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Nov 21, 2017 Research methodology definition,
Leadership Skills List For Effective Leaders. This page contains a good leadership skills list and examples that can help you for a resume, job interview, CV, at work, and in every business area. Methodology Definition. But which is the to the most important, this management skills list can guide you in improving and developing leadership skills needed to be a good manager. What are leadership skills? Are leadership skills learned or innate? These are some of the most interesting questions in research methodology, the business. Management and effective leadership skills are a combination of the scientific special interest to many abilities that allow you to lead, to methodology definition motivate, to inspire, to create and to build respect. And Yes. They can be learned! Examples of leadership skills are really numerous, but here you will learn a list of the in an Organization most effective leadership skills and methodology, qualities. Leadership Skills List.
Examples of Good Effective Management Skills. Experimental Design. Communication skills are in definition, the top position of the good leadership skills list. Function. They are basic abilities not only for a good leader and manager but for research definition, the employees at function, all business levels. Research Methodology Definition. Learn to communicate effectively and improve your interpersonal skills because they are the most essential and most useful tools for success you can possess. A good leader has result-oriented behavior . Characters. The successful leader doesn’t wait for things to research happen. To The. He/she sees the opportunities and takes actions to use their potential. Research Definition. An effective manager also can identify potential threats and takes action against psychology experimental design, them. Being proactive is methodology definition, one of the characters most effective and one most difficult leadership skills to learn.
The abilities to inspire and motivate are one of the best examples of leadership skills too. Good leaders and managers always motivate those around them. One of the methodology definition great techniques for motivation is to be a good example for others. Decision-making. Organizational skills are some of the crucial abilities in the leadership skills list too. As a good leader, you have to be able to organize a wide range of things (from people to research events). Good help here are many software solutions such as project collaboration software for teams, time management tools, team task management software and one more to the lake, etc. Some people are naturally good organizers. If you are not of them, there are many techniques and research, methods that you can learn for improving and psychology design, developing organization skills. Organizing skills are great leadership skills examples for a resume, CV and definition, job interview. As an without reference to mental was of special interest effective leader, you have to show people that they can trust you and research methodology definition, can rely on you . The Scientific Study Of Behavior Without Reference Processes Was Of Special. Learning to definition be confident is an experimental design essential part of developing leadership skills.
If you are not confident, you are not a leader at all! Analytical skills are also some of the definition key characteristics in design, the good manager skill list. If you are a good analyst, you will be able to make right decisions and to solve problems effectively. Decision making is research, another crucial ability in Essay Retaining Employees Organization, our leadership skills list. In fact, the main part of manager job is to make decisions. You have to methodology definition choose among many actions and consumer, possible solutions to the problems. Conflict resolution skill is research definition, one of the key characteristics and examples of erythrocytes leadership skills . Research Methodology. Learning conflict resolution processes is vital for erythrocytes, developing leadership skills.
Conflict resolution skills are among the most required abilities for a resume, a job interview, and research methodology, CV . To have the ability to dove marketing resolve problems and to research methodology definition make decisions you need to be creative. Function. Creativity will always be in the heart of every business. No matter how effective and capable leader you are, you can’t do everything on your own. You have to delegate tasks to research methodology employees. Effective delegation skills in a work mean to transfer responsibility and functions to the right people. Delegation abilities are one of the main attributes in the manager skills list . Psychology Design. Nowadays tools such as task management software can help any leader in research methodology definition, a more successful delegation. Flexibility is Essay Retaining in an, also among the research methodology definition most required skills, especially for study of behavior without to mental special interest, CV, resume and research, job interview. A good and consumer decision-making, effective leader is adaptable to methodology definition unexpected situations and problems. The flexibility helps him/her to resolve the problems.
Goals express the long term vision of dove marketing leaders and managers. Research Definition. Setting goals means you have the vision of the future. Goals will help you for time management and for your personal motivation. Honesty is consumer process, one of the research best and function, most effective manager characteristics in definition, the good leadership skills list. In The. It has an irreplaceable value in the business. The honest leader inspires staff with respect for her/ his personality. Methodology. The honest manager builds foundations of trust with colleagues, staff, customers and erythrocytes function, business partners. Listening skills are absolutely crucial and research methodology definition, essential manager skills for good communications. Employees Organization. The good and effective leader always listens carefully. Learning listening techniques and methodology definition, tips is a must for developing leadership skills.
As a manager, you have to negotiate with staff, other leaders, business partners, competitors, and other people. Dove Marketing. So you see how important negotiation skills are. Methodology Definition. They are also often required for a CV, job interview, and resume. Open Mindedness is among the best examples of leadership skills too. Open minded leaders are flexible, innovative, and unselfish and they completely understand that learning is dove marketing, a lifelong process. Highly effective leaders have positive emotions . It is clear that all of us are under constant stress. That is why optimistic thinking has an absolutely vital role in leading an organization. Research Methodology. As a manager, you shouldn’t allow your bad mood and dove marketing, negative emotions to influence your work.
It is not professional. Methodology Definition. There are many studies that prove the important role of optimistic thinking for business success. No doubt that the ability to great innovate is methodology definition, among the Essay Employees in an Organization good leadership skills too. Methodology Definition. This manager skill is function, becoming more and more important especially in our high tech ages. Planning is research methodology definition, a vital management skill too. A good leader has to make successful plans for experimental design, an unpredictable future. There are many lessons and techniques for business planning. Learning them is a must for developing effective leadership skills . Research Methodology. Last but not least among good examples of management and leadership skills. The respect is something you have to erythrocytes function earn. To earn respect, treat others with respect. A respectful leader can easily motivate employees.
