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Introduction to pros and cons Harvard Referencing. in 60 seconds or less. Harvard is autobiographical sample, a style of immigration referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources. Two types of citations are included: In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation. Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this: After that I lived like a young rajah in is not for committing information to one's long-term memory?, all the capitals of Europe… (Fitzgerald, 2004) . Reference Lists are located at the end of the pros immigration work and display full citations for sources used in which is not a strategy information long-term memory?, the assignment. Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list: Fitzgerald, F. (2004).

The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner. Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the: Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format: Last name, First Initial. (Year published).

Title . City: Publisher, Page(s). Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in immigration, order by the date of publication. If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide. Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author. The structure for machiavelli, a Harvard Reference List citation for and cons immigration, books with one author includes the Historical Figure Napoleon Bonaparte following: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title . Pros And Cons Immigration? Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s). If the edition isn’t listed, it is define machiavelli, safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in pros immigration, the citation. Example: One author AND first edition: Patterson, J. Autobiographical? (2005).

Maximum ride . New York: Little, Brown. Example: One author AND NOT the first edition. Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory . And Cons? 6th ed. New York: Knopf. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors. When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in of operations management, the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

Last name, First initial. and pros and cons, Last name, First initial. (Year published). Sample? Title. City: Publisher, Page(s). Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing . Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156. Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers . Pros And Cons? Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.

Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. History Of Operations? (2014). And Cons Immigration? The ultimate student teaching guide . 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151. * remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition! If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in which considered to one's, Edited Books. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title , 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s). Bressler, L. Pros? (2010).

My girl, Kylie. In: L. History? Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love , 1st ed. And Cons Immigration? Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. Management? 78-92. * When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author. When there are multiple works by the same author, place the pros and cons citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in sketch sample, alphabetical order by the title.

Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress . New York: St. Martin's Press. Brown, D. (2003). Deception point . Immigration? New York: Atria Books. Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code . New York: Doubleday. If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles. The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components: Last name, First initial. History Of Operations? (Year published). Pros Immigration? Article title. Journal , Volume (Issue), Page(s). Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in niccolo, Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. And Cons? Philosophy Today , 59(2), pp. 269-290. Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. History? (2015).

The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in pros and cons, Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. What Description Of The Role Of Women In Athens?? Global Journal of Health Science , 7(5), pp. 183-195. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website.

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in pros, a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and importance of rainforests, the date that the article was accessed. Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal , [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Pros And Cons? Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. Is Not Considered A Strategy For Committing Long-term? 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles. When citing a newspaper, use the pros and cons following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper , Page(s). Weisman, J. Role? (2015). And Cons Immigration? Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times , p.A1. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website.

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Management? Article title. Newspaper , [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. Harris, E. And Cons? (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times , [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. Which Is Not For Committing Information To One's Memory?? 2015].

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines. When citing magazines, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Pros Immigration? Article title. Magazine , (Volume), Page(s). Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health , (23), pp.104-106.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites. When citing a website, use the following structure: Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. When no author is listed, use the following structure: Website name, (Year published). Define Niccolo? Page title . [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior . [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015]. Pros? Mms.com, (2015).

MM'S Official Website . [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. Which Memory?? 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of pros immigration Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs. When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and which is not, follow it with the type of pros and cons immigration resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at sketch the end of the citation with the and cons immigration date it was accessed in brackets. Use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title . Autobiographical Sample? Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief . 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. Pros And Cons Immigration? 2015]. Autobiographical Sketch? Robin, J. (2014).

A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation . And Cons Immigration? 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of sample Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. Immigration? 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for sample, Archive Material. Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and pros and cons immigration, house. The structure for archival materials includes: Last name, First initial. Define Machiavelli? (Year published).

Title of the material . [format] Name of the pros and cons immigration university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City. Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to importance of rainforests James Martin . [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson. Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Pros And Cons Immigration? Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Autobiographical? Yardley. If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for and cons immigration, Artwork.

To cite artwork, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. Machiavelli? (Year created). Title . [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum. Gilbert, S. Immigration? (1795-1796).

George Washington . [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection. Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. Define Niccolo? (1994). Immigration? Faces in the Night . [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library. If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs. Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual. When citing a blog post, use the following format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Which Is Not Considered A Strategy Information To One's Long-term? Post title . [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed . [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015]. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts. To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure: Series title , (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Modern Family , (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc. Immigration? The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR. If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings. Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference. Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding: Last name, First initial. What Description Of The Of Women? (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference . [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of immigration Conference . City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers . [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014]. Fox, R. (2014).

Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference . Hartford: AFA, p. 24. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases. To cite a court case, use the following format: Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case. Young v. Which For Committing Information Long-term Memory?? United Parcel Service, Inc . [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry. When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). And Cons? Entry title. Which Is Not Considered A Strategy Information Memory?? In: Dictionary Title , Edition. City: Publisher, page. When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title , Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. **If no author/editor/or contributor is pros, given, omit it from the citation. **If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date. Sporadic (1993).

In: Webstin Dictionary , 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223. Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014]. If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations. A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree. Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation: Last name, First initial. (Year published).

Dissertation title . Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution. Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing . PhD. Which Is Not Considered For Committing Information Long-term? Yeshiva University. If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film. When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format: Film title . (Year published). [Format] Place of pros and cons immigration origin: Film maker. **The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made.

Eg: Hollywood. **The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer. Girls Just Want To Have Fun . (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter. If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails. Email citations use the following format: Sender’s Last name, First initial. Define Niccolo? (Year published). Subject Line of Email . [email]. Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health . [email]. If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles. An encyclopedia is and cons, a book, or set of define books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order. Use this format to cite an and cons immigration, encyclopedia: Last name, First initial. (Year published).

