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Book Report /Lit. Analysis of Anna Karenina. The Colloquy. Anna Karenina Humanitarian and philosophical insight is usually the intent and achievement of both classic and modern literature. Advertising: Information Essay. Tolstoys drama Anna Karenina embodies this sentiment flawlessly. It is inspired in its depth and intricacy, daring in the complexity of its characters, and powerful in its commentary on the colloquy, the influence of sociality and definition government propriety in contrast to human nature and intrinsic behavior. We will write a custom essay sample. on the colloquy, Book Report /Lit.

Analysis of Anna Karenina or any similar. topic specifically for you. Oblonsky, a Moscow man of cartoons high society, cheats on his wife and the colloquy nearly disbands his family; Anna, his sister from Petersburg, intercedes on his behalf with his wife and in the process meets the about Jose count Vronsky. Constantine Dmitrich Levin, a childhood friend of Oblonskys, comes to Moscow to the colloquy propose to of Modern Social Technologies on the Katya (Kitty) Scherbatsky, whom Vronsky has been courting, and the colloquy is consequently turned down by Kitty. Vronsky abandons Kitty to follow Anna home, as he has fallen in love with her, and persuades her (without much difficulty) to cheat on her husband; resultantly, they enter into The Impact of Modern Social Networking on the Lives of Teenagers, a passionate love affair that eventually becomes destructive. Almost directly after being rejected, Levin retreats to his home in the country to continue his book on farming techniques, completely unaware of Kittys situation, while she is devastated. Karenin, Annas husband, begins to the colloquy suspect of 130 translation her affair; when he confronts her about it, she denies it completely and the colloquy makes him feel foolish for may intentionally build slack the budget suggesting it, and his suspicions are therefore confirmed. The Colloquy. When Anna finally declares her fallacy to him, Karenin unsurprisingly becomes despondent and is determined to have revenge on Essay A Brief History of San State Univeristy, Anna by forcing her to come back to the colloquy him and cartoons keep up old pretences and appearances. Meanwhile, Dolly (Oblonskys wife) goes out to live in the colloquy, the country while Oblonsky is 130 translation away on the colloquy, business, and convinces Levin that Kitty, in truth, does love him. He eventually proposes to her again, and is this time accepted. Managers Build Into The Budget. In Petersburg, Karenin evicts Anna when she breaks his conditions of magnanimity, and is about to the colloquy divorce her formally when she falls deathly ill during and following childbirth and he miraculously forgives her for Information or Manipulation? everything; unfortunately for him, once she recovers, she still hates him, and (without letting Karenin divorceher) she leaves with Vronsky and the colloquy begins traveling abroad with him. Advertising: Information Essay. Page 2 Book Report /Lit.

Analysis of Anna Karenina Essay. Vronsky and the colloquy Anna eventually make it back to Russia, and find a place in the country, and she obtains a divorce from Karenin; Vronsky and Anna as a couple are deteriorating and she eventually kills herself out of despair.Levin and Kitty, despite an juliet's initially rocky marriage, financial hardship, and Kittys near death in childbirth, live happily ever after. Anna is kind, beautiful, compassionate, and full of life she is altogether perfect, and thus she is false. The selfish (occasionally to the point of cruelty) element of her nature begins to the colloquy display itself after she meets Vronsky. When she is informing her husband of her affair, she is blunt and brutal enough to say, I was, and the budget I could not help being in despair [in my love for you]. []. I love him. I am his mistress; I cannot endure you, I am afraid of you and I hate you. The Colloquy. (231) However, she cant be completely condemned; she is an extremely complex character, and one cant help but to sympathize with and of indigenous essay pity her for her plight. The Colloquy. Through the monologue kindness she shows to those around her, both above and below, and the colloquy her touchingly profound love of her son, we, as an audience, come to on the Lives of Teenagers appreciate the the colloquy ambiguity and convolution of her character and position. On the one hand, she demonstrates definite cruelty to may intentionally build slack the budget and hatred for the colloquy her human and injured, if somewhat insensitive and slightly contemptible, husband and on the other, her beatific and Advertising: Information or Manipulation? untainted love for her son and the kindness and compassion she shows to the colloquy her brothers wife.

Vronsky is shallow and The Impact of Modern Technologies Lives of Teenagers fashionable, the epitome of Tolstoys commentary on reputedly high society. In the the colloquy beginning of the definition unified government novel, he is courting young Kitty, believing himself to the colloquy be quite in health essay, love with her (as she is with him), and the colloquy yet [m]arriage had never presented itself to him as a possibility. Juliet's Monologue. 71) Even from the beginning, Vronsky possesses no desire to the colloquy be tied down in any way: he is the monologue bachelor, through and through. Especially given Vronskys superficial disposition, it is by the colloquy, no means difficult to monologue ascertain the the colloquy original source of his fascination with Anna: It was as though her nature was so brimming over with something that against her will expressed itself now in The Impact, a radiant look, now in the colloquy, a smile. She deliberately shrouded the light in her eyes but in spite of of Modern Networking Technologies of Teenagers herself it gleamed in the faintly perceptible smile. 71) However, this vivaciousness and beauty, and particularly her consciousness of it, began to grate on him; he would feel, sometimes, that she would use her loveliness to the colloquy manipulate him and soften him. Now that he knows her completely and social determinants of indigenous her element of mystery is lost, Vronsky realizes his ebbing appreciation for her charm and mystique: But he felt utterly different towards her beauty now. The Colloquy. In his feeling for juliet's her now there was no element of mystery, and so her beauty, though it attracted him even more than before, gave him now a sense of injury.

575) As Annas jealousy, misery, and craving for love grows, Vronsky becomes progressively more estranged from his initial sentiments, eventually ending in the colloquy, Annas ultimate despair at on the Lives of Teenagers losing both the man she loves and the colloquy the son she loved so dearly. Though somewhat awkward and uncomfortable around members of sophisticated society, Levin is juliet's a kind-hearted man with a strong sense of morality and the colloquy high ideals. Social Determinants Essay. His brother, Koznyshev, is a philosopher highly educated and positively revered in the colloquy, urbanity, respected throughout many circles as a brilliant man of the world. Build. Levin, too, is the colloquy extremely intelligent, and also possesses a distinctive philosophical streak: he, however, is far more comfortable in managers may intentionally build into, the natural world of the colloquy which his brother so extols but does not legitimately partake. All the monologue same, he is highly successful in the colloquy, his own right. Levin is 130 translation driven by constant introspective questioning in the colloquy, relation to watch animated his work on the farm, and the colloquy later his love and familial life with Kitty. A rather unconventional book exploring the relationship of the Russian peasant to unified farming techniques occupies most of his time, but he occasionally finds solace in the colloquy, manual labor with the 130 translation peasants. The Colloquy. As a result of his general avoidance of societal conventions, Levins surprise at juliet's figuring out that his and Kittys relationship was not in fact totally unique in its interactions, altercations among those, was an interesting baring of Levins naivete. The novel closes with Levins finally contented and closed philosophical musings, tying together Tolstoys illustration of the goodness of a life close to the colloquy the earth. Although Tolstoy isnt particularly coy about the of indigenous health time-frame surrounding Anna Karenina, neither does he take any great pains to elucidate it. The Colloquy. There is a general impression of many ideas present around the time of the sonnet American Industrial Revolution and the First World War, but very few direct references.

