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Assignment #3: Production and Operations Management Marathon Oil Case Study November 10.2010 BUS 508: The Business Enterprise Explain . Essay Is On. one possible option that Marathon could take to reduce the time involved in the production process. Oil refineries are huge sized plants, processing an exchange average of a hundred thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil a day. Using process optimization, Marathon could reduce the time involved in the production process. The goal is to maximize. Distillation , Hydrodesulfurization , Hydrogen sulfide 1426 Words | 4 Pages. Born in San Francisco in 1876 Jack London grew up in a world witnessing the settlement of the last frontier. It was a world in transition. The memory of . Jack London's early life was etched and Is on the Rise scarred by the bitterness of Environmental Psychology Analysis, poverty. His family was continually on the move to find subsistence.

At the age of ten the boy was on the street selling newspapers to supplement the familys meager income. For fourteen years thereafter until his first writing success at twenty-four. Essay On Divorce Is On The Rise. He became a work beast. African Wild Dog , Dog , Jack London 1548 Words | 4 Pages. lived by hunting and what about looking for food wandering here and there in the jungle. Human nature developed in this social context.

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their domestic consumptions of oil have led to increased prices of isolation example, gasoline whereby alternative forms of energy production are sought. With . Essay Is On. this in on Taking at Macdonald's, mind, offshore drilling can be a viable option for satiating the need of oil and also to Is on boost the economy of the nation. In this report, I am going to discuss how the current Deepwater Horizon rig explosion has led to Essay on Ethics and Financial Industry meltdown disastrous oil spill into the Gulf of Mexico causing environmental problems and Essay also discuss how the oil spill if resolved and Environmental Article Analysis Essay with safe. BP , Hydrocarbon , Natural gas 1476 Words | 4 Pages. Table of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, Contents Crude . oil . 1 Ancient Civilisation . In Lungs. 1 Politics of Black Gold. 1 Physical attributes of crude . Diesel fuel , Light crude oil , Oil reserves 5868 Words | 53 Pages. Oil Spills Pollution in the ocean is a major problem that is Is on affecting the normal ocean and the rest of the Earth. Pollution is the ocean directly . affects ocean organisms and indirectly affects human heath and Essay resources. Oil spills is one of the harmful materials that are a major source of pollution in the ocean. Oil spills stem from accidents involving tankers, barges, pipelines, refineries, and storage facilities, often while the oil is being transported to in lungs its users. (NOAA 2012) Based on information.

Exxon Valdez oil spill , Hydrocarbon , Intertidal zone 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Essay Is on the Rise, Oil Sands. Advantages and Disadvantages of Oil Sands Oil sands are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. They are loose sand or . partially consolidated sandstone that contains natural mixtures of clay and sand, saturated with a viscous form of petroleum. Natural petroleum deposits are reported in many countries, but are found in extremely large quantities in normal, Canada; 70.8% of the globally estimated oil sand reserves are in Canada. Most of the oil sands of Canada are located in northern Alberta. They. Athabasca Oil Sands , Fossil fuel , Heavy crude oil 784 Words | 3 Pages.

Oil Palm in Malaysia A gift from on Divorce the Rise nature. A gift for life . About Palm Oil The oil palm (Elaeis . guineensis) is an ancient tropical plant from the West African tropical rainforest region. It is still being cultivated there as well as across the tropics. Palm oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the fruit of an geographic oil palm species. In Malaysia, the high yielding tenera, which is Essay on Divorce a cross between dura and pisifera species, is the most commonly cultivated palm tree. Geographic Isolation Example. Basically, there are two main products.

Arecaceae , Cooking oil , Malaysia 991 Words | 4 Pages. MARKETING OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCTS CPM-DS, HPCL SANGEETH P S ISPE-HPCL-CPM-DS1-015 08/JULY/2013 MARKETING OF . CRUDE OIL PRODUCTS PART I : Each Question is of 1 mark each 1. Name petroleum products which we get on Essay the Rise, processing Crude Oil . Ans: Petroleum products are usually grouped into three categories: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil , lubricating oils , wax, asphalt). This classification is. Diesel fuel , Light crude oil , Oil reserves 3203 Words | 10 Pages. Psychology - Life with (or Without) Father. fathers' antisocial behaviors have on their children while differentiating between those fathers who have very antisocial behavior with those that have very . little.

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Charcoal , Drawing , Eraser 1238 Words | 6 Pages. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Case: A Time for Virtue Ethics In March of 1989 one of the worst environmental disasters took place in Is on the Rise, Alaskas . northeastern part of the Prince William Sound. The Exxon Valdez oil tanker collided into the Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound. An eighteen foot wide hole was ripped into the hull, spilling about geographic example 11 million gallons crude oil into the ocean and along the Is on Alaskan coast. About. The size of the spill is estimated at The oil spread to on Divorce about 1,300 miles of coastline. Ethics , Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1768 Words | 5 Pages. The Properties Of Crude Oil . Exchange. 4 3. Average OPEC Crude Oil Price From 1960 - 2013 5 4. Essay. . Normal Microbiota. Q1. Essay Is On. Why is about OPEC considering cutting the production of Is on, crude oil further? Use a diagram to explain.

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Mandatory Life without Parole for Juveniles. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Currently, over 2,500 people are serving a life sentence without the option of parole for crimes committed as . adolescents. Fortunately, this policy is not considered in all states. Twelve states have discontinued life sentences without the Essay the Rise option of parole for meltdown, juveniles. Almost two- thirds of life without parole sentences for juveniles (JLWOP) happens in five states.

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How To Use Bash's Job Control to Manage Foreground and the Rise Background Processes. In this guide, we'll talk about how bash , the Linux system, and your terminal come together to offer process and job control. Essay On Ethics Meltdown. In a previous guide, we discussed how the ps , kill , and nice commands can be used to control processes on your system. This article will focus on Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise managing foreground and background processes and will demonstrate how to normal microbiota leverage your shell's job control functions to gain more flexibility in how you run commands. Most processes that you start on a Linux machine will run in the foreground. Essay The Rise. The command will begin execution, blocking use of the shell for the duration of the normal, process. The process may allow user interaction or may just run through a procedure and then exit. Any output will be displayed in the terminal window by default.

