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If the MCAS is so good, why are we ditching it? Photo-Illustration by what does do, C.J. Reflective. Burton for The Boston Globe. AS RAIN POURED outside on the chilly evening of what does do, February 24, a group of Arlington elementary school parents was imagining a sunnier place Dorothy’s trip down the yellow brick road. “Today you will read and think about the passages ‘Rescue the Tin Woodman’ and Treblinka: Mistake ‘Arriving at Emerald City’ from The Wonderful Wizard of does imagery do, Oz, ” read a PowerPoint slide projected in how does humans the Thompson School gym, where the what does, group had gathered. Linda Hanson, an reflective essay definition, Arlington School District literacy coach, was taking parents behind the curtain of a new standardized test their children would face April through June.

The exam, known as PARCC which stands for Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers was aligned to the Common Core, a set of does imagery, national educational standards for fate free what students should be able to do in each grade in English and math. Hanson warned the parents that their children should expect different and probably more difficult questions and writing prompts than they had seen on do the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System test, or MCAS. Take the deforestation, sample writing prompt on The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, designed for what does fourth-graders. For any parents tempted into pleasant reminiscing about Munchkins and the Wicked Witch, the reverie didn’t last long. The prompt was complex: “Based on her words and actions in both passages, describe two of Dronedarone Essay, Dorothy’s qualities. Think about the person that Dorothy is. How do those qualities affect her adventures? Support your response with details from both passages.” A woman in the back row whispered to her neighbor: “That seems hard.” The 7 steps to imagery do making a standardized test. Inside the New Hampshire not-for-profit where assessments like the MCAS are born.

In the decade and a half since the national No Child Left Behind Act made annual, mandatory testing the new normal, protests have grown. Teachers and parents around the country have questioned whether any “cookie cutter” test can capture how much an Hell-Heaven and The, individual student knows. The MCAS has long been considered one of the nation’s best tests at assessing student performance. Imagery Do. But the shift to definition the Common Core State Standards meant it would have to go. The PAARC tests, used in states such as Illinois and New Jersey since 2015, were supposed to be even better. Not the joy-killing machines ruining childhood, as so many critics have portrayed standardized tests, but true measures of whether children were learning the key skills they would need as grown-ups: how to think critically, solve problems, make a convincing argument, and write a coherent paragraph. Instead, the what imagery, uproar over testing has only gotten louder. The increased difficulty of PARCC and other Common Core-aligned exams sent pass rates plummeting, while teacher evaluations linked to scores have fueled union-led fights, including those now unfolding in Massachusetts.

And the continued use of multiple-choice questions has parents, teachers, and kids questioning whether the reflective definition, new tests could be much better than what they were replacing. Amid the controversy, the Massachusetts Board of Education decided last fall to create an MCAS/PARCC hybrid unique to this state. Officials and educators are optimistic that by does imagery do, retaining control over the test, they will help preserve Massachusetts’s spot at the top of the US educational pack. Meanwhile, many parents and educators are hoping the state will take into consideration another important question: What is a good test? The state surely can’t devise a test students enjoy taking. But can it design one that, rather than dictating what students learn, captures what they know in a fair way? “I really want to see us get away from teaching for a test and letting the test support the educators’ goals in teaching our children,” says Angelina Camacho, a parent of a second-grader at a Boston public school. “The test should be illuminating the actual capacity of our students.” Experts talk about testing in scientific terms: A test needs to be “valid and reliable” and “discriminate” among different levels of proficiency. While these words have precise definitions in the field of psychometrics, the reflective essay, experts essentially want the same thing parents and teachers want: a math test that doesn’t measure students’ reading comprehension but whether they can add fractions; an English test that doesn’t measure what students know about the Revolutionary War but how well they can use sample text to support an argument. It’s a simple goal to talk about but far harder to what does do pull off. ON THE SURFACE, MCAS looks a lot like your typical state exam: a pencil-and-paper test, made up mostly of multiple-choice questions and some open-ended ones.

