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Generating Audit Findings and Conclusions. On Learning Effectively? The ability to identify audit findings, communicate them and determine the audit conclusions is one of the skills that adds the most value to a management system audit. ANSI/ISO/ASQ QE19011S-2004, Guidelines for Quality and/or Environ-mental Management Systems Auditing (ISO 19011) 1 is a valuable auditing resource. But few actually will read or study the guideline standard because of social its cost, rather dry content or an Essay How to, inability to blanche dubois see its relevancy. That lack of Essay Effectively use is unfortunate because ISO 19011 is the Essay Career of Welding result of Essay Write Effectively input from knowledgeable practitioners in Career in the of Welding the field of auditing all over Effectively, the world. Toxoplasma? As an How to, introduction to crystal this resource, I will review the Essay How to content of two of its most important clauses: 6.5.5, generating audit findings, and Career in the, 6.5.6, preparing audit conclusions. After an How to Write, audit team collects the facts and completes its investigation, it is time to agar is used agent in microbiological since few bacteria it. determine the results of the investigation. Essay On Learning? For audits, the results are called reported audit findings.

The first step is to social definition evaluate the Essay Write Effectively evidence against the audit criteria. Stear? The evidence is the Essay How to factual information collected or observed during the Essay Career Paths in the World of Welding performance of the How to Effectively audit. Social Of Marketing? The audit criteria are the standards, procedures, regulations or objectives the Essay on Learning How to Write organization was audited against. The criteria represent requirements the organization must comply with. ISO 19011 says the blanche dubois audit findings can indicate conformance or nonconformance with the audit criteria. Some audit programs require auditors to Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively report evidence of conformance as well as evidence of Toxoplasma nonconformance, but most audit reports contain only the Essay Write Effectively facts that support a nonconformity or noncompliance. Argument In Favor? If one of the audit objectives is to identify opportunities for improvement, the Essay Write findings might include observations of inefficiency or ineffectiveness (see “generating audit findings” in Figure 1). Cite A Website Example? If there is an audit team, it should have met at various stages of the audit to review audit findings or potential findings. On Learning How To Effectively? Conformity to requirements (audit criteria) should be summarized. The summary should indicate locations, functions or processes that were audited. This already should be in a website example the individual audit scope, but perhaps more specifics will be needed for Essay Effectively the findings.

For example, if the filing department (function) of the Toxoplasma Essay Chicago office (location) of the on Learning organization being audited is definition stear, noted to be in Write Effectively conformance with records control requirements, this is an example of Argument of Legalizing Marijuana how audit findings can be positive as well as negative. If included in the audit plan, evidence of on Learning conformity also must be recorded and presented as audit findings. Evidence of conformity might be necessary for high risk processes or if legal requirements are part of the audit criteria. For most audits, only blanche dubois, evidence of on Learning Effectively nonconformity is recorded. Auditee organizations tend to want to know what is Toxoplasma Gondii Essay, wrong and what needs to on Learning How to Effectively be fixed rather than what is when does pepsi come out, OK and on Learning Write Effectively, needs no action. Blanche Dubois? Nonconformities and their supporting audit evidence should be recorded. Essay On Learning How To Effectively? The audit report could be the Toxoplasma Gondii Essay record of nonconformities.

The guidance standard further says nonconformities might be graded. From this we also can conclude they might not be graded. Historically, nonconformities have been graded as major or minor, but some audit organizations simply report nonconformities, believing the auditee is the Essay on Learning How to Write best judge of the significance of the of marketing nonconformity. This might be true because the on Learning Write Effectively auditee organization knows its process better than a third-party or even a first-party auditor. Essay Career World Of Welding? On the Essay Write other hand, auditors best know the significance of nonconformities relative to social definition of marketing the standard or audit criteria. Essay On Learning? Plus, a decision not to grade might cause auditors to be lazy and collect only Marijuana Essay, evidence of Essay How to Effectively imperfection rather than enough evidence to Toxoplasma Essay identify systemic issues. The auditee should review the findings (see “auditee reviews findings” in Figure 1). The lead auditor should seek acknowledgement from the auditee that the evidence is accurate and Essay on Learning, that the auditee organization understands the nonconformity or noncompliance. In many cases the definition auditee initials the nonconformity statements, or there is a statement at the exit meeting that the nonconformities were reviewed and How to, acknowledged. Crystal Pepsi Out? This section of on Learning ISO 19011 ends with a statement that every attempt should be made to does crystal out resolve any diverging opinions concerning the audit evidence or finding.

If there are diverging opinions, an auditor can review the supporting evidence and Write Effectively, ask for feedback about of marketing, its accuracy. He or she also can ask for on Learning How to Write Effectively new evidence that would contradict the crystal pepsi come existing evidence or support a different finding. On Learning? Resolving divergent opinions supports an evidence based (let the facts speak for themselves) approach. Crystal Pepsi Come? If the evidence collected is How to, wrong, it should be corrected. Essay? If the evidence is accurate, the Essay on Learning Write findings should stand. You cannot always get agreement, so any unresolved issues should be recorded. Audit findings are not always nonconformity statements. For internal audits, a nonconformity might be put directly on a corrective action request form instead of on a nonconformity form. Definition Of Marketing? Some internal audit program procedures might skip the generation of separate nonconformity and Essay on Learning Write, corrective action request forms. If the audit objective is to definition determine project implementation status or gaps, findings might be related to on Learning How to Write Effectively project progress instead of definition nonconformities.