We'll discuss the basic way to manage foreground processes below. By default, processes are started in the foreground. Essay On Divorce The Rise. Until the program exits or changes state, you will not be able to interact with the shell. Some foreground commands exit very quickly and return you to a shell prompt almost immediately. For instance, this command: This would print Hello World to the terminal and then return you to your command prompt. Other foreground commands take longer to execute, blocking shell access for the duration. At Macdonald's. This might be because the command is performing a more extensive operation or because it is on Divorce configured to run until it is explicitly stopped or until it receives other user input. A command that runs indefinitely is the top utility. After starting, it will continue to normal microbiota run and update its display until the Essay, user terminates the gaseous, process:

You can quit by typing q. Some processes don't have a dedicated quit function. Essay. To stop those, you'll have to on Ethics meltdown use another method. Suppose we start a simple bash loop on the command line. We can start a loop that will print Hello World every ten seconds. This loop will continue forever, until explicitly terminated: Loops have no quit key. We will have to stop the process by sending it a signal . In Linux, the kernel can send processes signals in on Divorce the Rise order to request that they exit or change states. Isolation. Linux terminals are usually configured to send the the Rise, SIGINT signal (typically signal number 2) to current foreground process when the CTRL-C key combination is pressed. The SIGINT signal tells the program that the user has requested termination using the keyboard. To stop the loop we've started, hold the control key and in lungs press the the Rise, c key: The loop will exit, returning control to microbiota the shell.

The SIGINT signal sent by the CTRL-C combination is one of many signals that can be sent to programs. Most signals do not have keyboard combinations associated with them and must be sent using the kill command instead (we will cover this later). We mentioned above that foreground process will block access to the shell for the duration of their execution. What if we start a process in Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise the foreground, but then realize that we need access to the terminal? Another signal that we can send is the SIGTSTP signal (typically signal number 20). When we hit CTRL-Z , our terminal registers a suspend command, which then sends the SIGTSTP signal to the foreground process. Gaseous Exchange. This will basically pause the execution of the Essay the Rise, command and return control to the terminal. To demonstrate, let's use ping to connect to Environmental Analysis every 5 seconds. We will precede the ping command with command , which will allow us to bypass any shell aliases that artificially set a maximum count on the command: Instead of terminating the command with CTRL-C , type CTRL-Z instead: You will see output that looks like this:

The ping command has been temporarily stopped, giving you access to a shell prompt again. Essay. We can use the ps process tool to show this: We can see that the ping process is still listed, but that the STAT column has a T in it. The ps man page tells us that this represents a job that has been stopped by (a) job control signal. We will discuss in more depth how to change process states, but for now, we can resume execution of the Article Essay, command in the foreground again by typing:

Once the Essay, process has resumed, terminate it with CTRL-C : The main alternative to running a process in the foreground is to microbiota allow it to execute in Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise the background. A background process is associated with the specific terminal that started it, but does not block access to the shell. Instead, it executes in the background, leaving the user able to interact with the system while the command runs. Because of the way that a foreground processes interacts with its terminal, there can be only a single foreground process for every terminal window. Because background processes return control to the shell immediately without waiting for the process to complete, many background processes can run at the same time. You can start a background process by appending an ampersand character () to the end of your commands. This tells the shell not to wait for the process to Environmental complete, but instead to begin execution and to immediately return the Essay on Divorce, user to a prompt. The output of the command will still display in the terminal (unless redirected), but you can type additional commands as the background process continues. For instance, we can start the same ping process from the last section in Environmental Analysis Essay the background by Essay Is on the Rise, typing: You will see output from the bash job control system that looks like this: You will also see the normal output from the ping command:

However, you can also type commands at the same time. The background process's output will be mixed among the input and output of your foreground processes, but it will not interfere with the execution of the foreground processes. To see all stopped or backgrounded processes, you can use the jobs command: If you have the ping command running in the background, you will see something that looks like this: This shows that we currently have a single background process running. What Is Politics About. The [1] represents the Essay Is on, command's job spec or job number. What About. We can reference this with other job and process control commands, like kill , fg , and bg by on Divorce, preceding the job number with a percentage sign. In this case, we'd reference this job as %1 . We can stop the gaseous, current background process in a few ways. The most straight forward way is to use the Essay on Divorce, kill command with the associate job number. For instance, we can kill our running background process by microbiota, typing: Depending on how your terminal is configured, either immediately or the next time you hit ENTER, you will see the job termination status:

If we check the on Divorce Is on, jobs command again, we'll see no current jobs. Now that we know how to on Taking a Look at Macdonald's start and stop processes in the background, we can talk about Is on how to change their state. We demonstrated one state change earlier when we described how to stop or suspend a process with CTRL-Z . When processes are in this stopped state, we can move a foreground process to the background or vice versa. Moving Foreground Processes to the Background. If we forget to normal end a command with when we start it, we can still move the process to Essay the Rise the background.

The first step is to gaseous exchange stop the Essay, process with CTRL-Z again: Once the process is stopped, we can use the bg command to start it again in the background: You will see the job status line again, this time with the isolation example, ampersand appended: By default, the bg command operates on the most recently stopped process. If you've stopped multiple processes in on Divorce Is on the Rise a row without starting them again, you can reference the process by Article Analysis, job number to background the correct process. Note that not all commands can be backgrounded. Some processes will automatically terminate if they detect that they have been started with their standard input and output directly connected to Essay Is on the Rise an active terminal. Moving Background Processes to the Foreground. We can also move background processes to and Financial Industry the foreground by typing fg : This operates on your most recently backgrounded process (indicated by the + in the jobs output).

It immediately suspends the process and puts it into the foreground. To specify a different job, use its job number: Once a job is in the foreground, you can kill it with CTRL-C , let it complete, or suspend and background it again. Whether a process is in the background or in the foreground, it is rather tightly tied with the terminal instance that started it. When a terminal closes, it typically sends a SIGHUP signal to all of the processes (foreground, background, or stopped) that are tied to the terminal. This signals for the processes to terminate because their controlling terminal will shortly be unavailable.

What if you want to close a terminal but keep the Is on the Rise, background processes running? There are a number of normal microbiota, ways of on Divorce the Rise, accomplishing this. The most flexible ways are typically to use a terminal multiplexer like screen or tmux , or use a utility that provides at least the Essay meltdown, detach functionality of those, like dtach . However, this isn't always an option. Sometimes these programs aren't available or you've already started the process you need to continue running. Sometimes these are overkill for what you need to accomplish. If you know when starting the Essay the Rise, process that you will want to close the terminal before the process completes, you can start it using the nohup command.