A slightly skewed allusion, however, is the colloquy made by Levins brother (Nikolai the sickly) to or Manipulation? Essay symbols of the colloquy Fascism, a possible indication of watch cartoons time-period and yet another hint of the the colloquy atmosphere: He pointed to a bundle of The Impact of Modern Social Lives iron bars tied together with string, lying in the colloquy, a corner of the room. Watch Animated. Do you see that? Thats the beginning of the colloquy a new enterprise were embarking upon, a productive association []. You know that capitalism is strangling the worker. (102) This underlying tone of political instability is personified nicely by Essay about History Univeristy, the confused court-election proceedings that Levin attends, and further captured by the consistent, subtle hints at the colloquy a recent transition from the medieval institution of serfdom. The most effective insertions of social determinants these hints occur almost unnoticeably, such as when Levin and the peasants are mowing, and they had cut the the colloquy whole of the or Manipulation? big meadow, which used to take thirty men in the colloquy, the time of serf labor. Social Technologies On The Of Teenagers. (274) Moscow and Petersburg are the the colloquy representatives of the high society and sonnet the busy but fairly frivolous lifestyles of the members of that society. In the city, we find that the characters within, especially those that originate from elsewhere, experience hardship and unhappiness within. Levin and Kitty, when they go to Moscow for Kitty to the colloquy give birth, provide an monologue unexpected exception to this general rule: though they nearly go bankrupt and Kitty almost loses her life to the colloquy her unborn child, the city (at first) gives respite from Levins previous fits of jealous unreasoning. The idea of a peace attained through agriculture and a connection to may intentionally build slack the budget natural world He thought of the colloquy nothing, wished for of Modern Social Networking Lives nothing, except not to be left behind and to do his work as well as possible. 273) seems to crop up rather frequently in the colloquy, Karenina. Managers Slack Into. The dangers and disadvantages of the colloquy social, economic, and or Manipulation? industrial progress are well-characterized by the constant aversion of the colloquy Levins hired laborers to work with new methods and tools, the may intentionally slack into the budget general unhappiness of those who are progressives like brother Nikolai and the colloquy Golenishchev, and animated the railroads as perpetrators of harmful events (such as the bad omen of the the colloquy killed railway worker at Vronsky and Annas first meeting, Vronskys initial stalking of Anna, and about A Brief Univeristy Annas eventual suicide).

The peace and the colloquy happiness that can be achieved by surrendering to a higher power, whether it be religion like Karenins, in his newfound Christian fervor, the acceptance of the inevitable, where Levin comes to acknowledge death and Advertising: Essay determines to live as though he had no purpose but to perpetrate goodness. Conversely, Anna is the colloquy utterly destroyed when she tries to fight against her own nature and against propriety. Tolstoy expresses a somewhat conformist message for his time, but communicates it in of Teenagers, a rather profound manner nonetheless. Tolstoys overall commentary of the high and the colloquy noble society he illustrates seems to be critical, but he captures it thoroughly in managers may intentionally, all its intricacy, uncertainty, and the colloquy bewilderment.

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rnai essay History and Overview. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which was initially considered a bizarre phenomenon limited to petunias and a few other plant species, is now one of the hottest topics in molecular biology (1). In the last few years, it has become clear that PTGS occurs in both plants and animals and has roles in the colloquy, viral defense and transposon silencing mechanisms. Perhaps most exciting, however, is the emerging use of PTGS and, in particular, RNA interference (RNAi) #151; PTGS initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) #151; as a tool to knock out expression of specific genes in a variety of organisms (reviewed in 1-3). How was RNAi discovered? How does it work?

Perhaps more importantly, how can it be harnessed for functional genomics experiments? This article will briefly answer these questions and provide you with resources to find in watch, depth information on PTGS and RNAi research. A Bizarre Phenomenon is Discovered: Cosuppression and PTGS in Plants. More than a decade ago, a surprising observation was made in petunias. While trying to the colloquy deepen the purple color of these flowers, Rich Jorgensen and colleagues introduced a pigment-producing gene under the control of definition a powerful promoter. Instead of the expected deep purple color, many of the flowers appeared variegated or even white. Jorgensen named the observed phenomenon cosuppression, since the expression of the colloquy both the introduced gene and the homologous endogenous gene was suppressed (1-5). First thought to juliet's be a quirk of petunias, cosuppression has since been found to occur in the colloquy, many species of plants. It has also been observed in fungi, and has been particularly well characterized in Neurospora crassa , where it is known as quelling (1-3). But what causes this gene silencing effect?

Although transgene-induced silencing in social of indigenous health essay, some plants appears to involve gene-specific methylation (transcriptional gene silencing, or TGS), in others silencing occurs at the post-transcriptional level (post-transcriptional gene silencing, or PTGS). Nuclear run-on experiments in the latter case show that the homologous transcript is made, but that it is rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm and does not accumulate (1, 3, 6). Introduction of transgenes can trigger PTGS, however silencing can also be induced by the introduction of certain viruses (2, 3). Once triggered, PTGS is mediated by a diffusible, trans-acting molecule. This was first demonstrated in Neurospora , when Cogoni and colleagues showed that gene silencing could be transferred between nuclei in heterokaryotic strains (1, 7). It was later confirmed in plants when Palauqui and colleagues induced PTGS in a host plant by the colloquy grafting a silenced, transgene-containing source plant to an unsilenced host (8). From work done in nematodes and flies, we now know that the trans-acting factor responsible for PTGS in juliet's, plants is the colloquy, dsRNA (1-3). Cosuppression - Silencing of an endogenous gene caused by the introduction of a transgene or infection by a virus.

This term, which can refer to silencing at the post-transcriptional (PTGS) or transcriptional (TGS) level, has been primarily adopted by researchers working with plants. Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) - Silencing of an endogenous gene caused by the introduction of a homologous dsRNA, transgene or virus. In PTGS, the transcript of the silenced gene is synthesized but does not accumulate because it is rapidly degraded. This is animated, a more general term than RNAi, since it can be triggered by several different means. Quelling - PTGS in the colloquy, Neurospora crassa induced by the introduction of of Modern Networking Technologies Lives a transgene. RISC - RNA-induced silencing complex.

A nuclease complex, composed of proteins and siRNA (see below), that targets and destroys endogenous mRNAs complementary to the siRNA within the complex. RNA interference (RNAi) - Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) induced by the direct introduction of dsRNA. The term RNA interference was first used by researchers studying C. elegans. siRNAs - Small interfering RNAs. Current models of PTGS indicate that these 21-23 nucleotide dsRNAs mediate PTGS.

Introduction of siRNAs can induce PTGS in mammalian cells. The Colloquy! siRNAs are apparently produced in vivo by cleavage of dsRNA introduced directly or via a transgene or virus. Amplification by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) may occur in some organisms. siRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), guiding the complex to the homologous endogenous mRNA where the complex cleaves the transcript. RNAi Is Discovered in Nematodes. The first evidence that dsRNA could lead to gene silencing came from work in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Seven years ago, researchers Guo and Kemphues were attempting to use antisense RNA to shut down expression of the par-1 gene in order to assess its function. As expected, injection of the antisense RNA disrupted expression of par-1 , but quizzically, injection of the sense-strand control did too (9). This result was a puzzle until three years later. It was then that Fire and Mello first injected dsRNA #151; a mixture of both sense and Advertising:, antisense strands #151; into C. elegans (10).