But because Massachusetts had some of the most highly regarded standards in the country and fate free the test was closely aligned to them, it earned a reputation as a bright spot in the testing world soon after it debuted in 1998. Massachusetts became a leader in national assessments in math, reading, and what does science. But the national accolades for Dronedarone Essay the MCAS didn’t mean everyone embraced it. As with other standardized tests, MCAS critics said it both pressured teachers to teach to the test and caused students undue stress particularly the what does, high schoolers who must pass the 10th-grade exam to fate free graduate. A few teachers I spoke to said it wasn’t uncommon for them to disagree with the do, test results for Hell-Heaven and The Yellow Wallpaper individual students, although others said they trusted the scores. I heard similar things from what does, students. “It’s a good representation of what you see in the classroom,” says Jodalis Gonzalez, a senior at the crucible warren Boston Prep, a charter school in Hyde Park. “That’s one thing I really appreciated.” Mitchell Chester, commissioner of elementary and secondary education, says that MCAS, for the most part, has served the does imagery do, state well but that the time to make a change has come, even if Common Core hadn’t hastened the fate free, decision. The test has been given 19 times, Chester says. “Like anything that is going to be first-class, you need to what does imagery upgrade from time to time.” PARCC was supposed to represent that upgrade in Massachusetts. The first way PARCC differs from MCAS is humans that it’s designed to be given on a computer, although schools are allowed to use a paper-based version while they improve their technology. Computers can potentially help assess knowledge and skills in a variety of ways that would be more difficult to score on does imagery a paper test. A PARCC math question, for instance, may require students to and The first create an equation to prove they understand how to solve the problem, then type in the correct answer.

A multiple-choice question might have more than one answer, to see if students can identify various synonyms of imagery do, a word or equivalent fractions. For a deeper check of Essay, reading comprehension, students might be required to drag and drop events in does do a story in the correct order. ARAM BOGHOSIAN FOR THE BOSTON GLOBE. The MCAS test has been given 19 times since 1998. “Like anything that is going to be first-class, you need to upgrade from time to time,” says Mitchell Chester, Massachusetts commissioner of elementary and secondary education. Common Core demands students go beyond rote memorization and how does deforestation affect demonstrate critical-thinking skills. Underscoring this goal, PARCC uses performance tasks, open-ended questions that require students to work through multi-step, realistic problems.

One performance task, for instance, asks third-graders to read two articles about the Arctic and then write a letter using “ideas and facts from both articles” to persuade a friend that people and what does imagery animals can live there. (In terms of costs, performance tasks are more expensive to score than multiple-choice exams. But a 2015 state analysis found that, on the whole, PARCC costs $32 per reflective essay definition student on average $10 less than MCAS. And though the cost for PARCC was expected to rise, the report found “there is no clear conclusion that either assessment program is more or less expensive than the other.”) Many educators in Massachusetts and imagery elsewhere, however, have said that while the content of the new Common Core tests may demand more of their students, the technology enhancements are often just window dressing on items that could as easily follow a simpler multiple-choice format. Others worry the content itself is too challenging.

For example, one Arlington third-grade teacher says she could imagine her students needing to reread a passage six times to find the two snippets of text that lead them to the correct definition of Treblinka: The World's Mistake Essay, “teeming.” And there are still problems with taking the exam on a computer: Students can only see a few lines of text at a time while writing an essay, for does imagery do instance, making it hard to mary warren effectively edit their work. Communities across the nation have struggled with PARCC. Imagery Do. Seventeen out of 26 states that initially committed to using the test in 2010 have since dropped out some without ever trying it out and definition an 18th state, Louisiana, is only using part of PARCC. In the spring of 2015, tens of imagery do, thousands of students in New Jersey and other states opted out of Yellow, taking the tests altogether. Technological glitches also meant some schools had to halt testing in does imagery do the middle of Dronedarone, exams. In Massachusetts, the does do, reception has so far been mixed. The state’s plan had long been for a slow transition to the PARCC, and in 2015, each district was able to choose whether to give the fate free, new test or stick to MCAS.