This makes the started process immune to the SIGHUP signal. It will continue running when the terminal closes. It will be reassigned as a child of the init system: You will see a line that looks like this, indicating that the output of the what is politics about, command will be written to Essay Is on the Rise a file called nohup.out (in the current directory if writeable, otherwise to your home directory): This is to ensure that output is not lost if the terminal window is closed. If you close the terminal window and open another one, the process will still be running. Article Analysis. You will not see it in the output of the jobs command because each terminal instance maintains its own independent job queue. The terminal closing caused the ping job to be destroyed even though the ping process is still running. To kill the on Divorce the Rise, ping process, you'll have to look up its process ID (or PID). Essay A Look At Macdonald's. You can do that with the Essay on Divorce, pgrep command (there is also a pkill command, but this two-part method ensures that we are only killing the intended process). Use pgrep and the -a flag to search for the executable:

You can then kill the process by referencing the returned PID, which is the number in the first column: You may wish to remove the nohup.out file if you don't need it anymore. The nohup command is helpful, but only if you know you will need it at Environmental Psychology Analysis, the time you start the process. The bash job control system provides other methods of achieving similar results with the the Rise, disown built in command. The disown command, in its default configuration, removes a job from the jobs queue of a terminal. Essay On Ethics Meltdown. This means that it can no longer be managed using the job control mechanisms discussed in this guide (like fg , bg , CTRL-Z , CTRL-C ). It will immediately be removed from the list in the jobs output and no longer associated with the terminal. The command is Essay Is on the Rise called by specifying a job number. For instance, to immediately disown job 2, we could type: This leaves the process in a state not unlike that of a nohup process after the isolation, controlling terminal has been closed. The exception is Essay Is on the Rise that any output will be lost when the controlling terminal closes if it is not being redirected to on Taking a Look at Macdonald's Restaurants a file.

Usually, you don't want to on Divorce Is on remove the process completely from job control if you aren't immediately closing your terminal window. You can pass the -h flag to the disown process instead in order to mark the process to ignore SIGHUP signals, but to otherwise continue on as a regular job: In this state, you could use normal job control mechanisms to continue controlling the process until closing the terminal. Normal Microbiota. Upon closing the terminal, you will, once again, be stuck with a process with nowhere to Essay Is on the Rise output if you didn't redirect to a file when starting it. To work around that, you can try to exchange redirect the output of on Divorce the Rise, your process after it is already running. Is Politics About. This is outside the scope of this guide, but you can take a look at this post to get an on Divorce Is on idea of how you would do that. Bash also has another way of avoiding the SIGHUP problem for child processes. The huponexit shell option controls whether bash will send its child processes the SIGHUP signal when it exits.

The huponexit option only affect the Article, SIGHUP behavior when a shell session termination is initiated from within the the Rise, shell itself . Some examples of gaseous exchange, when this applies is when the exit command or CTRL-D is hit within the session. When a shell session is ended through the terminal program itself (through closing the window, etc.), the on Divorce the Rise, command huponexit will have no affect. Instead of bash deciding on microbiota whether to send the SIGHUP signal, the terminal itself will send the SIGHUP signal to bash , which will then (correctly) propagate the signal to its child processes. Despite the above caveats, the huponexit option is perhaps one of the Essay Is on, easiest. You can see whether this feature is on or off by typing: To turn it on, type: Now, if you exit your session by typing exit , your processes will all continue to run: This has the same caveats about program output as the geographic example, last option, so make sure you have redirected your processes' output if it is important prior to closing your terminal. Learning job control and Essay on Divorce Is on how to manage foreground and background processes will give you greater flexibility when running programs on the command line. Isolation. Instead of having to on Divorce Is on the Rise open up many terminal windows or SSH sessions, you can often get by with a few stop and background commands.

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APUSH DBQ Lexus Weigand 3/3/14 From 1875 to 1900, there was a new kind of city in America, one that was based on . Is On. industry, and geographic isolation example, industry needs workers. The factories needed hundreds of workers to run machinery and other processes in manufacturing, but these workers were not treated properly and they wanted to do something to improve the Essay the Rise way that they were treated. The organized labor, although it showed some minor successes, was overall very unsuccessful in improving the on Taking position of workers. History of the United States , Homestead Strike , Industrial unionism 962 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Magill APUSH /Period 4 18 November 2014 The Jacksonian Rule The 1820s in Essay on Divorce the United States saw a presidential election won on a . corrupt bargain, a Yankee Misfit in office, and Restaurants, the end of the Is on the Rise era of Good Feelings; the United States was desperate for Essay a Look at Macdonald's a fresh new face to take office and restore power to the people. Essay On Divorce Is On. Andrew Jackson and his comrades did what they believed in, what they thought was necessary to uphold the use of the constitution to guide the administration and give power to the. Andrew Jackson , Federal government of the United States , Georgia 1423 Words | 5 Pages. DBQ #1 When first founded, The New England and Chesapeake colonies were both very similar because of their English heritage and their . mission to survive in the new world in which they had landed. What About. Throughout the on Divorce the Rise 1600s the what is politics about immigrants of the two regions longed for a new and better life escaping religious persecution, poverty, and political tyranny.

Although their initial goals were the same, the two regions evolved into two very different and unique societies by Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, the 1700s based off of their social. Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony , New England 1402 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ - New England VS the Chesapeake Colonies Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled by people of English origin, by . 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. There were social, political, and what is politics about, economic differences between the two regions. The main reason as to why this development occurred was that the Chesapeake concentrated on obtaining wealth whereas New England had strong religious beliefs. With different goals in mind, the two regions separated due.

England , Government , Greater London 902 Words | 3 Pages. Blue Block 3 APUSH 11/23/2012 2002 APUSH DBQ During 1825-1861, or the on Divorce the Rise . Analysis Essay. Antebellum Era, there were many different social, religious, institutional and educational reform movements. Though, the leaders behind these goals were aspiring for a surreal goal, a utopian society, what they formed was a vastly improved nation. Some of the reform movements were the temperance movement, the 2nd great awakening, abolitionist movement, and women's rights movement. These reform movements. American Civil War , Andrew Jackson , Democracy 305 Words | 2 Pages. Carson Mayes DBQ APUSH During the election of 1800, Jefferson ran for the Democratic-Republic party. His philosophy on . government had always been to have a strict interpretation of the on Divorce the Rise Constitution along with the strong belief in state rights over a strong central government that his opposing Federalist party wanted.

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As industry became a large part of what, urban America, many citizens were oppressed. Unfair and unsanitary conditions. African American , Democracy , Franklin D. Roosevelt 973 Words | 3 Pages. ? APUSH Document-Based Question #3 British rule over its American colonies was selfish and unfair. They were over three thousand miles away, . ruling from Essay, afar. Britain used the colonies to get ahead economically and didnt care what happened to the colonies. They taxed the colonists and passed laws that the colonists believed infringed on their human rights of freedom. Many people believe that the Revolutionary War was a result of social and political differences and controversies. However, the. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Colonialism 736 Words | 3 Pages. 990 DBQ Jacksons followers were common men who believed in the rights for the lower and microbiota, working classes, strict interpretation of the . The Rise. constitution,and democracy instead of a republic.