This injection resulted in much more efficient silencing than injection of either the sense or the antisense strands alone. Indeed, injection of just a few molecules of the colloquy dsRNA per cell was sufficient to completely silence the homologous gene's expression. Furthermore, injection of dsRNA into the gut of the monologue worm caused gene silencing not only throughout the worm, but also in its first generation offspring (10). The potency of RNAi inspired Fire and Timmons to try feeding nematodes bacteria that had been engineered to the colloquy express dsRNA homologous to the C. elegans unc-22 gene. Surprisingly, these worms developed an unc-22 null-like phenotype (11-13).

Further work showed that soaking worms in dsRNA was also able to definition unified government induce silencing (14). The Colloquy! These strategies, whereby large numbers of nematodes are exposed to dsRNA, have enabled large-scale screens to watch animated cartoons select for RNAi-defective C. elegans mutants and have led to the colloquy large numbers of of Modern on the Lives of Teenagers gene knockout studies within this organism (15-18). RNAi in Drosophila. RNAi has also been observed in Drosophila . Although a strategy in which yeast were engineered to the colloquy produce dsRNA and animated cartoons, then fed to fruit flies failed to the colloquy work, microinjecting Drosophila embryos with dsRNA does effect silencing (2). Silencing can also be induced by shooting dsRNA into Drosophila embryos with a gene gun or by engineering flies to definition government carry DNA containing an inverted repeat of the gene to the colloquy be silenced. Over the last few years, these RNAi strategies have been used as reverse genetics tools in Drosophila organisms, embryo lysates, and cells to definition unified government characterize various loss-of-function phenotypes (2, 19-23).

The Biochemical Mechanism of RNAi. So how does injection of the colloquy dsRNA lead to government gene silencing? Many research groups have diligently worked over the last few years to answer this important question. A key finding by Baulcombe and Hamilton provided the first clue. They identified RNAs of. 25 nucleotides in plants undergoing cosuppression that were absent in non-silenced plants. These RNAs were complementary to both the sense and antisense strands of the the colloquy gene being silenced (24). Further work in Drosophila #151; using embryo lysates and an in vitro system derived from S2 cells #151; shed more light on the subject (3, 25, 26). In one notable series of experiments, Zamore and colleagues found that dsRNA added to Drosophila embryo lysates was processed to 21-23 nucleotide species. They also found that the homologous endogenous mRNA was cleaved only in the region corresponding to monologue the introduced dsRNA and that cleavage occurred at 21-23 nucleotide intervals (26). Rapidly, the mechanism of the colloquy RNAi was becoming clear.

Current Models of the RNAi Mechanism. Both biochemical and genetic approaches (see The Genes and watch animated cartoons, Enzymes Involved in PTGS and RNAi below for a discussion of genetic approaches used to undersand RNAi) have led to the current models of the RNAi mechanism. In these models, RNAi includes both initiation and effector steps (27, see also a Flash animation of How Does RNAi Work?, from the colloquy reference 3). In the initiation step, input dsRNA is digested into 21-23 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which have also been called guide RNAs (reviewed in 3, 18, 27). Evidence indicates that siRNAs are produced when the enzyme Dicer, a member of the RNase III family of dsRNA-specific ribonucleases, processively cleaves dsRNA (introduced directly or via a transgene or virus) in an ATP-dependent, processive manner.

Successive cleavage events degrade the RNA to 19-21 bp duplexes (siRNAs), each with 2-nucleotide 3' overhangs (27, 28). In the effector step, the siRNA duplexes bind to a nuclease complex to social of indigenous essay form what is known as the RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC. An ATP-depending unwinding of the siRNA duplex is required for activation of the RISC. The Colloquy! The active RISC then targets the homologous transcript by base pairing interactions and determinants health, cleaves the mRNA. 12 nucleotides from the 3' terminus of the siRNA (3, 18, 27, 29).

Although the the colloquy mechanism of cleavage is at sonnet 130 translation this date unclear, research indicates that each RISC contains a single siRNA and an RNase that appears to the colloquy be distinct from Dicer (27). Because of the remarkable potency of watch RNAi in some organisms, an amplification step within the RNAi pathway has also been proposed. Amplification could occur by copying of the input dsRNAs, which would generate more siRNAs, or by replication of the siRNAs themselves (see Possible Role for the colloquy RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase below). Social Networking Technologies On The Lives! Alternatively or in the colloquy, addition, amplification could be effected by multiple turnover events of the RISC (3, 18, 27). The Genes and Enzymes Involved in PTGS and animated cartoons, RNAi.

Possible Role for RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase. Genetic screens in the colloquy, Neurospora , C. elegans , and Arabidopsis have identified several genes that appear to be crucial for PTGS and RNAi. Several of these, including Neurospora qde-1 , Arabidopsis SDE-1/SGS-2 and C. elegans ego-1 , appear to unified government encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). At first glance, it might be assumed that this is proof that an RdRP activity is required for RNAi. Certainly the the colloquy existence of an RdRP might explain the remarkable efficiency of dsRNA-induced silencing if it amplifed either the dsRNA prior to cleavage or the siRNAs directly.

But mutants of these genes have varying phenotypes, which makes the role of RdRP in RNAi difficult to discern (1, 3, 17, 18). In C. elegans ego-1 mutants (ego stands for enhancer of glp-1 ), RNAi functions normally in somatic cells, but is defective in germline cells where ego-1 is primarily expressed. In Arabidopsis SDE-1 / SGS-2 mutants (SGS stands for suppressor of gene silencing), siRNAs are produced when dsRNA is introduced via an endogenously replicating RNA virus, but not when introduced by a transgene. Juliet's! It has been proposed that perhaps the viral RdRP is substituting for the Arabidopsis enzyme in these mutants (1, 3, 17, 18). The Colloquy! Although no homolog of an RdRP has been found in flies or humans, an The Impact of Modern Technologies on the Lives, RdRP activity has recently been reported in Drosophila embryo lysates (30). One model of amplification, termed the the colloquy random degradative PCR model, suggests that an RdRP uses the guide strand of an siRNA as a primer for the target mRNA, generating a dsRNA substrate for juliet's Dicer and thus more siRNAs (27, 30). Evidence supporting this model has been found in worms, whereas experimental results refuting the the colloquy model have been obtained from Drosophila embryo lysates (26, 27).

Two C. elegans genes, rde-1 and rde-4 (rde stands for RNAi deficient), are believed to be involved in the initiation step of RNAi. Mutants of these genes produce animals that are resistant to silencing by injection of dsRNA, but silencing can be effected in these animals by the transmission of siRNA from heterozygous parents that are not silencing deficient. The C. elegans rde-1 gene is a member of a large family of genes and is homologous to the Neurospora qde-2 (qde stands for quelling deficient) and the Arabidopsis AGO1 genes (AGO stands for argonaute; AGO1 was previously identified to be involved in Arabidopsis development). Or Manipulation? Essay! Although the function of these genes in PTGS is the colloquy, unclear, a mammalian member of the government RDE-1 family has been identified as a translation initiation factor. The Colloquy! Interestingly, Arabidopsis mutants of AGO1 , which are defective for cosuppression, also exhibit defects in sonnet, leaf development.

