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How do the mental health service respond to by the National Center Database, the rising incidents of self harm among young people. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines suicide as self-destruction that is performed as a deliberate act. Although it is strongly linked to self-harm , it is noteworthy that self-harm is often not a suicide attempt, but actually a parasuicide -when self-harm is carried out for other reasons other than killing oneself. Deliberate self-harm refers to “a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial self-cutting in response to intolerable tension” (Skegg, 2005). According to The National Institute of luis borges, Clinical Excellence (NICE), self-harm is an Operated National Center Database, expression of personal distress, and Crime Perspective on Juvenile Americans, is not in itself, and illness. It is Operated National for Biotechnology, a situation in which a person inflicts harm on himself or herself in an attempt to end one’s life, relieve tension, escape anguish, change others’ behaviours, show desperation or cry for help (Hawton and James, 2005). Crime Delinquency Of African Americans. Thus it ranges from behaviours with no suicidal intent through to actual suicide.
However, is has been proposed that some successful suicides are actually self-harming episodes that go wrong. Suicide and self-harm among teenagers usually occurs by means of self-cutting or self-poisoning. Operated By The National Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank. Other common examples include hitting or burning oneself, pulling hair or picking skins and self-strangulation. Generally, teenagers tend to use means that are readily available within their homes. Self-poisoning accounts for the south jorge luis borges, approximately 90% of reported hospital cases -usually involving over-the-counter preparations such as paracetamol and aspirin, or psychotropic agents. Rarely, self-harm is carried out by more violent acts such as attempted hanging; in which case, it is generally associated with higher suicidal intent.
While previous self-harm is a major determining factor for future suicides, the reverse is obviously not the case. Possibly, a major difference between these two increasingly prevalent occurrences is complete hopelessness often associated with suicide victims. It is widely believed that adolescents who commit suicides are products of broken homes, have history of family of self-psychiatric disorders or suicidal behaviour, substance misuse or have previously self-harmed. In self-harm, oftentimes the individual is merely crying for help in National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, an extreme manner. This is fundamental to the rationale behind the 22 yosarian extensive assessment recommended for all patients who have self-harmed.
Although these two conditions often overlap, differences have been highlighted between suicides and deliberate self-harm in for Biotechnology Database, terms of epidemiology and prevalence. While suicide rates increase with age, the majority of deliberate self-harm occur in people under 35 years of Fertilization and Growth, age. Gender variation has also been widely observed, with suicides being more common in males and deliberate self-harm in females. Also, differences arise in the psychiatric status of the patients. Post mortem studies of suicide victims show that there is usually an underlying psychiatric disorder such as depression associated with the victim’s mental health. This is not always the case with self-harm patients. Although there could be a history of depressive illness, self-harm is Operated by the for Biotechnology Information, frequently an impulsive act, probably enhanced by alcohol or drug consumption (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm is a serious public health problem and young people are particularly affected by it (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). A case of 22 yosarian, a patient who has self-harmed is a chance for the health services to effectively evaluate and address any relevant underlying problems and is an opportunity to successfully avert potential future suicides.
The extent of self-harm and suicides among young people has been accurately described as an unknown quantity (Bywaters and Operated by the National for Biotechnology Information Database, Rolfe, 2002). Reportedly, 8 out of every 100,000 deaths in England and Wales each year are suicide cases. Eve Bunting. There are an estimated 25,000 adolescent self-harm presentations annually in hospitals in England and Wales (Hawton et al, 2000) and government research report that as many as 1 in 17 young people have attempted to harm themselves. Suicide is the second most common cause of death among 15- to 34-year olds. These rates are even higher (20-50 times) in psychotic patients than in the general population. The often-vast variation between different prevalence sources is most likely an by the Database, indicator of plays shakespeare wrote, geographic, epidemiogical and cultural variation in self-harm trends. Global suicide rates in young people have increased during the past three decades. According to the Office of National Statistics (1999), 1.3% of Operated by the National Center Information Database, 5-10 year olds have tried to harm, hurt or kill himself/herself.
More than four times this proportion (5.8%) of the older children aged 11 to 15 years old report having attempted to self-harm or commit suicide. Most child and the south jorge luis, adolescent mental the health services take the by the National for Biotechnology is GenBank Database school-leaving age of catch, 16 as their upper limit. Thus most available statistics are only for children up to the age of 16. It is important that children who fall within this narrow and oft-omitted age-gap (16-18 year olds) are not neglected, and are properly catered for. The statistics also show that among the 5-10 year olds, boys were almost twice as likely to Operated for Biotechnology Information Database, self-harm than their female counterparts. Likewise, children of single-parent homes also had more tendencies for deliberate self-harm than children of couple-parent families. Terrible Eve Bunting. Surprisingly, children with no siblings had slightly more chance of committing self-harm than children from larger families.
40% of these children who had tried to self-harm had a mental disorder, and Operated Center is GenBank, one in terrible, three had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. In contrast, among the 11-15 year olds, self-harm appears to be more prevalent among girls (58%) than boys. However, these older children are apparently more likely to self-harm if they have a lot of Operated is GenBank Database, siblings. 50% of these adolescents who had tried to harm, hurt or kill themselves had a mental disorder and over 40% had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. Parents generally tend to underestimate their children’s self-harm tendencies and history, as illustrated by jorge borges the vast differences in parents and children’s accounts of self-harm and National Information is GenBank, suicide attempts. This gives an insight into the level of shrouding and secrecy that is associated with these phenomena and Crime Delinquency of African Americans, casts doubts on by the Center Database, the validity and reliability of Perspective on Juvenile of African, these widely accepted statistics. Stigmatisation and ostracization commonly associated with suicide and self-harm victims and families is the most likely reason behind under-reporting and Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, denial. Fertilization And Growth. In addition, prevalence of Operated by the Center for Biotechnology, suicides is largely underestimated because of things eve bunting, reluctance of coroners to classify cause of death as suicides, especially in children.
A large proportion of the so-called “open verdicts” are, in fact, suicides (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm techniques such as self-cutting usually go unnoticed. As the most common method of DSH by teenagers, the implications are that the rates of self-harm amongst adolescents are grossly under-reported. Thus it is important to note that these daunting statistics might actually represent a conservative estimate of the reality of self-harm and suicide attempts among young people . Investigating potential socio-demographic and clinical predictors of suicide, Cooper et al (2005) concluded that there was an approximately 30-fold increase in risk of suicide in deliberate self-harm patients than in the general population. Furthermore, suicide rates were found to be highest within the Operated National for Biotechnology is GenBank first 6 months after the Essay initial self-harm episode. This is the basis for Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, early assessment and treatment as will be discussed in subsequent sections. Examining trends and characteristics of self-harm in adolescents between 1990 and plays wrote, 2000, Hawton et al (2003) found that the prevalence of self-harm among young females was on the increase.
These rising rates could reflect latent negative effects of a number of social changes. Possible reasons for this increase include increased rates of family breakdowns, increasing rates of substance misuse, media influences and common peer behaviours. In a self-report survey, Hawton et al (2002) studied the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years old, and the factors associated with it. In this age group, females were more likely to Operated National for Biotechnology Information, self-harm than males. Ethnicity-wise, teenagers of white origin were more likely to self-harm than their Asian counterparts. Black young people were the least likely to self-harm. That Shakespeare Wrote. In addition, teenagers who lived with other family members apart from their parents were more likely to self-harm than those who live with one or both parents. Smokers also had more incidents of self-harm than non-smokers, with frequency increasing with number of cigarettes smoked in girls. By The National Center Information Database. Similar trends were observed with young people who consumed alcohol. Expectedly, bullying and other forms of abuse (physical or sexual) was a major determining factor for adolescents who self-harm. Plays. Other factors which played a role in self-harm amongst young people were sexual orientation worries, trouble with police and family or friends who harm themselves.
Although self-harm is observed in all age-groups, it has an National Center, average age of onset of 12 years old (Fox and catch 22 yosarian, Hawton, 2004). Thus the Operated by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database importance of addressing this problem in adolescents is blatantly obvious. Factors that have been substantiated to be strongly associated with self-harm amongst adolescents are very similar to characteristics associated with suicidal patients. That. These include: Depression Substance misuse Physical or sexual abuse Low self esteem Physical ill-health Disputes with parents, siblings or friends School or work problems. In an ecological and person-based study, Hawton et al (2001) investigated the influence of the economic and by the Information Database, social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide. Crime Perspective On Juvenile Delinquency. Improving on the methodical limitations of previous studies, the researchers studied DSH patients over 10 years.
The relationship between socio-economic deprivations was shown to be very significant in Operated National for Biotechnology Information, males and females. These findings have been collaborated by 22 yosarian a more specific study (patients under 18 years old). By The National Center For Biotechnology Database. Socio-economic deprivation was significantly associated with overdose, self-injury and that, poisoning by illicit substances (Ayton et al, 2003). Accounting for confounding factors, correlations remained significant, further validating the results of the by the Center for Biotechnology Information study. Although the relationship between ethnic density and deliberate self-harm tendencies is not well established, Neeleman and colleagues (2001) demonstrated variable deliberate self-harm rates in various minority groups, suggesting protection and risk in terrible eve bunting, different areas. This is a gap in Operated by the for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, the literature for future research. Perspective On Juvenile Americans. School stress has also been shown to play a role in DSH in teenagers (Hawton et al, 2003). The findings from widespread international research suggest that the most determining risk factors for youth suicide are mental disorders and a history of psychopathology (Beautrais, 2000). Others could be individual and personal vulnerabilities, social, cultural and contextual factors. Possible motives for self-harming behaviour other than death are highlighted below (Hawton and James, 2005): To escape from Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Database, unbearable anguish.
To change the and Growth behaviour of others. To escape from a situation. To show desperation to others. To make others feel guilty. To gain relief of tension. To seek help.
Furthermore, research has provided a useful insight into Operated by the Information is GenBank Database, the factors that can influence repetitive self-harm behaviours despite aftercare and treatment. This is important in the assessment of plays, patients who have self-harmed to identify those who are likely to self-harm again and prevent such episodes. Factors that are associated with repeated self-harm as highlighted by Hawton and James (2005) include personality disturbance, depression, alcohol or substance misuse, disturbed family relationships, social isolation and poor school records. Hawton et al (1999) demonstrated that self-harm repeaters differed from the by the National Center Database non-repeaters in having higher scores for depression, hopelessness and trait anger, and leadership, lower scores for National Center Information is GenBank Database, self-esteem. Specific reasons that have been cited for leadership continuum, self-harm by young people, as highlighted by the National Inquiry (2006) include: · Strained relationships with parents. · Worry about academic performance.
· Childhood abuse (sexual, physical or emotional) · Low self-esteem or rejection. · Problems to do with race, culture or religion. 2. Center Information. Responding To Young People Who Self-Harm. 2.1 Guidelines And Evidence For Good Practice. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2004) has proposed guidelines for the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in the south jorge luis borges, primary and secondary care. By The. In addition, The Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPSYCH) also provides guidance on managing young people up to the age of 16 who deliberately harm themselves.
Such guidelines are readily applicable to the Health service i.e. Accident and tannenbaum leadership continuum, Emergency departments and Child and Adolescents Mental Health Services. Integrating these treatment guidelines and the findings of related research, the management of these young self-harm patients will be extensively discussed under the following sub-titles: Assessment Treatment planning Admission to hospital Treatment options Medical and surgical management Referral and discharge following self-harm Pharmacological interventions Family support Prevention. A comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service needs to take all the by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank above facets into consideration when treating this group of extremely vulnerable patients.
The NICE guidelines (2004) emphasize the importance of the south luis, treating patients who have self-harmed with the same care, respect and privacy as any other patient. Center For Biotechnology Information Database. In fact, the likely distress associated with self-harm may necessitate additional care and tact when dealing with these patients. Also, health services are urged to provide appropriate training to all staff (clinical and non-clinical) that has any form of jorge, contact with the patients to fully equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively understand and Operated National Center, care for people who have self-harmed. Ideally, training should cover areas such as crisis counselling, risk assessment, stress management, mental health triage, cultural awareness, working with families and confidentiality issues (Wynaden et al, 2000). Clearly, the importance of ensuring patients’ safety while in hospital is colossal. These patients should be offered an environment that is safe, supportive and leadership, minimises any distress. Operated Center Information. The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest a separate, quiet room with supervision and regular contact with a named member of staff to ensure safety at all times.
The high rate of self-harm patients who repeatedly self-harm or go ahead to commit suicide in the future makes it imperative to conduct an terrible, extensive and detailed assessment of young people who self-harm . Center. Young people who have self-harmed in a potentially serious or violent way should be assessed either by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, a specialist mental worker, a psychologist, a psychotherapist or a psychiatric nurse (Hawton and James, 2005). The NICE guidelines propose that all people who have self-harmed should be offered this preliminary assessment at triage, regardless of the severity of the attack. Apart from the obligatory emergency physical assessment, this will give an insight into the patient’s mental health, the luis borges level of distress and their willingness to co-operate with the medical team. In addition, the patient’s psychosocial situation and the ability of parents or guardians to ensure their safety should be addressed (RCPSYCH, 2006). As the first point of contact, ambulance staff have a crucial role to play in the initial assessment of young people who have self-harmed (NICE, 2004). The Australian Mental Health Triage Scale is a validated comprehensive assessment scale that provides a means of efficiently rating clinical urgency so that patients can be seen in a timely manner. This scale has been shown to improve staff confidence and by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, attitudes in dealing with clients with mental health problems, thus improving patients’ outcomes in the long-run (Broadbent et al, 2004). Research has shown the importance of cultural, ethnic and racial awareness and sensitivity in the assessment process.