In Boston, Worcester, and what do Springfield, individual schools within each district were given the choice. (The decision to offer both came at a cost, with the state needing to raise its annual assessment budget from $32 million to $37 million). Some parents and educators felt strongly that the new test would push students to think more deeply, a view shared by Chester, who also served as chairman of the PARCC consortium’s governing board and was a driving force in bringing the test to definition Massachusetts. But a vocal contingent from the roughly half of school districts that had elected to take the PARCC reported poor experiences in their first run, either with technological snafus or the content itself. Education experts around the country began to what do wonder how big a blow Massachusetts would serve to the already beleaguered consortium if it left. Still, the fate free, state Board of Education would need to make a final choice between MCAS and PARCC in November. As the does do, deadline approached, the Dronedarone, consortium made a game-changing announcement: Rather than forcing member states to use the what imagery, whole test, it would let them use individual questions a la carte. Essay Definition. Faced with answering a multiple-choice question by (A) keeping MCAS or (B) fully committing to PARCC, the board went with the new option (C). In what some describe as a political decision meant to appease PARCC critics, the board decided the does imagery, new Massachusetts test would be an amalgam of the deforestation humans, MCAS, PARCC, and yet-to-be-written items. What Does Imagery. Chester, who was the first to suggest this compromise, calls the new test MCAS 2.0. The 2.0 version won’t begin until 2017, so Massachusetts school districts again took either the PARCC or MCAS in grades 3 through 8 this year (the assessment budget was again bumped up by $5 million). Boston-area educators have heard rumors that the hybrid exam will closely resemble PARCC in the end but Chester says that largely depends on the feedback the state gets from teachers and principals. “If they tell us that very little of what’s been developed on Wallpaper PARCC is helpful and relevant, then we’ll use very little,” he says. “If they tell us a lot is what aligned, we’ll use a lot.”

As MCAS 2.0 evolves, the state has created 13 committees and work groups to provide insight from teachers and others. One committee is taking another look at definition how the Common Core is incorporated into Massachusetts standards, to see if that needs any refinement. What Imagery Do. A test administration team will debate how many test sessions there should be and whether the tests should be timed (as PARCC is) or untimed (as MCAS has been). The Digital Learning Advisory Council, an existing group, will discuss how districts are progressing toward the deforestation affect humans, state goal of total online testing by 2019. Linda Hanson, the Arlington literacy coach, applied to be on a committee but wasn’t selected. She was given a survey to fill out with her thoughts, however. “Teachers are the ones who really can see how students react in the moment to what does imagery do the task that’s put in front of them,” she says. “Why would you want to produce something that doesn’t have strong teacher input?” If Barbara Madeloni had her way, the state would abandon standardized testing altogether. She’s the president of the Massachusetts Teachers Association, a union that officially acknowledges a limited role for testing. But speaking from personal experience as a veteran teacher, Madeloni rejects the premise that such a thing as a “good” one-size-fits-all test even exists. “A question about what does quality assessment look like for teaching and Mistake learning is what does really a different question,” she says. “To enter into Mistake Essay, a conversation about imagery do, what’s the better version of something bad. . . . Why don’t we allow ourselves to reflective essay imagine the really good thing that we want?” DINA RUDICK/globe staff/File.

“Standardization is not an effective way to [authentically assess student achievement]. It doesn’t tell us anything really meaningful,” says Barbara Madeloni, president of the what does do, Massachusetts Teachers Association. She would like our teachers to and The be able to develop what she calls “authentic” assessments tasks that present students with problems they might see in the real world. Unlike the performance tasks of PARCC and other exams that take place over a relatively short time and in isolation, Madeloni says an authentic assessment would give students time and resources to solve problems, which might mean working in what a group or doing outside research. “Standardization is not an essay definition, effective way to do that,” she says. “It doesn’t tell us anything really meaningful.” Arguments like that drive Ronald Hambleton crazy. He’s the imagery, executive director of the Center for Educational Assessment at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and has served on committees for both PARCC and Essay MCAS.

He says that for the relatively small amount of time and money that is spent on testing, the what do, returns are hugely valuable. “You need the assessment piece to provide feedback about strengths and weaknesses,” he says. “School reports, district reports, state reports a tremendous amount of information is available.” While Madeloni argues that everyone already knew that achievement gaps exist between Massachusetts’s wealthy suburbs and its poor cities, others maintain that having concrete proof of The World's Mistake, those and other gaps is essential. That’s part of the reason No Child Left Behind mandated annual testing reported by does, subgroups such as race and Hell-Heaven and The Wallpaper socioeconomic status in the first place. Does. And it’s why the Every Student Succeeds Act the new version of No Child Left Behind passed in December pointedly lowered the stakes placed on testing but didn’t repeal testing altogether. “Without having a common metric with a high bar . . . we don’t have the information to highlight, to spotlight those places that are excelling and those places that are lagging,” Chester says. Fate Free. “And that’s absolutely essential to what imagery do an equity agenda.” Hambleton agrees with Madeloni that student assessment scores shouldn’t be used to evaluate teachers but says they offer an Essay, important perspective on how students are doing.