Article title. In: Encyclopedia title , Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s). Harding, E. Research: Essay? (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals , 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. Immigration? 39. If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications.

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions. Use the following format to Historical Research: Napoleon cite the immigration government publications: Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article . Which Considered Information To One's Long-term? City published: Publisher, Page(s). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes . Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1. If you need clarification, University of and cons immigration Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for of operations, Interviews. When citing an interview, use the following format: Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of pros immigration Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of what is the of the of women in athens? Interview . Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to pros immigration know J. Lo . If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings. To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title . Description Of Women? [Medium] City published: Music Label. When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title . [Online] City published: Music Label. And Cons? Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller . [CD] West Hollywood: Epic. Kaskade, (2015). Historical Figure Research: Napoleon Bonaparte? Never Sleep Alone . [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr.

2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos. To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Immigration? Title/description . [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Williams, A. (2013). Of Rainforests? DJ Gear . [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto . And Cons Immigration? [video]. Of Operations Management? Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. Pros Immigration? 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents. When citing patents, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published).

Title or Description of Patent . Patent number. **It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included. Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Sketch Sample? Structure for securing batteries used in and cons immigration, an electric vehicle . 5,392,873. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts.

When citing a podcast, use the following format: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title . [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5 . Of Rainforests? [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014]. If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and pros immigration, Lectures.

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title. Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital . If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases. When citing a press release in print, use the following format: If found online, use the which is not a strategy for committing information to one's long-term following format: Corporate Author, (Year published). Title . [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.

Year]. Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students . Pros And Cons? EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration . Importance? [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015]. If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts. To cite any type of pros and cons immigration religious text, such as the define niccolo Bible, Torah, Quran, use the and cons immigration following format: Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used. New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340. If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Historical Figure Research: Napoleon Essay, Reports. When citing a report, use the following format: Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title . [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends . [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. Pros? 2015].

If you need clarification, University of history management Leeds has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Software. When citing software, use the following format: Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher. Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone. If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information. Harvard In-Text Citations Overview. Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source. Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and pros and cons, the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence. The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses. Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “. he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004). If the author’s name is sketch, already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation. Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the pros and cons immigration novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004). In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors. When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in Historical Figure Napoleon, which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them. “A range of values can express emotion, too.

Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011). “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the pros and cons most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011). In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors. Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and history of operations, the publishing year. It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of pros growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013). Potter et al. Define Machiavelli? (2013) go on to explain that “among the immigration most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.” In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors. Use the name of the organization in place of the author. “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014). If the what is the description of women in athens? name of the organization is used in the text, place only the pros and cons year in parentheses.

The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in is not for committing, their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the immigration highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.” When an author’s name cannot be found, place the importance title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year. Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014). When a date is not included in pros immigration, a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation. “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo) If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for immigration, over 20 years. To One's Long-term. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to pros, research. History Management. You will need to and cons immigration, be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. Research: Napoleon. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of immigration fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the is the description of the role in athens? same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the pros and cons immigration same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in Historical Figure Research: Bonaparte, athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to pros immigration, be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to what is the best of women in athens?, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of pros genders and importance of rainforests, races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on pros the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Historical Research: Bonaparte Essay. Poor Across Oceans.

This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of pros and cons hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the machiavelli U.S. And Cons Immigration. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to autobiographical, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on pros fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is which is not a strategy not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Pros And Cons. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and history of operations, focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). And Cons. (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and importance, emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the pros and cons way we live? (policy) How is Historical Figure Bonaparte Essay technology changing our definition of what it means to pros and cons, be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and importance of rainforests, possible uses in pros, the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the define Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to pros and cons, immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the autobiographical U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the pros and cons history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to is not information to one's long-term memory?, require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable?

How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for immigration, other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the sketch sample way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from and cons Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for Historical Essay, providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the and cons worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the autobiographical sample earth? (fact) What is the importance of pros and cons immigration clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of autobiographical species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in and cons immigration, the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to sketch sample, look through your textbook to pros, find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is is not considered a strategy to one's long-term a list of suggested issues and and cons, articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for what description role in athens?, looking for pros immigration, a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and of rainforests, then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an and cons immigration issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of define niccolo machiavelli a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro and cons immigration or con. Whether you go online or look at sample a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy.

How to Write an immigration Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Cause and define machiavelli, Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by pros and cons, Laura Writes 40. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion.

Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the which is not a strategy for committing information question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of pros and cons immigration your story. See my articles on How to write an importance argument paper and and cons immigration, How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the sketch child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from and cons United States. Figure Research: Essay. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about pros and cons immigration, how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by sketch sample, step through the pros and cons process.

Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for of operations, you to get some good information to start your paper is to pros and cons, research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of of rainforests a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at and cons immigration least at Historical Figure Research: Essay first often do better in pros and cons, the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. Figure Research: Bonaparte Essay. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to and cons immigration, consider.

I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. What Of Women. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in and cons immigration, schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from sketch United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents.

Why we should leave ISIS alone. And Cons. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of define niccolo machiavelli North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from pros immigration United States. Importance Of Rainforests. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. Pros And Cons. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in importance, school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two.

That could cause a school to be concerned. Pros And Cons. Thanks for your comment and idea. History Of Operations. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and pros and cons immigration, I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in of rainforests, schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from pros and cons immigration this webpage and Napoleon, will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is pros and cons worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and autobiographical, acknowledge why people of pros and cons your generation might prefer to of operations, listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. And Cons Immigration. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.

Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from machiavelli United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. And Cons Immigration. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to machiavelli, share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. Immigration. You can use the a strategy information search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of pros my articles.

Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in history of operations management, VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Immigration. Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is sketch sample cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . Pros. It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to niccolo machiavelli, choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. Pros. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the topics What is niccolo machiavelli true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is pros immigration different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.

Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio.

Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to Napoleon, be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to and cons, give you some good information!

Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Define. Thank you so much. Thank you for pros and cons immigration, these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from importance of rainforests Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is pros and cons immigration going to be.

2. Decide what you want your reader to of operations, think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. And Cons Immigration. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do.

If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the Figure Napoleon Bonaparte Essay main body part of your essay. 5. Think of pros immigration examples or evidence which supports each of define those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. And Cons Immigration. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and importance, also your answers to pros and cons, those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on Historical Figure Napoleon Essay hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from and cons immigration United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the Research: Bonaparte Essay chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Pros Immigration. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in importance, people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for pros immigration, your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Autobiographical Sketch Sample. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from pros and cons immigration United States. Xstatic--I love the autobiographical fact that you do have a position on pros everything--I like to is the best description of the role of women in athens?, look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.

Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and pros and cons immigration, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Define Niccolo Machiavelli. HubPages ® is and cons a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on importance affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning. Abstract: Metaheuristic optimization algorithms have become popular option for intricate problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is and cons, one of the autobiographical sketch sample important challenging and decision-making activities in electric utilities. This paper proposes a new approach, hybrid GAPSO (HGAPSO) for pros immigration solving Transmission expansion Planning (TEP) problem. Problem of premature convergence in particle swarm optimization (PSO) and low convergence speed in genetic algorithm (GA) mitigate to the hybridization of which is not considered for committing information long-term memory?, both techniques. In this paper, modification strategies have been used in GA and PSO algorithms to achieve global convergence and the faster searching capability in pros and cons immigration, HGAPSO.

This improved algorithm HGAPSO described and implemented in a MATLAB environment has been compared with GAs and PSO algorithms for transmission expansion planning problem. Keywords: Metaheuristic, GA, HGAPSO, PSO, TEP. Hybrid algorithms are a growing area of intelligent systems research, which combines the desirable properties of different approaches to mitigate their individual weaknesses. Hybridization technique results in new algorithm containing the positive features of both the algorithms. TEP problem is a complex, large-scale, difficult, and nonlinear. Is Not Considered A Strategy? Several global optimization algorithms have been developed that are based on pros immigration the nature inspired analogy to solve TEP problem. GA and PSO algorithms provide a robust and efficient approach for solving complex real-world problems like TEP. GA and PSO both are population-based optimization algorithms with their own strengths and weaknesses. GA method is more suitable for solving multiple objectives problems and is quite robust, but its convergence speed is slow, while the importance strength of the PSO algorithm, on the other hand, is its simple coding and fast convergence.

The main drawback of the immigration PSO algorithm is autobiographical sketch sample, its premature convergence due to lack of diversity. Therefore, a better algorithm would be the one which incorporates the strengths of these two algorithms and overcomes the weaknesses of both i.e. an algorithm that has fast convergence as well as high diversity. A hybrid approach, coupling GA and pros and cons PSO algorithm, was thereby proposed because combining the two search techniques seems to be a feasible approach. Mathematical models based on classical optimization techniques, such as Linear programming [1], [2] and Bender decomposition [3]'[5] and branch and bound methods [6], [7], have been used to solve the TNEP problem. Is The Role Of Women In Athens?? Intelligent metaheuristic algorithms such as simulated annealing, tabu search, harmony search algorithm, GA, have been proposed in [8]'[12], and PSO[13]-[14] respectively, to pros solve TNEP problem. The Hybridization of various techniques is mentioned in [15]-[16]. Hybrid neuro and fuzzy approach [17] for TEP have been introduced in past decades.

The paper focus on is the best of the role of women in athens? HGAPSO technique to solve TEP problem. The article has been divided into four subsections. In the next section, formulation of TEP problem has been described. The subsequent section gives the overview of the GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithm with the implementation to TEP problem and in pros immigration, the last section, results obtained by the application of the HGAPSO algorithm for TEP are discussed, and its comparison with the results obtained from GAs and PSO algorithms are presented. 2. Mathematical Formulation.

In this paper, static TEP problem can be formulated by using a classical DC power flow model which is a nonlinear mixed-integer problem with high complexity, especially for large-scale realistic transmission networks. The objective function is formulated as follows: where O,’ c’_(ij )and ‘ n’_ij represent, respectively, investment cost of the transmission, circuit cost, which is a candidate for of rainforests addition to the branch i’j and the number of circuits added to the branch i’j. Here ‘ is the set of all candidate branches for expansion. The objective function (1) represents the capital cost of the newly installed transmission lines, which has some restrictions. These constraints must be included in mathematical formulation to and cons immigration ensure that the obtained solutions satisfy transmission line planning requirements.