Some cultures regard suicide attempts as taboo, and it is always good practice to take such factors into consideration. In addition, a language interpreter may be required to communicate effectively with the catch 22 yosarian patient and family. 2.1.2 Treatment Planning. Following the preliminary assessment, it is considered good practice to have an by the for Biotechnology Database, action or treatment plan (Hawton and James, 2005). And Growth. The treatment plan should take into account all aspects of the patient’s management in Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, hospital, ranging from treatment options to pharmacological and psychological interventions to discharge planning. 2.1.3 Admission To Hospital. At this point, temporary admission should be considered especially for patients who are who are very distressed, for Fertilization Essay, people who may be returning to Operated for Biotechnology is GenBank, an unsafe or harmful environment and for people in whom psychosocial assessment proves too difficult for any number of reasons (NICE, 2004). Fertilization And Growth. If admission is indicated, a paediatric, medical adolescent, or designated unit should be utilised as appropriate. Despite the NICE guidelines, some schools of though believe that regardless of the toxicological or physical state of the young person, hospital admission is desirable, so that adequate further physical and Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, psychosocial assessments can be carried out, and management/crisis interventions can be planned and initiated (Hawton and James, 2000). 22 Yosarian. The paediatric ward will usually suffice, unless, and especially with patients in the older end of the age range, there is a more suitable unit available.
Waterhouse and Operated, Platt (1990) investigated the that wrote difference in outcomes between self-harm patients who were admitted to hospital and those were discharged as outpatients. The findings of the study showed slight significance between the two intervention groups. It is the role of the National for Biotechnology admitting staff to obtain agreement for and schmidt leadership continuum, the mental health assessment of the patient from parents or relevant guardians, and to alert all members of staff of each young person’s needs. As with all in-patients, hospitalised young patients who have self-harmed should be properly cared for and monitored. In addition, responsibilities of staff of the mental health team will include providing consultation to the young person and his/her family, the paediatric team and staff of the social services and education departments. The Crisis Recovery Unit at the Bethlem Hospital in London, a national specialist unit for Operated by the National is GenBank, people of The Marxist Perspective of African Americans, 17 years and Operated by the Center is GenBank Database, above who repeatedly self-harm, have a different and and Growth Essay, slightly radical approach to by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, the in-patient treatment of these patients (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Their philosophy is that the individuals should take responsibility for their actions. This practice-supported technique focuses on helping young people realise for themselves that self-harm is not an effective strategy for dealing with their problems.
It encourages these patients to talk about their problems and explore alternative coping strategies, including strategies for dealing with the urge to self-harm. Wrote. However, the effectiveness of by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, such an intervention in younger patients (11-16) is not certain, as these children might not be mentally mature for Fertilization and Growth, such self-realisation tactics. 2.1.4 Treatment Options. Treatment options for adolescents who have harmed themselves could be individual-based, family-based or group-based. Individual-based interventions include but are not limited to problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy and National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, anger management. Catch 22 Yosarian. Family therapy could be in the form of problem-solving or structural or systemic therapy, and Database, group therapy could involve any of these techniques performed in teams or groups. Problem-solving therapy or brief psychological therapy as it is otherwise known, is a brief treatment that is aimed at helping the young patient to acquire basic-problem solving skills to identify and prioritise their problems (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). The process involves implementing discussed possible solutions to a specific problem, and reassessing the situation to review progress -sort of like a self-audit process. The basics of problem-solving therapy as identified by Hawton and James (2006) are highlighted below: · Identifying and deciding what problems to tackle first. · Agreeing goals of therapy with the patient as much as is possible.
· Working out steps to achieve goals. · Deciding how to tackle the first step. · Dealing with psychological factors that obstruct progress. · Working through subsequent steps. This method of problem-solving therapy appears to improve depression, hopelessness and general problems in deliberate self-harm patients significantly more than control therapy (Townsend et al, 2001). This finding has been variously collaborated in other studies and the results are considered reliable. This therapeutic process usually takes 5 to The Marxist on Juvenile Delinquency, 6 one-hour sessions, and can be delivered by any experienced mental health professional with suitable training and Center Information is GenBank, supervision (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). It is Perspective on Juvenile Delinquency of African, direct and easily understood and is thus suitable for the younger patients. It helps the adolescent when he or she is faced with future crisis or trigger factors. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. This form of psychotherapy is based on the belief that psychological problems are the product of an individual’s faulty way of for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, viewing the world.
In this case, the shakespeare wrote therapist aims to Operated is GenBank Database, modify the patients’ cognitive processes and beliefs using techniques that are similar to those described above (problem-solving therapy), but with behavioural techniques. Although widely used adopted in Fertilization and Growth Essay, psychotherapy in the treatment of depression, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has limited evidence of use in self-harm patients. Even in depression, its use has been shown to be less effective as monotherapy than fluoxetine monotherapy and in combination with fluoxetine (March et al, 2004). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is an intensive therapeutic technique that was introduced to help those who repeatedly harm themselves. It could involve as long as a full year of individual therapy, group sessions, social skills training and by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, access to crisis contact (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Fewer behavioural incidents have been reported with this treatment when compared with an input unit run on psycho dynamically oriented principles (Katz et al, 2004), thus strengthening findings by and schmidt leadership Rathus and Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, Miller in 2002. In addition, an older study (Linehan et al, 1991) had shown very significant differences in likeliness to repeat self-harm in patients undergoing dialectical behaviour therapy and Fertilization and Growth, the control group.
The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest the use of dialectical behaviour therapy in self-harm patients who have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, but stress that this should not preclude the use of by the Information, other strongly validated psychological treatments with vast evidence-based support. As the name implies, family therapy is a branch of psychotherapy that treats family problems as a source of the adolescent’s underlying therapy. Family interventions can be structured or systemic and can also be home-based. Basic aspects of this treatment option would include improvement of specific skills and emotions to The Marxist on Juvenile Delinquency of African, promote sharing of feelings and negotiation between family members. Elements of assessment of families of self-harm victim should include (Hawton and James, 2005): · Family structure and relationships. · Recent family life events, e.g. Operated Center Information Is GenBank Database. death, relocation, divorce e.t.c.
· History of psychiatric disorder, including suicide attempts in and Growth Essay, the family. There is some anecdotal evidence that demonstrate the importance of family therapy in young people who self-harm, especially those have well-documented family issues or strained family relationships. However, evidence base to support the use of family therapy interventions is scarce and quite weak. In a randomly controlled case study, Harrington et al (1998) compared an Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, intensive family therapy intervention with standard self-harm aftercare. Catch. The results of the study found no significant differences between the two groups of subjects in terms of improved outcomes. Group therapy could include the previously discussed problem solving and cognitive behavioural therapy. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines group therapy as psychotherapy involving at least two patients and a therapist. National Center For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank Database. Simply put, it is the administration of any psychological therapeutic methods described above in groups.
Normally, people with similar problems meet to discuss and analyse their problems and possible ways of overcoming them. Terrible Eve Bunting. Although this intervention could be time-saving, the possibility of confrontation and tension between the group members is a potential barrier to National Center Information is GenBank Database, its effective implementation. Catch 22 Yosarian. Also, the negative connotation of suicide and by the National for Biotechnology Information Database, self-harm might prevent patients from effectively participating in such group sessions. In a small-randomised parallel trial in Manchester, England, Wood et al (2001) strove to evaluate the effectiveness of group therapy for repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents by comparing combination of routine care and group therapy with routine care alone. Tannenbaum And Schmidt Leadership. Results showed that adolescents who had group therapy were less likely to repeat self-harm than those who only received routine therapy. Overall, the evidence for clinical management and prevention of repeated episodes of deliberate self-harm in young people is limited. Operated National For Biotechnology Database. A systematic review by Burns and colleagues (2005) found that group therapy was the only specific programme that had significant effects on the rates of repetition of self-harm. Expensive interventions such as intensive aftercare have no clear advantages over standard aftercare. 2.1.5 Medical And Surgical Management.
Clearly a person who has harmed himself/ herself will have some form of injury, whether superficial or systemic. Responding to Essay, adolescents who self-harm will obviously include treatment of consequences of the self-afflicted injury. The treatment of self-injury would be the same as for any other injury, taking into account the by the Center for Biotechnology Information level of distress and emotional disturbance experienced by catch 22 yosarian the patient (NICE, 2004). The most common products of self-injury -wounds and by the National Information, poisoning must be treated accordingly. Wounds may require wound assessment and exploration and together with a full discussion of the catch patient’s preferences should be cleaned and dressed appropriately. In more severe cases, minor surgery might be necessary to properly mend any damages. Treatment for ingested substances would be dependent on the nature of the by the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database poison. Samples should be collected as soon as possible for laboratory analysis. The overall aim would be to reduce absorption, increase elimination or chemically neutralize the adverse biological effects of the poison.
The guidelines proposed by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence emphasizes the consideration of gastro-intestinal decontamination only in self-harm patients who present early, are fully conscious with a protected airway, and that shakespeare wrote, are at risk of by the National, significant harm as a result of the poisoning. Activated charcoal could be administered 1 to 2 hours after ingestion. Emetics and cathartics should not be used in terrible, the management of Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, self-poisoning. Recommendations by tannenbaum and schmidt TOXBASE or the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) should be followed to prevent further complications and harm. Operated By The Center For Biotechnology Information. Gastric lavage and whole bowel irrigation should only be used when specifically recommended by relevant bodies.
2.1.6 Pharmacological Interventions. Generally, the use of pharmacological agents in treating adolescents who have self-harmed is built on and schmidt leadership, the basis that depression is an underlying problem in these patients. Comparing antidepressant therapy with placebo in patients who had deliberately initiated self-poisoning or self-injury, significant odds ratios were achieved. Furthermore, significantly reduced rates of Operated by the for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, further self-harm were observed for depot flupenthixol compared to placebo. The current controversy over selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents (Wong et al, 2004), especially those with suicidal ideation must be taken into account when prescribing for this group of patients. Plays That Shakespeare Wrote. Like with all aspects of health care, and particularly mental health care, the Operated Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database choice of intervention depends on the individual patient’s condition. Montgomery et al (1979) have demonstrated a significantly greater likelihood of repeated self-harm in patients treated with the placebo agent compared with those treated with flupenthixol.
Differences in the outcomes of patients treated with antidepressants and those treated with placebo, though not as large, were still significant (Montgomery et al, 1983). The introduction of pharmacological agents in the management of such patients would ultimately depend on the outcomes of tannenbaum, psychosocial and physical assessment, and should be aimed at treating the patient’s underlying problems or particular diagnosis rather than simply treating self-harming behaviour. Whatever, therapeutic decisions are made, clinicians should ensure that the Operated National Center patient (or where not possible, parents or guardians) are made aware of the treatment options available, including the likely advantages and that wrote, disadvantages, and involved in making a choice. 2.1.7 Referral and Discharge Following Self-Harm. Referral and discharge of an adolescent after self-harm would depend on the outcomes of the extensive assessment that would have been previously conducted (section 2.1.1).
It is important that the patient remains as involved as possible in Operated by the National Center Database, decisions that are made regarding his/ her management. Adolescents who have harmed themselves may need a range of other health or social services. Referral to terrible eve bunting, these professionals and by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, other relevant agencies bears witness to catch, the importance of adopting a multi agency approach (section 2.3). Operated By The National Center For Biotechnology. Proper documentation of Essay, all relevant interventions and Operated by the National Center Database, conversations will ensure a seamless transfer from one health service to luis borges, another and Operated National Center Database, culminate in improved quality of care and better outcomes. 2.1.8 Family Support. This is quite different from family therapy as discussed under treatment options (section 2.1.4). Rather than attempt to resolve underlying family problems in a bid to address the source of the adolescent’s problems like the latter, family support refers to luis borges, moves that could be taken to National, help parents and siblings deal with the traumatic experience of self-harm in the family. Common family reactions following suicide or self-harm by adolescents include denial, guilt, shame, anger, depression, substance misuse and overprotection of other children and siblings.
These issues have to be addressed effectively and in and Growth Essay, a timely manner to avert further tragic family occurrences. It would be the responsibility of the resident psychologist to evaluate family members and provide the appropriate counselling and treatment. A large part of responding to the increasing rates of Operated is GenBank, self-harm among adolescents in the UK is initiating preventive measures. The National Inquiry into self-harm among young people found that school-based work appears to the south luis, be one of the most promising areas where prevention of self-harm among young people can be effectively tackled. Also it is widely recognised that young people would rather turn to young people than adults in their time of need. In response to this, schools have started implementing peer support schemes. It must be appreciated that prevention strategies should be both primary and secondary, i.e. should target self-harmers as well as the general young population as appropriate. Child and adolescent mental health services must put in place programmes to effectively reach their target population.
Measures should be put into action to promote good mental health and emotional well being (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). In addition, educational awareness programmes should be initiated to provide information to the general public towards reducing the stigmatisation associated with self-harm and suicides. The mental health service could pilot a 24-hour help line to address adolescent’s problems. This would provide an avenue to Operated by the Center Database, discuss one’s problems and obtain advice and tannenbaum and schmidt, support on National for Biotechnology is GenBank, how to deal with them. 25% of young people who were asked what could be done to prevent adolescents from Fertilization Essay, harming themselves responded that someone to listen, advise and by the National Center, support in times of need would be beneficial (Fortune et al, 2005). Secondary prevention is and Growth, even more crucial as a 30-fold increase in Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, risk of Crime Perspective Delinquency of African, suicide has been demonstrated in young people who had previously self-harmed.
Direct intervention is indicated for these patients to prevent repeated self-harm. Various distraction techniques have been reported by these young people as helping to take their minds off the urge to by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, inflict harm on themselves. Terrible. These include physical exercise, writing negative feelings on paper and ripping it up, using a red felt-pen to Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Database, mark instead of cut, hitting a punch bag to vent anger and frustration, writing in a diary and talking to a friend (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Professional prevention of repeated episodes of self-harm would include psychological and psychosocial assessment and interventions as described in Fertilization and Growth, earlier sections to try and resolve causal problems and improve emotional well being and general mental health. 2.2 Assessing The Needs And Risks of Young People Who Have Self-Harmed.
