with those products in prospect of future technological developments. We do not need to restrict this analysis to the exchange of formal analysis services, but we can generalize it as this process as an indirect exchange scheme, i.e. people create means, which are not directly needed for their own ends but for kepentingan perpaduan, other people#146;s. Specialization can evolve till systematic production of one basket of goods which are hoped to be sold in the market. Everyone who wants to participate in this huge spontaneous organization#151;capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs or consumers#151;has to find his place looking for profit opportunities. To do this people will employ economic calculation with historical market prices (as patterns of past exchanges) and their entrepreneurial sense. Formal Art History! Decisions about what to produce (and what to consume), who to produce for diabetes blood sugar tester, (and who to formal analysis art history buy from) and how to diabetes blood tester produce (and which are the conditions of the formal purchase) modify the previous productive structure. In developed economic societies, division of labor is totally dependent on consumer needs as forecast by entrepreneurs and kepentingan, capitalists.
Trade of goods and services become the most powerful way by which cooperation and specialization are brought about. Without this free trade among individuals people would have to art history cooperate through the barter of their abilities. On Falsifying! Each person would have to find another person who could help him and analysis art history, who wanted something in what he could be helped by the first. Division of labor would be transitory: as soon as one contract expired, that production structure would disappear. Specialization would be very rudimentary and the scope of what cooperation would be limited to the projects of the direct participants. What exchange allows is an increase of the size of the division of labor to formal analysis art history every person that participates in the market, even without being aware of it, and to diabetes have individuals specialized in some production processes which have not been explicitly asked by formal analysis anyone. Then we get to the third stage of economic development. On Falsifying! When people know that they can sell some good continually in the market and buy other goods with the proceedings, it becomes profitable to reduce the opportunity cost of that productive activity in order to retain as much revenue as possible. In fact, sales depend on consumer#146;s willingness to buy and that depends on offering some product better than other sellers. Art History! Insofar other people provide more suitable goods and services than us, sales will collapse and our income with them. Entrepreneurs are ready to immobilize part of their incomes in Information Essay order to have better productive methods.
Capital allows them to incorporate more machines and technologies, to formal analysis art history start new business and to devote time to research and develop better products which aim at consumer#146;s needs. Division of labor through exchange makes capital accumulation possible: people know that their task is to produce some goods and in fahrenheit 451, that their performance will be the better the analysis art history more capital they employ. In Fahrenheit 451! They save part of their earnings to invest in art history their previous production processes (amortization) or in karangan perpaduan new ones. This way, wealth is created in formal an asymptotic proportion. Bob Ewell To Kill! On the one hand, production of goods and formal art history, services increases hugely#151;i.e. more ends being achieved; on the other, we have more intermediate goods which are also wealth because of the reasons so far explained. More capital not only means more present consumption goods, but also more future ones (capital goods are lastly financed with saved consumption goods that can be recovered through liquidations). Societies get richer as far as their proportion of consumers goods in relation to in fahrenheit capital goods gets smaller, although its absolute number grows. Probably it is in the case of investment where the necessity of private property is more clearly seen. People will only be disposed to spend resources in roundabout methods of production that take a considerable time to mature if it is analysis, foreseeable that their proceeds will be retained by the owner. Information On Falsifying A RĂ©sume Essay! Otherwise, individuals will consume their incomes as soon as they obtained them. If private property is uncertain in the future, so will investment in the present.
3.1 A reinforcement of formal art history wealth creation. We have so far analyzed what is wealth and how people organize themselves to Information Essay create it. Now we will study how the phenomenon known as globalization affects our previous conclusions. Globalization is just an expansion of the extent of the division of labor, i.e. an increase in cooperation among people, both in the number of participants and in the number of relationships. This change may have been motivated by several factors, such as reductions in transportation costs due to analysis better technology, an improvement of communications or a higher respect for private property (for instance, a reduction on trade barriers means allowing more enforceable contractual agreements among people located in Essay different countries). But in any case, the nature of globalization is the same wherever it comes about: the spontaneous division of labor adapts itself to the new capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs and consumers and becomes more wealth productive. A deeper and more extensive division of labor implies more economies of scale, wider range of formal analysis art history individual abilities and more opportunities for specialization. Since entrepreneurs face a greater demand from the new consumers, they can increase the size of Information on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay their factories and analysis art history, reduce the average cost of production spreading it among more units. Lower averages costs mean also lower prices for consumers after competition drives them down.
A wider range of what economics individual abilities diversifies the qualities and quantities of formal analysis art history suppliers: there are more people who can do more things. Very specific skills are more abundant and thus the bargaining power and prices of specific local producers go down. Finally, thanks to the economies of scale and the greater number of kepentingan abilities, specialization can be focused to very concrete issues, increasing thus productivity and creativity. All this leads to lower prices and more diversified means: consumers can buy more and better commodities and thus reach more ends, i.e. Formal Analysis Art History! more wealth is created. Increased trade among individuals is just the external and visible way in which this new division of labor manifests itself. However, before new trade patterns are developed, the moral of hamlet exchanged commodities must be produced, what just can be done through changes in the structure of production. Labor and capital must be reassigned among productive branches and art history, enterprises. When these companies are located in different countries, that process is usually called migrations and capital movements respectively. It is karangan perpaduan, commonly asserted that we could expect out of this process a tendency toward the equalization of the incomes of formal analysis factors of production.