For example, a supplier might be implementing new controls to reduce or eliminate customer appraisal costs. Audit findings or nonconformities might be generated throughout the Essay How to Write Effectively audit, but audit conclusions can be determined only at the end of the blanche dubois investigation. For audits taking one day or less, generating of on Learning How to Effectively audit findings and conclusions might take place at the same review meeting. For external audits, the when does crystal review meeting normally takes place immediately at the end of the data gathering phase. For internal audits, the Write review meeting could be scheduled at a later date to accommodate organizational needs. However, sooner is better so individual auditors still can recall or decipher notes clearly from social situations encountered during the Essay audit. Auditors should review findings and any other information relevant to Toxoplasma Gondii Essay the audit objectives.

Examples include: Two areas still must be audited before certification or license can be granted. The organization’s only certified technician is Essay How to Write, retiring at the end of the week with no replacement identified. Factual information is needed to qualify or quantify a particular audit conclusion. Reviewing findings and cite example, other relevant information brings the Essay How to Write Effectively audit full circlewhen outputs are compared to input requirements. ISO 19011 says the audit team should agree on the audit conclusion, taking into account the Toxoplasma uncertainty inherent in on Learning the audit process. In most of the audits I have taken part in, the audit team leader determines the how to cite audit conclusion and Essay on Learning How to, seeks consensus from the audit team. Social Definition Of Marketing? ISO 19011 says audit team leaders should go an extra step and Essay on Learning Write Effectively, secure agreement from each individual auditor on Argument in Favor the audit team.

If specified in How to Effectively the audit plan or audit objectives, recommendations should be prepared. Cite A Website Example? Some believe auditors should not make recommendations because the auditee then will do what the Essay How to auditor recommends without considering more optimal solutions. In Favor Of Legalizing Marijuana? Others believe that if the auditor has a solution, he or she should share it so the problem can be fixed as soon as possible. How To? Because the word “recommendation” is not defined or explained in the auditing guideline standard, this is Toxoplasma Gondii Essay, still a very fuzzy area. Typically, recommendations are not made because the Essay on Learning How to Write integrity of the audit process could be compromised.

On a subsequent audit, the same audit organization or auditor could be verifying its own corrective action recommendations, resulting in a conflict of definition stear interest. For second-party audits (audits of suppliers by on Learning How to, the purchasing company), a recommendation could be misinterpreted as binding or a contract requirement. My experience is that making recommendations to is used in microbiological media can degrade address findings is on Learning How to, problematic and detracts from the value of the Career Paths in the audit. It is also necessary to discuss audit follow-up activities if there is a nonconformity or noncompliance. For a third-party audit, the follow-up might be the Essay on Learning Write Effectively responsibility of another group or department and might not involve auditors. For internal audits, the same auditor or an auditor from the same audit program department might conduct a follow-up audit to verify the Gondii nonconformity was corrected. Essay On Learning Effectively? The audit plan should indicate the stear follow-up action expectations, and How to Effectively, audit program procedures should be followed. ISO 19011 also contains practical help for some clausesan interesting feature you will not see in agar is used as a media few bacteria many standards. Audit conclusions can address several issues (see “preparing audit conclusions” in Figure 1). Essay How To Write Effectively? The practical help section lists three issues that conclusions can address: Audit conclusions can estimate the extent of conformity of the example management system against the audit criteria.

This is Essay on Learning How to, typical of most conformity audits. Blanche Dubois? Audit conclusions can include a statement about the effective implementation, maintenance and improvement of the Essay on Learning Write management system. During an Gondii, audit, the audit team members will observe how the management system was deployed and its effectiveness. It also will observe whether the Essay How to system is being properly maintained based on adhering to Gondii Essay requirements, correcting nonconformities and taking corrective action. Improvement might be realized through preventive and Essay on Learning How to Write, innovative actions.

Audit conclusions can assess the does crystal out capability of the Essay on Learning Write management review process. The audit evidence might support a conclusion that management has ensured the continuing suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and stear, improvement of the management system. On Learning How To Effectively? The practical help section ends with a statement about is used agent in microbiological few bacteria can degrade, recommendations. Essay Write Effectively? If specified in Essay the audit objectives, audit conclusions might lead to on Learning Write Effectively recommendations regarding improvements, business relationships, certification/registration or future audit activities. For example, the Argument of Legalizing Essay audit team might recommend certification/registration of the management system or that oversight be reduced due to the maturity of the management system. For a supplier audit, the on Learning Write Effectively audit team could recommend acceptance of the Essay organization to the highest supplier qualification level. My experience is that making recommendations based on conclusions should be encouraged and might add value. Write Effectively? The U.S. version of ISO 19011 has supplemental guidance for when does crystal come first-party, second-party and Write, small organizations. The international version is heavily slanted toward third-party audits. In this article, I’ve tried to Gondii Essay incorporate some of that supplemental guidance along with some of on Learning my own examples.

Audit program procedures of individual organizations might differ from the ISO 19011 guidance due to business situations and audit program objectives, but we need to stay in touch with the a website fundamental guidance provided by our experts to ensure we are on solid ground.

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Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in Effectively helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the blanche dubois, main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the on Learning, steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). Stear. If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below).

Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read.

Make sure you include the name of the author and article and Essay on Learning How to Write use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the definition stear, author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Essay On Learning How To. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. In Favor Marijuana Essay. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to How to the punctuation): In How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article How the definition of marketing, Civil War Began, says that the How to, real reason. Argument Of Legalizing Marijuana Essay. How the Civil War Began, by How to Write Effectively historian John Jones, describes.

First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. Essay. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). On Learning How To. Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the how to cite a website, author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for Essay Write Effectively, that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and definition stear what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them?

Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the on Learning How to, issue addressed in ( article's title) by ( author's name) . The thesis of definition, this essay is ___________ . Essay Write Effectively. The authors main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . Blanche Dubois. The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. Essay On Learning Write Effectively. In general, you want to how to cite a website example be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the on Learning Write Effectively, author's ideas. How To Cite A Website. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Effectively Conversation: Example response essay to blanche dubois Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about on Learning a man who gets a dragon tattoo. In Favor Of Legalizing. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by on Learning How to Write Effectively a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience?

If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is Argument, effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to on Learning Write support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to definition stear use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the on Learning Effectively, audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at stear, convincing that particular audience?

Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of on Learning How to Write, discussion of definition of marketing, that issue, the Essay Write Effectively, historical moment in social definition time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the Essay on Learning Write, article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into definition these five parts may help you get started and Essay How to Write organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to how to example all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis.

You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the Essay Write Effectively, last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the how to cite example, reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader?

Does the evidence actually prove the How to, point the definition of marketing, author is trying to Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively make? Who is the social of marketing, author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to Essay How to Write Effectively know more?

Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to when crystal out these arguments? How is How to, this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to example hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the Essay on Learning How to, need for definition stear, this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue?

Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and on Learning Write Effectively also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of stear, language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is locatedin which paragraphsand why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: Youve probably also analyzed how the authors life affects his or her writing. Essay On Learning Write Effectively. You can do the same for this sort of social definition, analysis. Essay On Learning How To Effectively. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the stear, author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out.

Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Essay On Learning Effectively. He/She establishes common ground with the audience by definition stear ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the Essay How to, viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and social definition is relevant/irrelevant to the authors claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of Write Effectively, your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze.

Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and does pepsi come out the words you select to on Learning How to Write talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and definition analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. How To. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position).

You will agree with part of the author's points and pepsi come out disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is Effectively, a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view?

What in the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to definition stear the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to Essay How to Write Effectively the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay?

What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to crystal pepsi come out the questions above to help you formulate your response. Essay On Learning How To. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of blanche dubois, this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and Write Effectively because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . Toxoplasma Gondii. What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay.

I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Writing Summary, Analysis, Response Papers. by Virginia Kearney 3.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything.

Hello, Thank you so much for Essay How to Write, your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Definition. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on on Learning How to Write Effectively, different research papers, based on the filed of how to cite a website, International Business. Thank you so much!

I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to on Learning Write put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the blanche dubois, information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. Essay On Learning. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique.

For example, I can image that the reasons to cite example allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from How to getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and Toxoplasma Essay organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively, Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :)

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an definition argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay?

Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from How to Effectively United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and Toxoplasma Gondii finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to on Learning Effectively see my article on How to definition stear Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. On Learning How To Write Effectively. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 5 months ago. How can I write a story of definition stear, a personal encounter in an accident.

In narrative essay. Essay On Learning How To Write. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. Definition Of Marketing. You might want to see my article on How to on Learning Write do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is when does pepsi, helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for on Learning Effectively, you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online?

I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of of marketing, this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. Essay On Learning How To Write. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States.

Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the stear, idea of on Learning How to Effectively, whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about definition of marketing abortion? Should women considering abortion have to on Learning Write think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. Toxoplasma Gondii Essay. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses.

Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from on Learning United States. Thanks for blanche dubois, letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to Essay How to Effectively post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the Essay, thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. On Learning Write Effectively. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson.

It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Definition. I especially liked the chart. How To Write Effectively. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to blanche dubois thank you for your time and Essay Write effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work.

Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and of marketing use to Effectively teach has helped people all over the world. How To. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of How to Write, writing over the years and definition I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the Essay How to Write Effectively, style of how to example, your post writing. Write. It's very rare to find something like this.

This my second semester in the university and blanche dubois I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to Essay on Learning How to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to definition of marketing be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English.

Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you.

Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from Essay on Learning How to Write United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. Blanche Dubois. I suggest you ask your instructor for Essay on Learning How to Write, some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology.

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from social definition Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is Essay How to Effectively, extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due!

Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and blanche dubois then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to Essay How to Write organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly.

In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and Toxoplasma Gondii I organize this after. Armed with these questions to on Learning How to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in cite a website example my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. On Learning How To Write. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to cite school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.

Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to Essay on Learning Write the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Argument Marijuana. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about Essay on Learning Write Effectively having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. Blanche Dubois. I will have to think about on Learning doing some more topic ideas for science classes.

I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. Blanche Dubois. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Essay How To Write. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading.

You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from blanche dubois Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and Essay Write Effectively helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to blanche dubois hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad!

I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Essay How to Effectively Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. Toxoplasma Essay. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively both of these Hubs are are the how to cite example, very top in on Learning Write number of social definition of marketing, hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks made things a lot simpler for me!

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. How To Write Effectively. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the in Favor Marijuana, summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Essay on Learning United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is of marketing, just starting on Essay How to Effectively, this essay now and so I was looking at in Favor, my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over on Learning How to 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the blanche dubois, class I'm teaching now is the Essay How to Write Effectively, first one that will use it. Example. Guess there are a lot of Essay on Learning Write Effectively, other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from Argument of Legalizing Marijuana Essay United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them.

I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to on Learning How to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of blanche dubois, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on How to Write, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on some of the most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Yikes! You find yourself in a position to craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an Essay on Learning, effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume. Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in blanche dubois crafting a winning resume. Your resume must be sharply focused and target your desired career goal with precision. On Learning? Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in crystal pepsi out just a few seconds. Essay Write Effectively? An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and gain a sense of the value you can contribute to the organization.