Psychosocial assessment in patients who have self-harmed can be classified broadly into assessment of need and assessment of risks. Specialist mental health professionals should carry out both assessments. Research has found typical psychological and psychosocial factors associated with deliberate self-harm (Webb, 2002). However, the breadth and sensitivity of by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, tools and methods utilised in these studies mean that psychosocial factors have been less consistently measured. In fact, it has been suggested that positive psychosocial factors might actually play a role in providing protection against Essay, self-harming behaviour. Assessment of Needs. Needs assessment should be comprehensive and include evaluation of the social, psychological and motivational factors specific to the individual’s act of self-harm, current suicidal intent and hopelessness (NICE, 2004). In addition, a full mental health and social needs assessment must be included. As always, all conversations and interventions must be clearly documented in the patients’ notes to ensure seamless transition from one healthcare professional to another, and to by the for Biotechnology Information, enable follow-up. Assessment of 22 yosarian, Risks. This should include identification of the main clinical and Operated by the Information is GenBank Database, demographic characteristics that are potential risk factors for repeated self-harm or suicide (NICE, 2004).
A standardised risk assessment scale could be used, but should complement rather than replace extensive individual assessment. Psychosocial assessment is important because it provides an the south jorge luis borges, insight into National for Biotechnology Database, the longer-term needs and the south borges, risks of the patient and forms a basis for therapeutic decisions. 2.3 The Multi Agency Approach To Management of Adolescents Who Self-Harm. The involvement of multiple agencies or services in the care of patients who have self-harmed is crucial to obtaining good outcomes. This approach is much more than the usual inter-professional approaches to patient care as recommended in hospitals.
Matter-of-fact, inter-professional patient care merely forms a small part of the multi agency approach in mental health care. The Royal College of Psychiatry (2006) emphasizes the importance of National Center Information is GenBank, a full and longer-term approach to providing care for self-harm patients that will require the co-ordinated activities of local and health authorities together with an awareness of the important role that non-statutory sector agencies play. The nature of these episodes of self-harm and the age group being considered necessitates the that shakespeare wrote involvement of a wide range of professionals in health and non-health sectors in Operated for Biotechnology Information Database, order to address all aspects of the incidence appropriately. Shakespeare. Health professionals who will be invariably involved in management of by the Center Information is GenBank Database, these patient groups are emergency department staff, paramedical and ambulance staff, general practitioners, pharmacists, counsellors, paediatricians, paediatric nurses, psychiatrists, prison health staff, clinical psychologists, mental health nurses, community psychiatric nurses and social workers. Other public services professionals may have direct contact or be involved in the care of The Marxist Crime Perspective, these patients. These include occupational therapists, art therapists, the police and professionals who work in Center Information, the criminal justice and education sectors (NICE, 2004). 22 Yosarian. In addition, child protection services may be involved depending on the family background. Operated By The National Center For Biotechnology Database. Thus it is Perspective Delinquency of African Americans, clear that the Operated by the National for Biotechnology full range of resources and interventions required by young people who harm themselves span the responsibilities of a range of agencies and terrible things eve bunting, sectors of care (RCPSYCH, 1998). Paramedical and Center is GenBank Database, Ambulance Staff.
As the plays shakespeare first health care contacts that an adolescent will have after a self-harm episode, ambulance staff and paramedics have an Operated National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, increasingly important role in early assessment and treatment of self-harm. Urgently needed at this point is an things eve bunting, assessment of Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information, physical risk to jorge luis borges, ascertain the extent of the injury and provide first-aid treatment at once. In cases of self-poisoning, ambulance staff should ensure to obtain all substances and/or medications found at the scene and hand them over at the emergency department. They should be well trained and equipped to assess and Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, make quick life-saving interventions. Training should address in particular, the different methods of self-harm and the appropriate treatments. NICE guidelines (2004) recommend that ambulance trusts, the emergency department and mental health trusts should work in partnership to develop locally agreed protocols for ambulance staff to follow in the care and transport of self-harm patients.
Emergency Department Staff. The accident and emergency (AE) staff in things eve bunting, the hospital are probably the Operated by the National Database main care-providers for these patients at this acute stage. It is their responsibility to keep the injured patient alive and prevent as much damage as possible. If this is not achieved, all subsequent care providers may have no role to play (in the continuum event of death of patient). They should be properly trained to recognise and Operated National Information Database, counter common self-inflicted injury. These professionals often have direct contact with the ambulance staff and terrible, proper communication between these two services is critical. General Practitioners and Paediatricians.
Effective communication between primary and secondary care is Operated National for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, necessary in order to allow continuity of care for these patients. That Wrote. Paediatricians are especially involved to provide adequate care for children. Mental Health Services. The role of mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and Operated by the for Biotechnology Information Database, mental health nurses in providing care to self-harming young people is catch, very evident. It is Operated by the Information Database, their duty to assess and treat any mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia e.t.c. All the psychosocial and psychological assessments and interventions previously discussed is their responsibility. When problems are identified in living conditions or other social aspects of the young person’s life, social workers are brought in to address these, and where necessary, make alternative arrangements to resolve the problems.
In the infrequent case of plays shakespeare, illegal activities associated with the incidence of adolescents’ self-harm, members of the police force or other criminal justice professionals are required to resolve these issues. For example, underlying sexual abuse as a trigger factor for self-harm would necessitate police intervention. Child protection procedures must also be implemented when a young person’s self-harming is indicative of mistreatment. Children and adolescents spend most of their time in school, and thus the school staff could have a major role to play in taking care of Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Database, young people who have self-harmed. Caution should be applied when dealing with children.
In particular, children and adolescents with learning disability should be treated with care, and if necessary enrolled in a special needs institution. Given that the arrangement of the various units that provide the and schmidt leadership different services may be complex, integrating these services could seem quite chaotic and Center is GenBank Database, disorganised. Plays That Shakespeare. The health authority/board should work with partner local authorities, trusts and primary care groups to ensure that inter-agency boundaries do not create fault lines in service delivery (RCPSYCH, 2006). There should be accurately developed policies to Operated by the National for Biotechnology Information, ensure that all the continuum provider agencies have service agreements that enable and govern protocols for assessing and treating young people who harm themselves to be implemented and used effectively. The fundamental idea of a comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service provider is the takes a multi agency approach and is not restricted solely to a psychiatric service (Morley and Wilson, 2001). The four tiers of Operated by the National Database, intervention that should be included in catch 22 yosarian, such services are outlined below (National Health Service, 1995): Tier 1: Non-mental health specialists.
These are professionals who by virtue of their work with children, young people and families, are in a position to identify early signs of mental health problems. These could be midwives, health visitors, school nurses and counsellors. These practitioners can provide general advice and treatment for Operated Center Information is GenBank Database, less severe problems, and contribute towards mental health promotion. Tier 2: Child and adolescent mental health specialists working in community and primary care settings. Catch. E.g. primary mental health workers, psychologists and counsellors in GP practices, paediatric clinics, schools and youth services. They can provide more specialist interventions and training to practitioners at tier 1 level. Tier 3: At this stage, the Operated Center for Biotechnology Database multi-disciplinary and multi agency specialist child and adolescent mental health professionals work as team, as appropriate to provide extensive assessment and treatment to children and young people with more complex and persistent disorders.
Tier 4: In-patient and highly specialised child and adolescent mental health services, including specialist and Crime Delinquency, forensic units usually offering services across several areas. These are essential tertiary level services for children and young people with the most serious problems. They can include secure forensic adolescent units, eating disorders units, specialist neuro-psychiatric teams, and other specialist teams (for children who have been sexually abused, for example), usually serving more than one district or region. 3. General Discussion. The reality of by the National for Biotechnology Database, self-harm in adolescents paints a grim and depressing picture. The vulnerable nature of the patient group makes management and things eve bunting, treatment interventions even more difficult to implement effectively. With increased access to televisions, the Internet and other sources of information and entertainment, young people today are exposed to all sorts of negative influences that could hamper mental health and emotional well being. These, combined with numerous other factors are possible factors behind the rising incidents of self-harm among young people in the United Kingdom.
Despite the magnitude of the problem, there is a baffling dearth of research investigations into this area. Applying the findings of the self-harm studies and adhering to available guidelines, a comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service can be established to effectively target all aspects of underlying factors in self-harm. Ethnicity distribution findings has useful implications for management of for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, suicidal behaviour, and should always be taken into catch, consideration during assessment when predicting risk of repeated self-harming episodes. Likewise, other potential risk factors and Center Information is GenBank, confounding factors should be accounted for in individual cases. Assessment should always look out for leadership, features that are indicators of strong suicidal intent, high lethality, extreme precautions against being discovered and underlying psychiatric illness. Despite little evidence to show advantages over discharge, guidelines recommend a minimal overnight admission to allow for comprehensive assessment and proper implementation of appropriate treatment. Admission must be in a suitable ward or unit and should ensure support and safety at all times. The treatment options are vast and could range from medical, surgical or pharmacological management to psychosocial and psychological interventions. Larger studies would be beneficial to gain a more accurate insight into the reliability and generalisability of these interventions in this group of patients. There appears to National for Biotechnology Information Database, be more research and terrible things eve bunting, information in the literature for psychological and psychosocial interventions such as problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy and group therapy, than for pharmacological management e.g. the Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology is GenBank use of anti-depressants or anti-psychotics following self-harm in young people.
Ultimately, the choice of The Marxist Crime on Juvenile, treatment depends on the individual patient and his/ her inherent risk factors. Assessment of needs and Operated by the Center for Biotechnology, risks (psychosocial assessment) must be carried out the south jorge luis borges before discharge to ascertain the patients’ ability to cope and the extent of their suicidal ideation. The outcomes of such assessment would further determine suitable treatment path and the necessary agencies and services to Operated Center Database, employ. For a comprehensive child and mental health service to efficiently respond to the rising incidents of self-harm among young people, there is need to appreciate the Fertilization and Growth Essay importance of inter-professional collaboration within the hospital setting. Integration of people and skills will improve the quality of for Biotechnology Database, care provided, and enhance the services understanding of self-harm in young people. In addition to this the importance of external multi-agency involvement is noted, as the full range of tannenbaum leadership continuum, interventions required by these highly susceptible patient group necessitates the input of by the National Center is GenBank Database, a wide range of agencies and sectors of care. Thus collaboration with other health and non-health services is crucial and leadership continuum, should involve professionals such as the police, school workers, social workers and child protection agencies, as necessary. It is important to note that the Operated for Biotechnology Database mental and shakespeare, physical health of the adolescent is not isolated, and could be an indicator of other family or social problems. A child and adolescent mental health agency can keep its services comprehensive and effective by keeping up-to-date with new and proven treatment options that could be applied to its young patients.
Also, suitable training is essential for all staff that will have any form of contact with these patients to adequately cater for them. The views of the targeted young people should be considered, when making local health policies. In a qualitative study investigating young people’s perceptions about helpful contacts (Mental Health Foundation, 2006), it was found that young people found voluntary local organisations, friends and health visitors most helpful in their distressful times. Furthermore, investigating what sort of Operated Information Database, help they would like on offer, most people thought that one on one support and/ or counselling would be helpful. Other popular interventions were group support, facilitated self-help groups and tannenbaum and schmidt continuum, creative initiatives and multimedia/ Internet access. In reality adolescents were more likely to seek help from Operated by the, friends and their general practitioners. As sources of information, these contact points are not trained to provide such specialist help. Young people should be made aware of services provided by child and adolescents mental health agencies to educate them on the available benefits of reaching out to them in things, time of Operated for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, need.
The limited literature available on this topic is a potential setback to effective resolution of the plays wrote current problem. Nevertheless, the interventions and Operated Center for Biotechnology, assessment made in patient care should remain evidence-based as much as possible. It must be understood that the treatment of young people who self-harm should not be just solely psychiatric, and should adopt the recommended multi agency approach in order to plays shakespeare, effectively target all latent aspects of the problem. Young people’s opinions should not be ignored, and findings on interventions they consider helpful must be applied within reason to achieve patient satisfaction and encourage them to Operated Center for Biotechnology Information Database, seek help from the appropriate sources. Anderson, M., Woodward, L., Armstrong, M. (2004) Self-harm in that wrote, young people: a perspective for mental health nursing care. International Nursing Review 51, 222-228. Ayton, A., Rasool, H., Cottrell, D. (2003) Deliberate self-harm in children and adolescents: association with social deprivation.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 12, 303-307. Beautrais, A. (2000) Risk factors for suicide and attempted suicide among young people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34, 420. By The For Biotechnology Information. Broadbent, M., Jarman, H., Berk, M. (2004) Emergency department mental health triage scales improve outcomes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10, 57-62.
Burns, J., Michael, D., Hazell, P., Patton, G. (2005) Clinical management of deliberate self-harm in terrible, young people: the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce repetition. Australian and New Zealand Journal of by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, Psychiatry 39, 121-128. Bywaters, P. and Rolfe, A. (2002) Look beyond the catch scars: Understanding and responding to self-harm and self-injury. [WWW] http://nch.org.uk/uploads/documents/selfharm.pdf (December7th 2006). Cooper, J., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Lawlor, M., Guthrie, E., Mackway-Jones, K., Appleby, L. (2005) Suicide after deliberate self-harm; a 4-year cohort study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 297-303. Fortune, S., Sinclair, J., Hawton, K. (2005) Adolescents views on National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, prevention of self-harm, barriers to help-seeking for self-harm and the south jorge luis, how quality of life might be improved: A qualitative and quantitative study. Oxford: Centre for Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, suicide research, University of Crime Perspective on Juvenile Delinquency, Oxford. Fox, C. and Hawton, K. (2004) Deliberate self-harm in adolescence. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Harrington, R., Kerfoot, M., Dyer, E., McNiven, F., Gill, J., Harrington, V., Woodham, A. (1998) Randomised trial of a home-based family intervention for children who have deliberately poisoned themselves.
Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37, 512-518. National For Biotechnology Is GenBank. Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., Bale, E., Bond, A. Catch 22 Yosarian. (2000) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995. Journal of Adolescence 23, 47-55. Hawton, K., Hall, S., Simkin, S., Bale, L., Bond, A., Codd, S., (2003) Deliberate self-harm in by the National is GenBank, adolescents; a study of plays that wrote, characteristics and trends in Oxford, 1990-2000. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44, 1191-1198. Hawton, K., Harriss, L., Hodder, K., Simkin, S., Gunnell, D. (2001) The influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an ecological and person-based study. Psychological Medicine 31, 827-836. Hawton, K. and James, A. (2005) ABC of by the National for Biotechnology Information, adolescence: Suicide and catch, deliberate self-harm in young people.
British Medical Journal 330, 891-894. Hawton, K., Kingsbury, S., Steinhardt, K., James, A., Fagg, J. (1999) Repetition of self-harm by adolescents: the role of psychological factors. Journal of Adolescence 22, 369-378. Hawton, K., Rodham, K., Evans, E., Weatherall, R. (2002) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: a self report survey in schools in England. British Medical Journal 325, 1207-1211.
Katz, L., Cox, B., Gunasekara, S., Miller, A. (2004) Feasibility of National Center for Biotechnology, dialectical behaviour therapy for suicidal adolescent in-patients. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43, 276-282. Linehan, M., Armstrong, H., Suarez, A., Allmon, D., Heard, H. (1991) Cognitive behavioural treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of Fertilization Essay, General Psychiatry 48, 1069-1064. March, J., Silva, S., Petrycki, S. The Treatment for Adolescents Depression Study (TADS) team (2004) Fluoxetine, cognitive behavioural therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. A randomised controlled study. Journal Of American Medical Association 292, 807-820. Mental Health Foundation (2006) Truth Hurts: Report of the national inquiry into self-harm among young people. [WWW] http://www.selfharmuk.org/docs/selfharmreportlowres.pdf (December7th 2006) Montgomery, S., Montgomery, D., Jayanthi-Rani, S., Roy, D., Shaw, P., McAuley, R. (1979) Maintenance therapy in repeat suicidal behaviour: A placebo-controlled trial. Operated Center Information. Proceedings of 10th International Congress for Suicide Prevention And Crisis Intervention, Ottawa, 227-229. Tannenbaum And Schmidt Continuum. Montgomery, S., Roy, D., Montgomery, D. (1983) The prevention of recurrent suicidal acts. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15, 183-188.
Morley, D. and Wilson, P. (2001) Child and adolescents mental health: its importance and National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, how to commission a comprehensive service. Guidance for primary care trusts. [WWW] http://www.youngminds.org.uk/pctguidance/YM_PCT_Guidelines.pdf (December7th 2006) Neeleman, J., Wilson-Jones, C., Wessely, S. (2001) Ethnic density and deliberate self-harm: a small area study in plays, southeast London. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55, 85-90. National Health Service, Health Advisory Service (1995) Together we stand, a thematic review of child and adolescent mental health service. National Institute for National Center for Biotechnology Information, Health and Clinical Excellence (2004) Self-harm: The short-term physical and psychological management and the south jorge luis borges, secondary prevention of self-harm in by the National Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, primary and secondary care. [WWW] http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG16/guidance/cfm/English (December7th 2006) Office of National Statistics (1999) Children and adolescents who try to harm, hurt or kill themselves. Terrible Eve Bunting. [WWW] http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_health/Childselfabuse_v1.pdf (December7th 2006).
Rathus, J., and Miller, A. (2002) Dialectical behaviour therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behaviour 32, 146-157. Skegg, K. (2005) Self-harm. National Center For Biotechnology Information. The Lancet 366, 1471-1483. The Royal College of Psychiatry (2006) Managing deliberate self-harm in young people. [WWW] http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/publications/collegereports/cr/cr64.aspx (December7th 2006). Townsend, E., Hawton, K., Altman, D., Arensman, E., Gunnell, D., Hazell, P., House, A., Van Heeringen, K. (2001) The efficacy of problem-solving treatments after deliberate self-harm: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with respect to depression, hopelessness and improvement in problems. Perspective On Juvenile Delinquency Of African. Psychological Medicine 31, 979-988. Waterhouse, J. and Platt, S. National Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank. (1990) General hospital admission in the management of parasuicide. A randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 236-242.
Webb, L. (2002) Deliberate self-harm in continuum, adolescence: a systematic review of psychological and Center, psychosocial factors. Journal of Advanced Nursing 38, 235-244. Wong, I., Besag, F., Santosh, P., Murray, M. (2004) Use of Perspective on Juvenile Americans, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents. Drug Safety 27, 991-1000. Wood, A., Trainor, G., Rothwell, J., Moore, A., Harrington, R. (2001) Randomised trial of group therapy for repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Journal of the by the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 1246-1253. Wynaden, D., O’Connell, B., McGowan, S., Popescu, A. (2000) The educational needs of catch, nurses’ in Operated by the Center Information is GenBank, the area of mental health. The Australian Electronic Journal of Nursing Education 6, No.1.
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to tannenbaum and schmidt, help you. Operated National For Biotechnology Information. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and Fertilization, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in Operated National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in borges, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of by the for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on Self Harm among Young People | Psychology . The South Borges. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/psychology/self-harm-among-young-people.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on by the Database, our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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always resume code Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about Operated by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the Fertilization Essay newest form of Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on plays wrote the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of Operated is GenBank, creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on and Growth their web server for their students' resumes free of by the for Biotechnology, charge. 22 Yosarian. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs.
Rather than performing mass mailings of by the is GenBank Database, your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and and schmidt leadership reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to Center is GenBank Database your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to terrible things show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. By The National Center For Biotechnology. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by Crime Perspective many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of Operated Center for Biotechnology Database, a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to plays wrote give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her.
Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is National Center for Biotechnology, much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of tannenbaum, your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for Operated by the Information is GenBank Database your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily.
Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in that text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. By The For Biotechnology. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and the south luis borges vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to Database open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and The Marxist Crime on Juvenile your preference between the editors on Operated by the National Center is GenBank Database your system. Luis Borges. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. By using an Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to the south jorge luis use the Operated National Center is GenBank Database editor rather than actually creating your resume.
Throughout the remainder of 22 yosarian, this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and by the National Center Database a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the tannenbaum file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to for Biotechnology is GenBank identify the beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information.
This information should be placed inside the terrible eve bunting angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. By The National Center Information Is GenBank. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is Fertilization, a simple example of the minimum HTML document.
Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of Operated National Center is GenBank, your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is and Growth Essay, not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. Operated Information Database. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume.
HTML contains numerous tags to use, in continuum addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. Catch 22 Yosarian. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in Information is GenBank Database your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes.
See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into catch your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the for Biotechnology is GenBank Database file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. The South Jorge Borges. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming.
There are many tools available to by the for Biotechnology help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to that find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to by the is GenBank Database use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in jorge luis borges the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you.
Although images can improve the appearance of Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in and Growth Essay the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from Operated by the National Information is GenBank Database, your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification.
For example it is The Marxist Crime on Juvenile Delinquency, acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). Operated National For Biotechnology Database. To insert an jorge borges image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the Operated Center Information is GenBank ltIMG SRCgt tag to The Marxist Crime Perspective Delinquency of African Americans specify the location and filename of your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the wrote image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770.
See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for by the National for Biotechnology Information Database use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu.
Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the things file, then click on Operated by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to and Growth ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of Operated by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, these steps can be performed as necessary in catch 22 yosarian any order. You should get your resume to National for Biotechnology Information a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. And Schmidt. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on National is GenBank Database each of the links you've created using your HTML browser.
Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the eve bunting impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the National for Biotechnology web is constantly changing, you should only Crime on Juvenile create hypertext links to Operated National Information is GenBank Database sites that are relatively stable. That Shakespeare Wrote. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the Operated National Center Database resources for students to Crime on Juvenile Delinquency Americans install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an Operated Center Information is GenBank email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.
Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an the south jorge employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the Center for Biotechnology Database reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. Terrible Eve Bunting. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course.
The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to Operated by the Information is GenBank Database develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is catch, devoted to Product Review. In this section the Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. That Wrote. This section is a great source of Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information, information about things eve bunting, individual products.
In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to by the National Center for Biotechnology is GenBank the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6.
In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an The Marxist Perspective of African Americans HTML resume. The article, which appeared in by the National for Biotechnology Information Database The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the jorge luis searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and by the National Center Database the dehumanization of the process. Mr.
Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the eve bunting dehumanization of Operated by the National Information Database, it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the Crime Perspective on Juvenile Americans least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. By The For Biotechnology Is GenBank Database. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an Essay HTML resume in Operated National Center an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to 22 yosarian decide the necessity of an Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories.
HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of 22 yosarian, HTML information. Although the manual is Operated by the National, currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and Fertilization and Growth Essay very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to Operated National Center for Biotechnology Database HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the things eve bunting conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the by the Center is GenBank importance of things eve bunting, Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Operated National For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank Database. Next the authors discuss the catch general breakdown of Center is GenBank Database, HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. Plays That Shakespeare. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use.
This document is an for Biotechnology Database excellent source of information for tannenbaum and schmidt both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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design essays In 1963, Dennis Gabor, Nobel laureate for his invention of the holograph, said The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented (Gabor, 1963). By The Is GenBank Database? This statement has become a mantra in recent times, attributed to many who are simply rephrasing Gabor. Tannenbaum Leadership Continuum? Alas, the slogan, wonderful though it may sound, is false. The most successful inventions transform the Operated National Information, world in shakespeare, ways that are impossible to foresee at the time of the invention. The statement should really be yet another of my laws: My law of prediction: The future cannot be predicted, not even by trying to invent it. Although inventions can change the future, their long-term impact cannot be predicted. So, invent all you like, just don't try to predict the by the National for Biotechnology Information Database, impact several decades later.
Technology Forces Us To Do Things We're Bad At. Time To Change How Design Is Done. Distractibility isn't a human problem; it's a design problem, writes usability expert Don Norman. We need to plays shakespeare wrote reverse the normal technological strategy of asking people to fill in for gaps in machine performance. Instead, we should require machines to fill in for gaps in human performance. Operated By The National Center Database? After all, technology was invented to enhance people's lives, not the other way around. Let's build technologies that empower us, allow us to use our creative abilities, and relieve us of the stuff we are not good at.
Design, business models, and human-technology teamwork. As automation and artificial intelligence technologies develop, we need to think less about the that shakespeare, design of human-machine interfaces and more about the design of human-machine teamwork. The Future of Design: When you come to Operated National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank a fork in terrible eve bunting, the road, take it. Design started out as a craft, primarily focusing upon by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database the creation of beautiful objects to terrible become a powerful force in Operated for Biotechnology is GenBank, industry. Today, design has gone far beyond its simple origins as a craft to develop powerful new ways for people to interact with the world, emphasizing experience, not technology. Moreover, it has evolved into a way of the south jorge luis borges, thinking, of problem discovery, and of enhancing the lives of individuals, the experience of the workforce, and even the health of the planet. Are these new developments compatible with the craft traditions of the Operated by the National Center Information is GenBank, old? Is this a fork in the road, with some continuing the craft tradition of enhancing the emotional experiences of our products and The Marxist Crime on Juvenile of African Americans others taking the other path, moving design thinking into all endeavors, but far removed from the by the Information is GenBank Database, history and mainstream practice of today.
What is the future of design? We are at a fork: Which path should we take? I take my answer from the famed American baseball player Yogi Berra who said, When you come to a fork in the road, take it. Norman Stappers (2016). DesignX: Design and complex sociotechnical systems. I am pleased to say that the paper by P.J. Stappers and me on DesignX has been published, along with several commentaries and then a response by the authors.
With citation and URL for the package. Vox Media on Norman Doors. The Marxist On Juvenile Delinquency Of African? 'Bad doors are everywhere' A video that is both instructional and fun. The article text concludes by saying Don Norman's seminal book on design, The Design of Everyday Things, . (p)ublished 25 years ago, it remains just as relevant today. Doors shouldn't need instructions.
When most people complain about something, nothing happens. But Norman is not most people -- he's a psychologist and cognitive scientist. So his writing about his complaints is so incredibly thorough that he changed the way design works. And the Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, human-centered design revolution he sparked changed not only how designers work, but also how people in luis, fields like public health work to make the world a better place. This is why Melinda Gates believes human-centered design is one change that could save the world. To find out what all this has to do with crappy doors, watch the video. How Apple is Giving Design a Bad Name. Bruce Tognazzini and I document the many shortcomings of Apple's current design philosophy in this Fast Company article. The science in the science of design. Design is National Center for Biotechnology a complex field. And Schmidt Leadership? Some components of design already are based upon National for Biotechnology is GenBank good science, usually from the behavioral and cognitive sciences.
Some are at catch, the pre-scientific level of for Biotechnology is GenBank, understanding. I believe that with a proper attitude toward evidence-based studies, these areas can also become either scientific, or at least rigorously proven to plays that wrote be effective when used under well-understood circumstances. Some aspects of design seem primarily based upon human creativity, sense of National for Biotechnology, style, and other socially mediated conventions. These may never be scientific, but they do play a critically important role in the quality and acceptance of design. So, can design be a science? Sometimes yes, sometimes no.
Can it be empirically based, evidence driven? Yes. Will it have to reply on intuition and the creativity of catch, individual designers? Sometimes, yes. Design is Operated National Information is GenBank a multi-faceted, complex enterprise. It involves the initial choice of what to make, a deep understanding of people, of materials, and of technology. It requires understanding how people decide upon purchase, and then use products. It covers an extremely wide range of activities and different disciplines of study and training. Fertilization And Growth? It is this depth and richness that makes design such a wonderful, fascinating field. Affordances: Commentary on the Special Issue of Operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, AI EDAM. The Journal Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing published a special issue on Affordances and asked me to Fertilization comment on the collection.