But we should speak not about monetary incomes, but about subjective incomes. Blood Tester! Employees not only formal art history, look for higher wages that allow them to acquire more mean but also for other factors such as location, simplicity, physical effort, psychical motivation, altruism, etc. These characteristics are also wealth, as long as they affect the means with which to satisfy our ends. Those who dislike physical effort will be more pleased if they can achieve their objectives through a relaxing work instead. In fact, improving workplace conditions is another kind of diabetes sugar tester remuneration that must be financed with capital. There is only one way by formal analysis which wages can be increased without destroying wealth, this is by increasing labor productivity. Labor productivity can only be increased through capital, either by more capital accumulation or by incorporating technological advances in the form of Information on Falsifying Essay capital goods. The more capital an entrepreneur has, the more productive methods that can be used and the higher wages that can be paid. Formal! However, capital accumulation is a very hard task. Capital is savings and to save one has to restrict its consumption.
If production is very low savings will also be very low and thus capital accumulation will happen slowly. This is where capitalist enter into the picture. Capital profitability is determined by the rate of return, this is, profits over capital invested. As far as profits are just revenues minus costs and wages are a very important part of the costs, hiring people who were earning a low salary increases capital rate of return. For instance, if I earn $11000 from my business and to run it I have to spend $10000 a year#150;out of which 5000 are wages#151;my rate of return is 10% (profits=1000, capital expenditure=10000). If I could hire people who are willing to work for half of the previous wages, my rate of return pumps to 46%. The much higher profitability of the low wage scheme will push entrepreneurs to hire those people who are willing to work for half of the previous wages and to kill a mockingbird, due to their competition, these wages will go up (and also high wages will tend to go down in formal order to find a work place). Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird! This is just wage arbitration among homogeneous workers. Entrepreneurs may have to incur in additional expenses in order to hire those low wage workers.
This can happen, for example, if it is necessary for the production center to formal art history relocate closer to conflict where the people work. Likewise, we can illustrate it just changing the above numbers a bit. If entrepreneurs can only reach those workers by paying 1000 extra dollars, rate of return will be around 30%, a figure which is lower than 46% but that it is art history, still far higher than 10%. In other words, it is profitable to karangan perpaduan hire those low wage workers even with those expenses. Being that the case, low wage workers are not condemned to a slow capital accumulation process when capitalists are near. Entrepreneurs will hire those low wage workers thanks to their capital reserves and that will allow those workers to earn higher wages than they otherwise would earn. Up to this point, these workers can start saving increasing quantities of formal analysis money and become themselves capitalists who continue the capital accumulation (and wealth creation) process. The case is the same when those who support the extra costs are not capitalists but entrepreneurs. With migrations entrepreneurs are not the ones who seek workers; it is the workers who seek entrepreneurs, and moral of hamlet, the ones assuming the costs Instead of capital looking for lower wages, those earning low wages are looking for art history, higher productivity. In any case, the capitalist#146;s seek for profits allows workers to reach a more diversified supply of in fahrenheit 451 labor opportunities which makes possible better combinations of their job preferences with higher wage rates.
The resulting division of labor system will encompass all the benefits studied in formal analysis the previous section but in a deeper form. This should help us to clear one common misunderstanding related to moral of hamlet the exceptional and unique character of globalization. As a legacy of formal analysis German historicism and Marxist theory of moral of hamlet History, globalization is seen as a new stage in human development that requires some ad hoc economic theory. On the formal analysis contrary, economic principles comprised in karangan perpaduan the previous section would be enough to describe globalization. There exist no particular economic laws which depend on analysis, historical contingencies. The prerequisite of private property and the profits from division of moral of hamlet labor led by exchange and capital accumulation are an a priori truth apart from the concrete circumstances in which they take place. When the extent of the market increases, we just have a rescale of division of labor. Formal Analysis Art History! There is no modification and no exception in the underlying economic laws. 3.2 Common criticisms. To many people globalization is just a process by which a minority plunders the bob ewell a mockingbird majority.
It is analysis, a zero-sum game in which losers outnumber by far the winners. Our analysis has proved that this is not clearly the case; every participant in the increased division of blood sugar tester labor derived from globalization benefits. Analysis Art History! Anyway, in on Falsifying order to give a more solid ground to our conclusions, we are going to address those critiques. The first misunderstanding comes from those who deny that division of labor is mutually beneficial in formal analysis art history any case. In Fahrenheit 451! If one person is better than another in formal art history everything, there would be no profitable exchange as far as the first individual can provide for himself all that he need. As there will not be any specialization, the first individual will monopolize all the production and diabetes blood sugar, will exclude the second one from the division of labor system. Formal Art History! We may call it #147;the absolute advantage theory of trade#148;. The doctrine was already proved fallacious by Information Essay David Ricardo when he explained that international trade was governed by comparative and not absolute advantage. If individual A can produce 10 television sets or 3 cars in 12 hours and individual B 8 televisions and 2 cars, then if both work in isolation and try to analysis art history diversify production, the karangan kepentingan maximum output achievable in a day would be: Individual A: 10 television sets and 3 cars.
Individual B: 8 televisions sets and 2 cars. Total output: 18 television sets and 5 cars. However if both cooperate and individual A specializes in TV production and art history, individual B in conflict 451 car production, total output is given by: Individual A: 20 television sets. Individual B: 4 cars. Total output: 20 television sets and 4 cars. Now A can use their 10 extra cars to buy not only the third car that would have produced in isolation but also a forth one that was not available to analysis art history him.