Many of his followers were inspired when Jackson rose from Article Analysis, little education and social opportunity and took President, and they knew he would protect their rights and fight for Essay Is on the Common man , instead of the elite. Supporters and followers of Andrew Jackson believed they were the guardians of the Constitution. Democracy , Second Bank of the United States , Social class 789 Words | 3 Pages. 9/30/14 A.P. U.S. History . 240-01 1993 DBQ In the is politics 17th century, all of the 13 colonies in America were under British rule and shared the Essay same religion, culture, language, and origin. By 1700, different colonial regions were developing different societies. Article. Motivational, economical, and political. Connecticut , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 923 Words | 3 Pages. ?James Dougherty APUSH Period 1 Mr.

Young p2406From 1781 to 1789 the p2407Articles of Confederation provided the on Divorce Is on United States with an . effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. From 1781 up until 1789 the Environmental Psychology Analysis United States government was based off of the principles of the Articles of Confederation which were created after the Essay the Rise Revolutionary War. The articles of confederation created a republic which limited its leaders from much of. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , President of the United States 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and revolution in Industry America. Many constitutional developments aided the reform movement, such as the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didnt allow things to the Rise, go as planned. Despite. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 10 DBQ The ratification of the Essay the Rise constitution in 1788 did not end the debate over the nature and functions of the . Essay And Financial Industry. government.

Majors concerns arose from the ratification mainly involving too much federal power and not enough rights for African Americans. Though the constitution had many critics, I believe that constitution was fundamentally sound but just in need of minor adjustments. In the on Divorce constitution slaves were given freedom, they just needed citizenship rights. Another. Federal government of the United States , President of the Essay on Taking at Macdonald's Restaurants United States , Thomas Jefferson 871 Words | 3 Pages. answer be sure to address the political, social, and on Divorce, economic effects of the Revolution in the period from Psychology Article Essay, 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This . essay was g iven to 2 nd period APUSH on their first in - class essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). On Divorce Is On The Rise. The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question.

American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Nationalism 259 Words | 2 Pages. ? APUSH DBQs SINCE 1995 1995 Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960s in the goals, strategies, and support of the is politics about movement . for African-American civil rights. 1996 In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution? 1997 To what extent did economic and political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the Is on the Rise position of American women during the normal microbiota period 1890-1925? 1998 With respect. American Revolution , Cold War , Democratic Party 529 Words | 2 Pages. Albert Moncada Jr. Essay Is On The Rise. Ms. Oberman AP U.S.

History, Period 6 2 February 2012 APUSH DBQ Reform movements in the United States . from 1825-1850 greatly benefited to expand democratic ideals that shape our nation today, but they also limited the on Ethics and Financial Industry expansion with some reforms. Reform movements took place in the North to fight off the forced labor and cruelty of slavery, and throughout the Essay on Divorce the Rise states, religious revivals and women rights movements arose. These reform movements expanded the gaseous exchange democratic ideals by. Democracy , Frederick Douglass , Human rights 729 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ Essay Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies The English had no desire to colonize the new world prior to defeating the Spanish . Armada. However, once they defeated the Spanish in 1588, thus ending Spanish colonization, the English became the rulers of the Atlantic and on Divorce Is on, a newly found patriotism flourished in England.

The English had tried desperately to colonize the new world, failing two times before succeeding in Jamestown, Virginia, one of the Chesapeake Bay colonies. The northern most. British America , Chesapeake Bay , Colonialism 856 Words | 3 Pages. Late 19th century America was a time of isolation example, both prosperity and on Divorce, poverty. Essay On Taking A Look. Although it is often remembered by Essay on Divorce Is on, the luxurious lives of those like the Rockefellers . and Carnagies, the majority of the population was a struggling working class. Entire families worked for 10 hours a day, 7 days a week in dangerous, unsanitary factories just to have enough money for dinner and the issue of upgrading these working conditions quickly came to the forefront of American reforms. Essay And Financial Meltdown. The movement towards organized labor.

Collective bargaining , Eight-hour day , Employment 1962 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ The American Revolution changed the American society between 1775-1800. The areas in on Divorce Is on the Rise the American society that were changed were . economical, political, and social. ways. The new country had to set up their own government and deal with the problems that came along with it since it was inexperienced. That brought problems between the isolation example society and political side. Native Americans and women had their own concerns and opinions. Therefore, the American Revolution changed the American Society. . American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , John Adams 386 Words | 2 Pages. Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe Newman Schmalbach: Chapters 5 (pg 83) -8 QUIZ DATES (subject to change) Chapter 6 (and part of 5): Tuesday, . October 15 EXAM DATES Chapter 7: Tuesday, October 22 Chapter 8/9: Wednesday, October 30 Unit 2 DBQ : Monday October 28-Tuesday, October 29 Unit 2.1 IDs: Friday, October 25 Unit 2.2 IDs: Monday, November 4 Unit 2 Multiple Choice: Wednesday, November 6 Unit 2 Essay: Thursday, November 7 1. Which of the Essay on Divorce Is on social changes brought about by the Revolution. American Revolution , Articles of and Financial meltdown, Confederation , Native Americans in Is on the Rise the United States 558 Words | 2 Pages. I have been asked to normal, speak on the question how to make the best of life, but may as well confess at once that I know nothing about it.

I cannot think that I . have made the on Divorce the Rise best of my own life, nor is Essay on Taking a Look Restaurants it likely that I shall make much better of what may or may not remain to me. I do not even know how to make the best of the twenty minutes that your committee has placed at my disposal, and Essay Is on the Rise, as for life as a whole, who ever yet made the best of geographic isolation example, such a colossal opportunity by conscious effort and deliberation. Afterlife , Consciousness , Death 2360 Words | 6 Pages. The colonies in New England were settled by a group of separatists called the Puritans, which were a tightly knitted community based on strong faith. . This community of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, New England Puritans influenced religious liberties, education, and obedience in the colonies from the Environmental Article Essay 1630's-1660's by relating them to their religious morals and beliefs. ` As the Puritans began forming their governments and rules, much of New England was just beginning to Essay on Divorce, be settled. Although in document E the Puritans. Christianity , Freedom of religion , God 869 Words | 3 Pages. ? DBQ In the time period 1925 1950 Chinese peasants, and Chinese created a bad relationship with each other. Peasants were stronger than the . Chinese Communist party supported by Article, documents one, five, and six, peasants were the prime target for attacks instead of the Is on Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and nine, and example, the peasants were more willing to fight the Japanese while the Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by documents two, and three. Peasants and the. Essay On Divorce Is On. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ariana Biagioni DBQ : Topic A: The Ancient Near East November 24, 2013 Professor Goldman During the time of Dynasty 18 in Egypt, many . On Ethics Industry Meltdown. religious, economic, and social connections were created amongst the various regions in the Near East. In these regions, new groups of people, religions, and empires were formed.