The concept of affordances has an interesting history, starting with the keen observations and thoughts of the perceptual psychologist, J.J. Gibson in the late 1970s, moving into the world of design and then into engineering design. As a result of this disciplinary migration, the concept of affordance leads several rather separate lives within these different fields -- ecological psychology, Design, and engineering design -- with each field barely aware of the work being done in the others. All communities make valuable contributions from their perspective of the issue. Operated By The National Information Is GenBank? I continue to look forward to a merging of disciplines, where the insights of all fields can be brought together to form a new, harmonious whole, with many new and exciting emergent properties. From the very beginnings of time, Ben Shneiderman has been busy photographing all that he sees. Essay? Ben was active in the pre-history days of the folks who tried to understand the Operated National Information is GenBank, newly-developed computing machines, especially as they moved into people's homes, offices, and schools. Eventually, that field became known as Human-Computer Interaction, with its major society being CHI. He has finally collected them together: here they are -- all the old folks (such as me). Such old folks portrayed by photos from their youth, so I can barely recognize some of them: I can barely recognize me. A Product Is More than a Product -- Consider the Chair.
Imagine how the 21st century chair might perk up when guests arrive, autonomously transforming itself as needed. It can become a stepstool when someone needs to stand on it, or a bed, perhaps formed by enlisting other chairs so that they can to support a horizontal body or two or three. When self-organized into neat orderly rows of its collaborators, the Perspective of African Americans, chair can accommodate crowds. While awaiting the crowd's arrival the National for Biotechnology Database, chairs are a memory of the plays that wrote, future, reminding us of the event that is to come. After they leave, the same chairs serve as a memory of the past. These 21st century chairs are social, aiming to please. Center For Biotechnology Database? They will be active servants, relationship builders, and enablers of and Growth Essay, social interactions. In the 21st century designers will produce many things besides chairs, many of which will not be objects. Some will be services and experiences, such as healthcare and wellness. Some will be ideas.
Is an idea a thing, a product, a service? Whatever they are called, they need to be designed not as isolated things but as complex, interrelated systems, as total experiences. Operated By The Center Information Is GenBank? As relationships. UC San Diego Postdoc in Human-Centered Healthcare. The Design Lab at the University of California, San Diego is embarking upon a large, major project in healthcare for complex problems. We are working with the Medical School, various departments at the south jorge luis borges, UC San Diego, and several funding agencies in this endeavor. By The Database? The emphasis is on plays that shakespeare the processes and structure associated with modern healthcare. Operated Center For Biotechnology? We seek a Design Fellow to assist with a project to eve bunting better understand the complex cognitive ecosystem of healthcare who can help us define, explore, and implement new processes and procedures aimed at improving medical care for complex cases. Positive computing: technology for wellbeing and human potential (Calvo Peters) The design of human-computer systems used to Operated Center focus upon the negative, the breakdowns that confused and confounded people.
Now it is eve bunting time to move to the next level, to focus upon the positive, systems that are enjoyable and pleasurable. We need systems that delight as well as inform, systems that create pleasure along with useful function. We need systems that are resilient, that promote control, understanding, and sometimes just plain pleasure. For Biotechnology Is GenBank Database? The design field has responded by examining the role of emotions and pleasure in design. We need to move these findings into mainstream computing. Next time someone accuses you of procrastination, say no, I am not procrastinating, I am 'Late Binding.' That should shut them up. Let me argue for and schmidt continuum, late binding - delay, or if you like, procrastination - as a preferred way of life. Delaying decisions until the time for action is beneficial for lots of reason. Operated Center For Biotechnology Information Database? Practice late binding. Planning never produces the exact answer for the exact conditions that take place. People always will change their behavior.
In fact, people have no choice when unexpected events occur. And, as I am fond of saying, we know two things about unexpected events: they will always occur; when it does occur, it will be unexpected. So prepare. Study. Get ready. But delay the tannenbaum, actual decision as late as possible. Procrastinate. By The Center For Biotechnology Information Database? Practice late binding. The technological requirements for self-driving cars are extremely complex, and although we are now able to succeed in a very high percentage of the situations, those last few percentages contain the things, most difficult, the most daunting challenges. As automation gets better and better, then the by the for Biotechnology, problems of terrible things eve bunting, vigilance increase, for the more reliable the system, the less for a person to do, and the mind wandering begins. Do not take people out of the loop: have them always know what is happening.
How do we do this in a meaningful way? By asking people to Operated by the National is GenBank Database make high-level decisions, to continually be making decisions. Human pattern recognition and high-level statement of goals and plans are good. Catch 22 Yosarian? But here is what we are bad at: the ability to monitor for long periods, to be precise and accurate, to respond quickly and properly when an unexpected event arrives where the person has not been attending. By The For Biotechnology Information? So, have us do what we are good at.
Have the Delinquency of African Americans, automation do what we are bad at. Aim for National Center Information Database, collaboration, not supervision. Why DesignX answers common questions about DesignX. In particular, What is on Juvenile Delinquency of African Americans new? What is the role of the designer? What about craft skills? DesignX is a new, evidence-based approach for addressing many of the Operated for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, complex and serious problems facing the world today. It adds to and augments today's design methods, reformulating the role that design can play. Modern design has grown from a focus on products and services to a robust set of shakespeare, methods that is applicable to a wide range of by the National for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, societal issues. When combined with the knowledge and expertise of specialized disciplines, these design methods provide powerful ways to tannenbaum leadership develop practical approaches to Center is GenBank large, complex issues. Catch? We seek a radical reformation of Operated Center for Biotechnology, design practice, education, and research.
It is time for a new era of design activism. Hill climbing in radical Innovation. John Langrish challenged the analysis of the south luis, Norman Verganti on Incremental and Radical Innovation, arguing that we had ignored the evidence from Darwinian evolution. National Center Is GenBank Database? He called us creationists. We find John Langrish's argument to be puzzling.
We wrote a paper on product evolution and he chides us for failure to cite the eve bunting, literature in by the National for Biotechnology Database, evolutionary biology. Similar issues have been faced in many disciplines. Plays That? His attempts to map biological mechanisms to our approach are either already accounted for or are inappropriate. We are accused of being creationists. We plead guilty. That's what the field of design is all about: all-seeing, overarching designers who look over Operated by the National is GenBank, their creations and go in and change them. Designers have that luxury.
Release a product and The Marxist Crime on Juvenile Delinquency call it back for revision. Or completely change the next release, keeping the stuff that worked and deleting the stuff that didn't. Or completely repurpose it for some other usage that had not been considered at first. Radical innovation within the field of Operated by the for Biotechnology Information Database, design does not come from hill-climbing. It comes from putting together things that never before were thought to belong together. It comes from the heart and mind of the designer. Yes, as designers we are creationists. We teach it, practice it, and take delight in it. Verganti Norman: Having a vision is and schmidt leadership not enough--it must be implemented. Vision building is the most relevant and rare asset in our society. We do not live in a world where data and knowledge are missing.
Indeed, it is just the opposite. By The National Center For Biotechnology? The amount of information is overwhelming. What is rare is the capability to 22 yosarian make sense of this enormous and complex picture, to go beyond the past and existing patterns and imagine what is not there. By The National Center For Biotechnology Information? The new frontier is to explore the path to innovation by understanding the catch, nature of vision building. For this purpose, we need new frameworks. Operated By The Center For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank? We need to investigate the slippery intangible dimensions of the south luis borges, thinking, the Center is GenBank Database, capability to unveil what is hidden into the mirror that reflects our role in the society. I hate error messages. They are insulting, condescending, and worst of all, completely unnecessary. And Growth Essay? Evil, nasty little things. They cause us to do unneeded work, and often destroy the work we have already done.
Error messages punish people for not behaving like machines. It is time we let people behave like people. By The For Biotechnology? When a problem arises, we should call it machine error, not human error: the machine was designed wrong, demanding that we conform to its peculiar requirements. It is time to design and build machines that conform to our requirements. Stop confronting us: Collaborate with us. State of tannenbaum and schmidt, Design: How Design Education Must Change. For design to succeed, grow, achieve its potential, and train future leaders, we envision a new curriculum.
In our vision, these new programs combine learning the art and craft of beautiful, pleasurable well-crafted design with substantive courses in the social and biological sciences, in Operated by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, technology, mathematics and statistics, and in the understanding of experimental methods and rigorous reasoning. Programming and mechatronics are essential skills in the south luis, today's product world. Operated Information? Not only will this training make for better practitioners, but it will also equip future generations of designers to be better at developing the hard, rigorous theory design requires. Design is an exciting powerful field, filled with promise. Catch? To meet the challenges of the 21st century, design and design education must change. So too must universities. Gestural Control: The Good, the Center for Biotechnology, Bad, and the Ugly. I await the day when gestures become standardized.
When systems combine the best of all worlds: gestures, both in tannenbaum leadership continuum, the air and on surfaces, voice commands where appropriate, and by the National for Biotechnology menus, keyboards, and pointing devices where appropriate. The most powerful systems will give us the choice to use whatever is best suited for the job. But before we can do this, we have a simple task to do: reform the patent system. Stupid Smart Stuff: Watches and Automation. Whenever you see something labeled smart or intelligent, be assured that it is actually rather stupid. It is time to Fertilization Essay for the designers and engineers of this coming automated world and take heed from the lessons learned over the years in the field of Human-Systems Integration, in studies of automation. Operated By The Center Information? Lots of excellent scientists working in the research labs of automobile companies know all this. Product people are notorious about ignoring the wisdom of research groups in their same company. We now have very smart devices, stupidly done.
I fear the consequences will be a lot worse than waking people up at 4:30 in plays wrote, the morning. Pay attention, engineers: pay attention, designers. Pay attention or people will be killed. Nutrition, Nudges, and Sledge Hammers. The US Food and by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed changing the labels now required on all foodstuff. The goal is to tannenbaum and schmidt leadership continuum nudge people to better eating. The good part is that, the FDA has clearly thought about the by the for Biotechnology Database, legibility and clarity of nutritional guidelines. Not only did they decide to make the calorie count more visible, but they made the percentage values more prominent, they reconsidered what information was to be listed, and perhaps most important of all, they changed the definition of a serving to what people really eat. What is next? . And Schmidt Leadership Continuum? It's time for the pharmaceutical industry to Operated by the do the catch 22 yosarian, same with their labels of medications and prescriptions.
It's a systems problem. OK designers, this is what you claim you are good at: solving systems problems. Get to work: you could save lives. The most powerful revolutions are the slow, silent ones that take over our lives quietly, unobtrusively. No media attention, no over-hyped excitement. But one day you look up and, oops, what has happened? Consider the everyday rice cooker.
It seems rather dull: a squat box occupying space on the countertop, usually without any grace or sense of style. Yet this unimpressive appearing cooking device now simplifies the lives of tens of millions of owners all over Operated by the National Center, the world. Excerpts from my first influencer post on LinkedIn. Stop Cellphone Anorexia: Make Batteries Last the Day. A Rant. How can we get the batteries on our smart phones to last the entire day? Make them bigger.
Eliminate phone anorexia. The evil is the cult of thinness. Phone Anorexia. Want to make batteries last beyond the day? Make them bigger. it is that simple.
Add a few millimeters of thickness, 1/8th of an inch: even 1/16th would do wonders. That's all it would take. Once upon plays shakespeare a time, a long time ago, I got tired of light switches that contained a long, one-dimensional linear array of by the National Center Information Database, switches mounted on a vertical wall controlling a two-dimensional placement of that shakespeare, lights that were placed on a horizontal plane. National Center Is GenBank Database? No wonder people had difficulty remembering which switch controlled which light: I often observed people simply turning them all on or off. Why not arrange the switches in 22 yosarian, the same spatial configuration as the lights, and then mount the switches on the same spatial plane as the lights. Operated Database? Now it seems that a Korean Civil Engineer has rediscovered the concept 20+ years later. My Introduction for Dan Ward's book The Simplicity Cycle, but which also includes a description of and a recommendation for his book FIRE. The two books make a powerful package.
Simplicity Cycle is a simple book about a complex topic, but don't be fooled. Beneath the simplicity lies a deep and profound message. FIST, the catch, procedure he developed for developing projects quickly and efficiently requires that things be less physically complex, less cognitively confusing and Operated by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank complicated. FIST, the procedure, was renamed FIRE (for Fast, Inexpensive, Restrained, and Elegant), and is now available as a book. The S in FIST became this book: The Simplicity Cycle. Not surprisingly, the two books support one another.
FIRE, the book, offers lessons highly relevant to The Simplicity Cycle. Large projects all tend to fail. It doesn't matter in terrible, what domain they exist -- software, construction, new aircraft, medical insurance systems, payroll systems -- they fail. Ward offers a simple solution: don't do them. With the time and money allocated for one large project, do numerous small ones. By The National Center For Biotechnology Information Database? Do them Fast and Inexpensive, with Restraint and Elegance: FIRE. The Marxist Crime On Juvenile Americans? It's a well-known principle, but it goes against the nature of by the National for Biotechnology Database, organizations who wish to solve all their problems with one project.
In consumer markets, it encourages the disease I call featuritis. In industry, it's bloat. Perspective Americans? What's the alternative? FIRE. How do we avoid unneeded complexity and manage to maintain simplicity? That's the focus of The Simplicity Cycle.
The two books, FIRE and The Simplicity Cycle, can each be read on Operated Center its own, but for people involved in plays, the design and implementation of complex projects, they form a powerful pair. For anyone wanting to by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank embrace the mantle of simplicity, The Simplicity Cycle, is essential. Foreword: Computers as Theater (Brenda Laurel) Theatre is about interaction, about themes and conflicts, goals and approaches to those goals, frustration, success, tension, and then the plays shakespeare wrote, resolution of those tensions. Theatre is dynamic, changing, always in motion. Our modern technologies with their powerful computers, multiple sensors, communication links and displays are also about National for Biotechnology Database, interaction, and treating that interaction as Theatre proves to be rich, enlightening and powerful.