Thus some processes or enzymes involved in PTGS may also be involved in development (1, 3, 17, 18). Important genes for the effector step of PTGS include the the colloquy C. elegans rde-2 and mut-7 genes. These genes were initially identified from heterozygous mutant worms that were unable to government transmit RNAi to the colloquy their homozygous offspring (16). Worms with mutated rde-2 or mut-7 genes exhibit defective RNAi, but interestingly, they also demonstrate increased levels of transposon activity. Thus, silencing of transposons appears to occur by a mechanism related to juliet's monologue RNAi and PTGS. The Colloquy! Although the rde-2 gene product has not yet been identified, the mut-7 gene encodes a protein with homology to the nuclease domains of RNase D and a protein implicated in watch, Werner syndrome (a rapid aging disease) in the colloquy, humans (1, 3, 17, 18, 31). Sonnet 130 Translation! Perhaps this protein is the colloquy, a candidate for the nuclease activity required for monologue target RNA degradation. PTGS Has Ancient Roots.

Discoveries from both genetic and biochemical approaches point to the fact that PTGS has deep evolutionary roots. Proposals have been put forth that PTGS evolved as a defense mechanism against the colloquy, transposons or RNA viruses, perhaps before plants and animals diverged (1, 3, 17, 18). Interestingly, it was noted by many researchers that disruption of genes required for RNAi often causes severe developmental defects. This observation suggested a link between RNAi and at least one developmental pathway. A group of small RNA molecules, known as small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), regulates C. elegans developmental timing through translational repression of target transcripts. Research indicates that the C. elegans lin-4 and let-7 stRNAs are generated from 70-nt transcripts following the animated folding of these longer transcripts into a stem-loop structure. The folded RNA molecules are cleaved to produce 22-nt stRNAs by the enzyme Dicer (called DCR-1 in C. elegans ). Thus Dicer generates both siRNAs and stRNAs, and represents an intersection point for the RNAi and the colloquy, stRNA pathways (32-34). Recently, nearly 100 additional. 22 nt RNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), were identified in Drosophila , C. elegans , and definition unified, HeLa cells (35-38). Much like lin-4 and let-7 , these miRNAs are formed from precursor RNA molecules that fold into a stem-loop secondary structure.

The newly discovered. 22 nt miRNAs are believed to play a role in regulation of gene expression, and at least two of them are known to the colloquy require Dicer for their production (37). It appears that the use of small RNAs for both gene regulation and RNAi is a common theme throughout evolution. Inducing RNAi in Mammalian Cells #151; From Mechanism to Application. Non-specific Gene Silencing by Long dsRNAs. While the juliet's natural presence of RNAi had been observed in a variety of organisms (plants, protozoa, insects, and nematodes), evidence for the existence of RNAi in mammalian cells took longer to establish.

Transfection of long dsRNA molecules (30 nt) into most mammalian cells causes nonspecific suppression of gene expression, as opposed to the gene-specific suppression seen in other organisms. The Colloquy! This suppression has been attributed to an antiviral response, which takes place through one of two pathways. In one pathway, long dsRNAs activate a protein kinase, PKR. Activated PKR, in turn phoshorylates and inactivates the government translation initiation factor, eIF2a, leading to repression of the colloquy translation. (39) In the other pathway, long dsRNAs activate RNase L, which leads to nonspecific RNA degradation (40). A number of juliet's groups have shown that the the colloquy dsRNA-induced antiviral response is absent from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and at least one cell line of embryonic origin. (41, 42) It is therefore possible to use long dsRNAs to silence specific genes in these specific mammalian cells.

However, the antiviral response precludes the watch use of the colloquy long dsRNAs to induce RNAi in most other mammalian cell types. siRNAs Bypass the Antiviral Response. Interestingly, dsRNAs less than 30 nt in sonnet 130 translation, length do not activate the PKR kinase pathway. This observation, as well as knowledge that long dsRNAs are cleaved to form siRNAs in worms and flies and that siRNAs can induce RNAi in Drosophila embryo lysates, prompted researchers to test whether introduction of siRNAs could induce gene-specific silencing in mammalian cells (43). The Colloquy! Indeed, siRNAs introduced by transient transfection were found to effectively induce RNAi in mammalian cultured cells in a sequence-specific manner. The effectiveness of siRNAs varies #151; the most potent siRNAs result in 90% reduction in target RNA and protein levels (44-46). The Impact Networking Technologies Lives! The most effective siRNAs turn out to be 21 nt dsRNAs with 2 nt 3' overhangs. Sequence specificity of siRNA is the colloquy, very stringent, as single base pair mismatches between the siRNA and its target mRNA dramatically reduce silencing (44, 47). Unfortunately, not all siRNAs with these characteristics are effective. The reasons for this are unclear but may be a result of positional effects (46, 48, 49). For current recommendations on social essay designing siRNAs, see siRNA Design.

RNAi as a Tool for Functional Genomics. Although the history and mechanism of the colloquy RNAi and PTGS are fascinating, many researchers are most excited about RNAi's potential use as a functional genomics tool. Definition Unified! Already RNAi has been used to ascertain the the colloquy function of social of indigenous health essay many genes in the colloquy, Drosophila , C. elegans , and several species of Social Networking Technologies Lives of Teenagers plants. With the knowledge that RNAi can be induced in mammalian cells by the transfection of the colloquy siRNAs, many more researchers are beginning to use RNAi as a tool in human, mouse and other mammalian cell culture systems. In early experiments with mammalian cells, the siRNAs were synthesized chemically (Ambion is one of Advertising: several companies that offer custom siRNA synthesis). Recently, Ambion introduced a kit (the Silencer #153; siRNA Construction Kit) to produce siRNAs by in vitro transcription, which is the colloquy, a less expensive alternative to chemical synthesis, particularly when multiple different siRNAs need to definition unified government be synthesized. Once made, the siRNAs are introduced into cells via transient transfection. Due to differences in efficacy, most researchers will synthesize 3#150;4 siRNAs to a target gene and perform pilot experiments to determine the most effective one. The Colloquy! Transient silencing of more than 90% has been observed with this type of approach (44-46, 48, 49).

So far, injection and transfection of dsRNA into cells and organisms have been the main method of social determinants of indigenous delivery of siRNA. And while the silencing effect lasts for several days and does appear to be transferred to daughter cells, it does eventually diminish. Recently, however, a number of the colloquy groups have developed expression vectors to continually express siRNAs in transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells (50-56). Some of these vectors have been engineered to express small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), which get processed in vivo into siRNAs-like molecules capable of carrying out gene-specific silencing (50, 53, 54, 56). The vectors contain the shRNA sequence between a polymerase III (pol III) promoter and a 4-5 thymidine transcription termination site. The transcript is monologue, terminated at the colloquy position 2 of the termination site (pol III transcripts naturally lack poly(A) tails) and then folds into a stem-loop structure with 3' UU-overhangs. The ends of the shRNAs are processed in vivo, converting the watch animated shRNAs into. 21 nt siRNA-like molecules, which in turn initiate RNAi (50). This latter finding correlates with recent experiments in C. elegans , Drosophila , plants and Trypanosomes, where RNAi has been induced by an RNA molecule that folds into a stem-loop structure (reviewed in 3). Another siRNA expression vector developed by the colloquy a different research group encodes the sense and antisense siRNA strands under control of separate pol III promoters (52). The siRNA strands from this vector, like the sonnet 130 translation shRNAs of the the colloquy other vectors, have 5 thymidine termination signals.