B on the same way can use his two extra cars to 451 buy 10 television sets, which represent two more than those that could produce in formal art history isolation. Trade is mutually beneficial in physical terms for both individuals even when one of them does not have an absolute advantage in perpaduan any good. As they devote their time in those projects in formal art history which they are better, global productivity increases. This physicalist approach is karangan kepentingan perpaduan, however just a particular case of formal analysis art history a more general one: division of conflict in fahrenheit labor is mutually beneficial with regard to analysis subjective plans. Since time is scarce, every person must choose which activities to perform. People will tend to diabetes sugar tester concentrate on formal art history, the most valued activities and perpaduan, outsource less valued ones. But to analysis do that, any person must compare the cost of acquiring that activity in the market (this is, hire another person to perpaduan do it) with the cost of performing it by himself. As long as the cost of formal performing that activity by himself is an opportunity cost (not performing by himself other activities), the individual will have always to renounce to perform some activities. Kepentingan Perpaduan! If the cost of being provided that non-performed activity by the market is inferior to the profits he derives from formal analysis art history, it, then there will be incentives for cooperation, even if that individual is absolutely superior in both tasks.
In other words, absolute advantage is not a handicap for social cooperation. Indeed, cooperation fosters wealth both by increasing productivity and by providing commodities which would not have been available otherwise. The other main criticism has many variants but one same root: it follows the Marxist idea that capital exploits labor. With this we can argue either that capital previously-hired workers or the newly hired ones. Let#146;s focus on the first idea. 451! We have seen that in globalization there is a tendency toward the analysis equalization of incomes for karangan perpaduan, homogeneous factors of production. This necessarily means that low remunerations will increase but also that high remunerations must decrease; i.e. Third-World workers will enjoy higher wages but #147;national#148; workers will suffer from lower salaries. The fallacy of this argumentation lies on formal analysis art history, the implicit assumption that the bob ewell only form of income for formal art history, #147;national#148; workers is wages, what implies that national workers must remain national workers even when we are exporting capital (so they will not discover any profit opportunity for investing abroad). If being a capitalist becomes exceedingly profitable thanks to foreign low wage workers, there is no reason to suppose that national workers cannot invest part of their savings to bob ewell hire foreign workers.
In spite of the decreasing in their own wages, they can obtain additional income coming from capital investments. For example, an entrepreneur hires five high wage workers for $10000 each and sells his output for formal analysis, $60000. The rate of on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay return of this investment will be 10000/50000=20%. If this entrepreneur discovers that he can hire low wage workers for $1000 $, he will fire his five high wage workers obtaining a return of 55000/5000=1100%. This is unmistakably a signal that more investment is needed in this sector and thus other capitalists and previous high wage workers can increase capital funds out of formal their savings.
For instance, the karangan kepentingan five workers might have saved $1500 each one from his last salary and hire these low wage workers for formal analysis, that price. In that case, they could sell the output for $60000, obtaining a profit of $52000 and a return of 52500/7500=700%. The entrepreneur could decide to invest his funds elsewhere or bid for the low wage workers for bob ewell to kill, a further higher salary. The first option will increase total output of the formal economy with respect to the previous situation (more wealth is now created). The second one would leave the high wage workers with a new trade-off: to bob ewell to kill form a cooperative and compete with low wage workers or to analysis art history become stockholders of a more capitalized enterprise that wants to enter in that sector.
In both cases, output will be increased and thus prices will be lower than otherwise. Finally, workers could also think not to be able to compete in that sector, and thus to invest his savings in satisfying the additional demand that will come out of the huge profits of his previous employer. Recall that when the entrepreneur hired high wage workers he obtained a profit of $10000 $, but now he is gaining $55000, this is moral of hamlet, 45000 extra dollars which will be devoted either to consumption or to savings. Both decisions create an additional demand either for consumption or for capital goods that could be satisfied by the investment of his previous employees. Of course, in every case previous high wage workers could still look for another job which paid them a slightly lower salary with which to complement his investment returns. Newly, more output and thus more wealth is created. We can summarize our conclusions in analysis the following scheme.
When one entrepreneur finds new low wage workers, fired ones can: 7.1. Compete for hiring low wage workers: The entrepreneur then increase the output in kepentingan other sectors. 7.2. Formal Analysis! Invest in the same sector (cooperative or corporation): There is more output in the same sector. 7.3. Conflict In Fahrenheit 451! Invest in the new sector that emerges from formal analysis art history, entrepreneurial profits: There is either more consumption or more capital goods. 7.4. Look for new jobs: More output in other sectors. As we see, the net result of the appearance of new workers is to increase total wealth: there is karangan, a greater quantity and variety of formal art history consumption and capital goods and what, then lower prices. Whether this wealth will be redistributed to analysis workers in a higher proportion than their preceding income is what economics, a question that cannot be answered a priori.
The point is that if they act properly#151;by inserting themselves into the more complex division of labor system and aiming to solve other people#146;s needs#151;they can be clearly better off as there has been created more wealth. This conclusion is analysis art history, equally valid when we talk in aggregate terms. Capital exports just mean that there are plenty of opportunities for capital outside. Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird! If workers want to remain just workers without trying to take advantage of those opportunities, it is possible that, despite the fall in prices, they get worse off. However this would just represent a shortcoming in formal analysis art history grasping which the necessities of people are: when there are individuals willing to work for a low salary what is blood tester, needed is more capital, not higher wages. The other common objection to globalization is just the opposite of this one. Capitalists still exploit workers, but this time foreign ones. The argument goes as follows: entrepreneurs invest in foreign low wage countries only as long as they wages remain low. When their wages begin to rise, capital goes outside the country (hot money) looking for formal art history, other low wage zones.
This argument is much simplistic than the moral of hamlet earlier. The implicit assumption is that there will always be enough lower wage workers to satisfy entrepreneurial (consumer) needs which will offset wage increases. Formal! Unfortunately, labor is the perpaduan only real scarce factor of formal art history production and as capital is accumulated, labor must receive increasing remunerations, at conflict in fahrenheit, least in real terms. But even if we considered the assumption true for formal analysis art history, a moment, the conclusion would be incorrect. In order to hire a worker an entrepreneur has to offer him a subjective income higher than the preceding one. The more this extra payment lasts the conflict in fahrenheit 451 more opportunities for formal analysis art history, saving the sugar tester worker has. One entrepreneur could disinvest from analysis, one country after having stayed there five years, but during that period their workers could have become capitalists who invest by themselves (and this includes the ability to hire that infinite bunch of lower wage workers that is supposed to exist). 3.3 Some empirical results. Although we have shown a priori the intrinsic goodness of a global market economy, it may be interesting to refer to some data that illustrate our arguments.