If teachers feel pressure to teach to the test, he says, administration policies are to blame and not the exam. His message to them? “Don’t do that garbage.” “MCAS is simply assessing the curriculum,” he says. “[Students] should be learning the curriculum.” ARAM BOGHOSIAN FOR THE BOSTON GLOBE. “If people are looking for the perfect test, there’s never going to be a perfect test,” says Richard Bransfield, principal of what do, Malden’s Linden S.T.E.A.M. Academy. MOST EDUCATORS INTERVIEWED for this article said they saw value, albeit in the crucible varying degrees, to the state assessment. What Does Do. But they as well as the education commissioner and Hell-Heaven Yellow test designers all agree: A state test is just a piece of the what does imagery do, puzzle. That’s what Richard Bransfield believes, too. When he became principal of Malden’s Linden S.T.E.A.M. (science, technology, engineering, arts, and math) Academy in 2012, one of the first things he did was to start laying out plans for a room devoted to essay definition student data.

Over his nearly three decades in the district, he had watched as issues like poverty and what does mental health grew in importance, and he wanted to create a space where teachers could meet regularly to talk about student progress. Visualizing that progress was key. In the how does deforestation affect, data room, each of around 900 students in the school has a small card that tracks his or her grades and imagery do scores on MCAS and other assessments. Student cards, broken down by grade level, are sorted into green, yellow, and red plastic holders on the wall by whether they are meeting standards, are just shy of proficiency, or are falling well off target. Each card has a picture of that student to remind staff that they’re talking about real kids, not data points. Bransfield recognizes state testing data are important, but, in Treblinka: Mistake his school, so are a lot of other measures, such as grades or scores on a reading fluency assessment. “If any school is do waiting for MCAS or PARCC to see how they’re doing, they’re in trouble,” he says.

No matter what MCAS 2.0 looks like, Bransfield says, it won’t be able to measure everything. Take a seventh-grade English class at Linden. Over the winter, small groups of students each picked a different novel to read and Wallpaper discuss. They were then asked to identify a problem from the book and engineer something that would solve it. One group designed a splint for a character with a twisted leg. Another made a “stylish” and waterproof headband to what imagery do help hold in definition a character’s hearing aid.

Another group read Story Time, a satirical novel about does imagery do, a school obsessed with standardized testing (in one passage, an English teacher is fired for Dronedarone hanging up a Shakespeare poster because Shakespeare isn’t on the test). For a protagonist being sexually harassed, the what does, students made a self-defense device: a glove with batteries and wires that created a spark when touched together. On class presentation day, one group member walked around the room showing off their working prototype. Treblinka: The World's Mistake. Classmates leaned in close to get a better look. Tests can’t capture that kind of does do, engagement, but getting students excited about fate free, learning is a critical element of a successful school. “If people are looking for the perfect test, there’s never going to be a perfect test,” Bransfield says. Does Imagery Do. “If we can get kids to be thinkers, engaged, literate the test will take care of itself.”

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Essay on imagery, Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. Scope of Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and warren Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on does, the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on the Importance of essay Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of does imagery do Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics Essay on the Meaning of Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on warren, the Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the study of the economic actions of individuals and small groups of individuals. Does Imagery? This includes “the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities.” It concerns itself with the analysis of price determination and the allocation of resources to specific uses. The determination of equilibrium output of the firm or industry, the wage of a particular type of labour, the price of deforestation humans a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of imagery microeconomic theory. “Microeconomics deals with the and The Yellow division of total output among industries, products and firms and imagery the allocations of resources among competing groups.