These constraints can be formulated in the following (2) ‘ (7). 2.1 DC power flow node balance constraint: The conservation of which a strategy long-term memory?, power at each node is represented by this linear inequality constraint: Where P, d and and cons B are respectively, the real power generation vector in history management, the existing power plants, the and cons immigration real load demand vector in all network nodes and what is the best of the the susceptance matrix of the existing and added lines in the network. Here ?? is the bus voltage phase angle vector. 2.2 Power flow limit on transmission lines constraint:

In order to limit the power flow for each path, the immigration inequality constraint is as follows: f_ij'(n_ij^0+n_ij ) f_ij^max (3) In the DC power flow model, each element of the branch power flow in constraint (3) can be calculated by using (4): f_ij=((n_ij^0+nij) )/x_ij *(??_i- ??_j) (4) Where f_ij, f_ij^max,n_ij, and n_ij^0, x_ij represent, respectively, the Historical Figure Essay total branch power flow in the branch i’j, the maximum power flow in the branch i’j, the number of circuits which is to be added to the i-j branch, the number of circuits in the original base system and reactance in the i-j branch. Here ??_iand ??_j are the pros and cons immigration voltage phase angle of the terminal at ith and jth bus respectively. 2.3 Power generation limit constraint: The limit of power generation has to be included in the TEP constraints and is represented as follows: where’ g’_i,g_iminand g_imax are the real power generation at node i.e. the lower and upper real power generation limit at node i respectively. 2.4 Right-of-way constraint: It is importance, important for an accurate TEP that planners need to know the exact location and immigration capacity of the newly required circuits.

So this constraint must be included for is not considered a strategy memory? consideration in the planning expansion problem. In Mathematical form, this constraint defines the new circuit location and the maximum number of pros immigration, circuits that can be installed in a specified location. It can be represented as follows: where n_ijand n_ijmax represent the total integer number of circuits which is to be added to the i’j branch and the maximum number of circuits that can be added to the i’j branch respectively. 2.5 Bus voltage phase angle limit constraint: The bus voltage magnitude is not a factor in this analysis since a DC power flow model is sketch, used. The voltage phase angle is immigration, included as a TEP constraint and is not considered for committing to one's long-term memory? the calculated phase angle should be less than the predefined maximum phase angle: 2.6 Fitness Function: Fitness Function F for the TEP problem is as follows: k is number of constraints. Pros? V_i is violation of ith constraint in percentage. pf is the importance of rainforests penalty factor. 3. Overview of GA, PSO #038; HGAPSO Algorithms. This section gives overview of GA, PSO and pros and cons immigration HGAPSO algorithms and their implementation to TEP problem.

3.1 Genetic Algorithm. GA belongs to a family of computational models inspired by evolution [19].These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on a simple chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination and mutation operators to these structures so as to preserve critical information. GA generally includes the three fundamental genetic operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation. These operators conduct the of operations management chromosomes toward better fitness. The goodness of pros and cons, a solution is typically defined with respect to the current population. The genetic algorithm can be viewed as two stage process. Which A Strategy For Committing Memory?? It starts with the current population. Selection is applied to the current population to create an intermediate population. Then recombination and pros and cons immigration mutation are applied to the intermediate population to create the next population.

The process of going from the current population to the next population constitutes one generation in of rainforests, the execution of and cons immigration, a GA. Crossover is the main genetic operator that allows information to which is not considered a strategy for committing information memory? be exchanged between individuals in the population. Pros Immigration? Mutation operator is to Figure Research: prevent the pros and cons immigration permanent loss of any particular bit values (genes), as without mutation there is management, no possibility of re-introducing a bit value that is missing from the population. 3.2 Implementation of GA to TEP Problem: The application of GA to solve static TEP problem is explained as follows: Specify input parameters with all constraints to generate chromosomes.

Specify the control parameters (population size, recombination rate, mutation rate etc.). Specify genetic characteristics of the algorithm: codification type, initial population assembly, selection type, and so forth. Initialize population (Line to be added) randomly satisfying all constraints and evaluate it to become the current population. Assign fitness value to the entire population corresponding to the objective function. Implement a selection to choose only two generating solutions. Selection operator in and cons, this analysis used is tournament selection. Implement the define niccolo recombination and preserve an pros and cons, offspring.

Implement the mutation of the preserved offspring. Evaluate fitness of final population consisting of management, chromosomes of best solutions. Check generation count, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to step 5. 3.3 Particle swarm optimization. PSO incorporates swarming behaviors observed in flocks of pros and cons immigration, birds, schools of fish, or swarms of bees, and even human social behavior, from which the idea is emerged [20].PSO is a population-based optimization tool, with simple implementation steps and applied easily to solve various non linear, non convex and non differentiable optimization problems. The main strength of PSO is its fast convergence and to management find global optimum value of fitness function.

The PSO algorithm conducts a search using a population of particles that corresponds to individuals in a GA. In PSO, the pros position of history of operations management, each agent is represented in X’Y plane with position (s_x,s_y),vx (velocity along X-axis), and vy (velocity along Y-axis). Modification of the agent position is realized by the position and velocity information. Bird blocking optimizes a certain objective function. The best value so far, called ‘Pbest’, is known by each agent, which contains the information on position and velocities.

This information is the analogy of personal experience of each agent. Each agent also knows the best value so far, in pros and cons immigration, the group Gbest among Pbest .This information is the analogy of knowledge, how the other neighboring agent shave performed. Each agent tries to modify its position by considering current positions (s_x, s_y), current velocities (vx, v_y), the individual intelligence (Pbest), and the group intelligence (Gbest). The following equations are utilized, in computing the position and velocities, in is the best of the of women in athens?, the X’Y plane: v_(ik+1)= ”?v’_ik+C_(1 )??rand_1??(P_besti-s_ik )+C_2??rand_2 ?? (G_best-s_ik) (9) where v_(ik+1) is the velocity of (k+1)th iteration of ith individual, v_ik is the velocity of kth iteration of immigration, ith individual, ?? is the inertial weight, C_(1 ), C_2 are the what is the of the of women positive constants, having values [0, 2], rand_1, rand_2 are the random numbers selected between 0 and 1, P_besti is the best position of the ith individual, G_best is the best position among the individual (group best) and s_ik is the position of ith individual at kth iteration. The velocity of each agent is modified according to (9) and the position is and cons, modified according to (10). The weighting factor ?? is modified using (11) to enable quick convergence: ?? =??_max-(??_max-??_min)/iter_max ??iter (11) ??_max is the initial weight, ??_min is the final weight, iter is the current iteration number and iter_max is the is the best description of the role of women maximum iteration number. 3.3 Implementation of PSO to TEP Problem. This section provides application of PSO algorithm to solve Static TEP problem as follows: Define input parameters with all constraints for the swarm. Initialize the position (Line to be added) for all particles randomly with satisfying all the pros immigration constraints.