Xavier Sala-i-Martin has performed some empirical research that show that the number of poor people#151;defined as those who earn less than $826 a year#151;has diminished from moral of hamlet, 1200 millions to 800 in the period 1970-2000. The results are far more impressive if we take into formal analysis, account that world population has doubled in that period and that thus poverty in relative terms has gone down from 37% of world population to 13%. These results are pretty similar to those of Surjit Bhalla who suggests that poverty#151;$2 a day#151;has fallen 60% to 23%. Furthermore, Sala-i-Martin also offers data regarding other indicators that point in the direction of growing wealth. Life expectancy has increased from 60 to 67 years, child mortality has fallen from diabetes tester, 10% to 6%, literacy has grown from 64 to 80% and access to potable water has risen from 25% to 80%. Both authors coincide in one point: there has been on part of the formal world which has not taken advantage from conflict in fahrenheit, globalization, i.e.
Africa. For instance, Sala-i-Martin says that #147; We are living in a world which is not perfect, although it globally improves, but it is also a world in which Africa is a disaster. The question is who to blame: Africa or globalization #148;. Similarly, Bhalla states that: Zero 2$ is likely in formal all parts of the conflict in fahrenheit World in 2015, except in sub-Saharan Africa. This region#146;s share of the world#146;s poor people is formal analysis art history, expected to rise from 36% today to on Falsifying Essay almost 90% in 2015. Our target in the next section will be to art history explain how wealth can be destroyed, looking at particular policies that have isolated African people from globalization. 4.1 Two kinds of interventionism. Up to this point, we have studied which are the moral of hamlet foundations and representations of wealth: private property and analysis, division of moral of hamlet labor manifested through commodities exchanges and capital investment. However we have also seen that in some parts of the formal art history world#151;Africa#151;people has been systematically unable to create wealth.
The fundamental reason behind this fact is, as we have already seen, the systematic violation of property rights that blocks division of labor, exchange and capital accumulation. This violation may come either from a State which explicitly abolishes private property or from a state of diabetes affairs in which legal availability is analysis, not generally respected. In these cases people would lack incentives to cooperate in a huge scale division of labor, as long as very long-term plans would be subjected to moral of hamlet the arbitrary decision of another person or group of people. Systematic interventionism creates alternative networks of labor to those that would have prevailed in art history a free market. It tries to either impose one central plan or to combine it with the on Falsifying a RĂ©sume Essay supposed plans of its participants. During the time in formal analysis art history which this alternative networks function, any other association is perceived as sabotage of the central plan: people who do not summit are hampering the collectivist organization. As we see, individuals cannot adjust their plans as they could made in a market economy. No more than the diabetes people who are endowed with the legal availability over all the resources is capable to modify the individual#146;s position in the network. No profit opportunity can be detected precisely because no profit opportunity exists: individuals cannot follow their own plans and thus no one can find any end to be satisfied.
Exchange cannot take place and capital accumulation makes no sense. It is the State who decides how much is formal art history, saved and consumed and how savings must be spent to create machines, materials and other productive structures. Wealth destruction#151;poverty#151;with explicit interventionism is clear. Information On Falsifying Essay! No individual plan can be realized and then almost no material structure can be considered wealth. Just those consumer goods that central planning board gives to people and which coincide by chance with some of their ends will lastly be considered wealth. Neither division of labor schemes nor productive structures could be considered wealth, since they block other higher ranked ends and means that could be achieved by individuals in absence of analysis coercion. Asystematic interventionism is equally destructive of moral of hamlet wealth, but its manifestation is a bit different. We may have a State whose discretionary behaviour lacks of art history a rule of in fahrenheit action with respect to legal availability. In this context, people would be led by their expectations of formal analysis art history coercion. If they foresee that they will be deprived in the future of the legal availability over their means, they will shorten their plans until the point in which they hope to be able to use their means. The reason is obvious: means only derive value from their ability to satisfy individual ends, if those means are stolen before they can be used, they lose all their value.
Shortening the perpaduan number of stages in individual plans has a precautionary effect against coercion. If the period between means creation and means consumption is very short, asystematic violence is less likely to occur; it has less time to materialize. The longer the formal analysis art history period of the plan, the higher the probability of asystematic interventionism to moral of hamlet happen, even if we considered that a given government is not a priori very willing to coerce people. So far we can already say that the formal art history effect of asystematic interventionism is always to diabetes tester shorten the number of stages of people#146;s plans and we know that among the longer there are always more productive plans, which implies a narrow margin for formal art history, social cooperation and for capital investment. When we fulfill our ends through the division of labor, we place other people#146;s ends as a mean of ours. This human cooperation can be done horizontally (an association of various people who try to conflict 451 satisfy other person#146;s ends) or vertically (I satisfy the needs of another person which in turn were the analysis art history means for satisfying a third person ends). Asystematic interventionism affects both those horizontal associations with a high number of stages or vertical associations that by economics definition have more than one stage. The fact that the more time-consuming structures are the ones that are most damaged also implies that capital accumulation (which could be use to finance this time-consuming structure while they did not mature) will also be strongly diminished. Formal Analysis! The range of division of what economics labor is greatly reduced and resources are normally consumed as one gets them because there is no investment opportunity. A society can suffer both systematic and formal analysis art history, asystematic interventionism. The scope of the first one determines the in fahrenheit extension of the division of analysis labor: more systematic interventionism means a smaller division of karangan kepentingan labor organization.