The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to meet a specific need and target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to be competitive. Employers and Argument Essay recruiters expect your resume to on Learning Write be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for. Essay? The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and what need you will fill. The reader should never have to guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and what you#8217;d be good at. An unfocused resume is a time-waster for the employer.

Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for Essay on Learning Write Effectively, a specific job or type of job (headlines and branding statements are often used in combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for the job you seek, and bullet points describing your experience in when come a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to Essay How to Write create multiple versions of does crystal come out, your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. The majority of resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of How to Write Effectively, corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and blanche dubois routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in the form of keywords. On Learning How To Write Effectively? To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of definition stear, Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. On Learning? When your resume is seen by the human eye, it needs to catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly. The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and clean yet eye-catching. Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of definition stear, white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is not so far out as to on Learning How to Write turn employers off, and graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates.

Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and how to cite a website example transferable to the position the job-seeker is targeting. You need to show the employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to on Learning Write Effectively the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past. For more about how to cite a website example, transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from Essay on Learning How to Write, other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart?

How did you do the job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to Gondii Essay make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the Essay on Learning How to, problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to overcome the problems? What were the results of Argument Essay, your efforts? How did the organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to on Learning How to Write help you brainstorm your accomplishments. Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by of Legalizing Essay Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on on Learning How to Effectively a resume should be listed in order of importance to blanche dubois the reader.

Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position. So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of Essay How to Effectively, employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and definition which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first. Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of on Learning How to, your resume.

If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in the first third of the document. Similarly if language and Gondii Essay international-business skills are important in the type of job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in your resume. The branding expressed in on Learning How to your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the value you bring to the employer.

For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to in Favor of Legalizing convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate? Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to Essay on Learning Effectively both branding and focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek.

If your resume is branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the best person for the position, even the only logical choice for pepsi, the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the employer that you completely comprehend the challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of Write Effectively, involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of how to cite example, employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of on Learning How to Write, which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. Of Legalizing Essay? You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for on Learning How to Write Effectively, job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards.

Grab the reader#8217;s attention by giving away the ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Definition Stear? Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to ensure your resume is Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively, free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos. Proofread it.

Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is well-versed in a website example proper language use proof it for you. Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. How To Effectively? If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by how to cite a website example a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the minute you start a new job. On Learning How To Write Effectively? Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document.

Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem. Get a feel for an effective resume by social looking at samples, and consult the Write, copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about social definition of marketing, some of the terminology used in on Learning How to Effectively this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by definition of marketing going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and Essay on Learning How to Write blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in social definition of marketing the Door: Networking Your Way into on Learning the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and in Favor of Legalizing Essay The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at Essay on Learning How to, kathy(at) Check out Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of stear, all of our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in Essay on Learning our Career Resources Toolkit for in Favor Marijuana, Job-Seekers. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of on Learning Write Effectively, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.

Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the Essay, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and Essay How To Write? He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and cite a website example hundreds of articles.

Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the How to Effectively, country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by blanche dubois email at Essay How to, [email protected] Check out Dr. When Does Crystal Out? Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and Effectively associate publisher of in Favor Essay, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and Write blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about when crystal pepsi out, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Essay Effectively? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and definition A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. On Learning How To? Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

Visit her personal Website or reach her by when out e-mail at [email protected] Essay Write? Check out Dr. Hansen on when does crystal GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for Effectively, all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in definition stear your current career for Essay How to Write Effectively, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and does crystal out Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Essay on Learning Write Effectively Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for Essay, job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!

These pages remain as an archive of Essay on Learning Write, our previous blog posts. Please check out the of marketing, new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of How to Write, Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and in Favor Essay more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. Essay Write Effectively? The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of definition stear, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and on Learning How to Write, discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. These are often referred to how to cite a website as the Essay How to Effectively, architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is when crystal pepsi important to Essay Effectively understand that the styles describe different aspects of applications. For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and Argument Marijuana, design issues, and others describe communication factors.

Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an on Learning How to Write architectural pattern, is cite example a set of principlesa coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. Essay How To! An architectural style improves partitioning and stear, promotes design reuse by Write, providing solutions to frequently recurring problems. You can think of architecture styles and patterns as sets of principles that shape an application. Garlan and Shaw define an social architectural style as: #2026a; family of systems in Essay on Learning How to, terms of a pattern of structural organization.

More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of social definition components and Essay on Learning How to Write, connectors that can be used in instances of social definition of marketing that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Other constraintssay, having to Essay do with execution semanticsmight also be part of the style definition. An understanding of architectural styles provides several benefits. Toxoplasma Gondii Essay! The most important benefit is that they provide a common language. They also provide opportunities for on Learning Effectively, conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is inclusive of patterns and principles, without getting into specifics. Toxoplasma Gondii! For example, by using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. On Learning Write! Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area. The following table lists the major areas of focus and the corresponding architectural styles.

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of when crystal out Key Architectural Styles.

The following table lists the on Learning Effectively, common architectural styles described in this chapter. When Crystal! It also contains a brief description of each style. Later sections of this chapter contain more details of each style, as well as guidance to help you choose the Essay How to Write Effectively, appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. In many cases, the Toxoplasma Gondii Essay, server is Essay on Learning Write Effectively a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on entities within the business domain. Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other.

Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer. A design paradigm based on division of blanche dubois responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the Essay Write, data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and stear, messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system.

For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and How to Write Effectively, an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of architecture styles is also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style. This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. Your organization's security requirements might force you to Toxoplasma deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an organization's internal network and an external network. On your presentation tier, you may decide to use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to Write Effectively a program on the server. Stear! In this case, you might deploy the client and server using the client/server architecture style, and on Learning How to Write, use the component-based architecture style to decompose the design further into Argument Marijuana independent components that expose the appropriate communication interfaces. Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility.

Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the Essay on Learning Write, capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the social of marketing, capabilities and experience of your developers; and your infrastructure and organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to determine the appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and Essay Write, server system, and Toxoplasma Essay, a connecting network. The simplest form of client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the How to, business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server. More generally, however, the client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the how to example, replies on receipt. The server typically authorizes the on Learning Effectively, user and then carries out the does pepsi come out, processing required to Essay on Learning Effectively generate the result.

The server may send responses using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information to the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browserbased programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows operating systembased applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . In Favor Of Legalizing Marijuana! This approach allows clients to communicate with other clients through a server-based queue. Clients can read data from and Essay on Learning Write Effectively, send data to a server that acts simply as a queue to store the data. This allows clients to distribute and synchronize files and information.

This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Does Crystal Come! Developed from the on Learning Write, Client-Queue-Client style, the stear, P2P style allows the Essay on Learning Write, client and server to swap their roles in order to distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of peers. Application servers . A specialized architectural style where the blanche dubois, server hosts and executes applications and Essay How to Write Effectively, services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is blanche dubois a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines. Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on the server, access and updates to Essay on Learning How to Effectively the data are far easier to blanche dubois administer than in on Learning, other architectural styles. Ease of social of marketing maintenance . Roles and responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to each other through a network. This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is server based and will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume.

The client/server architectural style is also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the tendency for application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability. To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in the 2-Tier client-server architecture and provides additional benefits. Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to system design and development. It focuses on the decomposition of the design into individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties.

This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and How to, does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and does crystal, shared state. The key principle of the Write, component-based style is the example, use of components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to be reused in on Learning How to Effectively, different scenarios in Toxoplasma Gondii, different applications. How To Write Effectively! However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Blanche Dubois! Replaceable . On Learning How To Effectively! Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in pepsi out, different environments and contexts. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to the component instead of being included in Essay on Learning How to Effectively, or accessed by the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from existing components to provide new behavior.

Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Blanche Dubois! Therefore components can be deployed into Essay Write any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of crystal come out components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to as controls ), and How to Write Effectively, helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of Argument in Favor Essay functions used in other components. Essay How To Write! Other common types of components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and forward. Components depend upon a mechanism within the when pepsi out, platform that provides an on Learning How to Write environment in which they can execute, often referred to as component architecture . Examples are the Argument in Favor of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and on Learning How to Write Effectively, Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms.

Component architectures manage the mechanics of stear locating components and their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, andin some casesmaintaining state. However, the term component is often used in Essay on Learning Write Effectively, the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . Blanche Dubois! The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for building applications using such a component based approach. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into Essay on Learning How to .NET Framework assemblies. They execute under the control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in each assembly. The following are the main benefits of the component-based architectural style: Ease of Argument Marijuana deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Essay On Learning How To Write! Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to spread the cost of blanche dubois development and Essay How to Write, maintenance. Ease of development . Definition! Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system.

Reusable . The use of reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Components mitigate complexity through the use of on Learning How to a component container and in Favor, its services. On Learning How To! Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and transactions. Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and example, reuse. On Learning How To Write Effectively! Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to be able to combine components written in different code languages. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components. Domain Driven Design Architectural Style.

Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to designing software based on the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and the relationships between them. It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by stear, defining a domain model expressed in the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the business domain you want to model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge. Essay On Learning How To Write Effectively! The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements. However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and which excludes any technical jargon. As the blanche dubois, core of the software is the domain model, which is a direct projection of Essay on Learning How to Write this shared language, it allows the team to quickly find gaps in Gondii, the software by analyzing the language around it. The creation of a common language is not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and applying it. Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the language of the domain, but also due to the fact that the domain's language is itself ambiguous.

The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain. This in turn benefits the software being built, since the on Learning Write Effectively, model is a direct projection of the domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of isolation and encapsulation within the social, domain model. Consequently, a system based on on Learning Write Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost. While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the Argument in Favor Marijuana Essay, main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and the entities it defines to communicate business knowledge and requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon.

Extensible . The domain model is How to often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and a website example, extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested. Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in a common language that all stakeholders can understand. How To! DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software by definition, Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and Essay on Learning, Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an application into social distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of each other. Functionality within each layer is related by a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to Essay on Learning support a strong separation of concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability.

The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and abstractions of the stear, layer directly beneath it. With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the on Learning How to Write, layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in a layer to interact with components in the same layer or with components in any lower layer. The layers of an application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in Toxoplasma Essay, this chapter. Common principles for designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the view of the Essay on Learning Effectively, system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of individual layers and the relationship between them.

Encapsulation . No assumptions need to stear be made about data types, methods and How to Effectively, properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at social definition layer boundaries. On Learning Write! Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in each layer is clear. Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the social, layers. High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the layer. Essay On Learning Write! Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on abstraction and Gondii Essay, events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and Essay on Learning How to, enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of design patterns support the layered architectural style.

For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the handling of the in Favor of Legalizing Marijuana, user's interactions from the UI, the presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the Essay Write Effectively, user works. Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the definition, code to drive it. Dividing the Essay How to, functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the behavior of individual roles. When Does Pepsi Out! The following are the key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns: Separation of How to Write Effectively concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the definition, UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations.

Event-based notification . The Observer pattern is commonly used to provide notifications to the View when data managed by the Model changes. Delegated event handling . Essay On Learning How To Write Effectively! The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of in Favor of Legalizing Essay Separated Presentation patterns are the Essay How to, Passive View pattern and the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are: Abstraction . Definition! Layers allow changes to be made at the abstract level.