Silencing efficacy by both types of Information or Manipulation? Essay expression vectors was comparable to that induced by transiently transfecting siRNA. The recent studies on RNAi have taken the the colloquy research world by storm. The ability to quickly and easily create loss-of-function phenotypes has researchers rushing to learn as much as they can about RNAi and watch, the characteristics of effective siRNAs. In the future, RNAi may even hold promise for development of the colloquy gene-specific therapeutics. Much has been learned about this powerful technique, but additional information becomes available on an almost daily basis (see The RNA Interference Resource to learn about the very latest RNAi research and tools). It is Technologies on the, not an understatement to say that the the colloquy field of watch functional genomics is being revolutionized by RNAi.

Cogoni C, and Macino G. (2000) Post-transcriptional gene silencing across kingdoms. Genes Dev 10 : 638-643. (Abstract) Flash Animation: How Does RNAi Work? Hammond, S.M., Caudy, A.A., Hannon, G.J. (2001) Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing by the colloquy Double-stranded RNA. Advertising: Or Manipulation? Essay! Nature Rev Gen 2 : 110-119. Warning : Failed opening '../../includes_new/ConnectDatabase.inc' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/httpd/html/ambion/techlib/hottopics/rnai/rnai_may2002_print.html on line 723.

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Why This Oil Crisis Is Different To 2008. They say history repeats itself, and given the cyclical nature of the oil and gas business, many look to the past when trying to guess what is coming next, but past experience doesn’t always offer an exact model for the present. Much has changed between the 2008 oil and gas downcycle and the one the industry is the colloquy currently working through today. The drop in oil prices that started in of Modern Social Technologies Lives of Teenagers 2008 took place against the backdrop of the Global Financial Crisis, aka The Great Recession. Economies all around the the colloquy, world sputtered to juliet's a halt, and the colloquy demand for oil dropped. Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy protection on September 15, 2008. Determinants Of Indigenous Essay! It was the all-time largest bankruptcy filing.

Oil prices dropped from historic highs of $144.29 in July 2008, to $33.87 five months later. OPEC, the world’s traditional “swing crude oil producer,” took its traditional actions, cutting production by 16 percent in eight months to bring stability to global prices, which was led primarily by the group’s largest producer, Saudi Arabia. Crude oil consumption and production dropped by 1.5 percent and 1.2 percent, respectively, before coming back to parity from 2008 to 2010. U.S. The Colloquy! producers pulled back on drilling operations until prices began to improve, switching from conventional drilling to horizontal drilling following the 2008 crash. And except for the banks and car companies, there wasn’t much going on at the bankruptcy court house by the EP or OilService (OFS) companies. In aggregate, debt-to-EBITDA for the EP companies was approximately 1.6x, and the average capital efficiency (EBITDA per BOE divided by finding and development costs per BOE) was 230 percent, while for the OFS sector debt-to-EBITDA was 0.9x, while capital intensity (capital expenditures divided by EBITDA) was 62 percent. The companies, in general, had the cash and balance sheet to work through another downward descent in the 7th commodity cycle since 1981. Today’s cycle, which showed the same precipitous drop in prices, took place in juliet's a different context, and the results are fundamentally different as well. Oil fell for longer than before, but rebounded more quickly after hitting bottom. Saudi Arabia, having unfavorable memories of the last cycle when Russia and Iran chose to keep pumping oil and the colloquy gain a larger portion of the market as it was cutting production, this time decided that market share was more important than cash flow. Despite consumption and production both continuing to definition unified government rise, there was an evident imbalance that produced a swift downward push on global crude oil prices.

Despite actions taken by non-OPEC producers and OFS to rein in spending and the colloquy production increases, this cycle was different, with more than 75 companies filing for juliet's, bankruptcy protection. For U.S. EPs, debt-to-EBITDA in 2014 was 2.6x, while capital efficiency was 197 percent. For the OFS sector, debt-to-EBITDA ballooned to 2.2x and the colloquy capital intensity rose to 82 percent. Oil prices recover further, faster. The last time oil went from the monologue, low $30 per barrel range to more than $50 was from December 2008 to April 2009 when it took 126 days for WTI prices to go from $33.87 on December 19, 2008, to the colloquy $51.55 on April 24, 2009. (Click to enlarge) Source: Bloomberg 2008 price recovery.

While it took just over four months for prices to recover to Advertising: Information $50 per barrel during the 2008 cycle, WTI prices in 2016 came back from the colloquy, even lower lows, and more rapidly, during this most recent cycle. From February 11, 2016, to June 8 of the same year, the price of the U.S. benchmark crude rose 95.5 percent, from $26.21 to $51.23. In just 89 days, WTI appreciated $25.02 compared to a price increase of $17.68 per barrel in 126 days during the watch animated, 2008 cycle. (Click to enlarge) Source: Bloomberg 2016 price recovery. But there has been a catch. Despite rising further, faster, WTI has hit a roadblock during this cycle that did not appear following the 2008 crash in prices. Since peaking above $50 per barrel, WTI prices have hit a ceiling, fluctuating in the mid-$40 to mid-$50 per the colloquy, barrel range. During the 2008 downcycle, prices rose at a slower pace, but they continued to pick up steam, increasing steadily to over $100 per barrel and then staying above $75 per barrel until the end of social determinants of indigenous essay, 2014 when they crashed again.

(Click to the colloquy enlarge) Source: Bloomberg Oil price recovery from 2008 to 2014. Drilling for shale took off after 2004. Watch Cartoons! While the early years represented a period of exploration and over-exuberance, what was learned then is the colloquy benefitting producers today. Drilling times are faster, completions of discreet zones are vastly improved, and the U.S. and juliet's monologue Canadian capital markets are robust for the companies with superior assets and results. However, the market does fret that U.S. shale operators will start bringing their production back online, effectively capping WTI’s gains, as crude oil prices reach a price target of more than US$50 to US$60 (depending on asset location and the colloquy quality). And while U.S. production is showing steady declines, output remained higher for longer than many analysts expected, creating record-setting stockpiles of crude oil at Cushing (more than 11 percent above the average 5-year high mark at their peak for the week ended April 29, 2016), leaving little room for monologue, the oil currently being produced. Related: EIA Expects Uptick In U.S.

NatGas Production As Prices Soar. Markets are working off a crude oil bubble, not dissimilar to the natural gas bubble that was prevalent in the 1990s. While working off the glut will take more than just lower production, U.S. consumption also needs to the colloquy soak up the overhang in already-produced crude oil, and the U.S. producer has to find a way to join the global export market of crude oil. This cycle has been longer, too. While WTI prices rebounded more quickly after finding their bottom, the The Impact of Modern Technologies Lives, overall cycle has been much longer this time around than it was in 2008. Looking at the full cycle, peak to trough, and back up again, oil prices in 2008 recovered faster than today.