The hardness and regularity of the second increases the uncertainty over legal availability and thus the complexity of the division of formal labor that remained outside systematic interventions. Although many interventionist policies fit our descriptions, we can give some very visual examples of both classes. Taxes and regulations are kinds of what economics systematic interventionism. Analysis Art History! Wars, inflation and expropriations are examples of the asystematic one. Taxes imply that some people spend wealth without having created it, i.e. there is a complete loss of legal availability over karangan perpaduan, resources. People have worked for the government and thus we may consider that all the efforts so devoted were part of a coercive plan conceived by the State. A 100% tax would mean socialism, this is, the complete planning of individual actions. Regulations force or prevent some actions to happen. In this sense, it is a sort of construction of society and formal, cooperation. If people have to act in some way, they cannot act in another that may be more profitable for their plans.
If people must not act in some way, the potential area for a mockingbird, cooperation is restricted. Wars may generate a huge uncertainty over the future legal availability of resources, specially when defence competences have been expropriated and monopolized without giving individuals the possibility of choosing their most preferred defender. Formal Art History! During a war, insecure people try to provide themselves as fast as possible with the most elementary consumption and protective goods. There is conflict 451, no place for long term investments. Inflation, as the debasement of money, provokes a redistribution of the value of the currency, which complicates the possibility to purchase of the desired consumption goods and which erodes savings. The consequences is clearly a tendency to buy consumption goods before its prices increase more and to art history transform savings into assets that do not loss value, even if they are very illiquid. Finally, expropriations mean the probability of losing a resource by governmental discretionary decision. The higher the diabetes blood sugar subjective probability, the faster one will be willing to analysis art history sell or consume the resource.
Therefore, that means it will not enter into long-term plans. It is kepentingan, clear that any society that suffers from any of analysis art history these diseases must suffer from wealth destruction (impoverishment). Now let examine how this analysis fits with Africa and how it can explain its situation. Information On Falsifying A RĂ©sume! We will mainly use Heritage 2007 Index of Economic Freedom data: Taxes: Although there are countries with very high top rates, unfortunately it does not seem that this factor radically separates Third from First World.
This does not mean nevertheless that the art history African tax system does not destroy wealth: every resource appropriated coercively by government as we have seen provokes this effect. African societies would do much better without it. If one had to sum up Africa#146;s main problem it would unquestionably be the lack of respect for is demand, property rights. Analysis Art History! Taxation, regulation, inflation and expropriation are clear attacks on private property that close any possibility for Africa to insert in the international division of labor. Mauritius, Botswana and moral of hamlet, South Africa are the South-African countries whose population is most prosperous and, according to formal art history Heritage, are also the three with more respect for property rights. We have identified a priori the disease. We have shown that it fits with reality. We thus know what the only solution for African societies is: transition to a full private property system. However, from many strata other solutions are proposed; we will devote our last section to karangan perpaduan analysis the formal viability of those ideas. Along this essay we have established that private property is 451, both a sufficient and a necessary condition for wealth creation. It is sufficient because no other factor is needed to reconcile individual plan in a mutually beneficial cooperation scheme.
It is necessary because without it no action or policy will be able to create wealth. Notwithstanding voices can still be heard asking for a grand foreign aid program to help Africa develop. Their proponents generally do not explain the analysis concrete ways in bob ewell which this aid will foster wealth; it is just assumed that it will. Although for a non-economist it might seem self-evident that money is wealth and that giving money to people can achieve them to be prosperous, these judgements are doubtfully valid and consistent. The Western observer tends to analysis art history think with his backward experience, i.e. assuming that money is wealth because he has a bigger or smaller legal availability over it. The reasoning should be much different if we took into account that Africa is not stuck by the lack of resources, but by the lack of private property. The same shortcoming that prevent African wealth creation, remove efficiency to karangan kepentingan perpaduan any foreign aid, either private or public. It may be useful to formal analysis prove this point by what is demand examining the ways in which foreign aid could be used and what would be their consequences.
Before of formal art history that, it is necessary to clarify one point. I am not going to value whether foreign aid is useful for other legitimate purposes. My argumentation will just be concerned with development and wealth creation, this is, with the bob ewell a mockingbird ability of individuals to fulfil increasing numbers of ends. Despite being against public foreign aid, I do not want to question private charity#146;s movies. I will just show that if the purpose of the donor is to help African people to be able to formal art history create wealth, it will simply not work in absence of moral of hamlet private property. 5.1 Food and clothes. The most primary destiny of foreign aid is to formal art history buy food and a RĂ©sume Essay, clothes#151;as kinds of very basic products#151;to Africans. The relation of this use of aid with growth would be the following: starving people cannot prosper; if we feed them, they will have free time to create wealth. The reasoning has a problem of causality inversion. What we try to explain and solve is analysis art history, African poverty, one of whose signs is starvation. Africans are not poor because they starve, but they starve because they are poor.
Every rich society was some day in the past as poor as Africans are today, but however they did not get stuck. In Fahrenheit 451! If Africans are so poor as to starve, the reasons for formal art history, this must be found elsewhere besides the symptoms. In case this kind of policy were implemented, receivers of food would be able to survive while the free food provision continued. They would not be able to create wealth by a RĂ©sume the same reasons they had not been able in the past. And as soon as aid stopped, starvation would continue. Consequently, spending foreign aid in this issue will not help African development.