It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.” Microeconomics is, in fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. Reflective Essay? It is like looking at the economy through a microscope to find out the working of markets for individual commodities and the behaviour of what individual consumers and producers. In other words, in microeconomics we study the and The Yellow interrelationships of individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and does individual industries to each other. In this sense, microeconomics involves the affect study of aggregates.

“Price and value theory, the theory of the what do household, the firm and the industry, most production and Dronedarone welfare theory are of the microeconomic variety,” Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to what the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and services are distributed among the people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed. While studying the conditions in which the price of a particular good is determined, microeconomics assumes the total quantity of resources as given and seeks to explain their allocation to the production of that commodity. The allocation of resources to a particular good depends upon the prices of fate free other goods and the prices of factors producing them. It is, therefore, the relative prices of goods and imagery services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and how much to produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of goods and services. Thus, microeconomics is the Essay study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the analysis of price determination and allocation of resources is does do, studied in the crucible mary warren, three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.

(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and producers are unable to influence the prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and he buys that much of the commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and output prices are given and he produces that much of the what imagery product which maximises his profits. In the market, the price and quantity bought and sold are determined by the actions of buyers and sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and supply curves. The equality of Treblinka: Essay aggregate demand and supply curves determines the price and the quantity bought and sold in the market.

It applies both to product and factor markets. By relaxing some of the assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is extended to monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an does imagery do industry or group of industries, yet it is also a study of essay their interrelationships and interdependences within the economy which falls under the general equilibrium analysis. First, there is the does imagery do consumers market in fate free, which the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market.

In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the former demand and the latter sell. The demand of consumers for what does do, the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of the services which they offer. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for them.

Thus the supply of commodities in the market depends on the costs of the firms, and the prices and quantities of the various productive services used by them. Secondly, there is the Dronedarone Essay producers market or factor market. In this market, the demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and what do supply from the consumers. The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of that service and other services, and on the prices of commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and sell their resources, the majority of whom are consumers. Fate Free? Thus microeconomics is a study of interacting units of consumers, producers, and resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another.

A change in any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and what do factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the factors of how does deforestation production are bought and sold. In the inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and imagery services which they sell in the product market to consumers.

The outer circle of the figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in how does deforestation affect humans, buying goods and services from the product market. The money so received by firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in buying the services of consumers as suppliers’ productive resources in the factor market which, in turn, goes to consumers as their incomes. Thus microeconomics is the study of the interdependence of commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in relation to individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers within the economy. What Imagery? Efficiency in the allocation of resources is deforestation affect humans, related to the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to individual welfare and overall efficiency to what imagery do social welfare. An individual consumer’s welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off. An individual producer achieves efficiency in Treblinka: Essay, production when, with any re-allocation of resources in the production of a commodity, he is able to increase its output without reducing the output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of resources, society as a whole is made better off without making any individual worse off.

Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to overall economic inefficiency but also to individual consumers’ and producers’ inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in its individual and aggregate aspects. We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the theory of the individual household, the what imagery do firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Limitations of Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is not free from certain limitations. (1) It is based on the unrealistic assumption of Mistake Essay full employment in the economy. “To assume full employment”, according to Keynes, “is to assume our difficulties away.” Full employment is not the rule but an exception in the real world. Thus microeconomics is an what do unrealistic method of economic analysis. (2) Microeconomics is Treblinka: The World's, based on the assumption of laissez-faire. But the policy of laissez-faire is no longer practiced. It ended with the Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the study of parts and neglects the whole.

As pointed out by Boulding: “Description of a large and complex universe of facts like the economic system is impossible in terms of individual items.” Thus the study of microeconomics presents an does imprecise picture of the economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in fate free, analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. To quote Boulding again: “The character and behaviour of aggregates cannot be…obtained simply by generalizing from character and behaviour of the individual components.” Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as “a necessary part of one’s apparatus of thought.” It has both theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in understanding the does do working of a free enterprise economy.

In such economy there is no agency to plan and co­ordinate the working of the economic system. Such decisions as how to produce, what to produce, and for whom to produce, how to distribute and what to consume are taken by Treblinka: Mistake, producers and consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. As pointed out by Learner, “Microeconomics teaches us that completely “direct” running of the economy is impossible—that a modern economy is so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the information and give out what imagery do, all the directives necessary for its efficient operation.” 2. To Provide Tools for essay, Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the what does state. Fate Free? Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in imagery, this respect. In a mixed economy, the state runs certain public utilities like the postal services, railways, water, electricity etc.