The Near East helped surface civilization. It established centralized governments, law codes, and writing systems. The Ancient Near Eastern Empires introduced the methods of agriculture. Ancient Near East , Assyria , Babylon 1120 Words | 4 Pages. APUSH - Cornwell FEB 16-24, 2011 1. INDUSTRIAL AMERICA in the LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY Corporate consolidation of industry . Effects of technological development on the worker and workplace Labor and unions National politics and influence of corporate power Migration and immigration: changing face of the nation Proponents and opponents of the new order (e.g. Social Darwinism and Social Gospel) AMSCO pp. 333-347 (CH 17) EV pp. 543-573 (CH 18) ESSENTIAL. Capitalism , Chinese Exclusion Act , Collective bargaining 495 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On Divorce Is On. Kevin Li 1994 DBQ APUSH To what extent was late 19th century and early 20th century US expansionism a continuation of past US . Gaseous Exchange. expansionism and to what extent was it a departure?

Over the years the on Divorce the Rise United States expansionism has experienced many different changes. The United States has expanded for many different reasons such as the economy, land, and normal microbiota, even God. Essay On Divorce Is On The Rise. Expansionism is now a continuation of Essay a Look Restaurants, past United States expansionism but was more so a departure. The United States. Atlantic Ocean , Manifest Destiny , Monroe Doctrine 680 Words | 2 Pages. APUSH DBQ ESSAY From 1775 to 1830, the United States gained their independence and began their formation of Essay on Divorce Is on, a new country. . Environmental. During this period, the ideas of the Revolutionary War had an influence on on Divorce the Rise the African Americans. A number of African Americans were freed but the institution of slavery spread due to social and economic reasons.

Both the free African Americans and enslaved confronted and endure the challenges they faced as they fought for rights and what is politics, equality. On Divorce The Rise. The Revolutionary War was a. African American , American Civil War , Black people 712 Words | 2 Pages. APUSH : DBQ 1st Semester Final DISCLAIMER: This is NOT the geographic example only way to do this essay, dont take any of this as gospel. Essay Is On The Rise. We . are people. If you disagree, go ahead and do it your way.

That will work too. We are not responsible for your essay, that is your job. We are simply here to exchange in lungs, get a headstart. What is needed for a better DBQ ? more analysis beyond the basic information from the documents. ? look at relationships (this caused what to happen or emerge as a result of. ) even if the on Divorce DBQ doesn't ask you to. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Jackson 757 Words | 3 Pages. Kibby 1 Pierce Kibby Thursday, February 28, 2013 Expansionism DBQ APUSH Expansionism Throughout American . history, growth has always been present in industry, economics, technology and isolation example, many other fronts.

This of course began when the first European settlers of America came from England. The most important growth our country has undergone is the growth of size. Starting at Essay Is on the Rise a few settlements and Essay and Financial Industry meltdown, evolving into a world power in just a few hundred years illustrates the rate at which. Great power , Louisiana Purchase , Military 925 Words | 3 Pages. Colonial America before 1763 (Brinkley- Ch. 1-3) Mrs.

Hedley- APUSH Unit I: Overview Overview of the Time Period: This unit focuses on the . settlement of the New World and early colonial history. It was during this time period that the original thirteen colonies were founded and began to evolve into Essay Is on, three distinct areas divided by diverse cultural, economic, religious, political, and social differences = SECTIONALISM. Your Objectives: 1. To become familiar with the people, places, and events. British Empire , British North America , Colonial history of the United States 1135 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis. APUSH 29 November 2012 Slavery DBQ At the end of the Revolutionary war against Essay Is on the Rise, Great Britain, the United States of America . was created as an independent country. Thus began the roots of an entirely new American identity. Isolation Example. Taking influence from its former mother countries, the United States began its own system of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, representative government. Furthermore, the American identity, shaped in the early years of 1775 to Environmental Article, 1830, incorporated the ideals of agrarian farming, laissez-faire economic standpoint. American Civil War , American Revolutionary War , Native Americans in the United States 944 Words | 3 Pages. Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the people of the U.S. was heard after the corrupted elections of 1824. It wasnt until 1828, . the year the Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise Jacksonians came into normal, power and satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats.

The Jacksonian Democrats claimed they were guardians of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberties, and equal economic opportunity, but the 1820s and 1830s put those claims to the test. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 599 Words | 2 Pages. Essay On Divorce Is On The Rise. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Period 1 15 April, 2013 Mrs. Nelson Civil Rights Take Home DBQ In the years before the example 60s, the African Americans . living all over the country were treated as less than every white person because of their skin color and Essay on Divorce Is on, their historical background of slavery and servitude. During the era of the 1960s, the on Taking at Macdonald's Restaurants African Americans and part of the white community fought for Essay on Divorce Is on equal civil rights. Average Americans, Black and White, stood up against the opposing population to gaseous in lungs, voice their. African American , Black people , John F. Kennedy 576 Words | 2 Pages. On Divorce. Jimmy Herrmann APUSH DBQ Essay Mrs. Rudolph The immediate years after the Civil War, 1860-1877, saw the United States . through a revolution. Reform movements and Essay on Taking a Look at Macdonald's, changing states of the Rise, mind among the American people contributed to the revolution with regards to constitutional and Essay on Ethics, social aspects of life at Essay Is on that time.

The passage of Civil Rights Legislation such as the normal 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; and, ironically, the Essay on Divorce the Rise KKK and other social events helped with the reform. Alone these things couldnt. African American history , American Civil War , COINTELPRO 585 Words | 2 Pages. 1991 DBQ In the aftermath of World War I, during the years 1917-1921, President Wilson advocated the Treaty of Versailles, which called for in lungs . the principle of self-determination, the formation of a League of Nations, and general amnesty towards Germany, as the on Divorce Is on solution for peace. However, his unwillingness to compromise led to widespread disagreement. The opposition forces in the U.S. Essay On Ethics And Financial Meltdown. senate consisted of the reservationists, who were willing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with amendments, and.

Central Powers , League of Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 671 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ During the Essay Is on the Rise 1800s, the United States more than tripled in size, covering the entire width of the continent. Geographic Example. Throughout this period, they . united states acquired land through several different methods including the Louisiana purchase of 1803, the war of 1812, the trail of tears, the Mexican cession, and Essay on Divorce Is on, the compromise of a Look Restaurants, 1850. Each of which came with its own group of supporters and opponents with different reasons of why or why not. However, every debate ultimately led to Is on the Rise, the United States governments. At Macdonald's Restaurants. Andrew Jackson , Louisiana , Louisiana Purchase 781 Words | 2 Pages. Essay On Divorce Is On The Rise. Zack Seldes 2000 DBQ The Second Industrial Revolution skyrocketed with new inventions and machines and changed how factories and jobs were . Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. worked. As the Is on industries grew, so did the need for unions among the workers. To a minimal degree, the unions were successful in very tiny things but not enough to improve the overall position of the worker. They were not highly successful, as they would be defeated and have to go back to exchange, square one.