Mainstream interventionist economists have already recognized in part our previous argument (mostly after the complete failure of foreign aid to promote growth). Giving food to formal analysis Africans will not favor their development once that provision is in fahrenheit 451, cut. However, they do not relate it to private property insecurity but to educational barriers. The idea has been sum up in the motto #147; If you give a man a fish he will eat today but if you teach him to fish he#146;ll eat for a lifetime #148;. Foreign aid thus could be useful in promoting education and in this way African development. This reasoning still fails to formal art history recognize what the true problem is. On Falsifying A RĂ©sume Essay! African people already know how to fish or how to grow their lands. It would be naive to formal analysis suppose that after centuries of having lived with the Nature they do not know anything. The true point is that despite knowing how to fish they do not fish or at least they do not fish enough. In other words, they do not use their knowledge to form economic plans.
And they do not do that due to the reasons we have already sketched: there is no l a private property system in conflict Africa. Without private property there can be neither a truly productive division of labor (among fishermen) nor investments that assist them (ships, nets. ). No one want to put their very scarce resources in some projects that with high probability will be interrupted by force. Extensions of the argument are equally invalid. Educating technicians, physicians and other scientists will not attract foreign investment, for the reason that the problem is not in the insufficient formation of African people, but in the regulatory framework. Analysis! Africa has already a comparative advantage in costs that is not currently exploited by foreign companies because of perpaduan that framework. Nothing would change with better education. In fact, the foreseeable consequence is that those scientists formed in Africa emigrate to the First World, where they are required and where that kind of formal analysis projects can be realized. A variant of the food case for foreign aid is the demand for better health care. According to this argument, diseases such as AIDS block any opportunity to prosperity. If Africans had better health, they could create wealth.
The argument might be plausible if healthy African population would be able to get richer, but this is not the case. Kepentingan! Although diseases are a huge problem, they are not the problem that prevents many people#151;healthy and unhealthy#151;from fulfilling their ends. In fact, two of the formal analysis richest African countries#151;Botswana and South Africa#151;are also two of the most affected by AIDS, whereas other very poor countries such as Congo have much lower AIDS infection rate. 5.4 National industry subsidizing. Another part of the conflict in fahrenheit 451 economic literature thinks that a Third World problem is the analysis lack of national industries which could sell in national and what, international markets since they are immediately swept away by more efficient multinational corporations. Some of art history them defend infant industries tariffs to protect national markets and others propose to subsidize the industries in order to compete in international ones; subsidies that could be paid with foreign aid. This argument completely misses the point.
Of course the lack of capital in in fahrenheit Africa is an obstacle to the formation of competitive enterprises with a high performance. The process by which African people will be able to create their own multinational companies has already been studied: foreign capital would increase wages, out of which there could appear a saving-investment fund. Furthermore, as Africans became wealthier and solvent they could ask for foreign loans to start their own business. Financial markets would provide enough capital for the most ambitious projects. The problem is that foreign companies do not invest substantially in Africa because what have seen before. Africans have to enter in the international division of labor to supply now the goods and services which are required by art history consumers not by politicians. There is no point in forcing the appearance of conflict 451 industries that are far more inefficient that other competitors. It would just be a complete waste of formal art history resources, whose effects would be similar to the food and clothes argument: Africans employed in subsidised industries would receive a net transfer of income, but they would not be able to spend it productively while private property is under attack. The last possible justification for foreign aid is public works. Government would be entitled to karangan perpaduan build all the analysis art history infrastructures the country needs to a RĂ©sume wake up. Once the equipment could be used, African people and formal art history, foreign companies would start investing thanks to the higher expected profitability of their projects.
The implicit assumption is that part of the poverty of 451 Africa comes from its lack of some equipment, which only the State can provide. And this is the reason why it is false. Formal Analysis Art History! Profit opportunities in Africa would be out conflict in fahrenheit 451 there if government did not hamper the market. It is simply fallacious that if government do not provide people with infrastructures nobody else would; precisely because satisfying that need is in itself a profit opportunity. But the problem of this proposal is the same than in previous cases.
If a private property system is not restored, no infrastructure would be of analysis art history utility. Entrepreneurs will not be able to moral of hamlet retain and control their gains and thus they will have no incentive to look for those gains. Governmental expenditure would moreover constitute a case of art history systematic interventionism that reduces the extent of the market and summits it to central planning orders. Resources would be allocated where the State says and not where consumers need, making more difficult its insertion in the international division of labor. We have so far studied what wealth is, how it emerges and why some societies are unable to create it.
The main conclusion has been that private property is bob ewell to kill a mockingbird, a sufficient and a necessary condition for development. The second corollary is obviously that any other proposed policy will fail while this huge shortcoming is not solved. Formal! Likewise, we could say, following P. T. Bauer, that foreign aid is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for development: Foreign aid is clearly not necessary for economic development, as is obvious for instance from the very existence of Information on Falsifying Essay developed countries. All of these began as underdeveloped and progressed without foreign aid. Moreover, many underdeveloped countries have advanced very rapidly over the last half century or so without foreign aid. There are many such countries in the far east, south-east Asia, East and West Africa and Latin America. Nor is formal analysis, foreign aid a sufficient condition. What! It cannot, for instance, promote development if a population at large is not interested in material advance, nor if it is strongly attached to art history values and customs incompatible with material progress. All this implies that foreign aid is is demand, useless. But P. T. Bauer was going a bit further in the quote which opened this essay by saying that #147; Development aid, far from being necessary to rescue poor societies from a vicious circle of poverty, is formal analysis, far more likely to keep them in moral of hamlet that state.#148;.
Could foreign aid be not only useless but also harmful? From the donor perspective it is crucial to formal distinguish between private and public aid. Conflict! The first one, as far as it is analysis art history, voluntary, cannot harm ex ante the donor; it is his best choice. Public aid however is obtained through coercion, hampering the satisfaction of in fahrenheit individual ends (destroying wealth). As P. T. Bauer once more stated it is art history, #147; redistribution from poor taxpayers in rich countries to rich people in poor countries #148;.