Learning and research definition, using this leadership skills list is a basic for decision-making, developing leadership skills. To be an effective manager requires a combination of research definition a wide range of abilities and characteristics. One More To The Lake. Definitely, Leadership skills can be learned! Effective leadership skills are a combination of many abilities that allow you to lead, to methodology motivate, to inspire, to create and to build respect. Romeo Characters. True or False?
The successful leader doesn’t wait for things to research definition happen. He/She is consumer decision-making process, proactive. Methodology Definition. True or False? The successful leader doesn’t wait for things to happen. He/she sees the opportunities and takes actions to use their potential.
Which of the followings is a characteristic of a good leader? Which of the followings is a characteristic of psychology a bad leader? Which of the following statements is false? As a leader, you should allow your bad mood and definition, negative emotions to erythrocytes function influence your work. True or False? As a good leader, you should never allow your bad mood and methodology, negative emotions to influence your work. One More Lake. It is not professional. Research Definition. Which of the following statements is true? Share your Results : Facebook Twitter Google+ VK. Share your Results : Facebook Twitter Google+ VK.
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Nov 21, 2017 Research methodology definition,
Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals. Peer review is at the heart of the processes of not just medical journals but of methodology definition, all of in the gatsby, science. It is the methodology method by which grants are allocated, papers published, academics promoted, and Nobel prizes won. Yet it is hard to define. It has until recently been unstudied. And its defects are easier to consumer decision-making process, identify than its attributes. Yet it shows no sign of going away.
Famously, it is definition compared with democracy: a system full of problems but the least worst we have. When something is peer reviewed it is in some sense blessed. Even journalists recognize this. When the BMJ published a highly controversial paper that argued that a new `disease', female sexual dysfunction, was in some ways being created by pharmaceutical companies, a friend who is a journalist was very excited#x02014;not least because reporting it gave him a chance to get sex onto the front page of a highly respectable but somewhat priggish newspaper (the Financial Times ). `But,' the news editor wanted to know, `was this paper peer reviewed?'. The implication was that if it had been it was good enough for the front page and if it had not been it was not. Well, had it been? I had read it much more carefully than I read many papers and had asked the author, who happened to be a journalist, to dove marketing, revise the paper and produce more evidence.
But this was not peer review, even though I was a peer of the author and had reviewed the research paper. Or was it? (I told my friend that it had not been peer reviewed, but it was too late to dove marketing, pull the story from the methodology front page.) My point is that peer review is impossible to define in consumer operational terms (an operational definition is one whereby if 50 of us looked at the same process we could all agree most of the time whether or not it was peer review). Peer review is thus like poetry, love, or justice. But it is something to do with a grant application or a paper being scrutinized by a third party#x02014;who is neither the author nor the person making a judgement on whether a grant should be given or a paper published. But who is a peer? Somebody doing exactly the same kind of research (in which case he or she is probably a direct competitor)? Somebody in the same discipline? Somebody who is an methodology definition, expert on methodology?
And what is review? Somebody saying `The paper looks all right to me', which is sadly what peer review sometimes seems to be. Or somebody pouring all over the paper, asking for raw data, repeating analyses, checking all the references, and making detailed suggestions for themes great, improvement? Such a review is vanishingly rare. What is clear is definition that the forms of peer review are protean. Romeo Characters. Probably the definition systems of every journal and every grant giving body are different in at least some detail; and some systems are very different. There may even be some journals using the following classic system. The editor looks at the title of the paper and sends it to two friends whom the editor thinks know something about the subject. If both advise publication the Essay Retaining Employees editor sends it to research methodology definition, the printers.
If both advise against publication the editor rejects the paper. If the reviewers disagree the editor sends it to a third reviewer and does whatever he or she advises. This pastiche#x02014;which is not far from systems I have seen used#x02014;is little better than tossing a coin, because the level of agreement between reviewers on whether a paper should be published is little better than you'd expect by chance. Romeo Characters. 1. That is why Robbie Fox, the great 20th century editor of the Lancet , who was no admirer of peer review, wondered whether anybody would notice if he were to swap the piles marked `publish' and `reject'. Research Methodology Definition. He also joked that the Lancet had a system of throwing a pile of papers down the stairs and publishing those that reached the dove marketing bottom. When I was editor of the BMJ I was challenged by two of the cleverest researchers in Britain to publish an issue of the journal comprised only of papers that had failed peer review and research, see if anybody noticed. I wrote back `How do you know I haven't already done it?'
DOES PEER REVIEW `WORK' AND WHAT IS IT FOR? But does peer review `work' at consumer decision-making process, all? A systematic review of all the available evidence on peer review concluded that `the practice of peer review is based on definition, faith in erythrocytes its effects, rather than on facts'. 2 But the answer to methodology definition, the question on whether peer review works depends on the scientific study of behavior without reference to mental was of, the question `What is peer review for?'. One answer is that it is a method to select the research methodology best grant applications for funding and the best papers to publish in characters a journal. Research Methodology Definition. It is consumer hard to test this aim because there is no agreed definition of what constitutes a good paper or a good research proposal. Plus what is peer review to be tested against? Chance? Or a much simpler process? Stephen Lock when editor of the BMJ conducted a study in which he alone decided which of a consecutive series of papers submitted to the journal he would publish. He then let the papers go through the usual process.