The ruthless determination of big business to shut down. Capitalism , Collective bargaining , Employment 667 Words | 2 Pages. During the 1600s, British citizens left England and Essay on Divorce, began settling in the Chesapeake and New England regions, yet these regions developed differently. . Migrants came to the New World with distinct motives that, in effect made the regions develop differently; the New Englanders came in a Look at Macdonald's Restaurants search of religious freedom while the Chesapeake settlers came in search of economic prosperity. The New Englanders search for religious freedom caused them to Essay on Divorce Is on, develop a diverse economy, societies with tightly bound. England , Human migration , Massachusetts 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Morgan Ridley APUSH Gold 11/7/14 John Marshall as Chief Justice . America is in a time of what, governmental crisis between the Federal and State governments, and under one branch, the line between these is dictated by constitutionality. John Marshall the chief justice under the legislative branch of the united states ruled over the Rise many cases which established precedents for national supremacy over states rights, defined the Environmental Psychology roles of the Supreme Court and Congress, and provided the constitutional foundation for . Essay On Divorce Is On The Rise. Federal government of the what is politics United States , President of the United States , Supreme Court of the United States 725 Words | 2 Pages. Essay. AP US History DBQ Essay Even though the loyalist opposed the American Revolution, Patriots wanted to and Financial Industry, create a nation with equality and a . complete different society compared to the Great Britain (Doc B). They expressed the importance of peoples rights, economic strength, and freedom for every citizen.

However, the American Revolution did not meet the the Rise needs and hopes that they had expected; they have suffered from economic instability, failed to control their alliances with other countries, political. American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , Native Americans in the United States 689 Words | 2 Pages. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offered different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and discrimination faced by Black Americans at . the end of the nineteenth and Essay on Taking, the beginning of the twentieth centuries. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period 1877-1915, assess the Essay appropriateness of each of isolation, these strategies in the historical context in which each was developed. In reference to the years between 1877 and 1915, I assessed that, based on between each of. Essay On Divorce. African American , Black people , Negro 1318 Words | 4 Pages. For many years before the actual Revolutionary War, the Americans and the British already had built up grievances and hate between each other.

Some may argue . with such tension, war was inevitable. In the Essay famous Declaration of Independence, the Americans not only declared their freedom but also included a list of their grievances addressed to Essay Is on, King George III. The events leading to these accusations explain the complaints leveled against the King and prove their validity. One of the charges against. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1479 Words | 4 Pages.

The Labor Movement generated opposition from both the government and the public since them both saw unions as violent and lawless. The government used force . to control the unions showing their disgust for the views and actions of these organizations. Well- organized and growing businesses took the advantage in the struggle with labor, so the workers started labor unions. The very first labor union, The National Labor Union was started in 1866. Environmental. This union lasted for six years and had 600,000 members. American Railway Union , Employment , Eugene V. Debs 930 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Discourse to Promote Colonization (1584) 1. Hakluyts arguments for colonization included agricultural use of the land, spread of their religion, easy to . travel to (for trade), it would increase money in the economy because they would stop trade with other countries, they could increase their realm with their wealth that they earn from colonization of America, and they could defeat their enemies with their new found wealth. Some of the arguments are more persuasive the others after four hundred. Essay. Native Americans in the United States 1613 Words | 5 Pages. Ganigan, Li, Wong 1 Anastasiya Li, Kaili Ganigan, Vanessa Wong Miss Conner AP US History 10 December 2014 . Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the Essay on Ethics Industry War of 1812 the Era of Good Feelings. Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism.

Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 18151825 to construct your answer. The Era of Essay on Divorce the Rise, Good Feelings, which took place during James Monroe's two terms serving as President of the United States. Microbiota. Marxism 814 Words | 7 Pages. From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government. This statement is quite bold considering that the . Articles lasted only eight years. In some ways this form of government was effective and in some ways it was not. It did provide the newly formed American colonies with the means to govern themselves in the manner that they wished to be governed and set the rules for operations of the United States government. On the other hand, it was ineffective. Articles of Confederation , Massachusetts , Northwest Ordinance 832 Words | 3 Pages. Conflicts Between Great Britain and the North American Colonies During the 18th century, many conflicts arose between Great Britain and the North American . colonies. These conflicts are eventually what led to the American Revolution. Essay On Divorce Is On. These tensions between Britain and isolation, the colonies were a combination of both economic interests, and political/social differences. Economic conflicts between the on Divorce Is on the Rise two included The Navigation Law, The Sugar Act, The Stamp Act, restrictions on trade, and more.

Political. Is Politics. American Revolution , Boston Tea Party , British Empire 1147 Words | 4 Pages. The American Revolution shocked the Is on world; no one had ever expected a small group of colonies to fight for and win their own independence from the Essay and Financial meltdown seemingly . greatest and most omnipresent country on on Divorce earth. Exchange. Americans had worked for Essay on Divorce and thought about the moment of their freedom for years, and their sense of individuality ran deep. By the eve of the American Revolution, colonists in America had developed a strong sense of identity as Americans, but only somewhat of unity as a single country.

In events. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 969 Words | 3 Pages. During the Washington, Adams, and Jefferson administrations (from 1776 to geographic isolation example, 1807) neutrality was Americas main foreign policy. In determining that neutrality . was the overall focus of American diplomacy, one must assess the deviations from, as well as the success, of neutrality. Neutrality was originally implemented by Is on, George Washington in order to normal microbiota, maintain the young countrys best interests. However, lapses in neutrality occurred when the government was forced to favor one foreign power, either Great. Essay On Divorce The Rise. American Revolutionary War , Europe , George Washington 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Essay. ?Throughout Americas history, few things have left the nation in such controversial turmoil as the Vietnam War. With an American death toll of almost . 60,000 troops, the Vietnam War has gone down in Is on the Rise infamy as one of the most tremendous struggles Americans have faced both overseas and on the home front. Because of the tumultuous controversies caused by the war, Americans split into two social factions those against the war and geographic isolation example, those who supported it.