From the to kill a mockingbird receiver#146;s perspective it is necessary to distinguish whether he keeps the legal availability or not. In the formal analysis art history first case, it is clear that every gift raises disposable wealth for the receiver, as long as the number of available means to satisfy his ends increases. However, if the government ultimately owns the aid, either public or private, the original receiver will not be able to fit it into their plans and thus it could not be considered wealth at all. In fact, it will increase governmental power of aggression against private property, i.e. the root of all evils. Many people think that receiving money can never be harmful, and bob ewell, that may be true as long as you control it.
But if that money feeds your master, it only makes you become a bit more of a slave. There is no paradox in African people asking for the end of foreign aid or as the formal Kenyan economist James Shikwati puts it: Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to karangan be independent . And thus he claimed: For God#146;s Sake, Please Stop the Aid!  The following graph illustrates perfectly our reasoning: There is formal art history, only one path to development: capitalism. What matters is not how much income does a country have during a given year, but whether people have the freedom to use that income in the pursuing of their ends. If they do, no foreign aid will be needed to help them because their own skills combined with entrepreneurial seek will be enough. If they do not have this freedom, then not even all the in fahrenheit resources of the world would allow them to prosper.
I hope that this paper helps to highlight this reality, so that Western piety stops harming third world people. Bauer, Peter, and Basil S. Yamey, #147;The Economics of formal analysis art history Under-developed Countries#148;, Cambridge University Press. Bhalla, Surjit, #147;Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in a mockingbird the Era of Globalization#148; Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen, #147;Capital and Interest#148;, Libertarian Press. Hayek, Friedrich, #147;Prices and Production#148;, George Routledge Sons. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;Man vs. The Welfare State#148;, Arlington House. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;The Conquest of Poverty#148;, Foundation for Economic Education. Heritage Foundation, 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Huerta de Soto, #147;Money, Bank Credit and Economic Cycles#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Mises, Ludwig von, #147;Human Action#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Reisman, George, #147;Capitalism#148;, Jameson Books. Roberts, Paul Craig Schumer Charles, #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148; http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. Rothbard, Murray, #147;Man, Economy State#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, #147;Globalizacion y Reduccion de la Pobreza#148;, FAES. Shikwati, James, #147;Interview in art history Der Spiegel#148;, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,druck-363663,00.html. Strigl, Richard von, #147;Capital and Production#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Wickman Kurt, #147;Whither the Common Agricultural Policy#148;, Timbro.  We can say that there is 451, no uncertainty of future aggression over individual plans. People decide its length just considering the return, the formal analysis time preference and karangan perpaduan, other risks not related with plundering.  For every capital good, there must be a definite market in which firms buy and sell that good (. ) Under one owner or one cartel for the whole productive system, there would be no possible areas of art history calculation at all, and therefore complete economic chaos would prevail.
Murray Rothbard, Man Economy and State, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 613-614.  See Bohm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest, Libertarian Press.  See Hayek#146;s Prices and a RĂ©sume Essay, Production, George Routledge Sons.  We follow closely Adam Smith and George Reisman#146;s definition: . George Reisman, Globalization: The Long-Run Big Picture. Analysis! http://www.mises.org/story/2361.  Because entrepreneurs compete with other entrepreneurs for the factors of production, they can either offer higher wages or better conditions of labor. An entrepreneur may not be able to hire workers just through wages increases if their labor conditions are very disliking.  Of course, wages could also be increased out of capital accumulation in Information a non-market economy; i.e. instead of investing, replacing capital structure or remunerating capitalists, salaries are increased. Formal! Wherever the sources of perpaduan capital reduction come, the effect is analysis, a clear destruction of wealth. If investing is restrained, some entrepreneurial plans are forbidden and some wealth will not arise. If capital is not replaced, capital goods get depreciated (and we included capital goods as part of the blood wealth).
And if capitalists are not remunerated or less remunerated, part of their plans will not be fulfilled (wealth destruction) and formal art history, furthermore their savings will decrease (what leads toward the depreciation of part of the capital stock).  Revenues: 11000, costs: 7500, profits: 3500. Rate of is demand economics return=3500/7500=46%  Normally we can expect that the one who moves first gests the analysis greater advantage. If capitalists assumes the cost of hiring the workers he will have a wider set of options, while if it is the worker capitalist will only profit passively. For example, if a company moves to a village of 100 low wage workers, it can hire the 100% of the population for the very low wage. If the company does not move and only 10 villagers travel to another village of high wage workers, the company will be able to hire them but a much higher wage rate than before. This is why immigrants who move to First World usually earn higher wages than those who stay in their countries and are hired by first world companies.  As people grow richer, they can afford to buy other goods and services that only interest them when some other needs have been fulfilled. One could recognize in to kill this proposition some flavor of Maslow pyramid of needs, which more or less establishes that some ends will only be pursued when other more basic ends has been achieved. Really, economic theory has a more powerful tool to understand these processes.
Diminishing marginal utility shows that increases in the number of a homogeneous mean are directed to lower-valued ends. Increases in the number of a good will reduce the value of the formal art history extra units and then the productivity and remuneration of factors of production employed in it. After the increase in the quantity of this mean (increase in wealth) other uses for diabetes blood sugar tester, factors of production become relatively more profitable than before.  This theory was supported by Paul Craig Roberts and Charles Schumer who argued that comparative advantage only hold with two contidions: free internal mobility for factors of production but external immobility. Formal Analysis! Otherwise, rich countries will export capital and internal productivity will fall, decreasing wages. See #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148;, New York Times, 6 January 2004: http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm.  It is our labor and moral of hamlet, our time that are fundamentally scarce, not land or natural resources. Analysis! It is our labor and what, our time that we fundamentally need to save, not land or natural resources . George Reisman, Capitalism, p. 71, Jameson Books.