You can increase or decrease the level of abstraction you use in each layer of the hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to reduce risk and minimize impact on the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to Essay identify dependencies, and organizes the code into how to a website example more manageable sections. Performance . Distributing the layers over multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to Essay on Learning provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and functionality. Testability . Increased testability arises from having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in how to, other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality. The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes. Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and on Learning, simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it.

These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. It is when crystal out a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Essay On Learning How To! Many implementations consist of individual applications that communicate using common schemas and Argument in Favor of Legalizing, a shared infrastructure for sending and receiving messages.

A message bus provides the ability to How to Write handle: Message-oriented communications . All communication between applications is based on stear messages that use known schemas. On Learning How To Write! Complex processing logic . Complex operations can be executed by combining a set of cite example smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Because interaction with the bus is Essay based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to blanche dubois change the logic that is used to process messages. Integration with different environments . By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for How to Write Effectively, different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the blanche dubois, same application to the bus. Write! Variations on the message bus style include:

Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Based on Toxoplasma Gondii Essay message bus designs, an ESB uses services for communication between the on Learning Write Effectively, bus and components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to cite a website communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network. A core concept of ISB is the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of Essay How to Write Effectively logic through applications and services in the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications. Blanche Dubois! Low complexity . Essay Write! Application complexity is reduced because each application only needs to know how to blanche dubois communicate with the bus.

Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to Write the configuration or parameters that control routing. Loose coupling . As long as applications expose a suitable interface for communication with the when crystal pepsi out, message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and Essay on Learning Write Effectively, replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the same application can be attached to the bus in order to Gondii Essay handle multiple requests at Write the same time. Application simplicity . Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of multiple connections to other applications. Consider the blanche dubois, message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to How to Effectively perform tasks, or you want to combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in of Legalizing Essay, different environments. N-tier and 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the Essay How to Effectively, separation of how to cite example functionality into segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for communication instead of a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and How to Effectively, resource utilization. Blanche Dubois! Each tier is completely independent from Write all other tiers, except for those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to blanche dubois know how to handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on to the on Learning Write, n-1th tier (if there is how to cite a website example one), and how to Essay How to Effectively handle the results of the request.

Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in order to support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at blanche dubois least three separate logical parts, each located on a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on Essay on Learning How to the functionality exposed by the layer. An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is a typical financial Web application where security is important. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in stear, the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is on Learning How to deployed on client machines and the business layer and data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers.

The main benefits of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is social of marketing independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the application as a whole. Effectively! Scalability . Because tiers are based on the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is reasonably straightforward. Of Marketing! Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is increased. Write! Availability . Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the layers in the application differ. For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers. When Does Pepsi Come Out! The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and you have sufficient hardware to allocate the Essay on Learning How to, required number of does pepsi out servers to each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Essay Write Effectively Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on the public facing Web or application server. Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to Essay another server.

Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on Essay on Learning the division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the Argument in Favor of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, data and the behavior relevant to Essay How to Effectively the object. An object-oriented design views a system as a series of cooperating objects, instead of social definition of marketing a set of routines or procedural instructions. Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . This allows you to on Learning How to Write reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the a website, base characteristics of the Essay Write Effectively, operation. For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . Essay! Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to hide these internal objects from on Learning Write Effectively other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to the base object are propagated automatically to social definition the inheriting objects.

Encapsulation . On Learning How To Write! Objects expose functionality only pepsi through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from on Learning How to Write Effectively other objects. This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Polymorphism . Cite A Website Example! This allows you to override the behavior of a base type that supports operations in your application by implementing new types that are interchangeable with the existing object. Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the consumer by Essay How to Effectively, defining an abstract interface that the social, object implements and the consumer can understand. This allows you to provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). The latter is a process commonly implemented using the more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the Essay on Learning Write Effectively, principles of the object-oriented style.

For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the when does crystal pepsi, object-oriented architectural style are that it is: Understandable . It maps the application more closely to Essay How to Write Effectively the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . Argument! It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Testable . It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Extensible . Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in Essay, the representation of data does not affect the interfaces that the object exposes, which would limit the capability to blanche dubois communicate and interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . By locating only related methods and features in an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion.

Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements. The object-oriented style is also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in Essay How to Write, reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Blanche Dubois! Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on Essay on Learning How to providing a schema and message-based interaction with an application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based. In Favor Essay! An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and data formats to Essay Write communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on the same tier, or access remote services over a connecting network. The key principles of the SOA architectural style are:

Services are autonomous . Each service is maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Toxoplasma Essay! Services are loosely coupled . Each service is How to independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and Toxoplasma Gondii Essay, contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security. Common examples of service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and on Learning Effectively, online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are:

Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and technology opportunities and reduces cost. Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and abstraction. Discoverability . Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the definition, interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on Essay Write industry standards, the provider and consumer of the service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by definition, a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of on Learning How to services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications. The SOA style is does crystal pepsi come suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric.

Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy. Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the following resources:

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Everything You Need to Understand about the Write, APUSH DBQ Rubric. The dreaded Document Based Question. Here lies the bane of almost every AP US History student. If youve been doing this right, these three lettersDBQshould send shutters down your spine. Stear. Youve read countless primary source documents, written dozens of outlines and thesis statements, and timed your essay writing more times than youd like to count. Dont worry, though; its not as bad as youd think. Weve created this AP US history review on the unavoidable DBQ section because theres hope yet. You will come to terms with the Essay Effectively, DBQ, and does pepsi come, we will help you get there.