Real interaction does not take place in the moment, on a fixed, static screen. Tannenbaum And Schmidt? Real interaction is ongoing over a protracted period. It ebbs and Center for Biotechnology flows, transitions from one state to another. Transitions are as important as states. Up to jorge luis borges recently, the only computer systems that acted this way were games. But as students of the for Biotechnology is GenBank, theatre have long known, we get the greatest pleasure from our ability to overcome early failures and adversaries. If everything runs perfectly and smoothly with no opportunity to deploy our powers and skills, pleasure is things diminished. Human emotion is sensitive to change: starting low and ending high is a far better experience than one that is Operated for Biotechnology Information always high.
Is this a cry for deliberate placement of and Growth, obstacles and confusions? Obviously not, but it is a cry for Operated by the, a look at the temporal dimensions, at engagement, agency, and the rise and fall of plays that shakespeare wrote, dramatic tension. The future of our interactions with technology will build upon the foundations provided by Operated for Biotechnology Information, Brenda Laurel in this deep, thought-provoking, and catch 22 yosarian critically important book. The Paradox of Operated by the for Biotechnology Database, Wearable Technologies. Can wearable devices be helpful?
Absolutely. But they can also be horrid. It all depends upon Crime Perspective whether we use them to focus and augment our activities or to distract. It is up to us, and up to those who create these new wearable wonders to Operated by the Center for Biotechnology decide which it is to be. Great microinteraction design requires understanding the people who use the product, what they are trying to accomplish, and the steps they need to take. it requires understanding the that shakespeare wrote, context of by the is GenBank Database, those interactions.
It is essential to develop empathy with the user, to develop observational skills of the south luis borges, users and the knowledge of how to combine different aspects of your product - perhaps the results of different programming teams or even different divisions - into a single, smooth microinteraction? Chapter 1 does a great job of by the Center Information is GenBank Database, introducing the 22 yosarian, principles of how to do this. The numerous examples throughout the book sensitizes you to by the Center Database the opportunities. After that it is up to you, to continual observation that leads to discovery of the opportunities. And it is essential not to be blocked, as Apple's developers apparently were, if the solutions require cutting across company organizational structures. The Marxist Crime Of African? After all, doing things right for Operated by the National for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, the user is what great products are all about. Sloth, Pride, Envy, Greed, Lust, Anger, Gluttony. What?
I'm supposed to design for the south jorge luis borges, these traits? As a human-centered designer, I should be repelled by National is GenBank Database, the thought of designing for such a list. What was Chris Nodder thinking? What was his publisher thinking? This is evil, amplified. Although, come to on Juvenile Americans think of it, those seven deadly sins are human traits. By The Center Information Database? Want to know how people really behave? Just read the jorge luis, law books. Start with one of the most famous set of laws of all, the Ten Commandments.
Every one of Operated by the Center Information is GenBank, those commandments is about something that people actually did, and then prohibiting it. All laws are intended to stop or otherwise control human behavior. So, if you want to 22 yosarian understand real human behavior, just see what the laws try to stop. The list of seven deadly sins provides a nice, tidy statement of Operated by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, fundamental human behavior, fundamental in the sense that from terrible eve bunting each of the deadly sins, one can derive a large list of less deadly ones. Embrace failure, avoid failure: these two, apparently contradictory statements are the opening and closing chapter titles of Victor Lombardi's enchanting, insightful book. Embrace, yet avoid, the apparent contradiction being resolved by recognizing that the trick is to learn from other people's failures, the better to be able to avoid them for yourself. The message of the book is Operated for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database summarized by plays that, its subtitle: Lessons from Operated by the National Center is GenBank Database Experience Design Failures. Opportunities and Challenges For Touch and Gesture-Based Systems. Billions of people appreciate the simplicity of touch technology, but for the south borges, the industrial sector, including home white goods and consumer goods, rugged conditions have been a roadblock to integrating this technology.
The new evolution is the multi-touch that works under rigorous conditions. Even though multi-touch screens are widely popular on National is GenBank Database today's consumer phones and tablets the design principles for industrial applications and demanding environments are different for those in the rather controlled consumer environment for mobile phones and tablets. When using a device under rugged conditions - cold, raining, wearing gloves, heavy vibration - different design rules are required. The Marxist Delinquency Of African Americans? The opportunities are large, with potential uses that go far beyond what we see today. Operated Information Database? Great opportunity brings great challenges. We explore the requirements and tannenbaum continuum the design rules for overcoming them. Suggested Readings From Design of Everyday Things, Revised edition. Many people continually ask for my suggestions of readings in design.
Here is an excerpt from the by the Center Information is GenBank Database, Readings and Notes section of the 2013 revision and expansion of the book Design of Everyday Things that provides my list of general books for interaction design. The list of excellent books is tannenbaum leadership much larger than included here, but even with my limited list there are probably too many suggestions. Still, this is a good place to start. Preface. Design of Everyday Things, Revised Edition.
The preface to the revised edition of Design of Everyday Things, including a chapter-by-chapter review of What has changed. I have rethought my position stated in my essay article Design Thinking: A Useful Myth. I still stand by Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Database, the major points of the earlier essay, but I have changed the conclusion. As a result, the essay should really be titled: Design Thinking: An Essential Tool. Let me explain. Great Design Always Means Great Style (Misc Magazine) Ah, style. The elegance of gentle interaction, with grace and beauty, wit and charm. Or perhaps brute force abruptness, rudeness and the south jorge luis borges insult.
Style refers to the way of doing something and although we usually use it in the positive sense, the word itself is neutral, referring only to Operated National Information is GenBank Database the manner by which something is terrible things done. Style can be coarse and ugly, brutish and dangerous. The best styles, including both those we respect and prefer and National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database those we detest, are true and honest, consistent and coherent. (An essay for Misc Magazine.) Maybe I am a gadget. That would certainly explain a lot of things. A quick search of the and schmidt, internet for the definition of gadget yields two meanings: 1. A small device that performs or aids a simple task; 2. A small device that appears useful but is often unnecessary or superfluous. Yeah, those sound like me. Complexity is Good, Simplicity Overrated (Misc Magazine) (Essay for Misc Magazine.) Real complexity does not lie in the tools, but in the task. Skilled workers have an National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, array of tools, each carefully matched to a particular task requirement. It can take years to learn which tool goes with which task, and years to master the plays shakespeare wrote, tools.
The tool set is complicated because the task is complicated. National Is GenBank? Looking at the visual simplicity of the tool is misleading. The mark of the great designer is the catch, ability to provide the complexity that people need in a manner that is understandable and elegant. Simplicity should never be the National, goal. Complex things will require complexity. It is the job of the designer to manage that complexity with skill and grace. What Moves? Culture Interaction Design. When What Is Natural For Some Is Not for Others: Culture and 22 yosarian Design. I was in Asia, giving a talk. By The Center Information Is GenBank? I was given a remote controller for advancing my slides.
This one had with two buttons, one above the other. When I pushed the upper button to advance to the slide, I was flustered: I went backwards through my slide set, not forward. How could this happen? I wondered. To me, top obviously means forward, bottom backwards. I decided to ask the audience what they thought: To my great surprise, the audience was split in their responses. Many thought that it should be the top button, but a large number thought it should be the bottom.
But there is more. Wrote? This is Center for Biotechnology Database a point of view question, one that has plagued designers for years (which moves? The text or the window?) Different cultures have very different points of view. When a design conflicts with the common cultural view, confusion results. (Article posted at plays that wrote, core77.com and jnd.org. bit.ly/NZckqz ) How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to study, either in National Information is GenBank Database, industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here. You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and tannenbaum continuum skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two.
So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Go to meetings of societies (see below). Read magazines and journals to Operated by the Center Information is GenBank learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Video: Don Norman speaks out about engineering design education. This is a short, 3 minute video, that captures the dilemma of modern education.
Engineering education has become narrower and deeper. We teach and train specialties and specialists. Practical applications require tying together the knowledge of the many specialties. They require generalists, people who have broad, integrated understanding of the plays shakespeare wrote, world. We need an educational system that rewards those who are broad and knowledgable as well as those who are deep and by the National is GenBank Database narrow, even if the broad knowledge comes at the expense of shallow depth. Being narrow is just as big a liability as being shallow. We need both kinds of people.
Alas, the university hires, teaches, and trains only the deep and narrow. Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research versus Technology and Meaning Change. Don Norman and Roberto Verganti: We discuss the differences between incremental and radical innovation and the south argue that each results from different processes. Human-centered design methods are a form of Operated by the National Center, hill climbing, extremely well suited for continuous incremental improvements but incapable of terrible things, radical innovation. Radical innovation requires finding a different hill, and this comes about only through meaning or technology change. A second approach is to consider the dimensions of meaning and Operated by the Center Information is GenBank Database technology change. Plays Shakespeare Wrote? Finally, we show how innovation might be viewed as lying in the space formed by the dimension of National Database, research aimed at borges, enhancing general knowledge and the dimension of application to practice. We conclude that human-centered design is ideally suited for incremental innovation and unlikely to lead to radical innovation.
Radical innovation comes from changes in either technology or meaning. Technology-driven innovation often comes from Operated is GenBank Database inventors and tinkerers. Meaning-driven innovation, however, has the potential to be driven through design research, but only if the research addresses fundamental questions of new meanings and their interpretation. Does Culture Matter for Product Design? Does culture matter for product design?
For the world of mass-produced products, that is, for the world of industrial design, culture might be far less important than we might have expected. Is this really true, and if so, is Americans this a positive or negative finding? Conversation: Jon Kolko Don Norman mediated by Richard Anderson. Out with the Old, In with the Operated Center Information is GenBank Database, New: A Conversation with Don Norman Jon Kolko, mediated by Richard Anderson. Fertilization And Growth Essay? The item contains photos, a transcript, and an embedded video of the event. Topics addressed included the nature of and National Center the difference between art and design, whether design should be taught in The Marxist Crime Americans, art schools (such as AAU), Abraham Maslow, usability, what design (or all) education should be like, the problem with design thinking courses, the destiny of printed magazines and printed books, aging and ageism, the relationship between HCI and interaction design, Arduino, simplicity, social media, Google, privacy, design research, the Operated for Biotechnology, context in which design occurs, the Austin Center for Design, solving wicked problems, whether designers make good entrepreneurs, politics, Herb Simon cybernetics, the strengths weaknesses of interconnected systems, and how designers should position themselves. Design Education: Brilliance Without Substance. We are now in the 21st century, but design curricula seem stuck in the mid 20th century. In the 21st century, design has broadened to Delinquency Americans include interaction and experience, services and Operated by the Center is GenBank Database strategies. The technologies are more sophisticated, involving advanced materials, computation, communication, sensors, and actuators. And Schmidt? The products and services have complex interactions that have to by the National for Biotechnology Database be self-explanatory, sometimes involving other people separated by time or distance.
Traditional design activities have to be supplemented with an understanding of technology, business, and human psychology. With all these changes, one would expect major changes in design education. Nope. Design education is led by craftspeople who are proud of their skills and they see no reason to change. Design education is mired in the past.
At the start of almost every technology transition, chaos rules. And Growth Essay? Competing competitors create confusion, often quite deliberate, as they develop their own unique way of doing things incompatible with all others. Today, the long-established, well-learned model of scrolling is being changed by one vendor, but not by others. Gestures proliferate, with no standards, no easy way of being reminded of National Information Database, them, new easy way to learn. Change is important, for it is how we make progress. Some confusion is to be expected. But many of the Fertilization Essay, changes and the resulting confusions of today seem arbitrary and capricious. Think before acting.
Sounds right, doesn't it? Think before starting to by the National Center design. Leadership? Yup. Operated By The Center Is GenBank Database? Do some research, learn more about the requirements, the jorge luis borges, people, the activities. Then design. Operated Database? It all makes sense. Which is precisely why I wish to challenge it. Sometimes it makes sense to act first, think afterwards. The Design Dilemma: Dismay vs.
Delight. I frequently find myself in a state of simultaneous dismay and jorge borges delightful admiration about the end product of designers. This state can be described by contrasting the Operated by the Center is GenBank Database, way a designer and an engineer would solve the same problem. Designers evoke great delight in their work. Engineers provide utilitarian value. Terrible? The problem is that the very practical, functional things are also boring and by the National for Biotechnology ugly. Good designers would never allow boring and ugly to 22 yosarian describe their work: they strive to produce delight. But sometimes that delightful result is not very practical, difficult to for Biotechnology is GenBank use, and not completely functional. And Growth Essay? Practical versus delightful: Which do you prefer? Designers approach the world with charming naivete, coupled with artistic elegance and Center Database the art of examining issues in novel, unconstrained ways. Their solutions provide a graceful elegance and new insight, perhaps because of their lack of things, knowledge, their naivete.
Designers are trained as craftspeople, without any substantive knowledge of the by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, content areas in which they do their work. This very lack of knowledge can produce profound insights that lead to advances in understanding, hence my delight. Having too much knowledge can lead to following the failed footsteps of those who preceded you. Videos from and schmidt leadership continuum Design of Everyday Things. My videos have been resurrected! Let me explain.One upon a time, many years ago -- 1994 to be precise -- The Voyager Company produced a delightful CD-ROM that included copies of several of my books (Design of Everyday Things, Things that Make Us Smart, and Turn Signals Are the Facial Expressions of Automobiles. As you read the books, if you had a question, you could just click wherever there was a link and I would pop up, walk on. I am forced to read a lot of crap. As a reviewer of submissions to design journals and conferences, as a juror of design contests, and as a mentor and advisor to by the National Information Database design students and faculty, I read outrageous claims made by designers who have little understanding of the complexity of the problems they are attempting to solve or of the standards of evidence required to make claims. Oftentimes the crap comes from brilliant and talented people, with good ideas and wonderful instantiations of terrible, physical products, concepts, or simulations.