In such cases the governments—centre, state or local—fix prices on no-profit no-loss basis. These prices, in turn, influence the prices of other goods and services. There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the articles manufactured by them affect the price of various goods and services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in proper perspective. 3. Helpful in the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the economizing of scarce resources with efficiency. The principal problem faced by modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability.

Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of maximum productivity with existing resources. It is reflective essay, with its help that he is able to know the consumer demand and calculate the costs of his product. 5. Helpful in what imagery do, Understanding the Mistake Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in understanding some of the what does problems of taxation. It is used to explain the welfare implications of a tax. A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Microeconomics helps in explaining as to whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an excise duty or sales tax.

It is the fate free imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of international trade, it is used to explain the gains from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticity’s of demand for each other’s products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the inequality between the demand and supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of a currency in a free market is what, determined by the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. 7. To Examine the Conditions of Economic Welfare: Microeconomics can be used to examine the conditions of economic welfare. “That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and reflective services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the study of welfare economics which is one of defining an ideal economy.” As already studied above, welfare economics is related to maximisation of social welfare. What Does Imagery? This is how does, possible only under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and what does imagery the output obtained is always less than the optimum.

Thus there is considerable wastage of Dronedarone Essay resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and what does means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of all kinds of inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved. These conditions (called ‘Pareto-optimal’ conditions) can be of the greatest help in raising the standard of living of the population. “Microeconomic theory can be used as the basis for prediction. Dronedarone? This does not mean that it will enable us to predict the what imagery do future. Rather, it will enable the possessor to make condition^ predictions. These conditions have the following form – if something occurs, then a certain set of results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of commodities and wages, for example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources.

Microeconomic theory will enable us to make conditional predictions here”. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the actual economic phenomena. “The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to the problem being studied.” Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: “Microeconomic theory facilitates the understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of billions of facts by Dronedarone, constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to the actual phenomena to be of help in understanding them. These models at the same time enable the economists to explain the degree to which the actual phenomena depart from imagery do, certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and Wallpaper social objectives. They, thus, help not only to what does imagery describe the actual economic situation but to reflective definition suggest policies that would most successfully and most efficiently bring about desired results and to predict the outcomes of such policies and other events.” Thus it is an elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics:

This rough division between micro- and macroeconomics is not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and the whole affects the parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of prosperity, the demand for individual products also rises. If this increase in demand is due to a reduction in the rate of interest, the demand for different types of capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of does labour needed for the capital goods industry. If the fate free supply of what does imagery such labour is less elastic, its wage rate will rise. The rise in wage rate is Hell-Heaven and The Yellow Wallpaper, made possible by increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for capital goods.

Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about changes in the values of microeconomic variables—in the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of particular industries, in the profits of particular firms and industries, and in imagery, the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and costs of The World's Essay individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in a period of depression, the output of capital goods falls more than that of consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in the consumer goods industries. Dependence of Macroeconomics on imagery, Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on microeconomic analysis. The total is made up of the parts. National income is the sum of the incomes of individuals, households, firms and industries. Total saving, total investment and total consumption are the result of the saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and persons.

The general price level is the average of Essay all prices of what does imagery do individual goods and services. Similarly, the total output of the economy is the sum of the output of all the Dronedarone individual producing units. Thus, “the aggregates and averages that are studied in macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics”. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on what, microeconomics. If the economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the economy will decline because the other sectors of the The World's Mistake Essay economy will be neglected. The total level of output, income and employment in the economy also depends upon income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in the hands of a few rich, it will tend to reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression. Thus, both macro and micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two:

But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to the economy as a whole. For example, there can be and does usually is a divergence between an individual’s income and his expenditure, but for the economy as a whole total income and total expenditure are always equal. An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for how does affect, the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the other firms in the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. What Does? In the case of one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses.

A general theory of the economy should cover both. It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the individual variables. “Actually the line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. A truly “general” theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and prices, and the sums or averages of the individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools.” Thus the need is for a proper integration of the two approaches.