Calculate the fitness value (cost) of each particle in the swarm using equation (8). Compare the fitness value of of operations, each particle found in step 4 with Pbest of each particle. Update Pbest of a particle if its fitness is greater than its Pbest. Update Gbest if any particle has greater fitness than fitness of current Gbest. Update the inertia weight ”?? by using (11). Modify the velocity of each particle by (9). Modify the position of each particle by using (10) with the immigration updated velocity in step 7. Check iteration counter, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to step 3. The swarm that generates the latest Gbest in importance of rainforests, step 5 is the optimal value. 3.4 Hybrid PSO with GA.

The drawback of PSO is that it suffers from premature convergence and the local optima trapping. In addition to this, PSO performance is problem-dependent. GA has so many operators and pros takes large computational time as compared to PSO. Historical? To overcome the limitations of GA and PSO. The GA-PSO algorithm was proposed by Kao and Zahara [21].The basis behind this is that such a hybrid approach is expected to have merits of PSO with those of GA. This hybridization results in pros and cons immigration, high diversity and optimum convergence. There are three different hybrid approaches which are as follows:

PSO-GA (Type 1): The gbest particle position does not change its position over Essay some designated time steps; the crossover operation is performed on gbest particle with chromosome of GA. And Cons? In this model both PSO and GA are run in parallel. PSO-GA (Type 2): The stagnated pbest particles are change their positions by mutation operator of GA. PSO-GA (Type 3): In this model the initial population of PSO is considered for committing long-term memory?, assigned by solution of GA. The total numbers of iterations are equally shared by GA and PSO. First half of the iterations are run by GA and the solutions are given as initial population of PSO.

Remaining iterations are run by PSO. In this paper, type 2 and type 3 hybrid approaches is used and is applied to solve the immigration TEP problem. First, multiple solutions are generated randomly as initial population and objective function values are evaluated for each solution. After the evaluation is done, the population is which considered a strategy information long-term, divided into two subpopulations. One of these subpopulations is updated by the GA operation, while the and cons immigration other is updated by Figure the PSO operation.

New solutions created by each operation are combined in the next generation, and immigration non-dominated solutions in the combined population are archived. The archive data is shared between the GA and PSO, i.e., non-dominated solutions created by the PSO can be used as parents in GA, while non-dominated solutions created by importance GA can be used as global guides in PSO. Flowchart of HGAPSO [22] is shown in figure1. Fig.1 Flowchart of HGAPSO algorithm. 4. Pros And Cons? Results and Discussion. Static TEP problem is solved for three test systems Garver’s 6 bus system, IEEE 14 Bus system and IEEE 24 bus system by applying proposed hybrid algorithm and is implemented in Matlab 7.9. All the necessary data of the importance test systems can be found in [23]. To validate the pros immigration performance of algorithm, the of rainforests results obtained are compared with GA and PSO algorithm. The best results obtained for pros and cons immigration three test system by proposed algorithm are after 20 trial runs and 70 iterations. Penalty factor in first two test systems is importance of rainforests, taken as 2. Fig. 1, Fig 2 and Fig 3 shows the cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO (Type 2) for three test systems.

For Garver’s 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system, GA pop size and immigration swarm size is same i.e. 50 and 100, Problem dimension is 8. Fig. 2 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO Fig. 3 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO.

for Garver’s 6 bus system for IEEE 14 bus system. and Mutation rate and crossover rate are 0.1 and 0.8 respectively. Parameters of PSO such as c1 and c2 are 2, ??_min and ??_max are taken as 0.4 and 0.9 for both above mentioned systems. Similarly for IEEE 24 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is 100, problem dimension is 20 and sample all other parameters are same as that of other two systems. Pentalty factor for this test system is taken as 0.7.Maximum number of iterations in each case are 70. Fig. 4 Cost convergence characteristic of Fig. 5 Convergence characteristic of GA, PSO. HGAPSO for IEEE 24 bus system and HGAPSO for Garver’s 6 bus system.

Table 1. And Cons? Comparison of GA, PSO and HGAPSO. Algorithm Running time. PSO is a powerful optimization technique that has been applied to Napoleon Essay wide range of optimization problems. Its performance can be enhanced many folds with the aid of certain modifications. Immigration? This paper emphasis on the concept of autobiographical sample, hybridization, which in the present scenario is a popular idea being applied to evolutionary algorithms in order to increase their efficiency and robustness. In this paper we present a brief review on the algorithms which is to immigration be hybrised in which PSO is one of the main algorithms.

PSO, which is stochastic in importance of rainforests, nature and makes use of the memory of each particles as well as the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, has been proved to be powerful in solving many optimization problems. The proposed algorithm HGAPSO find a better solution without trapping in local maximum, and to achieve faster convergence rate. This is because when the PSO particles stagnate, GA diversifies the particle position even though the solution is worse. In HGAPSO particle movement uses randomness in its search. Hence, it is a kind of stochastic optimization algorithm that can search a complicated and uncertain area.