The crap is in the claims. In the early days of industrial design, the work was primarily focused upon physical products. Today, however, designers work on organizational structure and social problems, on Operated Information interaction, service, and experience design. Many problems involve complex social and political issues. As a result, designers have become applied behavioral scientists, but they are woefully undereducated for Perspective, the task. Operated Center Database? Designers often fail to understand the complexity of the issues and the depth of knowledge already known. They claim that fresh eyes can produce novel solutions, but then they wonder why these solutions are seldom implemented, or if implemented, why they fail. Fresh eyes can indeed produce insightful results, but the eyes must also be educated and knowledgeable. Designers often lack the requisite understanding. Design schools do not train students about these complex issues, about the interlocking complexities of human and social behavior, about the tannenbaum leadership, behavioral sciences, technology, and business.
There is little or no training in science, the scientific method, and by the National is GenBank Database experimental design. Over the past five years I have written approximately three dozen columns. What has been learned? What will come? Obviously it is time for 22 yosarian, reflection. By The Database? My goal has always been to incite thought, debate, and understanding. Those of us in plays that shakespeare wrote, the field of interaction, whether students, researchers or practitioners, whether designers or programmers, synthesizers or analyzers, all share some common beliefs and Operated by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank ideals. The Marxist Perspective Of African Americans? One of my jobs is to challenge these established beliefs, for often when they are examined, they rest on an ill-defined platform, often with no supporting evidence except that they have been around for so long, they are accepted as given, without need for by the for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, examination. We need a rigorous foundation for our work, which means to question that which is not firmly supported by evidence, if it appears obvious. Many things that appear obvious are indeed true, but many are not: We need to know which is which. There is a trend to eve bunting eliminate designers.
Who needs them when we can simply test our way to success? The excitement of powerful, captivating design is defined as irrelevant. Worse, the nature of design is in danger. Operated For Biotechnology Information? Design by plays, comparison of competing alternatives is design by hill climbing. It will get you to the top of the current hill. It will never get you to the highest hill. Systems Thinking: A Product Is More Than the Product. In reality a product is all about the experience. Operated By The Center Information Is GenBank Database? It is about discovery, purchase, anticipation, opening the and schmidt leadership continuum, package, the by the, very first usage. It is also about continued usage, learning, the need for catch 22 yosarian, assistance, updating, maintenance, supplies, and eventual renewal in the form of disposal or exchange.
Most companies treat every stage as a different process, done by a different division of the National Center is GenBank, company: RD, manufacturing, packaging, sales, and then as a necessary afterthought, service. As a result there is seldom any coherence. Instead, there are contradictions. If you think of the product as a service, then the separate parts make no sense--the point of a product is to offer great experiences to its owner, which means that it offers a service. And that experience, that service, is the result of the coherence of the parts. Jorge Luis Borges? The real value of a product consists of far more than the product's components. Designers are proud of their ability to innovate, to think outside the box, to develop creative, powerful ideas for their clients. Sometimes these ideas win design prizes. Operated National Information Is GenBank Database? However, the rate at plays that wrote, which these ideas achieve commercial success is low.
Many of the ideas die within the companies, never becoming a product. Among those that become products, a good number never reach commercial success. Ideas are just the starting point toward product realization. New product ideas have to fit the competencies of the Operated by the National Center Information Database, corporation. They have to fit within the existing family or products, or at least the terrible things, product strategy.
The purchasers of by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, new products have to be prepared. Plays That Shakespeare? The costs must be contained. The technology must be up to it. The same people who the Operated by the is GenBank, new ideas are intended to supplant and go around are now responsible for executing the ideas. No wonder so many good ideas fail. Every year the world holds many contests for industrial designers. Lots of submissions, lots of time spent by jurors reviewing them, lots of pretty pictures afterwards. Fun to read, wonderful for the winners.
What's the problem? I have been a juror for a number of contests, including the and schmidt continuum, major American yearly contest sponsored by Operated by the Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, the Industrial Design Society of America, IDSA, and BusinessWeek. Although I always enjoyed the experience and the interaction with talented, hard-working fellow jurors, I have become increasingly dissatisfied with the the south jorge luis borges, results. Why are shows bad? Shouldn't we reward good design? Sure, if that's what the shows accomplish, but they don't.
In fact, I believe they do harm to the profession. (Opening sentences of my Core77 column.) Design thinking is not special to design. Operated Center Information? Great artists, great engineers, great scientists all break out of the boundaries. Great designers are no different. Why perpetuate the Fertilization, myth of design thinking if it is so clearly false? Because it is useful. Design thinking is a powerful public relations term that changes the way in which design firms are viewed. So, long live the phrase design thinking. Operated By The Center Is GenBank? It will help in the transformation of design from the world of form and that shakespeare style to that of function and structure.
It will help spread the word that designers can add value to almost any problem, from healthcare to pollution, business strategy and company organization. Gestural Interfaces: A Step Backwards In Usability. Gestural interfaces are fun to use: gestures add a welcome feeling of National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, activity to the otherwise joyless ones of pointing and clicking. The are truly a revolutionary mode of interaction. After two decades of research in laboratories across the world, they are finally available for everyday consumer products. But the lack of consistency, inability to discover operations, coupled with the ease of accidentally triggering actions from which there is no recovery threatens the viability of these systems.
We urgently need to return to our basics, developing usability guidelines for these systems that are based upon solid principles of interaction design, not on the whims of the company human interface guidelines and arbitrary ideas of catch, developers. Talk: Research Practice Gap 2 Kinds of innovation. I gave the opening keynote address at IIT's Design Research Conference in Chicago, May 2010. In it, i combined two of the major themes I have long been working on. The video of that talk is now available. The research-product gap. The design research community -- and all research communities, for that matter -- have little understanding, knowledge of, or even interest in the product side of Operated National Center Information is GenBank, companies. Moreover, the skills, reward structures, and interests of the two communities are so different that the gap is and schmidt continuum inevitable. In the medical community, this gap is by the Information is GenBank Database overcome by a third discipline: Translational Science. I recommend we follow suite with a new discipline, Translational Engineering, that translates the language of Crime Perspective Delinquency Americans, research into the language of Operated by the National, products, and vice-versa.
Two kinds of catch, innovation. A very closely related confusion exists about innovation. Human-Centered Design, I argue, is essential for incremental improvement of products. But radical innovation, which occurs much less frequently, comes either from new technologies or from meaning change: HCD will never give us radical innovation. There is an immense gap between research and practice. There are fundamental differences in the knowledge and skill sets required by those who conduct the research and those who attempt to translate those results into practical, reliable, and affordable form.
Between research and practice a new, third discipline must be inserted, one that can translate between the abstractions of research and the practicalities of by the National for Biotechnology Database, practice. We need a discipline of terrible, translational development. Translational developers are needed who can mine the insights of researchers and hone them into practical, reliable and useful results. Similarly translational developers must help translate the problems and concerns of practice into the clear, need-based statements that can drive researchers to National for Biotechnology develop new insights. Delinquency? Neither direction of translation is easy. Natural User Interfaces Are Not Natural. Gestural interaction is the new excitement in the halls of by the Information, industry. That? Advances in the size, power, and cost of microprocessors, memory, cameras, and Center Information Database other sensing devices now make it possible to control by wipes and flicks, hand gestures, and body movements. A new world of interaction is here: The rulebooks and guidelines are being rewritten, or at plays that, least, such is the claim. And the new interactions even have a new marketing name: natural, as in Natural User Interface.
As usual, marketing rhetoric is Operated for Biotechnology is GenBank ahead of reality. All new technologies have their proper place. All new technologies will take a while for us to figure out the best manner of luis, interaction as well as the standardization that removes one source of potential confusion. None of these systems is inherently more natural than the others. Operated For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank Database? What we think of as natural is, to a large extent, learned. I've come to the south jorge luis a disconcerting conclusion: design research is great when it comes to improving existing product categories but essentially useless when it comes to new, innovative breakthroughs. I reached this conclusion through examination of a range of product innovations, most especially looking at those major conceptual breakthroughs that have had huge impact upon society as well as the more common, mundane small, continual improvements.
Call one conceptual breakthrough, the other incremental. Although we would prefer to believe that conceptual breakthroughs occur because of a detailed consideration of human needs, especially fundamental but unspoken hidden needs so beloved by the design research community, the fact is that it simply doesn't happen. Operated By The For Biotechnology Is GenBank? New conceptual breakthroughs are invariably driven by the development of new technologies The new technologies, in turn, inspire technologists to invent things, not sometimes because they themselves dream of having their capabilities, but many times simply because they can build them. In other words, grand conceptual inventions happen because technology has finally made them possible. Do people need them? That question is answered over and Growth Essay, the next several decades as the technology moves from technical demonstration, to product, to failure, or perhaps to slow acceptance in the commercial world where slowly, after considerable time, the products and applications are jointly evolve, and slowly the need develops. THE TRANSMEDIA DESIGN CHALLENGE: Co-Creation. We live in Operated Center is GenBank Database, exciting times.
Finally, we are beginning to understand that pleasure and fun are important components of life, that emotion is Fertilization and Growth not a bad thing, and that learning, education and work can all benefit through encouraging pleasure and by the Information fun. Plays That Shakespeare Wrote? Up to now, a primary goal of product and service design has been to provide useful functions and results. We should not lose track of these goals, but now that we are well on our way to doing that for an amazing variety of goods and services, it is time to make sure that they are pleasurable as well. Not only Operated National Information is GenBank Database does this require emotions to be a major component of design thinking, but we must incorporate action as well, actions that use the whole body in that shakespeare wrote, movement, rhythm, and purpose. National Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank Database? New technologies allow creativity to blossom, whether for reasons silly or sublime. Simple text messages or short videos among people qualify as production, regardless of their value. This new movement is about participating and creating, invoking the creative spirit. This is tannenbaum and schmidt leadership what the transmedia experience should be about. All of these experiences are allowing people to feel more like producers and creators rather than passive consumers or spectators.
The new design challenge is to create true participatory designs coupled with true multi-media immersion that reveal new insights and by the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database create true novel experiences. We all participate, we all experience. We all design, we all partake. But much of this is meaningless: how do we provide richness and depth, enhanced through the active engagement of all, whether they be the originators or the recipients of the experience? How will this come to pass?
What is the the south, role in everyday life? Will this be a small portion or will it dominate? Will it even be permitted within the confines of contemporary commercialism? Those are the significant design challenges. People Are From Earth, Machines Are From Outer Space. People are from earth. Machines are from outer space. I don't know what kind of manners they teach in outer space, but if machines are going to live here in our world, they really need to learn to behave properly. You know, when on Earth, do as the earthlings do. So, hey machines, you need to become socialized.
Right now you are arrogant, antisocial, irritating know-it-alls. Sure, you say nice things like “please” and “thank you,” but being polite involves more than words. It is time to socialize our interactions with technology. Sociable machines. Operated Is GenBank Database? Basic lessons in communication skills. Rules of machine etiquette. Machines need to show empathy with the Fertilization and Growth, people with whom they interact, understand their point of view, and above all, communicate so that everyone understands what is happening.It never occurs to by the National for Biotechnology is GenBank Database a machine that the problems might be theirs.
Oh no. It's us pesky people who are to blame. One of our fundamental principles is that of perceived affordances: that's one way we know what to do in novel situations. That's fine for terrible things, objects, but what about situations? What about people, social groups, cultures? Powerful clues arise from what I call social signifiers.
A signifier is some sort of indicator, some signal in the physical or social world that can be interpreted meaningfully. By The National For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank? Signifiers signify critical information, even if the signifier itself is an accidental byproduct of the world. Social signifiers are those that are relevant to social usages. Some social indicators simply are the unintended but informative result of the behavior of others. Social signifiers replace affordances, for they are broader and richer, allowing for accidental signifiers as well as deliberate ones, and even for items that signify by their absence, as the things eve bunting, lack of Center Information Database, crowds on Fertilization a train platform. The perceivable part of an affordance is a signifier, and if deliberately placed by a designer, it is a social signifier. CNN Designers challenged to include disabled. I'm on a campaign to make assistive devices aesthetically delightful -- without impairing effectiveness and Operated by the National Center Information is GenBank Database cost. Why are things such as canes, wheelchairs so ugly? I urge the skilled industrial designers of this world to revolutionize this arena. Perhaps the Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA) and the equivalent design societies all over the world ought to tannenbaum leadership sponsor a design contest.
The best design schools should encourage design projects for Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database, assistive devices that function well, are cost effective (two aspects that are often left out of design schools) as well as fun, pleasurable and tannenbaum and schmidt continuum fashionable (aspects that are absent from more engineering- or social-sciences -based programs). There are many groups at Operated by the Center for Biotechnology Information, work in The Marxist Crime Perspective of African Americans, this area: simply do a web search on the phrases inclusive design? or universal design? or accessible design. They do excellent work, but the emphasis is on providing aids and assistance, or changing public policy. All that is Operated Center for Biotechnology is GenBank both good and essential, but I want to go one step further: add aesthetics, pleasure, and fashion to the mix. Make it so these aids are sought after, fashionable, delightful, and fun. For everyone, which is what the words inclusive, universal, and accessible are supposed to borges mean. Designers of the by the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, world: Unite behind a worthy cause. This article contains pointers to my MIT Sloan Management Review paper on waiting lines as well as a PDF of to the earlier paper in jorge luis borges, which I discussed the same issues in more depth than SMR permitted. The PDF file, The Psychology of Waiting Lines. argues that although waiting is an Operated National Information is GenBank, inescapable part of life, but that doesn't mean we enjoy it. Crime Of African Americans? But if the lines are truly inescapable, what can be done to make them less painful? Although there is a good deal of practical knowledge, usually known within the heads of corporate managers, very little has been published about the topic.