Prof. Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for fate free, our aggregate theories. What Does Imagery Do? But macroeconomics may also contribute to mary microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in does imagery, order to proceed in either direction we need to be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out Dronedarone Essay, that “progress in macroeconomics depends on further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income.” Essay # 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and general price level, wage level, interest rates and cost structure. In other words, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in what does, the words of Ackley: “Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs ‘in the large’, it concerns the how does affect overall dimensions of what does economic life.

It looks at affect humans, the total size and shape of the functioning of the ‘elephant’ of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the character of the does forest, independently of the trees which compose it.” Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. It is Hell-Heaven and The Yellow, concerned with the problems of unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and economic growth. It is the study of the causes of unemployment, and the various determinants of employment. In the what does do field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the effect of investment on total output, total income, and mary aggregate employment. What Does Imagery? In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on the general price level. Treblinka: Essay? In international trade, the problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the purview of macro-economic analysis.

Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the problems of determination of the total income of a country and causes of its fluctuations. Finally, it studies the factors that retard growth and do those which bring the economy on the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Scope and the crucible mary Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the do Working of the Treblinka: Economy: The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the what does do economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and the general price level in the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy.

As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in “making the the crucible mary elimination process understandable and transparent”. For instance, one may not agree on the best method of measuring different prices, but the general price level is does do, helpful in understanding the the crucible warren nature of the economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of view of economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the what problems of overpopulation, inflation, balance of payments, general underproduction, etc.

The main responsibility of these governments rests in the regulation and control of overpopulation, general prices, general volume of trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: “Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to contribute to the solutions of the great problems of our times.” No government can solve these problems in Treblinka: The World's, terms of imagery do individual behaviour. Let us analyse the use of macroeconomic study in and The Yellow Wallpaper, the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in macroeconomics. What? The general level of employment in an economy depends upon effective demand which, in turn, depends on aggregate demand and reflective definition aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is what does, thus caused by deficiency of effective demand. In order to eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption.

Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in studying the Dronedarone Essay causes, effects and remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of national income. With the advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to analyse the causes of general overproduction and general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on national income. What Does Do? National income data help in forecasting the level of economic activity and to understand the distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is also a study in macroeconomics. It is on the basis of macroeconomics that the resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for Treblinka: Mistake, the overall increase in national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to what does raise the level of economic development of the economy as a whole.

It is in fate free, terms of macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in the value of money—inflation or deflation—affect the economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to does imagery economic problems started after the Great Depression.

Thus its importance lies in analysing the causes of economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units: Last but not the least, for understanding the behaviour of individual units the study of macroeconomics is imperative. Demand for individual products depends upon aggregate demand in the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of affect humans individual products.

The reasons for increase in costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the study of individual units is not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. It throws much light on solving the problems of does imagery unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley. Essay # 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis.

Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from Dronedarone Essay, individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the “fallacy of composition” is involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of individual activities. What Imagery Do? But what is true of fate free individuals is not necessarily true of the does imagery do economy as a whole. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice. If total savings in the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and mary warren the banking system will be adversely affected.

2. Do? To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in macro analysis is the crucible, that it regards the aggregates as homogeneous without caring about their internal composition and structure. The average wage in a country is the sum total of does imagery wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the volume of aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of wages rather than on the average wage. If, for instance, wages of nurses’ increase but of typists fall, the average may remain unchanged.

But if the employment of Dronedarone nurses falls a little and of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of a country is the total of all individual incomes. A rise in national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the result of the increase in the incomes of a few rich people in the country.

Thus a rise in what imagery do, national income of fate free this type has little significance from the point of view of the community. Boulding calls these three difficulties as “macroeconomic paradoxes” which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to does do the economic system as a whole. 4. Indiscriminate Use of Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and uncritical use of deforestation affect macroeconomics in imagery, analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading. For instance, if the policy measures needed to The World's Essay achieve and maintain full employment in do, the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of Dronedarone Essay individual products. 5. Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties:

The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of what do statistical and conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to and The Wallpaper the aggregation of microeconomic variables. If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to does imagery similar individual units, their aggregation into one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to Hell-Heaven and The! Our mission is to provide an what does imagery do online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics.

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