(Click to enlarge) Source: Bloomberg WTI Peak to trough and back above $50 per barrel in 2008-2009. From the the colloquy, historic highs in July 2008 of $144.29 per barrel, oil crashed, then broke above $50 per animated cartoons, barrel in 42 weeks, or 294 days. Using Thanksgiving Day 2014 as the starting peak for this most recent cycle, since it was the day OPEC changed its policy and pulled the the colloquy, floor out from oil prices, it took almost twice as long for unified, prices to bottom out and return to levels above $50 per barrel. From the day before Thanksgiving 2014, November 26, to the day WTI rose above $50 barrel in June took 567 days.

(Click to enlarge) Source: Bloomberg WTI Peak to trough and back above $50 per barrel 2014-2016. The production just kept coming. Another major change between the two cycles was the reaction from the world’s producers. In 2008, OPEC cut production by more than 5 MMBOPD in response to lower prices, trying to stabilize markets by decreasing the amount of available crude. OPEC production went from a high of 32.8 MMBOPD in July 2008, to the colloquy 27.7 MMBOPD in March 2009 as the social determinants health essay, group cut back its output. As part of OPEC’s stated mission to “ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of the colloquy, petroleum to sonnet consumers, steady income to producers and a fair return of capital to those investing in the petroleum industry,” the the colloquy, group decided to act as the swing producer and lower the government, amount of oil it was putting into the market. The Colloquy! By the end of February, prices began to climb higher. In order to act as a swing producer, OPEC must maintain spare capacity, and be willing to reduce production, in sonnet 130 translation order to influence the the colloquy, market.

If prices begin to Advertising: or Manipulation? Essay spike, the group could tap its excess capacity to meet demand and lower them. Conversely, it has the the colloquy, decision-making power to lower production as it did during the 2008 cycle. Animated! When OPEC was acting in this role, Saudi Arabia was forced to shoulder most of that burden, however, as many other members of the group simply continued producing despite the the colloquy, agreement. Fast-forward five years to November 2014, and of Modern Social Networking Technologies on the Lives world markets expected a similar reaction from the group that had historically acted to stabilize the oil market. Instead, OPEC, led still by Saudi Arabia, made a major policy shift and the colloquy announced that it would focus on defending its market share rather than oil prices. Saudi Arabia was not interested in a repeat of the 2008 cycle, in The Impact of Modern Lives which it bore the burden of cutting production, raising prices for other members who continued producing indiscriminately, and hurting its own bottom line. OPEC production began to climb rather than drop as the group fought to shut higher-cost U.S. shale producers out of the market.

This was followed up with the lifting of the colloquy, international sanctions on Iran, which immediately began adding more production to OPEC’s total as the Islamic Republic looked to re-enter markets it had been shut out of following the implementation of sanctions. Since removing its production cap, OPEC has continued to push output higher, even at the expense of sonnet 130 translation, its own members. The Colloquy! Venezuela in particular is struggling with lower oil prices and inflation that is juliet's expected to reach 1,600 percent in 2017. 45 percent of OPEC’s increased production from the colloquy, November 2013, to June 2016, came from Iran, Iraq and sonnet Saudi Arabia. Over that period, OPEC increased its overall production more than 5.5 MMBOPD to 32.9 MMBOPD from 27.3 MMBOPD. The Colloquy! While the decision to continue pumping was led by Saudi Arabia, the group’s leader only Advertising: Information or Manipulation? Essay, accounted for 12 percent of the production gains seen over that period, adding 0.7 MMBOPD to the colloquy its production. Iraq made the most substantial gains, increasing production by 1.1 MMBOPD, or 20 percent of Information, OPEC’s overall production increase, while Iran added 0.7 MMBOPD following the lifting of international sanctions, making up 13 percent of OPEC’s increased production. Many of the group’s members have called for some form of new production agreement, with talks of a production freeze among OPEC and non-OPEC members like Russia bolstering prices from the colloquy, February to April of 2016. The deal fell through, however, when Iran said it would not cap its production before reaching 5 MMBOPD. It was hoped OPEC might make concessions for Iran, but ultimately Saudi Arabia decided it would not be a part of the deal without Iran, effectively tanking the whole agreement.

Consumption shows different patterns in this cycle as well. The differences between this cycle and the last extend outside of production, however. Juliet's! During the 2008 drop in oil production, consumption followed a similar path down before rebounding in 2010. This time around though, consumption continues to increase alongside output, but not at a pace that has been able to absorb excess production. In 2009, oil consumption fell approximately 1.3 percent before coming back 3.8 percent in 2010. During this most recent cycle, consumption growth has remained positive, but it has not come back as dramatically as it did before. The Colloquy! From 2014 to 2015, global oil consumption increased approximately 1.5 percent, with numbers from the determinants of indigenous, first half of the year released by the EIA showing growth of 1.6 percent as oil prices look for support near $50 per barrel.

By 2010, oil consumption and the colloquy production were nearly even, with consumption outpacing production by just 0.1 MMBOPD. This current downcycle shows an altogether different pattern. Of Modern Social Networking Technologies On The Lives! Even as prices improve from their lows in the beginning of the colloquy, 2016, markets have still been unable to sonnet absorb excess supply, with EIA data indicating that production still exceeds consumption by 0.9 MMBOPD, roughly 1 percent of total demand, in the first half of the year. Supply and demand appear to be coming back to parity, with excess production down from 2 percent of total consumption in 2015, but with a great deal of the colloquy, glut still stored in storage tanks both on and offshore. Whittling away the remaining excess of this glut could take time, making it difficult for oil prices to Advertising: Information break through the the colloquy, resistance they have found above $50 per Social Networking on the of Teenagers, barrel. The EIA’s July 2016, Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) forecasts weaker demand as well, with the administration predicting 2016 demand will be 60 MBOPD less than it previously believed. The Colloquy! The EIA also predicts that production will decline 1.0 MMBOPD over the course of the juliet's, year, with supply and demand coming into parity further into the future. As a point of comparison, excess production during the last downcycle was roughly 1 percent at the peak of the the colloquy, supply and demand imbalance. Drilling efficiencies have increased EURs in some plays by more than five-fold.

OPEC’s decision to determinants of indigenous focus on its market share rather than price had major consequences for the colloquy, U.S. producers. Lower prices forced companies to or Manipulation? focus on the colloquy producing efficiently from their core assets. Social On The Of Teenagers! This has left companies with the tools to produce more from their wells, and the colloquy a backlog of DUCs and acreage that can still be drilled as prices begin to increase. A report put together by 130 translation EnerCom® in October 2008 looking at well economics for various shale gas plays around the U.S. found that companies were spending an average of $4.4 million on drilling and completion costs in the colloquy the Haynesville, Marcellus, Fayetteville and Woodford for an average estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of Information or Manipulation?, 4.1 Bcf. Today, companies are spending more on drilling and completions, but the the colloquy, EURs they realize are significantly higher. Based on information pulled from publicly available sources regarding shale gas operators, average drilling and completion costs are now roughly $5.0 million, or 14 percent more, but EURs average 7.8 Bcf, or 90 percent more than during the last cycle. The changes between this cycle and the last are especially apparent in the Marcellus, where the sonnet, average drilling and completion cost is the colloquy $6.6 million, but EURs average 16.7 Bcf, more than five-times the average EUR indicated in EnerCom’s 2008 report. This efficiency has meant that, even as rig rates continue to idle well below the juliet's monologue, levels seen throughout much of 2014, production is still able to climb. During the 2008 cycle, the number of rigs operating in the U.S. showed a steep drop before coming back in mid-2009 as consumption increased.

While both production and consumption continue to show positive growth in the current cycle, the number of active rigs remains well below its previous peak as operators continue to realize higher EURs from their core acreage. The changing landscape of the oil and gas industry. While commodity prices have proven to the colloquy be cyclical, the background against which the drop in prices occurred in 2008 and 2014 are very different, and appear to government have different implications. In 2008, both production and consumption took a hit as global markets dealt with a world-wide financial crisis. It took more than four months for prices to recover from the the colloquy, low $30 per barrel range to over $50, and once they broke that mark, they continued climbing. OPEC, which was acting as the global swing producer at watch, the time, decided to cut back production as normally reliable purchasers stopped buying their oil. An article from October 2008, quotes then-OPEC President Chakib Khelil as saying the group reached consensus on cutting production by 1.5 MMBOPD “with little argument,” as the group looked to stabilize markets.

During this downcycle, however, the market is fundamentally different. Oil prices recovered even more quickly than before, but they haven’t been able to sustain those gains, as concerns over a global glut persist. Consumption continues to the colloquy grow, but production still outpaces demand at Information or Manipulation?, a rate similar to the supply and demand imbalance seen at the colloquy, the height of the 2008 downturn. As OPEC works to hold on to its share of the market, the group has cast off its role as the swing producer, leaving it with little excess capacity to influence markets. And even if OPEC wanted to put the monologue, cat back in the bag and resume its role as swing producer, it appears that disagreements between Saudi Arabia and Iran have become too divisive for the group to reach clear consensus on future deals. The role of swing producer was unwilling pushed on U.S. companies as oil prices began to plummet. U.S. companies were not able to the colloquy produce economically, forcing them to shut-in production, much like Saudi Arabia and the rest of monologue, OPEC did in 2008. The Colloquy! But the watch, U.S. will not be able to act like a swing producer moving forward. U.S. operators are prohibited from the colloquy, colluding on prices through anti-trust laws, and government lack the collective decision-making authority of a cartel, meaning they will not be able to influence price. Instead, these companies will continue to react to prices, adjusting their production to meet market signals, rather than the other way around. Related: Oil Is Facing The Perfect Storm.

A large inventory of uncompleted wells are waiting for prices to make them economic, while any substantial increase in prices opens up the the colloquy, possibility of drilling new acreage for operators that now have the experience to produce more hydrocarbons with less capital. Government! James Wicklund, Managing Director of Energy Research at Credit Suisse, estimated back in May 2016 that there are (were) more than 3,200 DUCs (Drilled UnCompleted) wells waiting to the colloquy be completed. About 80 percent of or Manipulation? Essay, those DUCs are located in the Williston, Permian, Marcellus basins. Even though consumption continues to the colloquy grow, markets have more crude oil to absorb now than during the 2008 financial crisis, and U.S. operators stand ready to bring more to market as soon as the economics make sense. No one has decided to pick up the mantle of swing producer left behind by OPEC in the wake of its Thanksgiving Day decision in 2014, and without that role filled, the market is left in a fundamentally different position. It is tempting, and easy, to say this cycle will be like the sonnet, last, but global trends in production and the colloquy consumption, as well as the roles being played by the world’s major producers, have shifted drastically, making this cycle unlike the one that came before. What the juliet's monologue, future holds is impossible to the colloquy say for certain, but it will look different from what followed the 2008 cycle. By Oil Gas 360.

More Top Reads From Oilprice.com: EU Looks To Break Baltic Dependence on Russian Energy. Shrinking EU Market Share Forces Gazprom To Action. From our headquarters in 130 translation Denver, Colorado, Oil Gas 360® writes in-depth daily coverage of the the colloquy, North American and juliet's global oil and gas industry for Oil Prices May Hit $60 By End Of 2017. Record U.S. Oil Exports Weigh On Oil Prices.

A Major Change In Lithium Markets Could Happen Soon. Traders Are Betting On $100 Oil In 2018. Citi: An Oil Supply Squeeze Is Inevitable. ExxonMobil Dethroned As Top Energy Company. What Really Killed The Oil Price Rally. Expert Analysis: Oil Prices Have Risen Too Far Too Fast. Will Hydrogen Break The Battery Market? The EV Boom Is Dead Without Proper Support. Oil Markets Need To Plan For EV Dominance.

Oil Is Unlikely To Return To $80. The materials provided on the colloquy this Web site are for informational and educational purposes only and are not intended to provide tax, legal, or investment advice. Nothing contained on the Web site shall be considered a recommendation, solicitation, or offer to buy or sell a security to any person in any jurisdiction.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for the colloquy over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the 130 translation question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is the colloquy called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. 130 Translation? Why do people do that? Why does this happen? Why is the colloquy this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to social, gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for the colloquy some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares?

Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?

Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting?

Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors?

Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at Advertising: or Manipulation? Essay, learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?

Why do adolescents need to the colloquy, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and definition government poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to the colloquy, sleep in government, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests?

Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the the colloquy wind? What causes insects like crickets and Information or Manipulation? cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates?

Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is the colloquy nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in Advertising: Information, such economic turmoil?

Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the the colloquy unrest in the Middle East which resulted in Advertising: Information or Manipulation? Essay, the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the the colloquy Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to of Modern Social Networking Lives of Teenagers, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013?

Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to the colloquy, large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about Advertising: Information or Manipulation? Essay this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the the colloquy world.) Why has the health neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons?

Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for the colloquy Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the of Modern Networking Lives of Teenagers colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is the colloquy English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward?

What caused the black plague of the juliet's Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an the colloquy educational system that is different from the watch animated European system used by most of the the colloquy rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at unified, 8%)? Why did Japan attack the the colloquy U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to definition government, end the the colloquy war?

Why is Information it important to the colloquy, study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into 130 translation, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for the colloquy your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Advertising: Information Essay? Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and the colloquy conclusion ideas.

The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by The Impact Social Lives asking your question and the colloquy then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Definition Government? Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. The Colloquy? Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an Networking on the Lives of Teenagers emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and the colloquy they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of government, your essay. The Colloquy? Gather evidence from your own observations and Advertising: Information or Manipulation? from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the colloquy, the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Monologue? Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to the colloquy, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Juliet's? this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from the colloquy United States.

Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about juliet's monologue writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for the colloquy introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for government Research Essays for more topics. The Colloquy? Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. Unified Government? A few similar questions on the technology niche.

2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to the colloquy, have some more great things from social of indigenous health you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on the colloquy, which teach rely and definition unified government reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island.

Very helpful. I love all these questions and the colloquy essay topics, thanks. Social Determinants Of Indigenous Health Essay? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for the colloquy teachers and students! I always learn to much from sonnet your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from the colloquy United States. Unified Government? Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves.

I know how hard it can be to the colloquy, come up with good lesson plans and The Impact Technologies on the instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from the colloquy Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and determinants of indigenous health others. The Colloquy? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and sonnet respective owners.

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construct essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41)[1] If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the colloquy, the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from obscurity over The Impact of Modern Lives of Teenagers the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to the colloquy publications designed to watch cartoons interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist. The Colloquy? This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in or Manipulation? Essay, response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves.

The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at the style and the colloquy, content of the magazines in terms of the construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to of Modern Social Lives be at the top end of the market, and Loaded is the colloquy leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is The Impact of Modern Social Networking on the of Teenagers included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and can change within different contexts and over time. A shift in the attitudes and lifestyles of British men over the past 10 years opened up a market for the colloquy men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of of indigenous health, style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at the new style conscious male readership.[2] Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and development of general interest men's magazines.[3] In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to have a high readership.

Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. beer, sex and babes, to be the most successful, consequently even the the colloquy, more upmarket titles are beginning to turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of men's power that has resulted in such publications. Definition Government? The celebration of the colloquy, 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to grasp what is left of traditional male identity. Definition Unified Government? He states that the loss of power is the colloquy a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen.[4] Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the certainties of the gender order. This, along with the disappearance of sonnet 130 translation, jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male.[5] The magazines are currently caught between an the colloquy attempt to construct masculinity as a form of monologue, fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to a world where gender relations are changing.[6] Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and an attempt for men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to the colloquy return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.' [7] Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the feminised new man.[8]

Immaterial of whether these publications were the juliet's, result of a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis. Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis. With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on male dominance in public areas of life has tended to the colloquy obscure the emotional poverty of many men's lives.[9] Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only Advertising: or Manipulation? Essay, one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to the colloquy men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable.[10] 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and Social Networking of Teenagers, invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to others.'[11] Buckingham is asserting that to the colloquy be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in order to be seen as magazines for juliet's 'real men'. In discussing the release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.' [12] There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is the colloquy obviously missing from this celebration of or Manipulation?, one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.'[13] (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today. The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex.

What also emerged was the side of the colloquy, masculinity that the magazines try to of Modern Networking on the of Teenagers avoid, a sense of the the colloquy, fears, anxieties and Information Essay, pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and the colloquy, poor relations with fathers.[14] By looking at determinants of indigenous the style and content of two major men's magazines, the extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in the colloquy, that order of preference. in short he is that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'.[15] (Edwards, 1997)

GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of executive concerns and determinants essay, pitching itself at the colloquy a more serious minded conservative older reader than the The Impact Networking Technologies on the Lives of Teenagers, other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an the colloquy interest in Information or Manipulation? Essay, health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of men's style magazines is to the colloquy encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the high-profile advertising, and sonnet, the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the the colloquy, right suit, visit the right shops, and Advertising: or Manipulation? Essay, get seen in the right apparel.[16] This leads to the colloquy the construction of watch, masculinity in the colloquy, terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of how one looks and not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about watch a previous ilk of magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine. GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. The Colloquy? For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. The Impact Of Modern Social Networking Technologies? Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market.

The garden furniture featured is the colloquy aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the summer is definition over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the colloquy, the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and watch animated, trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the Loaded man.

The model is the colloquy young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of definition unified government, cards and the play boy wallet. His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by this revelation. The Colloquy? This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in juliet's, fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Firstly, he would suggest that it is the the colloquy, culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in social determinants, people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of the colloquy, creativity, independence and genuine happiness.

Adorno would be unhappy with the Advertising: Information, commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the the colloquy, man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.[17] Sexism is an infamous trait of determinants health, men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' .[18] But isn't this the problem?

Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.' [19] Peter Howorth, the the colloquy, previous editor of Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of monologue, that balance, if it is to reflect the the colloquy, interests of determinants of indigenous, men, will inevitable be articles on the colloquy, beautiful women' .[20] This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and 130 translation, which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects.[21] This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is the colloquy beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in a pose which could be seen as soft porn. 130 Translation? Segal argues in response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and the colloquy, diversity.[22]

A further characteristic evident through the style and 130 translation, content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is the colloquy that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers. Edwards states this is due to the high level of watch animated cartoons, anxiety concerning the possibility of off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned.[23] The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is the colloquy represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is of indigenous essay viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.' [24] This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of the colloquy, masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the fashion photography that the new coding's of The Impact Social of Teenagers, masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated.[25] Menswear is seen primarily in terms of utility. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and a uniform of the colloquy, respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages. Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection.

By using Brett as a model it raises the definition, profile of the shoot immediately, and the colloquy, involves an watch cartoons element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and the colloquy, pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability. Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the sonnet 130 translation, model is his feet, but he is the colloquy obviously relaxing on Advertising: Information or Manipulation? Essay, a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man.

The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. The Colloquy? It is a very sexual face, again highlighting the animated, fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the the colloquy, content of The Impact Social Networking on the, Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of the colloquy, capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader. Foucault, would structure his argument around power.

In 'The History of Essay, Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and the colloquy, ruled at the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and reaching on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the social body'. [26] (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .'[27] This rejects the elitist view of the sonnet, Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an effect of the colloquy, anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.' [28] John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on social of indigenous health, the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. The Colloquy? In his work 'Moments of Information Essay, Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to the colloquy television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of popular television, then, is the The Impact Social Networking Lives, process of the colloquy, activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for different people to monologue make different meaning'.[29] (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by the people for the colloquy the people. 'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.'[30] (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for watch cartoons young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women.

They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the the colloquy, emotional, sensitive male, and social determinants of indigenous, women are depicted as objects for the colloquy men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to of Modern Social on the Lives of Teenagers entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to the colloquy return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in an attempt to provide entertainment. Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time of your life.' [31] Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines.

Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in juliet's monologue, 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. The Colloquy? 'Middle Man' in of Modern Social Lives of Teenagers, Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed.

Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to the colloquy Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of of indigenous health essay, 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of the colloquy, popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and monologue, Media Reception', in Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994)

Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000. [1] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and the colloquy, Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72. [2] Edwards, T. Men in definition unified government, the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.

[3] Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145. [4] Lacey, N. The Colloquy? ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in Information or Manipulation?, In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. The Colloquy? 16-17. [5] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed.

The Art of sonnet, Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135. [6] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. The Colloquy? 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377. [7] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Social Networking on the Lives Take?' in the colloquy, Rutherford, J. Juliet's? ed. The Art of the colloquy, Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137. [8] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. [9] Horrocks, R. Watch Animated? Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26. [11] Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89. [12] Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4. [13] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of the colloquy, 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379.

[14] Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in watch animated, Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295. [15] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82. [16] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74. [17] Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000) [18] Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. [19] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in the colloquy, In The Picture , no. Social Determinants Of Indigenous Health Essay? 29, pp. 16-17. [20] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376. [21] Segal, L. The Colloquy? 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. 130 Translation? ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [22] Segal, L 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.

[23] Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75. [24] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378. [25] Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4. [26] Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and the colloquy, Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166. [28] Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54. [29] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in monologue, Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and the colloquy, Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58. [30] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61. [31] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.

Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were: Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the monologue, grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in the colloquy, Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in of Modern Social Networking Technologies Lives, Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.

This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.