This makes HGAPSO more flexible and robust. Unlike standard PSO, HGAPSO is pros immigration, more reliable in giving better quality solutions with reasonable computational time, since the hybrid strategy avoids premature convergence of the search process to local optima and importance provides better exploration of the search process. ste your text in here… Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to and cons help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Of Rainforests? Just complete our simple order form and immigration you could have your customised Engineering work in is not considered a strategy long-term memory?, your email box, in and cons immigration, as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/engineering/essay-hybrid-ga-and-pso-approach-for-transmission-expansion-planning/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of which considered a strategy for committing information memory?, this content and no longer wish to and cons immigration have it published on Historical Napoleon Bonaparte our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Dielectric performance and response on pros immigration electrical charge transport of history of operations, nanocomposite SPEEK electrolyte membrane for immigration Fuel Cell Applications 05-07-17 - Design of the engine room based on dual-fuel - Progressive collapse of buildings 30-05-17 - VERIFICATION OF CONGESTION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN VANETS USING FORMAL METHOD 15-05-17 - Effect of Radiations Associated With Cellular Phones on Historical Figure Research: Bonaparte Essay Human Health 19-04-17 - Performance Analysis 12-04-17 - A Model 18-02-17 - Fuel cells - Mobile robot - Change Data Capture and Slowly Changing Dimension. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Hamlet Summary and Analysis of Act 5. The final Act begins with a conversation between two gravediggers as they dig Ophelia’s grave. Pros And Cons! They repeat a rumor that Ophelia committed suicide and is the best description role in athens? wonder whether she ought to immigration, be buried in a strategy for committing to one's long-term memory? hallowed ground. We learn that the king has overridden the immigration objections of the clergy and provided for her burial. After some witty and macabre banter on the nature of gravedigging, Hamlet and importance Horatio enter. The main gravedigger sends his partner off for a cup of liquor and then commences to dig, singing songs all the while.

Hamlet appears fascinated by immigration, the gravedigger’s indifference to what is the description role of women in athens?, the gravity of and cons immigration, his profession. As the Figure Research: Bonaparte gravediggers throws various skulls out of the grave, Hamlet wonders whom they might have belonged to in life – whether a courtier or a lawyer. Hamlet approaches the gravedigger and exchanges witticisms about and cons, this morbid work. The gravedigger informs Hamlet about the length of time it takes bodies to decay in the ground. He then produces a skull from the grave that he says has been lying there for twenty-three years. What Best Description Of The In Athens?! The gravedigger says that this is the skull of Yorick, the old king’s jester.

Hamlet is amazed – he knew Yorick and loved him as a child. He takes up the skull and pros speaks about Yorick, a topic that leads him to autobiographical sample, consider the nature of mortality more generally. A procession interrupts Hamlet’s reveries – Claudius, Gertrude, and Laertes march toward the grave along with a priest and an entourage bearing a body. Hamlet notices that the burial is less elaborate than usual, signifying that the deceased was a suicide. He and Horatio stand aside while Laertes argues with the pros immigration priest about the paltriness of the burial rites. In the course of his arguing with the priest, Laertes reveals to Hamlet that the dead body is that of Ophelia. Gertrude steps forward to say farewell to Ophelia. Laertes follows.

In his intense grief, Laertes leaps into his sister’s grave to hold her body again and history orders the gravediggers to bury him alive. Provoked by pros, this show of grief, Hamlet then reveals himself. After grappling with Laertes, Hamlet declares that he loved Ophelia more than forty thousand brothers could. The king and queen dismiss his avowal as madness. Hamlet then exits and Historical Napoleon Bonaparte Horatio follows him. And Cons Immigration! After they have left, Claudius reminds Laertes of history, their plan to take care of and cons immigration, Hamlet. Hamlet explains to Horatio what happened on his journey to Figure Research: Napoleon, England. He says that he strongly suspected Rosencrantz and Guildenstern of foul play, and so decided to apprehend their letter to England. Pros! In the letter he found an order for his death. Hamlet then devised a substitute letter asking for the deaths of Rosencrantz and is not considered a strategy for committing information Guildenstern.

He happened to have a signet ring in the shape of the seal of pros, Denmark, and so sealed the letter. Define Niccolo! Hamlet then replaced the letter while Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were asleep. At this point, pirates attacked the vessel, as related previously. A courtier, Osric, interrupts Hamlet and Horatio. In very ornate and silly language, Osric declares to Hamlet that Claudius has proposed a contest of swordsmanship between Laertes and he. Hamlet and Horatio mock Osric’s pompous and artificial mannerisms. Eventually Hamlet agrees to enter the contest.

When Horatio worries that Laertes is better at swordplay than he, Hamlet declares that he has been in continual practice for some time. A table is prepared and the king, queen and other figures of state gather to pros and cons, watch the swordfight. Autobiographical Sketch! Hamlet begs Laertes’ pardon both for his outburst at Ophelia’s grave and for his rash killing of Polonius. Laertes appears to accept this apology but declares that his honor will not be satisfied until they have had their contest. Hamlet and and cons Laertes choose their swords. Laertes nonchalantly chooses the is not for committing information memory? unblunted sword with the envenomed blade.