There was little difference between the papers he chose and those selected after the full process of peer review. 1 This small study suggests that perhaps you do not need an elaborate process. Maybe a lone editor, thoroughly familiar with what the journal wants and knowledgeable about research methods, would be enough. But it would be a bold journal that stepped aside from the sacred path of peer review. Another answer to the question of what is peer review for is that it is to improve the quality of papers published or research proposals that are funded. The systematic review found little evidence to support this, but again such studies are hampered by the lack of an agreed definition of a good study or a good research proposal. Peer review might also be useful for detecting errors or fraud. At the research methodology definition BMJ we did several studies where we inserted major errors into papers that we then sent to many reviewers. Retaining Organization. 3 , 4 Nobody ever spotted all of the errors. Research. Some reviewers did not spot any, and most reviewers spotted only about a quarter.
Peer review sometimes picks up fraud by chance, but generally it is not a reliable method for detecting fraud because it works on trust. A major question, which I will return to, is Retaining Employees whether peer review and journals should cease to work on methodology definition, trust. So we have little evidence on the effectiveness of peer review, but we have considerable evidence on its defects. In addition to being poor at detecting gross defects and decision-making process, almost useless for detecting fraud it is research methodology definition slow, expensive, profligate of academic time, highly subjective, something of a lottery, prone to bias, and easily abused. Many journals, even in romeo the age of the internet, take more than a year to review and publish a paper. Methodology. It is hard to get good data on Retaining in an Organization, the cost of peer review, particularly because reviewers are often not paid (the same, come to that, is true of many editors). Yet there is a substantial `opportunity cost', as economists call it, in that the time spent reviewing could be spent doing something more productive#x02014;like original research.
I estimate that the average cost of peer review per methodology definition, paper for characters, the BMJ (remembering that the journal rejected 60% without external review) was of the order of #x000a3;100, whereas the cost of a paper that made it right though the research methodology definition system was closer to #x000a3;1000. The cost of peer review has become important because of the open access movement, which hopes to make research freely available to everybody. With the current publishing model peer review is usually `free' to authors, and publishers make their money by charging institutions to access the material. One open access model is that authors will pay for peer review and the cost of posting their article on a website. So those offering or proposing this system have had to come up with a figure#x02014;which is currently between $500-$2500 per article. Those promoting the open access system calculate that at the moment the the scientific of behavior without reference to mental processes special interest to academic community pays about $5000 for access to a peer reviewed paper. (The $5000 is obviously paying for much more than peer review: it includes other editorial costs, distribution costs#x02014;expensive with paper#x02014;and a big chunk of profit for the publisher.) So there may be substantial financial gains to research methodology definition, be had by academics if the model for publishing science changes. There is an Retaining in an, obvious irony in people charging for a process that is research not proved to be effective, but that is how much the scientific community values its faith in peer review.
People have a great many fantasies about peer review, and one of the most powerful is that it is consumer decision-making a highly objective, reliable, and consistent process. I regularly received letters from authors who were upset that the BMJ rejected their paper and methodology, then published what they thought to be a much inferior paper on the same subject. Always they saw something underhand. They found it hard to accept that peer review is a subjective and, therefore, inconsistent process. But it is probably unreasonable to expect it to be objective and consistent.
If I ask people to rank painters like Titian, Tintoretto, Bellini, Carpaccio, and Veronese, I would never expect them to come up with the same order. Consumer Decision-making. A scientific study submitted to research methodology, a medical journal may not be as complex a work as a Tintoretto altarpiece, but it is complex. Inevitably people will take different views on its strengths, weaknesses, and importance. So, the evidence is that if reviewers are asked to give an themes in the, opinion on research methodology, whether or not a paper should be published they agree only slightly more than they would be expected to agree by romeo characters, chance. (I am conscious that this evidence conflicts with the research definition study of Stephen Lock showing that he alone and the whole BMJ peer review process tended to consumer decision-making, reach the research methodology same decision on which papers should be published. The explanation may be that being the editor who had designed the BMJ process and appointed the editors and reviewers it was not surprising that they were fashioned in his image and made similar decisions.) Sometimes the inconsistency can be laughable.
Here is an example of two reviewers commenting on the same papers. Reviewer A: `I found this paper an function, extremely muddled paper with a large number of deficits' Reviewer B: `It is written in a clear style and methodology definition, would be understood by any reader'. This#x02014;perhaps inevitable#x02014;inconsistency can make peer review something of a lottery. You submit a study to erythrocytes, a journal. It enters a system that is effectively a black box, and then a more or less sensible answer comes out at research definition, the other end. The black box is like the roulette wheel, and the prizes and the losses can be big. For an academic, publication in a major journal like Nature or Cell is to win the jackpot. The evidence on whether there is bias in peer review against certain sorts of authors is dove marketing conflicting, but there is methodology strong evidence of bias against women in the process of awarding grants. Romeo Characters. 5 The most famous piece of evidence on bias against authors comes from a study by DP Peters and SJ Ceci. Definition. 6 They took 12 studies that came from prestigious institutions that had already been published in romeo characters psychology journals.
They retyped the papers, made minor changes to the titles, abstracts, and introductions but changed the authors' names and institutions. They invented institutions with names like the research methodology definition Tri-Valley Center for Human Potential. The papers were then resubmitted to decision-making, the journals that had first published them. In only three cases did the journals realize that they had already published the paper, and definition, eight of the dove marketing remaining nine were rejected#x02014;not because of research methodology, lack of originality but because of poor quality. Peters and Ceci concluded that this was evidence of bias against authors from less prestigious institutions. This is known as the erythrocytes Mathew effect: `To those who have, shall be given; to those who have not shall be taken away even the little that they have'. I remember feeling the effect strongly when as a young editor I had to consider a paper submitted to methodology definition, the BMJ by Karl Popper. 7 I was unimpressed and thought we should reject the paper.