 In fact the problem of hot money (fast capital outflows) is not associated with rising wages, but with inflation : If people want to analysis art history #147;freeze#148; the money, one just have to create a proper financial environment in which it is possible to invest comfortably. This environment means: a gold coin that cannot be devaluated, the what economics complete separation of formal art history money and capital markets according to conflict 451 the strictest principles of liquidity, budget balance and the respect for formal art history, the general principle of law, i.e. Conflict In Fahrenheit! fulfillment of agreements and debt satisfaction through the issue of the real values. One can be sure that in this context there would no be any crisis, devaluation and hot money. Art History! Jose Ignacio del Castillo, Dinero caliente y globalizacion: http://www.liberalismo.org/articulo/174/  Globalizacion y reduccion de la pobreza, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, FAES.  Surjit Bhalla, Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in karangan perpaduan the Era of art history Globalization, p. 172: http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/348/10iie3489.pdf.  See Capital and Production by a RĂ©sume Richard von Strigl, Ludwig von Mises Institue.  Of course we are aware that Africa is a very heterogeneous region and formal analysis, that not every problem affects the whole African societies. However, these problems do explain a important part of the poverty of the countries that suffered or still suffer them and in all cases are African countries.
 For instance, Chad has a 65% top income tax rate and 45% top corporate tax rate. Ivory Coast 60% and 35%. Togo 55% and to kill, 37%. And the Republic of Congo 50% and 38%.  For example, the Swedish think tank Timbro estimates that EU consumers pay roughly 80#150;100 % more for their food than would be the case in a mature free-market regime. Timbro, Whither the European Agricultural Policy? www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/000011.pdf.  233 days in Guinea-Bissau, 155 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 136 days in formal analysis Equatorial Guinea, 124 in Angola, 113 in is demand Mozambique or 96 in formal Zimbabwe.  Zimbabwe: The government#146;s increasingly hostile attitude toward foreign investment and its support for economic nationalism have led to a RĂ©sume growing cronyism and corruption. Expropriation is very common. The government controls foreign exchange. Foreign exchange accounts are subject to formal analysis government approval and restrictions.
Payments and transfers are subject to government approval and numerous restrictions, and all outward capital transactions are controlled. Angola: Capital and money market transactions, capital repatriation, real estate transactions, and personal capital movements are subject to strict controls. In most instances, these transactions require central bank approval and/or licensing. Republic of Congo: Residents may not hold foreign exchange accounts, but companies can hold foreign exchange accounts with special approval. Non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts subject to government approval. Sierra Leone: Non-citizens and foreign investors are not permitted to participate in certain economic activities. Both residents and non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts, subject to some restrictions.
Ethiopia: Foreign exchange accounts, payments, and diabetes blood tester, current transfers are subject to controls and restrictions. Formal Art History! There are significant controls on bob ewell to kill a mockingbird, capital transactions. All investments must be approved and certified by the government.  Many African countries (such as Guinea-Bissau, Chad and Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe) #147; operate under highly restrictive employment regulations that hinder employment and productivity growth #148;. The non-salary cost of analysis art history employing a worker is normally high. Senegal has rigid #147; regulations related to increasing or contracting the number of work hours #148;.
Cameroon #147; labor legislation mandates retraining or replacement before firing a worker #148;. And Burkina Faso forbids #147; night and weekend work #148;.  Here we have a non-exhaustive list of most recent conflicts: Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991) Angolan Civil War (1974-2002), Mozambican Civil War (1977-2002), Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979), First Chadian Civil War (1979-1982), Ugandan Civil War (1982-1986), Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), Somali Civil War (1988-to date), First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Rwanda Civil War (1990-1994), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), First Congo War (1996-1997), Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), Etiophia-Eriteria War (1998-2003), Second Congo War (1998-2003), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003), Second Chadian Civil War (2005-to date).  Zimbabwe: 267%, Angola: 34#146;8%, Guines: 26#146;3%, Zambia: 18#146;5%, Madagascar: 15#146;6%, Ghana: 15#146;6%, Burma: 15%, Nigeria: 15%.  Namibia: Expropriating land from white farm owners is now official policy.
The government expropriated three large farms at the end of moral of hamlet 2005 and by mid-2006 had begun to offer the land for resettlement. Burundi: Private property is subject to government expropriation and formal analysis, armed banditry. Zimbabwe: Expropriation is economics, common as the political executive pushes forward with its resource-redistribution-by-angry-mob economic plan.  Per capita income in analysis Mauritius is $13500, in Botswana $11400 and in South Africa $13000. The author gives reasons pretty similar to ours: Money was spent on current spending and public consumption#151;which, in turn, led to a rapidly growing public sector in the economy. Needless to say, this strengthened other socialist tendencies in economics the economy and investment became, in analysis many developing countries, mainly a government activity. In addition, aid boosted fiscal budgets and led to a rapidly growing number of parastatals and state-owned enterprises. Economics! Largely supported by the donor community at the time, these soon became arenas of corruption and this corruption spread like wildfire to other parts of the society. The tragedy of aid, as been shown in analysis art history numerous evaluations and by blood sugar tester World Bank research, is analysis art history, that donors are part of the problem of corruption; aid often underpins corruption, and moral of hamlet, higher aid levels tend to erode the governance structure of formal analysis art history poor countries. In other words, donors have failed to follow the chief principle of the a mockingbird Hippocratic oath: do no harm!
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