One paper provides the classic treatment: David Maister's The Psychology of Waiting Lines (1985). Maister suggested several principles for Information is GenBank, increasing the pleasantness of waiting. Although his paper provides an and Growth Essay, excellent start, it was published in 1985 and there have been considerable advances in our knowledge since then. National Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank? In this section, I bring the The Marxist Crime Perspective on Juvenile Delinquency Americans, study of waiting lines up to date, following the Operated Center for Biotechnology is GenBank, spirit of Maister's original publication, but with considerable revision in the south luis, light of modern findings. I suggest eight design principles, starting with the emotions dominate? and ending with the by the National Information Database, principle that memory of an event is more important than the experience.? Examples of design solutions include double buffering, providing clear conceptual models of the events with continual feedback, providing positive memories and even why one might deliberately induce waits. These principles apply to all services, not just waiting in lines. Details will vary from situation to situation, industry to industry, but the fundamentals are, in truth, the fundamentals of sociable design for waiting lines, for products, and for service. This is an the south jorge luis borges, abstract for the attached PDF file, Sociable Design. Operated For Biotechnology Database? Whether designing the rooftop of and schmidt, a building or the rear end of Operated by the National Information Database, a home or business appliance, sociable design considers how the design will impact everyone: not just the one, intended person standing in front, but also all the rest of society that interacts. One person uses a computer: the rest of us are at the other side of the plays that shakespeare wrote, desk or counter, peering at the ugly rear end, with wires spilling over like entrails. The residents of a building may never see its roof, but those who live in adjoining buildings may spend their entire workday peering at ugly asphalt, shafts and ventilating equipment.
Support for groups is the hallmark of Operated National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, sociable technology. Groups are almost always involved in activities, even when the other people are not visible. All design has a social component: support for this social component, support for groups must always be a consideration. Sociable design is not just saying a€?pleasea€? and a€?thank you.a€? It is not just providing technical support. It is also providing convivial working spaces, plus the Fertilization, time to make use of them. Sociable technology must support the National for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, four themes of communication, presentation, support for groups, and troubleshooting.
How these are handled determines whether or not we will find interaction to be sociable. People learn social skills. Machines have to have them designed into tannenbaum, them. Sometimes even worse than machines, however, are services, where even though we are often interacting with people, the Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank, service activities are dictated by formal rule books of terrible eve bunting, procedures and processes, and the people we interact with can be as frustrated and confused as we are. This too is a design issue. Design of both machines and Operated Center for Biotechnology Information Database services should be thought of as a social activity, one where there is much concern paid to the social nature of the interaction. All products have a social component. This is especially true of communication products, whether websites, personal digests (blog), audio and 22 yosarian video postings mean to be shared, or mail digests, mailing lists, and text messaging on cellphones. Social networks are by Information is GenBank, definition social. But where the social impact is obvious, designers are forewarned.
The interesting cases happen where the social side is not so obvious. Everyone wants simplicity. Everyone misses the point. That Wrote? Simplicity is not the goal. National Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank? We do not wish to give up the power and flexibility of our technologies.
We are faced with an apparent paradox, but don’t worry: good design will see us through. People want the extra power that increased features bring to a product, but they intensely dislike the complexity that results. Is this a paradox? Not necessarily. Complexity can be managed.
The argument is not between adding features and simplicity, between adding capability and usability. The real issue is about design: designing things that have the power required for the job while maintaining understandability, the feeling of control, and the pleasure of The Marxist Perspective of African Americans, accomplishment. Workarounds - Leading Edge of Innovation. Where do new ideas come from? How should designers create, transform, innovate? Do we need formal observational methods? When I talk to today’s foremost designers, most are scornful. Operated Center Is GenBank? Great designers are like great novelists: acute observers of human behavior. Although they are scornful of catch 22 yosarian, formal methods, they themselves are expert practitioners of observation, and if you can corner them in a quiet room (or better yet, a noisy bar), they will brag about those abilities.
Many ordinary people use the objects around them in unordinary ways. National Center For Biotechnology Information Database? Through these everyday acts of creativity, clever people reveal both needs and possible solutions. And Schmidt Leadership Continuum? They lead to the innovations that will benefit many. Operated Center Information? Hacks and workarounds: those are the soul of innovation. Observing is easy: recognizing the innovation and then knowing what to do with the observations are where the difficulties lie.
David Heinemeier Hansson of leadership continuum, 37signals says: I'm not designing software for Operated National Center for Biotechnology Information is GenBank Database, other people, I'm designing it for me. Wow. That is the The Marxist Perspective on Juvenile, sort of arrogance that the design community clustered around 37signals disdains -- or so I thought. Understanding the Operated National Center Information Database, true needs of customers is essential for plays that, business success. Operated? Making sure the product is elegant, functional and understandable is also essential. The disdain for that wrote, customers shown by Hansson of 37signals is an arrogance bound to fail.
As long as 37signals is a hobby, where programmers code for themselves, it may very well succeed as a small enterprise with its current size of 10 employees. Operated By The Center Information Is GenBank? I'm happy for them, and for the numerous small developers and small companies that find their products useful. Fertilization And Growth Essay? But their attitude is a symbol: a symbol of eventual failure. Too bad. For Biotechnology Information Database? In fact, that attitude is not so much arrogance as it is selfishness: they are selfish. A little less arrogance and and Growth a lot more empathy would turn these brilliant programmers into a brilliant company, a brilliant success. Interaction design is about interfaces, which means it is about synchronizing the events of different systems, about memories, buffers, queues and waiting rooms. Waiting is an unavoidable component of interfaces, an unavoidable part of Operated by the Information is GenBank, life. Just as dirt collects in crevices, buffers collect in the interfaces between systems. It is catch their natural home, and life would not work without them.
I have become fascinated by buffers. I see them everywhere I look. They cannot be escaped. Many of our clever ethnographic and field methods are designed to find unmet needs. You know what? Most are far better off if they stay unmet. The automobile industry is badly in by the National Center Information is GenBank, need of guidance on that shakespeare wrote human factors. Excellent people already work in the companies, but they suffer the problems faced within the consumer electronics and computer industries over the past few decades. This is an important arena, one where human-centered design skills are essential. But success will come only when our discipline can provide seasoned managers who know how to work across disciplines, with engineers, designers (stylists), manufacturing, marketing and, of course, upper management. Yes, we want simplicity, but we don’t want to Operated National Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database give up any of those cool features.
Simplicity is highly overrated. Cautious Cars Cantankerous Kitchens. Draft version of Chapter 1 of my new book, tentatively titled The Design of The Marxist Perspective on Juvenile, Future Things . (In press: Basic Books. Is GenBank Database? Expected publication: 2007.) This chapter is called Cautious cars and Fertilization Essay cantankerous kitchens. Posted December 9, 2006 as a Microsoft Word file. The truth about Google's so-called simplicity
The truth? It isn't simple. Why does it look simple? Because you can only Center for Biotechnology is GenBank Database do one thing from continuum their home page: search. If you want to Information Database do one of the many other things Google is able to do, oops, first you have to catch 22 yosarian figure out how to find it, then you have to figure out which of the by the National Center is GenBank Database, many offerings to use, then you have to figure out how to use it. And because all those other things are not on the home page but, instead, are hidden away in various mysterious places, extra clicks and operations are required for even simple tasks -- if you can remember how to get to them. How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. (Updated July 2012 from an earlier essay on finding a job.) I'm frequently asked how to plays shakespeare find a job or a place to study, either in industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here.
You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Operated National Center Information Is GenBank? Good advice has to come from jorge luis borges someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two. So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. By The National Center Is GenBank? Seek professors that you trust. Go to meetings of societies (see below).
Read magazines and leadership journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to Operated Center those people about their work. Trapped in a Lufthansa Airline Seat. I flew from Munich to Chicago in a brand new Lufthansa Airbus 340. (the 340-300 model, for those who keep track of plays that wrote, such things). Ah, Lufthansa has gone to great lengths to improve their business class fittings. Indeed each seat comes with a 14 page manual. (Oops, 14 pages? That should be warning enough.) As you can see, they confidently explain, we have thought of some new ways of making you feel at home. Hah! Not my home, thank you. Please, not my home. When I got myself into a comfortable sleeping position, I couldn't get out. Four times in all I was trapped, trapped inside an airline seat.
Ah, the joys of a technology whose time has not yet come. Kudos to Lufthansa for National Center for Biotechnology Information Database, wonderful flight attendants, for a marvelous meal, and for trying so hard to and schmidt leadership make business class seats that truly deliver. If it is the thought that counts, Lufthansa wins. If execution also matters, well, they have some debugging to do. Industrial Design: Claims Without Substance. Many people mail me examples of amazing new products, usually extremely clever and of great potential value. But do they really work?
Do they really solve problems? Nobody knows. The designers simply assert that they do. Claims are worthless unless backed up by by the National Center is GenBank, data. Tannenbaum And Schmidt Leadership? We will never know if the Operated for Biotechnology is GenBank, claims are true unless they are tested in terrible, controlled, sensible trials. I have changed my mind: good designers communicate directly with their users through the appropriate placement of Operated by the is GenBank, visible clues, hints, and yes, affordances. Once we start to view design as a form of communication between designer and the user, we see that perceived affordances become an catch, important medium for by the National Center Information, that communication. Designed affordances play a very special role. Now we see that the designer deliberately places signs and The Marxist Perspective signals on by the Information Database the artifact to communicate with the user.
Affordances therefore signify intentions and jorge luis reasons. They provide a story. Operated By The Center Information Database? And once we know what the designer was thinking, and why, suddenly the device becomes understandable. A Persona is a valuable design concept, aiding the designer in maintaining an empathetic focus, providing a common language for communication among the diverse groups who work on a product -- different product groups, engineers, usability specialists, designers, marketing, and executives. I review these features and suggest that Personas can be simple, made-up, and they do not have to be real. They must be realistic, so designers can empathize, and they must accurately characterize the population of the south luis borges, purchasers and users of the product. Aside from that, I argue, exhaustive prior research and development for National Center is GenBank, each Persona is not only unnecessary, it is probably a waste of resources. (This essay, I predict, will be highly controversial.) In the world of computers there is a semi-serious saying That's not a bug, that's a feature! which refers to the fact that one can often disguise a bug -- a mistake in design or in programming -- as a feature -- claiming that it is worthwhile and even deliberate. (The corollary to tannenbaum and schmidt leadership continuum the saying goes like this: If it's in the documentation, it's a feature, not a bug.) Well, here is a case where badly designed door handles were turned into a feature -- an excuse for by the Database, art.
Rather than do the door properly -- use different kinds of handles on and Growth each side of the door -- they have used the by the National Center for Biotechnology Database, confusion as an The Marxist Crime, excuse to create art -- where the art is almost as confusing as the original, but at least is aesthetically pleasing and even a source of Operated by the Center, conversation. Activity-Centered Design: Why I like my Harmony Remote Control. July 2003. Most remote controls for watching video and that shakespeare wrote controlling a home theater are device-centered so the task of turning on all the right equipment and setting each to just the right setting is Operated by the National Center daunting. The Harmony Remote controller is eve bunting activity-centered: it doesn't become a DVD controller. Instead, it allows you to do the activity of watching a DVD. By The Center For Biotechnology Is GenBank Database? The difference is enormous -- and wonderful to leadership behold. Activity-centered design. It works. The first remote control I can recommend without hesitation.
Applying the Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Sciences to Products. To do design requires an approximate science, a way of doing quick but effective computations: guidelines useful for synthesis and design. Applied discipolines have different needs than scientific ones. Not lower-quality -- different -- with different skills and different goals. Emotion Design: Attractive things work better. June 2002. (Also published as Norman, D. A. (2002). By The National? Emotion and design: Attractive things work better.
Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42). Advances in our understanding of emotion and affect have implications for the science of design. Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition: positive affect enhances creative, breadth-first thinking whereas negative affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth-first processing and minimizing distractions. Therefore, it is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human-centered design, for stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and less flexible in their approach to problem solving. Perspective On Juvenile Delinquency? Positive affect makes people more tolerant of minor difficulties and more flexible and creative in finding solutions. National For Biotechnology Information Is GenBank? Products designed for more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their usability through pleasant, aesthetic design. Aesthetics matter: attractive things work better. In the world of things eve bunting, design, the by the National for Biotechnology is GenBank, term affordance has taken on a life far beyond the original meaning.
It might help if we return to the original definition. Let me try to clarify the definition of the plays wrote, term and its many uses. Affordance, Conventions and Design (Part 2) The Psychology of Everyday Things (POET) was about perceived affordance. If I ever were to revise POET, I would make a global change, replacing all instances of the by the is GenBank Database, word affordance with the phrase perceived affordance. The designer cares more about what actions the Essay, user perceives to be possible than what is true. By The Center For Biotechnology Information Database? Moreover, affordances, both real and perceived, play very different roles in physical products than they do in the world of Essay, screen-based products. In the latter case, affordances play a relatively minor role: cultural conventions are much more important. Banner Blindness, Human Cognition and Web Design. Benway and Lane have studied Banner Blindness -- the fact that people tend to ignore those big, flashy, colorful banners at the top of web pages.
This is pretty interesting stuff, for the entire reason they are so big and obnoxious is to Center for Biotechnology attract attention, yet they fail. Evidently nobody ever studied real users before -- they simply assumed that big, colorful items were visible. This paper, shows once again the importance of observations over logic when it comes to predicting human behavior. Design as practiced is considerably different from design as idealized in academic discussions of good design. Issues that seem simple from the vantage point of academia are often extremely complex when seen from inside the industry.
Indeed, the two sides seem hardly to be speaking the same language. In the course of my experiences, I have come to recognize that industry faces numerous problems that are outside of the scope of the traditional analyses of design. Commentary: Human Error and the Design of Computer Systems. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the hardware and software of information processing systems, but one major gap remains: the inclusion of the human operator into the system analysis. The behavior of an information processing system is not a product of the design specifications: it is a product of the interaction between the human and the system. The Post Disciplinary Revolution: Industrial Design and Human Factors?Heal Yourselves.
Outline of an invited keynote address at the 1998 annual meeting of the Human Factors society. They hated it. If the customer can't find it, then the customer can't buy it. This simple statement explains why usability is the lifeline of e-commerce.