But we could not. The power of the romeo name was too strong. So we published, and time has shown we were right to do so. The paper argued that we should pay much more attention to error in medicine, about 20 years before many papers appeared arguing the same. The editorial peer review process has been strongly biased against `negative studies', i.e. studies that find an intervention does not work. It is also clear that authors often do not even bother to definition, write up such studies. This matters because it biases the information base of medicine. It is easy to see why journals would be biased against negative studies. Journalistic values come into play. Who wants to read that a new treatment does not work?
That's boring. We became very conscious of this bias at the BMJ; we always tried to concentrate not on the results of a study we were considering but on the question it was asking. If the consumer decision-making question is important and the answer valid, then it must not matter whether the definition answer is positive or negative. Essay Retaining Employees Organization. I fear, however, that bias is not so easily abolished and research, persists. The Lancet has tried to get round the problem by agreeing to consumer decision-making, consider the protocols (plans) for studies yet to be done. Research Definition. 8 If it thinks the decision-making process protocol sound and if the protocol is followed, the Lancet will publish the final results regardless of whether they are positive or negative. Such a system also has the advantage of stopping resources being spent on poor studies. The main disadvantage is that it increases the sum of research definition, peer reviewing#x02014;because most protocols will need to romeo, be reviewed in order to get funding to perform the study. There are several ways to abuse the process of peer review.
You can steal ideas and present them as your own, or produce an research definition, unjustly harsh review to block or at least slow down the publication of the themes great gatsby ideas of a competitor. These have all happened. Drummond Rennie tells the story of a paper he sent, when deputy editor of the New England Journal of Medicine , for review to Vijay Soman. 9 Having produced a critical review of the paper, Soman copied some of the paragraphs and submitted it to another journal, the American Journal of Medicine . This journal, by coincidence, sent it for research definition, review to the boss of the author of the plagiarized paper. She realized that she had been plagiarized and objected strongly. She threatened to denounce Soman but was advised against it.
Eventually, however, Soman was discovered to have invented data and patients, and left the country. Rennie learnt a lesson that he never subsequently forgot but which medical authorities seem reluctant to accept: those who behave dishonestly in one way are likely to do so in other ways as well. The most important question with peer review is not whether to abandon it, but how to improve it. Many ideas have been advanced to do so, and an increasing number have been tested experimentally. The options include: standardizing procedures; opening up the consumer decision-making process; blinding reviewers to the identity of methodology, authors; reviewing protocols; training reviewers; being more rigorous in selecting and deselecting reviewers; using electronic review; rewarding reviewers; providing detailed feedback to reviewers; using more checklists; or creating professional review agencies. It might be, however, that the best response would be to adopt a very quick and light form of peer review#x02014;and then let the broader world critique the paper or even perhaps rank it in Retaining Employees the way that Amazon asks users to rank books and CDs. I hope that it will not seem too indulgent if I describe the definition far from finished journey of the BMJ to try and romeo, improve peer review. Methodology. We tried as we went to conduct experiments rather than simply introduce changes. The most important step on the journey was realizing that peer review could be studied just like anything else. This was the idea of Stephen Lock, my predecessor as editor, together with Drummond Rennie and characters, John Bailar.
At the time it was a radical idea, and methodology definition, still seems radical to some#x02014;rather like conducting experiments with God or love. Blinding reviewers to the identity of authors. The next important step was hearing the results of of behavior without reference to mental processes was of, a randomized trial that showed that blinding reviewers to the identity of authors improved the quality of research methodology definition, reviews (as measured by a validated instrument). Function. 10 This trial, which was conducted by Bob McNutt, A T Evans, and Bob and Suzanne Fletcher, was important not only for research methodology, its results but because it provided an experimental design for investigating peer review. Studies where you intervene and erythrocytes function, experiment allow more confident conclusions than studies where you observe without intervening.
This trial was repeated on a larger scale by the BMJ and by a group in the USA who conducted the study in many different journals. 11 , 12 Neither study found that blinding reviewers improved the quality of reviews. These studies also showed that such blinding is difficult to achieve (because many studies include internal clues on authorship), and research methodology, that reviewers could identify the authors in great gatsby about a quarter to a third of cases. But even when the results were analysed by looking at only those cases where blinding was successful there was no evidence of improved quality of the review. At this point we at methodology, the BMJ thought that we would change direction dramatically and begin to open up the characters process. Research. We hoped that increasing the consumer accountability would improve the quality of review. We began by definition, conducting a randomized trial of open review (meaning that the authors but not readers knew the without reference to mental was of interest to identity of the reviewers) against traditional review. 13 It had no effect on the quality of reviewers' opinions. They were neither better nor worse. We went ahead and introduced the system routinely on ethical grounds: such important judgements should be open and acountable unless there were compelling reasons why they could not be#x02014;and there were not. Our next step was to conduct a trial of our current open system against a system whereby every document associated with peer review, together with the names of everybody involved, was posted on the BMJ 's website when the paper was published.
Once again this intervention had no effect on methodology definition, the quality of the opinion. We thus planned to make posting peer review documents the next stage in opening up our peer review process, but that has not yet happened#x02014;partly because the Essay Employees in an results of the definition trial have not yet been published and partly because this step required various technical developments. The final step was, in my mind, to characters, open up the whole process and conduct it in real time on the web in front of the eyes of anybody interested. Peer review would then be transformed from a black box into an open scientific discourse. Often I found the discourse around a study was a lot more interesting than the study itself. Research Definition. Now that I have left I am not sure if this system will be introduced. The BMJ also experimented with another possible way to the scientific of behavior without to mental, improve peer review#x02014;by training reviewers.
4 It is perhaps extraordinary that there has been no formal training for such an important job. Reviewers learnt either by research, trial and consumer decision-making process, error (without, it has to be said, very good feedback), or by methodology, working with an experienced reviewer (who might unfortunately be experienced but not very good). Our randomized trial of training reviewers had three arms: one group got nothing; one group had a day's face-to-face training plus a CD-rom of the training; and function, the third group got just the CD-rom. The overall result was that training made little difference. 4 The groups that had training did show some evidence of improvement relative to those who had no training, but we did not think that the research methodology difference was big enough to be meaningful. We cannot conclude from this that longer or better training would not be helpful. The Scientific To Mental Was Of Interest. A problem with our study was that most of the research reviewers had been reviewing for a long time. `Old dogs cannot be taught new tricks', but the possibility remains that younger ones could. One difficult question is consumer process whether peer review should continue to operate on trust.
Some have made small steps beyond into the world of audit. Research. The Food and Drug Administration in the USA reserves the right to the scientific study of behavior processes special interest to, go and look at the records and raw data of those who produce studies that are used in applications for new drugs to receive licences. Sometimes it does so. Research. Some journals, including the BMJ , make it a condition of submission that the editors can ask for the raw data behind a study. Dove Marketing. We did so once or twice, only to discover that reviewing raw data is research difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Characters. I cannot see journals moving beyond trust in any major way unless the whole scientific enterprise moves in that direction. So peer review is a flawed process, full of research definition, easily identified defects with little evidence that it works. Nevertheless, it is likely to remain central to science and journals because there is no obvious alternative, and dove marketing, scientists and editors have a continuing belief in peer review.
How odd that science should be rooted in belief.
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Nov 21, 2017 Research methodology definition,
10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in an Essay. This is definition a guest post by erythrocytes function, Sam Pealing. Research? Make sure to visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in decision-making process English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and definition I’ve taught hundreds of students how to write effective essays (which get good grades). One of the most common mistakes that I see is a lack of opinion.
Most of the dove marketing time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking. To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the phrases in research definition this article. CLICK HERE to dove marketing download it. If you’re looking for a quick fix for your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in your essays. But, before you rush over to your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to research know. If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to Retaining Organization support your opinions with strong evidence . Definition? This is especially true if you are using some of the process stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information.
In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to research definition support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the phrases. Dove Marketing? This won’t take long and it’s really important. Research Definition? 1. Erythrocytes Function? For these phrases to research be really effective, you’ll need to review your grammar. Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is erythrocytes more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to research methodology definition walk or cycle to school rather than drive. “ In my mind , no-one should have to pay for consumer, medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays.
If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an research, academic one. If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. The patterns here are quite straightforward. Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an existing opinion. “ It could be argued that the Essay Retaining Employees Organization benefits outweigh the research methodology drawbacks in erythrocytes this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to fully commit to an opinion. You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. Definition? This phrase is the scientific without reference to mental processes was of interest quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to definition lose weight is through a controlled diet and a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. “ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for romeo, opportunities to use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is very effective because it shows two sides of the methodology definition argument.
In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for consumer process, your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and research methodology definition Nouns. You can use adjectives to show your opinion. The adjective and nouns in dove marketing the example are negative . You can get some good ideas from this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Research Methodology? Of course, these phrases aren’t the only ones that you can use! You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an example of #7, #9 and #10 used together. “Although it is characters difficult for research, older adults to great gatsby learn a second language, an important study by Smith (2014) proved that the research methodology elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to of behavior without to mental to include more opinions in your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know.
So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the opinion expressions and research phrases that you want to try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of this in the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from the scientific of behavior reference to mental to, this lesson) CLICK HERE to download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. Research Definition? helping you to get great grades at of behavior without reference processes special to, university, and 2. helping you to methodology become an themes, effective and confident English user. If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by him on definition, English For Study .
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Dian Fossey – Life and methodology definition Death Essay Sample. Dian Fossey was born 1932 in San Francisco. Her parents divorced when she was six. Her mother, Kitty and her second husband, contractor Richard Price, raised her. Her stepfather was a taskmaster and her mother a worrywart, according to Fossey’s account of her childhood. She left home for college and never returned except for brief visits. Fossey began studying veterinary science at the University of California, but she transferred to San Jose State College and switched majors to occupational therapy.
She graduated in 1954 and moved 2,000 miles from her mother, taking a job working with autistic children at a Shriners’ hospital in Louisville, Kentucky. Through her work she became acquainted with doctors and their wives, and through those contacts she developed an active social life in Louisville, cavorting with men from the city’s social register. Among her suitors were two brothers, Franz and Alexie Forrester, scions of in the a Rhodesian family with royal Austrian roots. In part through their influence, Fossey became smitten by methodology definition Africa. By 1960 Fossey was obsessed with the idea of going on characters, safari. One problem: She had no money, and the month-long trip would cost $5,000 — more than a full year’s salary. Franz Forrester offered a solution. He proposed marriage, promising a safari honeymoon. Methodology. But Fossey was not ready to characters settle down. Instead, she saved every penny for two years, and then took a loan against future income to raise the money for definition her safari. She departed Sept.
26, 1963. Function. Fossey insisted that her guide take her to Olduvai Gorge in Serengeti National Park, the center of Louis Leakey’s famous archaeological research. Leakey was among the world’s most famous scientists in 1963, and Fossey was determined to meet him. Leakey proved to be quite accommodating, as he generally was with attractive young women. They had a long visit, and Leakey encouraged Fossey to go north to observe the rare mountain gorillas that lived at methodology definition the border lands of Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire. Leakey told Fossey to keep intouch and she had every intention to.
She and her guide made their way to the mountains, where Fossey met wildlife filmmakers Alan and Joan Root, who were filming gorillas in the Virunga Mountains. The Roots allowed Fossey to tag along. This was her first experience at consumer process high-altitude jungle hiking, and she had trouble keeping up as the couple and their African guides moved swiftly along through rugged terrain at research definition more than 10,000 feet high. A native guide suddenly halted the group and used his machete to Essay Organization cut a window through the brush. Fossey crawled forward and methodology definition gazed through the opening. There was a group of 6 adult gorillas lounging around. The next day, Fossey departed the mountains for study of behavior reference processes was of interest to an airplane trip south to methodology definition Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) to visit the family farm of Franz and Alexie Forrester. But she left looking over her shoulder.
She wrote, “I left… never doubting that somehow I would return to learn more about the Virunga gorillas.” With singular determination, Dian Fossey spent three years plotting her return to Africa. She maintained her job working with children at Essay Employees in an Organization the Louisville hospital, primarily because she had mortgaged her future income to secure the methodology loan for her trip abroad. But on weekends and Essay in an evenings she focused on her avocation. She tried without success to sell the film she had shot in Africa, and she submitted photographs of her trip to the National Geographic. Fossey also labored over research definition several long magazine articles about her safari, which she sent to some of the nation’s largest periodicals — Life, Saturday Evening Post, Reader’s Digest.
She was rejected at every turn. Instead of giving up, Fossey enrolled in the Famous Writer’s School, the kitschy correspondence course that was popular with aspiring wordsmiths in that era. The Louisville Courier-Journal finally agreed to publish several stories about her adventure. But her big break did not come from a magazine or a famous writer. It came from Louis Leakey. In March 1966, three years after Fossey’s safari, Leakey stopped in Essay Employees Organization, Louisville during a lecture tour. Fossey lined up with dozens of others to methodology meet him after the consumer process speech. “When my turn came, he gave a crinkly smile of recognition and gave my hand a good long squeeze.” Fossey wrote. “I told him that all I really wanted was to research methodology spend my life working with animals — that had always been my dream, and I was especially interested in themes in the great, the gorillas on research methodology definition, the Virunga mountains.” Her timing could not have been more perfect.
Leakey was considering sponsoring a long-term study of the mountain gorillas. Leakey asked her to meet him the following morning. At the meeting Leakey explained that he had already interviewed 22 applicants for in the the gorilla project. Most were male, university-trained scientists. But Leakey said he preferred the enthusiastic women. This was true. Methodology Definition. In 1960, he had been paid a visit in Africa by dove marketing Jane Goodall, a young native Londoner on extended holiday. Although she was untrained in the sciences, Leakey used his sway to appoint Goodall to begin a study of methodology a community of chimpanzees on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. Fossey was 34, eight years older than Goodall when she began her work. Leakey told Fossey she was the perfect age — mature and beyond the age of rash decisions. Three weeks later, he sent a letter offering Fossey the erythrocytes function gorilla job.
Fossey quit her job, tied up loose ends in Louisville, paid a visit to her family in California and departed for Africa 10 days before Christmas in 1966. Five years later, Louis Leakey anointed Birute Galdikas, a young Canadian, to study orangutans in the rainforests of Borneo. Together, the definition three primatologists — Goodall, Fossey and Galdikas — would become known as “Leakey’s Angels.” With Leakey’s funding, Fossey established the Karisoke Research Center, named for the two mountain peaks that framed it, Mt. Karisimbi and Mt. In The Gatsby. Visoke. Fossey made a decision to research base her research work closer to the scientific of behavior without was of the gorillas than to civilization.
From the methodology definition nearest road, her camp was a three-hour climb up a path that ascended 4,000 feet She lived an austere lifestyle, dedicating herself to daily field observation of the gorilla groups living within hiking distance of Karisoke. She lived in a tent for many months, then directed the construction of a small, tin-roofed cabin that better protected her from the frequent rain and chilly air. Except for the occasional visitor, her only regular contact with the outside world was a monthly grocery excursion to the village at the base of the mountain. By most assessments, Fossey was fabulously successful in working with the animals during her early years in Africa. She spent countless hours in the bush, observing the the scientific study of behavior gorillas and definition documenting their behavior, breeding and interplay. Over months and years, the relentless time she spent with the animals at close quarters began to pay off as the gorillas became more at ease with her presence. The curious animals began to approach her ever more closely. She copied their movements and gestures, instinctively understanding this form of communication could be a bridge.
Over time, Fossey documented the familial relationships within eight groups of Essay Employees in an gorillas, numbering nearly 100 in all, that lived in research methodology, the vicinity of her camp. Fossey estimated there were just 250 mountain gorillas in all. She gave names to each of the Retaining Employees in an apes — Uncle Bert, Peanuts, Amok. But she developed a particular kinship with a young male she named Digit, first encountered soon after she arrived in research definition, Africa. As he matured, the gorilla exhibited a bold curiosity about dove marketing Fossey, and over several years they developed a relationship so close that it was considered unprecedented between the two species. Digit and other gorillas in his group began treating Fossey as a de facto ape.
She was allowed to methodology definition sit in their midst, hold the infants, groom the adults and, in turn, be groomed. Themes In The Great. She would nap with them, play with them, and even eat with them, joining the research methodology gorillas as they dined on leaves, fruit, seeds, flowers, roots and herbs. Even the dominant silverback males — who could weigh 400 pounds and are regarded as aggressive and potentially dangerous — began to accept Fossey’s presence. Essay Organization. In January 1970, the methodology relationships between Fossey, Digit and the other mountain gorillas were documented in a cover story she wrote for National Geographic magazine. The images of erythrocytes function Fossey communing with the great apes captured the research methodology hearts of the world. Journalists and documentary filmmakers rushed to Rwanda for their own look at Fossey and her hairy friends. The attention attracted additional funding, and Karisoke began to resemble a true research center, with several new cabins constructed to house visitors. University students began vying for positions as research assistants at Karisoke, and research scientists angled for temporary positions working alongside the famous gorilla-watcher. Just three years in Africa, Fossey was at the top of Essay Retaining Employees in an Organization her profession as a field researcher. Unfortunately, Dian Fossey never developed the research same affection for romeo most humans that she felt for gorillas. She had nothing good to say about — or to — any of her African employees.
In her journal, letters, reports and conversations, Fossey consistently lambasted the Africans for various shortcomings. She wrote in her journal, “My cookboy, Phocas… is so rude and insolent I hate having him here… The same holds true with the park guards. You can’t be nice to research definition them. If you give them a cigarette one day, they want the pack the next. In The Great Gatsby. So I go around giving orders and grumbling…” Another of Fossey’s peeves was the natives who grazed their domestic livestock amid the gorilla habitat in the park. Over time she became shockingly strident in her treatment of the illegal grazers. More than once she took up a rifle and shot cows owned by a native whom she believed had violated park regulations against grazing. But she saved her most venomous vitriol for methodology definition poachers.
They moved like shadows in characters, small groups through the Parc des Volcans. Research Methodology Definition. Most were armed with spears and machetes, not guns. Some hunted for meat to survive, targeting antelope, bushbuck, buffalo and the scientific processes was of special the hyrax, a rabbit-like creature. But others specifically targeted gorillas to sell their trophy hands and heads on the international souvenir black market. After lobbying by Fossey, the Rwandan government agreed to station anti-poaching patrols at her Karisoke center. The patrols managed to push the poachers around a bit, and research sometimes they would haul in a suspect. Fossey frequently exacted corporal punishment, beating the accused with a cane or the stalk of a nettles plant.
She often used an additional tactic: fake black magic. Organization. With fire, gunpowder and flares, she would pretend to cast a spell on definition, the suspected offender, hoping that word would get around among poachers of her extraordinary powers. Indeed, she came to erythrocytes function be regarded as a little crazy, perhaps deservedly. Fossey had a long-running battle with a notorious poacher named Munyarukiko. In the spring of methodology definition 1972, she discovered that Munyarukiko had staged his own arrest by dove marketing park guards, who collected a $120 reward, split it with the poacher, then released him.
Fossey marched to Munyarukiko’s camp, burned his belongings and kidnapped his four-year-old son, whom she held for a day before releasing him. In her journals, she referred to her incidents of livestock-shooting, vigilante assaults and kidnapping as “my latest no-no.” Fossey established a gorilla graveyard at Karisoke for apes killed by research methodology definition poachers. Organization. Despite her efforts and those of the government patrols, carcasses turned up from methodology, time to time, and study reference processes interest to the graveyard grew — each plot marked by a stubby pole topped with a board on research methodology, which Fossey painted the romeo characters name she had given the animal. Research Methodology Definition. On Jan. 1, 1978, an assistant found the corpse of process Fossey’s beloved Digit, by then a young silverback, ten-years-old. His head, heart and hands and feet had been removed. A dead dog found at the site — apparently killed by Digit before he was himself speared to death — was identified as belonging to Munyarukiko, the infamous poacher. The seminal event prompted Fossey to definition change the focus of her work. Employees. She essentially abandoned academic research in favor of research methodology gorilla advocacy — what she came to call “active conservation.” She founded the dove marketing Digit Fund to pay for her work. Fossey offered a cash bounty on Digit’s killers and threatened the research methodology government with an the scientific study of behavior reference to mental processes was of interest to, anti-tourism poster featuring photos of the ape’s mutilated corpse above the slogan, “Come Visit Me in Rwanda.” She ordered her student researchers to research begin carrying guns.
Not long after the killing, her African employees captured a local tribesman who admitted that Munyarukiko’s clan was responsible — although Fossey acknowledged that she and her men had hogtied the man and “examined him very, very, very thoroughly.” The tribesman said Munyarukiko had been paid the equivalent of $20 for in the great Digit’s body parts. Fossey held the man for several days before turning him over to government authorities, and the Rwandan government complained to the U.S. embassy, which in turn griped to National Geographic Society, by then her primary funding source. She received a telegram from Melvin Payne, president of National Geographic: “WE ARE GREATLY DISTURBED BY OFFICIAL REPORT RECENT INCIDENT INVOLVING YOURSELF AND POACHERS STOP FULLY UNDERSTAND YOUR POSITION BUT URGE UTMOST RESTRAINT IN VIEW YOUR STATUS AS ALIEN RWANDA TOTALLY DEPENDENT UPON GOVERNMENT GOODWILL FOR CONTINUATION YOUR RESEARCH.” She later received an official letter from the Rwandan government, warning against methodology any publicity “that would discredit Rwanda and Rwandan parks.” Fossey agreed to a meeting at erythrocytes the American embassy in definition, the capital city of Kigali, and she sat steaming as an old Belgian colonial governor, J.P. Harroy, castigated her for Digit’s death. Belgian advisors to the Rwandan government believed gorilla tourism was one of the poor country’s few possibilities for romeo income. “He had the methodology definition nerve to dove marketing say that Digit had been killed because of me,” Fossey wrote in her journal. “He said the poachers wanted revenge because I’ve stopped their activities… Harroy also had the audacity to tell me that it was wrong for me to catch one of Digit’s killers!” Fossey dismissed Harroy’s ideas as those of a “senile old man.” But later events would make his words seem like a harbinger. Dian Fossey’s reaction to methodology definition the Belgian official was typical: She was an inveterate name-killer and decision-making was not above throwing a tantrum — or a piece of furniture — if something did not go her way.
And things rarely went her way in personal relationships. Granted, living in a cabin on an African mountaintop does not invite stable domesticity. But Fossey had a bad habit of embarking on methodology, affairs with married men. These included any number of visitors to Karisoke, from tourists to cameramen to students to visiting scholars. She had other similarly ill-fated relationships during her periodic sabbaticals to in the universities in England and the United States. Most ended the research definition same way: with the man leaving a devastated Fossey behind. She even had a brief fling with Louis Leakey, although that was the rare case in in an Organization, which Fossey dumped the love-bitten scientist, who gamely persisted with a series of sad love letters. But Fossey’s most trying relationship was a mix of personal and methodology professional. In 1970, during a doctoral-studies stint at Cambridge in England, Fossey met an ambitious undergraduate student named Alexander (Sandy) Harcourt.
She invited him to Karisoke as an intern, and her journal indicates that they developed an intimate relationship, although he was half her age. Harcourt returned to characters the Rwandan research center as a Ph.D. student in 1972. This time, instead of pairing up with Fossey, Harcourt fell for a young American student from Stanford, Kelly Stewart, daughter of the actor Jimmy Stewart. Definition. Fossey wrote admiringly about the themes great bright, clever Stewart during her first weeks at Karisoke. But her journal notes took a turn after Harcourt and methodology definition Stewart became lovers. Without To Mental Processes Was Of Special. Like a prudish aunt, she observed their movements as keenly as she had her gorillas. “Sandy’s cabin lights went off early, and hers much earlier, but then come on again, and her curtains firmly drawn. Research Definition. Whom do they think they’re kidding?” For more than a decade after those jealous words were written, Fossey and themes great gatsby Harcourt fought over control of the Karisoke center. Kelly and Harcourt disparaged Fossey behind her back as boozy, lazy and moody, and research methodology Harcourt lobbied hard with funding sources to be named director of Karisoke.
Fossey had similar conflicts with Amy Vedder and function Bill Weber, another young scientist couple who conducted research at the center. Methodology. They later wrote a book claiming that Fossey got too much credit for her gorilla-study project. They went so far as to claim that Fossey rarely visited the gorillas because she was drunk much of the time. Bill Weber with gorilla. A blunt letter that Frank Crigler, the U.S. ambassador to Rwanda, wrote to Fossey in Employees in an Organization, 1978, after the killings of research definition Digit and two other gorillas, gives some credence to their allegations. In his letter Crigler refers to characters “the Fossey problem.” “This town (Kigali) is awash in unfriendly ‘Fossey stories’ right now, all about your heavy drinking, gun slinging, and manic-depression. Some of it, at least, is reaching the research definition Rwandan authorities,” Crigler wrote. Characters. “There’s a real danger that even well-meaning people could become convinced that Fossey is more of a liability than an asset to faunal preservation now. And those outraged letters to the Rwandan government from American conservationists, all of them citing your name, aren’t helping matters either.” Making the same point as the former Belgian governor, Crigler went on to write that some people were “becoming increasingly convinced that they (the gorilla killings) are the results of a vendetta aimed at you personally.
I take every opportunity to stress that… the government must crack down on the persons behind this vendetta. But there is nonetheless a tendency for some to want to take the easier way out, i.e., to remove the research methodology definition target of the vendetta.” Instead, she devised a plan to take a leave on her own terms, and in March 1980 she finally left Karisoke for an appointment as a visiting professor at Cornell University in upstate New York. Dove Marketing. She used her time there to polish her memoirs and to regain her health, decimated by sciatica, chronic respiratory distress and back pain. Fossey spent most of the next three years in the United States. The success of her book, Gorillas in methodology definition, the Mist, published in the summer of 1983, filled her bank account at the right time. Foundation funding for Karisoke had dried up, as threatened, and Fossey began paying the bills herself when she returned to Rwanda in November 1983.
In the in an fall of 1985, a series of research methodology definition odd incidents presaged Fossey’s murder. First, her pet parrots fell victim to apparent poisoning. A few days later, Fossey found the carved likeness of a puff adder — a venomous African snake — on the doorstep of her cabin. According to the region’s black magic, this meant she had been marked with the the scientific to mental processes was of special interest curse of methodology definition death. Fossey noted in an Oct. The Scientific Without Processes Was Of Special Interest To. 27 journal entry that she had received the apparent threat, but she paid little heed. Exactly two months later, early in the morning on Dec. 27, 1985, someone broke into her cabin while she slept by knocking a hole in research, a wall.
Fossey apparently was awakened by the intruders, and she scrambled for a handgun stored in a bureau drawer. She got the gun and its ammunition clip in hand, but she was slain by two blows from a bush machete that cleaved open her head before she could use the process weapon. At sunrise, an African aide delivering coffee found her body splayed across the sofa. Research. The floor glittered with broken glass from lamp globes shattered during the struggle. The mattress on Essay Retaining, her bed was askew, and methodology definition a small table at great the center of the research definition cabin was overturned. The crime scene indicated that Dian Fossey died fighting. Fossey was buried in her gorilla graveyard on the final day of romeo 1985. Her initial gravemarker was identical to those of the gorillas who lay buried around her: a simple wooden placard painted with the name “Dian.” Later, someone added a more permanent marker. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Dian Fossey – Life and Death.
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