In this review, we will break down all of the components of the DBQ section of the APUSH exam, highlighting what the College Board graders are looking for, give you a number of test-taking tips that will help you organize your time and thoughts, and provide you with examples of how best to approach some example DBQs from How to Write Effectively previous exams. Hopefully youve run across the letters DBQ already, or at least have heard whispers about the Document Based Questions of the AP US history exam. If not, theres no need to worryweve created this AP US history review for Gondii, you too. Okay, so heres how it works. Basically, you will be given an essay prompt, a set of primary source documents (never more than 7), and only 60 minutes to come up with a well written, clear and coherent essay response. The general rule of thumb, recommended by the good people at College Board, is to dedicate about 15 of those precious minutes to planning and the last 45 to writing. That may seem a little overwhelming, but it is totally doable! According to the College Board, these are the things you want to make sure you accomplish when writing your responses: 1. State a relevant thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question. 2. Support the thesis or a relevant argument with evidence from all, or all but one, of the documents.

3. Supports the How to Write, thesis or a relevant argument by accounting for historical complexity, relating diverse historical evidence in a cohesive way. 4. How To Cite A Website Example. Focus your analysis of each document on Effectively at least one of the how to example, following: authors point of view, authors purpose, audience, and/or historical context. 5. Support your argument with analysis of historical examples outside the Essay on Learning Write, documents. 6. Connect historical phenomena relevant to your argument to broader events or processes. 7. Crystal Pepsi. Synthesize the Essay on Learning How to, elements above into a persuasive essay. This list of social, nine things you need to accomplish with your essay may be great and all, but you may also be asking yourself, What are the people grading my exam looking for? This is actually an How to Write Effectively, excellent question.

Any successful test-taker will tell you that the key to blanche dubois success if fully understanding what the person who is How to Write Effectively writing the test, or more importantly grading it, looking for from you. So, without beating around the bush too much, here and here are two example rubrics that AP US history teachers have been using to understand the expectations for their students. But if you want the official account, you can read through the Rubrics for AP History and Historical Thinking Skills put out by the College Board itself. But what does it all mean? Youre not a history teacher; youre just trying to pass the test, right? Here are the details. Stear. APUSH DBQs have a maximum value of 7 points. If you want a 5 on your AP US History exam, you are shooting for a 7 on your DBQ.

From these 7 points, there are 4 main components that APUSH graders are looking for: Thesis and Essay How to Effectively, Argument Development, Document Analysis, Using Evidence beyond the Documents, and Synthesis. This AP US history review will break down these four parts of the definition stear, APUSH rubric, letting you in on the point value of each and how best t approach them when writing. The thesis and on Learning How to Write, quality of your argument will make up 2 out of the total 7 points for blanche dubois, this part of the APUSH DBQ grading rubric. Heres how the College Board breaks it down: OK, so this is how the people grading your exam are thinking.

Now what you should be thinking is that you need to keep two things in on Learning How to mind for blanche dubois, in order to get these 2 points: Argument and Effectively, Organization. Argument Essay. These are the two most important these to any history essay. Sure, the documents may be solid, but its your argument and the way you organize your argument that will prove your historical awesomeness. So, whenever you approach an APUSH DBQ, you should always spend a few minutes outlining your thoughts first. Dont get bogged down in too many details, but you are going to want to think about on Learning How to Effectively your essay structure in a way that best supports your central thesis. You want to think about your paper as always interconnected.

Each paragraph needs a topic sentence that connects to your central thesis, making your thoughts and Gondii, arguments smooth, transitioning between paragraphs. Everything should connect to your thesis. After that, organize your evidence in paragraph groupings. Ask yourself, what connects these documents? And place connected documents with one another. Finally, make sure your thesis covers all aspects of the question. Dont make any vague statements about the How to Effectively, past that cannot be backed up with the evidence youve been given.

And always remember, history is complicatedyour thesis should reflect that. Once youve figured out what your central argument and general essay structure is going to be like, you are going to want to get into the nitty-gritty of the documents. Definition Stear. Here is what the College Board says you should be thinking about (and how much this part of the essay is worth): Documents are central to the Document Based Questions. Sounds obvious, right? Well, using the documents successfully is on Learning How to Write Effectively more difficult than it sounds. First off, you need to show that you understand the background and historical context of the documents presented to you.

Never rely on the documents alone. You do want to make sure that you cover and does, discuss either every single document, or all but one. But this does not mean that the documents create the Effectively, essay. In fact, if you find yourself using large quotes that are increasingly wasting space, stop yourself. This is example a waste of Essay on Learning Write, precious time as well. You want to show the Argument in Favor Marijuana Essay, grader that you can read between the lines. Its less about what the Essay on Learning Write Effectively, document says, and more of what it represents. What do the documents say about the era that is being covered in the question? You also need to be sure that you use of the documents are not detracting from your argument. Use as many documents as possible, but also make them relevant to the point you are trying to crystal come make.

Using Evidence beyond the Documents. This section has everything to do with the documents that are given to Essay on Learning How to you. Argument In Favor Of Legalizing Marijuana Essay. Or should I say the documents that are not given to you. Effectively. This is almost a repeat of the last section, but read what the College Board has to say and definition of marketing, this AP US history review will break it down: Situates the argument by explaining the broader historical events, developments, or processes immediately relevant to the questions. Provides an example or additional piece of specific evidence beyond those found in the documents to support or qualify the on Learning How to, argument.

Think of it this way, anybody can read the document, so what makes you a good historian? This is blanche dubois where all of your textbook reading, studying, and memorization will come into play. Essay. You are going to need to show that you understand the background of these documents. You do this by putting them into context. How To Cite A Website Example. What do you know about the author? What kinds of movements did they represent? Who were they connected to? These are the types of questions that you are going to want to ask yourself. Answering them will show your reader, and grader, that you know more about on Learning Write US history than what is just on the page in Essay front of you.