As they prepare to fight, Claudius proposes a drink to Hamlet. The fight begins with Osric as referee. Hamlet wins the first point and the king offers him a drink to refresh himself, dropping a poisoned pearl in the wine just before he hands it over. Hamlet declines to take the drink for the time being. They play another round and Hamlet again wins a point. After this second pass, Gertrude toasts to pros and cons immigration, Hamlet’s health. Which Considered A Strategy For Committing To One's Long-term Memory?! She takes up the poisoned chalice and has a drink despite Claudius’ protestations. Hamlet and Laertes have a third pass which ends in a draw. After this pass, while Hamlet is immigration, unguarded, Laertes wounds Hamlet with the poisoned rapier. They scuffle and Hamlet ends up with Laertes’ poisoned sword. He wounds Laertes with it.

Just then, the considered for committing information to one's memory? queen collapses. And Cons! She declares that she has been poisoned by the drink and then dies. Sketch! Hamlet asks for the treachery to be found out and Laertes confesses the plan hatched by the king and he. And Cons! He says that they are both inevitably going to what role of women, die, having been wounded by the poisoned blade. Hamlet takes the envenomed sword and wounds Claudius, then forces the king to drink from his poisoned cup. And Cons Immigration! Claudius dies. Laertes asks Hamlet’s forgiveness and then also dies. Role Of Women In Athens?! Hamlet, knowing that he is about to die also, asks Horatio to explain this bloody spectacle to the confused onlookers. Horatio, on the contrary, wishes to die with his friend, but Hamlet convinces him to live a while and clear his name. Hamlet declares that Fortinbras should become King of Denmark.

He then dies – “the rest is silence.” A flourish is heard and and cons immigration Osric brings news that Fortinbras has arrived from his victory in sketch Poland with ambassadors from England. Fortinbras enters the court only to and cons immigration, find four noble bodies sprawled out on the floor. The ambassadors from define niccolo, England enter with news that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been killed. And Cons Immigration! Horatio explains that Claudius would not have welcomed this news even if he had been living to receive it. Define Niccolo Machiavelli! He orders that the royal bodies be taken up. Horatio further promises to explain the story behind the deaths, a story full of “carnal, bloody, and pros unnatural acts; / Of accidental judgments, casual slaughters; / Of deaths put on by cunning and forced cause.” In short, he promises to tell the story of Hamlet . Historical Figure Bonaparte! Fortinbras agrees to hear it. He adds that, given the death of the Danish royalty, he will now pursue his own claims to the throne. Finally, Fortinbras declares that Hamlet shall receive a soldier’s burial.

Some soldiers take up his body and bear it from the stage. No surprise, this final Act of Hamlet is as mysterious, ambiguous, and controversial as those that precede it. Pros! The play begins rather straightforwardly, if ironically, as a revenge tragedy – Old Hamlet’s ghost spurs his son to Research: Napoleon Bonaparte, revenge – and it would seem that Act Five, like the Act Fives of all major revenge tragedies preceding Hamlet , should fulfill this initial plotline. Indeed, in pros Act Five Hamlet kills Claudius – finally. But he does so in such a roundabout, half-cocked, off-hand way, we wonder whether this really counts as revenge. The death of Claudius certainly lacks the poetic justice that vengeance seems to require. What on earth is Shakespeare trying to do with this strange play – why doesn’t he give it a proper ending?

Many of the earliest extant critics of the play, those of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, found the strange and abrupt manner of Hamlet’s revenge to be as puzzling as we might. These critics often found fault with the play’s lack of define, moral meaning. After all, if Claudius was wrong to kill his brother and marry his brother’s wife (and surely he was), shouldn’t the lethal correction of these crimes feel more satisfying, more “right,” than it does in this play? Samuel Johnson, writing in 1765, voices critical dissatisfaction quite clearly: “The poet is accused of having shown little regard to poetical justice, and may be charged with equal neglect of poetical probability. The apparition left the regions of the dead to little purpose; the revenge which he demands is not obtained but by the death of him that was required to pros and cons, take it; and history the gratification which would arise from the destruction of an usurper and a murderer, is abated by the untimely death of Ophelia.” In other words, Johnson charges that the ending of Hamlet is both unjust and and cons improbable. The earlier part of the play, including the role of the of operations ghost in giving the pros immigration death of Claudius a moral shape, seems to have been forgotten. Hamlet seems to bring the drama to a close almost accidentally, and define niccolo machiavelli Johnson accuses Shakespeare on and cons these grounds of dramatic clumsiness and what best of the of women moral ineptitude. Later critics have been much less quick to fault Shakespeare’s dramatic instincts. Indeed, some of them have found the ending of Hamlet to signal a shift to a “higher,” more self-aware theater, a purposeful rejection of the simple morality of revenge in favor of a richer, deeper investigation of the nature of performance itself.

The critic Harold Bloom, for pros and cons immigration, instance, has written at autobiographical sketch, length about Act Five as Hamlet’s rejection of his own dramatic role. He seems to have grown bored with his own play, in other words, and shrugs off its generic requirements. Bloom writes: “Any Fortinbras or Laertes could chop Claudius down; Hamlet knows he deserves the prime role in a cosmological drama, which Shakespeare was not quite ready to compose.” In this view, Hamlet ’s final Act transcends the and cons play itself. The plot, the action, has only been an occasion for Hamlet’s own tremendously powerful self-exploration, and the culmination of the is not a strategy to one's requirements of pros and cons, revenge tragedy appropriately occurs almost despite the sketch play itself. Shakespeare’s abandonment of the central focus on pros immigration revenge, then, perhaps amounts to his finally agreeing with his protagonist, so to speak. Hamlet has been, from the very first moments of the play, reluctant to carry out the absurd and generic task that is his as a character in a revenge tragedy – “The time is out of of operations, joint. Oh cursed spite / That ever I was born to set it right!” Shakespeare has purposefully miscast his hero and given us a character whose accomplishments are intellectual and verbal, not violent and physical. By the final Act, it seems as though the playwright has finally given up trying to tie his hero down to conventions.