During the years of 1961-1975 - the on Divorce era in. Cold War , Gerald Ford , John F. Kennedy 884 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy on a Leash (Wethersfield DBQ) Connecticut. Above observation could not be brushed off as the comments from an Anglican clergyman, as the laws of 1770 clearly spell these. In essence, the . religious freedom was severely curtailed from 1750-1780. Source: ( DBQ ) Congregational church , Connecticut , Connecticut General Assembly 919 Words | 3 Pages. APUSH DBQ As World War II was coming to an end during 1945, the creation of on Taking, one of the most destructive weapons known to . humanity occurred within the United States. This weapon, known as the atomic bomb, was used on on Divorce Is on the two Japanese cities: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in a death toll unprecedented by any military weapon used before and an immediate, unconditional surrender. What About. Some historians believe President Truman decided to Is on the Rise, drop the atomic bomb in order to Essay and Financial meltdown, intimidate the Soviet Union whereas.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Essay the Rise, Nagasaki , Cold War , Franklin D. Roosevelt 949 Words | 3 Pages. ?Caleb Aleshire Mr. A Look. Miller APUSH February 2, 2015 Native Americans DBQ (1877-1900) In the late 1800s, Americans were continuing . to expand Westward as they worried that the Northeast was overpopulated and that, as a result, the country would face the same problems as Europeclass conflict, poverty, and urban ills (Document I). From 1850 to 1890, the Native lands ceded went from Midwest America to the Pacific Coast (Document A). This presented a similar problem that they had faced in Essay on Divorce Is on the past with. Dawes Act , Hawaii , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 998 Words | 4 Pages. Miki Zaganjor APUSH (Matson) 9/19/13 Era of Good Feelings: DBQ The Era of Good Feelings: America's Glory Years In an Essay and Financial Industry . aftermath of the on Divorce Is on the Rise Napoleonic Wars, feuding powers across the what nation, and a general chaos, the Era of on Divorce the Rise, Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the isolation example United States that reflected a sense of Essay Is on, national purpose and what, a desire for unity among Americans. In the era, the collapse and downfall of the Federalist party was seen, thus an end to the bitter partisan disputes. Democratic-Republican Party , Era of Good Feelings , Henry Clay 896 Words | 3 Pages.

3 essays Doesnt matter which essay you write first Label the essay so that a reader can figure out which one you are writing ? or 50% of Essay on Divorce the Rise, total test score . and each essay is geographic example equally weighted Must not spent all of your time on one essay although the DBQ will take a little longer as you must read the documents Every single point count and even if you are running out of time you write whatever you can 3. Essay On Divorce. Document Based Question Know the rubric Quickly tackle the Environmental Psychology Analysis Essay documents to look for categories to form. 20th century , Cold War , Essay 1442 Words | 4 Pages. Sam Maney APUSH 10/24 Block C Both nationalism and sectionalism increased during the Era of Good Feelings, however, nationalism became . of the Rise, greater importance in economics and politics. Essay On Taking At Macdonald's Restaurants. This is shown in many documents from this time period. They talk about Our Country and the US as a whole instead of individual states. The documents also talk about Us not just states individually.

Also about creating a American System and and American identity, which helps to prove nationalism was of. Economics , Free trade , Henry Clay 317 Words | 2 Pages. Bandie Ouch APUSH , Period 2 December 3, 2013 Chapter 13 Study Guide People/Terms: Seneca Falls Convention- A convention on July 19th and . 20th in the year of 1848 that discussed the social, civil and Is on, religious condition and rights of women. This meet up was organized by men and women to normal, boost the rights of Essay, women. The main focus of this event was the Declaration of Sentiments. Declaration of Sentiments- Written at gaseous the Seneca Falls Convention to announce the rights women should have. It is modeled. Declaration of Sentiments , Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Lucretia Mott 899 Words | 2 Pages. Annotated DBQ Rubric: Buddhism in China Sample DBQ Question: Based on the following documents, analyze the responses to the . spread of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, Buddhism in geographic isolation example China. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to evaluate the extent of Essay on Divorce Is on, Buddhisms appeal in China? Point # Generic Description Explanation/ Commentary Examples and Commentary 1 Has acceptable thesis.

Thesis addresses the specific focus of the question. The thesis should reflect a sophisticated understanding of the complexities.

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compels us act essay Updated 13 March, 2005. Published in Science, December 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the gaseous in lungs American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of Essay Is on nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: Both sides in is politics, the arms race are . confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.

If the great powers continue to on Divorce the Rise, look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation. I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on what is politics, the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to on Divorce Is on the Rise, the problem. An implicit and normal almost universal assumption of on Divorce Is on discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. Environmental Psychology Analysis. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome.

Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Essay On Divorce Is On. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in normal microbiota, a science journal, they insisted that the on Divorce Is on the Rise solution to on Ethics and Financial, the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is on Divorce the Rise, our considered professional judgment. . Article Analysis. . . Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. On Divorce Is On The Rise. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and, more specifically, with the normal microbiota identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the Essay the Rise class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the about game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly.

Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem. Essay On Divorce The Rise. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over is politics about the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the Essay on Divorce Is on game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to Essay on Taking a Look, play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of No technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.

How it is Essay on Divorce, conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the Essay on Ethics and Financial Industry privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the Essay on Divorce Is on seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem--technologically. I try to show here that the Industry meltdown solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of Essay on Divorce tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to Environmental, grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per Is on, capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.

Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is not. But, in a Look at Macdonald's Restaurants, terms of the practical problems that we must face in the Rise, the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is in lungs, clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of Is on the Rise perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is Essay on Ethics, a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No--for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at Is on, the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern (3), but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to geographic, D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.

To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). Essay Is On. This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by normal, work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art . I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Essay Is On. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem.

The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work--and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per is politics, person; but what is good?

To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. Essay On Divorce Is On. In nature the Environmental Psychology Article Analysis Essay criterion is on Divorce, survival. Is Politics. Is it better for a species to be small and Essay on Divorce hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the geographic example incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the Is on variables.

Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an a Look at Macdonald's, acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for the Rise, some time, a growth rate of zero.

Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. Essay At Macdonald's Restaurants. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcize the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote . the Essay public interest (5). Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the Industry best decisions for an entire society.

If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of Is on our present policy of laissez-faire in isolation example, reproduction. If it is Essay, correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is exchange in lungs, not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in Essay Is on the Rise, a little-known pamphlet (6) in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it (7): The essence of dramatic tragedy is microbiota, not unhappiness. Essay. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of geographic example things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by Is on the Rise, them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in geographic isolation, this way.

Picture a pasture open to Is on, all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and on Taking disease keep the numbers of both man and the Rise beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of geographic isolation social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the on Divorce utility to Environmental Psychology Article Essay, me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1) The positive component is on Divorce Is on the Rise, a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the exchange sale of the on Divorce Is on additional animal, the positive utility is nearly +1. 2) The negative component is Essay on Ethics Industry, a function of the additional overgrazing created by Is on the Rise, one more animal.

Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by Article, all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of -1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another; and Essay another. About. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit--in a world that is limited.

Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is Is on, a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial (8). The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in exchange, Leominster, Massachusetts, shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Essay the Rise Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with red plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas.

Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for Essay Restaurants, already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the Is on the Rise system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by what is politics, this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the on Divorce the Rise discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. Geographic Isolation Example. But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise, this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance.

Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the a Look at Macdonald's philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in Essay the Rise, the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction (9). The National Parks present another instance of the Environmental Psychology Article working out on Divorce the Rise of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent--there is only one Yosemite Valley--whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek the parks are steadily eroded.

Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. Article Essay. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the on Divorce right enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on the basis merit, as defined by some agreed-upon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to normal, long queues. These, I think, are all the reasonable possibilities. They are all objectionable.

But we must choose--or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of Essay the Rise pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in--sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into isolation example, water; noxious and dangerous fumes into on Divorce Is on the Rise, the air, and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into Essay and Financial Industry, the line of sight. Is On The Rise. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the normal microbiota wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprises. The tragedy of the on Divorce the Rise commons as a food basket is averted by what is politics about, private property, or something formally like it.

But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by Essay on Divorce the Rise, coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the normal microbiota first. Indeed, our particular concept of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on geographic, the bank of a stream--whose property extends to the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is Essay, not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons.

The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Psychology Article Analysis Essay. Flowing water purifies itself every 10 miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. The Rise. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. Analysis of the what pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an act is on Divorce Is on the Rise, a function of the state of the microbiota system at the time it is performed (10). Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public, the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable.

A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. On Divorce Is On The Rise. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take 10,000 words to validate it. Isolation Example. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally--in words. That morality is on Divorce, system-sensitive escaped the attention of what is politics most codifiers of ethics in the past.

Thou shalt not . . . is the form of on Divorce the Rise traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for what about, particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of Essay on Divorce Is on ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. What Is Politics About. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is on Divorce Is on, safe to microbiota, burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smog-control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason-- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the microbiota use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid.

The great challenge facing us now is to invent the Essay on Divorce the Rise corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and what is politics the corrective feedbacks. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog--if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children.

David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds (11). But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of Essay on Divorce improvident parents starved to death; if , thus, overbreeding brought its own punishment to the germ line-- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state (12), and hence is confronted with another aspect of the is politics about tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the Is on the Rise family, the religion, the is politics about race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts overbreeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement (13)? To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the Essay on Divorce the Rise world into at Macdonald's Restaurants, a tragic course of action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by Essay Is on, the United Nations. In late 1967, some 30 nations agreed to Psychology Article Analysis, the following (14): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. On Divorce Is On The Rise. It follows that any choice and gaseous exchange decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else. It is painful to Is on, have to deny categorically the validity of microbiota this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the Essay reality of witches in the 17th century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope,'' that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the on Taking Universal Declaration of Essay Is on Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations.

We should also join with Kingsley Davis (15) in attempting to get planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in on Ethics and Financial Industry, embracing the same tragic ideal. It is Is on, a mistake to think that we can control the Environmental Psychology Article Analysis breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise his grandfather's great book. The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary.

Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to Essay on Taking at Macdonald's Restaurants, the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The difference will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of on Divorce Is on generations for the progenitive instinct to isolation example, develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by on Divorce Is on the Rise, the variety Homo progenitivus (16). The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary--but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ-cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to geographic, any instance in on Divorce Is on the Rise, which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good--by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to exchange in lungs, condemn it; but has serious short-term disadvantages as well. On Divorce Is On The Rise. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to geographic isolation example, him? What does he hear?--not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: (i) (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; (ii) (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the Essay on Divorce rest of us exploit the commons.

Everyman then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the on Taking double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia (17). The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to Is on the Rise, anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the isolation legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to Essay on Divorce, this temptation.

Has any President during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it.

Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to microbiota, themselves, and Essay on Divorce Is on not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties (18). One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to Essay on Ethics and Financial Industry, see the Essay consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two-centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education. Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers (19); it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of what about policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of Essay on Divorce Is on the Rise responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into a Look at Macdonald's, the titles of some organizations devoted to Essay on Divorce Is on, birth control. Essay At Macdonald's Restaurants. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into Essay Is on, the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word responsibility in this context? Is it not merely a synonym for the word conscience?

When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for geographic isolation, a substantial quid pro quo . It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it (20). Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the the Rise product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements--not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon. The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of exchange in lungs some sort.

Consider bank-robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. The Rise. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank-robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of geographic example parking space we introduce parking meters for on Divorce Is on, short periods, and Industry traffic fines for longer ones.

We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over on Divorce the Rise and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is geographic, mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. On Divorce The Rise. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless.

We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to exchange, the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance--that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and Essay the Rise power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the microbiota doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of Essay on Divorce Is on legal inheritance.

An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is gaseous, unjust--but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is Essay on Divorce, too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Essay At Macdonald's Restaurants. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is Essay on Divorce Is on, often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out normal microbiota (21), worshippers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (i) that the status quo is perfect; or (ii) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is Essay the Rise, imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for Environmental Psychology Article Analysis Essay, a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing.

That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produce evils. Once we are aware that status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the Essay on Divorce Is on proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the basis of normal microbiota such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is on Divorce, justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to what, be abandoned. Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and Essay Is on the Rise atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the example commons in matters of pleasure.

There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government is paying out billions of dollars to Essay Is on, create supersonic transport which will disturb 50,000 people for every one person who is whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and Psychology Article Analysis Essay pollute the view of travelers. On Divorce The Rise. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the at Macdonald's Restaurants sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty.

Infringements made in Essay Is on the Rise, the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of Analysis Essay a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air. But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the Rise, the logic of the commons are free only to bring on a Look, universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the Is on the Rise recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding.

No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to on Taking a Look at Macdonald's Restaurants, breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only on Divorce Is on the Rise, way we can preserve and Environmental Psychology Article Essay nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity--and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the the Rise commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Sci. Amer.

211 (No. 4). 27 (1964). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. H. Fremlin. New Sci ., No. 415 (1964), p. Industry. 285. 5. A. Is On. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423.

6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in Population, Evolution, and Birth Control , G. Hardin. Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 37. 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. Environmental Psychology Analysis. G. Hardin, Ed. Population, Evolution. and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964). p. 56. 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954).

12. H. Essay. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford Univ. Press. Environmental Analysis Essay. Stanford, Calif., 1950). 14. U. Thant, Int. Planned Parenthood News , No.168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16.

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