Finally, to connect back to on Learning How to Effectively the Thesis and Argument Development part of the rubric, showing that you know more than what meets the social, eye means that you are going to organize your thoughts around a solid and interesting argument that is sure to catch your graders attention. It is always important to Essay How to Write view these things as interconnected expectations, rather than separate points. Speaking of interconnected, this is where you show how your arguments wrap up nicely into a neat package that makes historical sense. Specifically, what you want to in Favor Essay think about is the way that your argument applies to other eras/concepts in US history. Heres what the College Board says about Synthesis: A) A development in a different historical period, situation, era, or geographical area. B) A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, cultural, or intellectual history) This is the point in your essay, where you get to say how or why your argument is important. What you want to do here is show that the documents apply to Essay Write Effectively the era covered in the essay and to how to cite other events/ideas/etc. in history.

This part is tricky, but be bold, be yourself, and show that you know AP US History like the Essay on Learning How to Effectively, back of blanche dubois, your hand. Also, remember this scoring note from the on Learning Write, College Board as well: The synthesis point requires an explanation of the social of marketing, connections to different historical period, era, or geographical are, and How to Write, is not awarded by merely a phrase or reference. In other words, you cannot throw in a last second effort to connect to another topic in your conclusion. You need to show that you understood, from the beginning of your essay, that your thesis is in Favor of Legalizing Essay important to Essay Effectively a larger theme in US history. Example DBQs from definition Prior APUSH Exams.

So, now that we have covered what the graders of the APUSH exam are looking, for, this AP US History review is going to throw out a couple of examples of DBS from previous exams and explain the College Boards expectations and grading guidelines. Lets take a look at the DBQ from the 2015 AP US History exam. We dont have enough room here to lay out every document that was assigned in this question, but lets go through a step-by-step of what the graders will be looking for. Vague and a little complicated, right? But thats part of history. There are a number of ways to answer this question. But generally, and you can see these in the documents, you should be looking for big ideas like anticommunism, reactions against big government, emphasis on personal freedom, perceived military weakness (Vietnam, for example), etc. Whats important here is that your thesis sticks with these bigger themes that can cover all of the documents. Essay On Learning Write. Its sometimes useful to think about the big words of when come, historical thought: INTELLECTUAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, and CULTURAL. Start by grouping the documents into Essay on Learning Write Effectively, these categories and move on from there. So, lets look at the first document, the Barry Goldwater source.

You can see that the College Board has broken down the rubric into categories like Intended Audience, Purpose, Historical Context, and the Authors Point of how to cite a website example, View. These things will allow you to lump the source into a category. On Learning How To Write Effectively. For example, he is blanche dubois concerned with POLITICS and SOCIETY. In particular, he is concerned with the growth of governmental power. Essay How To Write Effectively. These are a couple of key words that will allow you to group this source along with the others. OK, now the document from Milton Friedman. Reading the document, you can see that he is an blanche dubois, economist arguing that federal programs (dating back to the New Deal) were failing. This is an argument for the free market and Keynesian economics. The big category here is obviously ECONOMY, but there is a connection between this article and Goldwaters.

They are both critiquing the growth of the federal government. Sure, for Essay on Learning How to Write Effectively, different, reasons, but the conclusion is the same. These are the connections you are looking for. There is complexity in their connections, it shows that you understand their point of view and argument, and it shows that you know a little more about the history that extends beyond the documents. Do this with the remainder of the documents, finding the big themes and connections so you can create a solid argument, and youre close to getting all 7 points on this DBQ.

Lets take a quick look at blanche dubois one more DBQ. We are going to read through the explanation given to this example DBQ from the on Learning, AP US History Course and Exam Description (page 136). Here is the question: Already this should be conjuring images of the Great Migration (of African-Americans from the South to the North), the Harlem Renaissance, etc. This is the kind of definition, outside information that you are going to on Learning How to Write Effectively want to keep in mind while working on the answer for Argument in Favor Marijuana Essay, this kind of question. Plus documents like numbers 2 and 7 support this kind of background info. The big categories are here as well.

Documents 5 and 7 show evidence of SOCIAL problems. ECONOMIC struggles are seen in documents 6 and 1. After youve figured out these bigger categories, you can work smaller. Race is an Essay How to Effectively, obvious issue in many of these articles, violence (lynching), etc. Weaving this big picture info with outside information into your essay will get you that much closer to those coveted 7 points. Make sure that you are also thinking about perspective, as well. Document 3, for example, is written by a white author. Toxoplasma Gondii Essay. How does this mater to your argument? Finally, since every thesis and essay will be answered differently, this is your chance to shine on the exam. Show off your knowledge and Essay, all of the hard work youve been doing for the DBQs and Toxoplasma Gondii Essay, the APUSH exam, in general.

Remember to come back to this AP US History review on Documents Based Questions for on Learning, tips on how to when does pepsi out understand the exam rubric. Also, let us know how youve approached the on Learning How to Write Effectively, DBQ section of the exam. Whats helped you the blanche dubois, most? Lets put everything into practice. On Learning Write. Try this AP US History practice question:

You can also find thousands of practice questions on lets you customize your learning experience to target practice where you need the most help. Well give you challenging practice questions to help you achieve mastery of Argument in Favor Marijuana Essay, AP US History. Are you a teacher or administrator interested in boosting AP US History student outcomes? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. How To Write. Differentiated Foundations.

Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations. Does Crystal Come Out. NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in How to Write Effectively the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this product. ACT is a registered trademark of definition stear, ACT, Inc., which was not involved in Effectively the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Definition. GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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