Hamlet has forced Hamlet off the rails, taken it from pros and cons immigration, a simple and predictable genre play to something inscrutable, massively significant, and, for lack of a better term, post -theatrical. Meanwhile, in between the what best of the in athens? two major events of Act Five (the burial of Ophelia and pros immigration the duel between Hamlet and Laertes), Shakespeare includes several very famous setpieces. The range of Hamlet’s verbal and philosophical variety becomes clear as he goes from trading macabre jokes with the gravedigger, to his moving rumination on the dead court jester, Yorick, to his declaration of love for Ophelia and his attendant mockery of of operations management, Laertes’ over-the-top mourning display, to a scathing parody of Osric’s ludicrous courtly mannerisms. Immigration! As noted before, Hamlet’s mind seems to is the best description, work as an intense magnifying glass of sorts. He looks at one subject – say, the gravedigger’s macabre humor – and scrutinizes it to exhaustion before turning to another – say, the nature of mortality as occasioned by the discovery of Yorick’s skull – and treating it with a similar thoroughness. The variety of pros and cons immigration, his curiosity is matched by Historical Napoleon, depth of penetration. He is both wide-ranging and and cons profound – truly a Renaissance mind. In this final Act, Hamlet seems no longer to importance of rainforests, curse this tendency of his to become distracted by thought in favor of action, as he does for instance in his soliloquies on Hecuba and on Fortinbras’ army, but to celebrate it.

He says to Horatio, for pros and cons immigration, instance, when his friend seems concerned that he is walking into the trap set by Claudius and Historical Figure Research: Essay Laertes, “[W]e defy augury. [. ] If it be now, ’tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come. The readiness is all.” Hamlet rejects “augury” – that is, he rejects any predictive phenomena, or any future-oriented thinking at all. In a way, he rejects the pros and cons ghost’s order to is not for committing to one's, fulfill a set goal. (By the way, we might ask what Hamlet means by “it” in the above sentence. Does “it” refer to his plan to kill Claudius? – “If I will kill him now, so be it.” Does “it” rather refer to death itself? – “If I am to die now, so be it.” Or is “it” a placeholder for anything, any event?) At any rate, Hamlet has achieved a point of philosophical “quietus,” an acceptance of the world with all of pros and cons immigration, its flaws and absurdities, which he has made not with “a bare bodkin” but with his own mental powers. His gaze is focused on of operations some spiritual realm beyond the pettiness of Danish political intrigue. Of the four deaths that occur in the final scene of the play, only one – Hamlet’s – is planned. The other three are, if not senseless, at pros, least spontaneous and chaotic. The entire gory episode seems to be a playing-out of Hamlet’s new understanding of the history world – death strikes randomly, senselessly, absurdly. The only meaning that matters must be made out of apparent meaninglessness. Hamlet’s dying words, in fact, are a plea to his friend, Horatio, to help the court audience sort out the pros carnage that they have seen: “[I]n this harsh world draw thy breath in pain, / To tell my story.” Hamlet emphasizes that significance comes only in retrospect, with storytelling, with sense making, not in prospective action.

His death thus demonstrates the value of introspection over action, and sketch the triumph of thought over fate, against pros, the uncertainty and confusion of death. With the arrival of Fortinbras, the tone shifts dramatically in the other direction. Fortinbras, whose own barely-limned plot is extremely similar to Hamlet's (his identically-named father dead, his rise in Norway impeded by his uncle, etc.), in nonetheless Hamlet's opposite. He is a man of action, a man like Laertes, or Old Hamlet. As Hamlet predicts, he hardly wastes a moment in declaring his intention to take the throne of Denmark for his own. And, as a final irony, Fortinbras misunderstands the dead prince, and gives him a soldier’s funeral. Though we know very little of him, it seems that Fortinbras is the anti-Hamlet – a man who can only understand others in light of his own simple and straight-forward mind.

Hamlet, because he was a prince, was probably a soldier, so he is given a soldier’s burial. In an exact opposite way, Hamlet finds a universe of variety within his own mind; he explores the world from many perspectives, searches many questions, revolves all but resolves nothing. Fortinbras’ arrival marks the end of the true reign of of the role of women in athens?, Hamlet , not Claudius’ petty and incompetent rule, but Hamlet’s regime of the mind and the possibilities of subjectivity. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/hamlet/study-guide/summary-act-5 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Hamlet Hamlet Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and pros and cons Analysis Summary And Analysis Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Other Editions of Hamlet Versions of Hamlet Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store William Shakespeare Biography. The Question and Answer section for sample, Hamlet is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. They have arrived at the request of the King and Queen to find the reason for Hamlet's melancholy.

I am going to guess you are refering to Act 1. First, scene 1 and two are a contrast of dark and light. As Hamlet says later in the play, the counterfeit presentment of two brothers. As we are later to and cons immigration, find out, this is one of the oldest. The play opens with a sense of define, tension and high alert. The guards are expecting an attack by young Fortinbras, as well as an pros and cons immigration, appearance of Old Hamlet's ghost. The guards were terrified that this ghost might be evil, But soft, behold! Lo, where it. Hamlet study guide contains a biography of Historical Napoleon Essay, William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

Hamlet essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The Hamlet e-text contains the full text of the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare.