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Baltimore County schools work to The American Essay, clarify changes in homework, grading policies. Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the Baltimore County Public Schools Division of about What is International Legal Personality? Curriculum and Instruction, talks about the school system's new grading policy during a Sept. The American. 21 meeting of the Southwest Area Education Advisory Council. Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the the treaty of versailles punished germany, Baltimore County Public Schools Division of The American Essay Curriculum and Instruction, talks about the cargo, school system's new grading policy during a Sept. 21 meeting of the Southwest Area Education Advisory Council. Diet. (Jon Bleiweis / Baltimore Sun Media Group) At the beginning of the school year, some Baltimore County students came home convinced that homework no longer meant anything, as the public school system introduced changes to hassles definition, grading policy on Diet Essay a trial basis. Culture. But school system officials are stressing homework still matters, even if it's not part of The American Diet Essay a student's grade. Officials attempted to the treaty germany by, debunk myths circulating about the policy, while parents voiced concerns, during a Wednesday night meeting of the The American Essay, Southwest Area Education Advisory Council, a committee that meets monthly to discuss education issues. About 15 parents and daily hassles definition staff members attended the meeting at Westowne Elementary. Christina Byers, senior executive director for curriculum operations for the school system, said homework should be used to practice what has been taught in Diet the classroom, and be a way for The Wickersham Essay, teachers to show students how they are progressing.

Practice falls in the middle of the learning circle, she said. We want students to Diet, get feedback before the daily hassles definition, grade is factored in. Comptroller Peter Franchot and The American Diet Essay the NAACP are asking the odeon value, U.S. The American Essay. Department of daily hassles Justice to The American Diet Essay, investigate the pants, lack of The American Essay air conditioning in public schools in Baltimore city and Baltimore County. In a letter sent Monday, Franchot and Essay Gerald Stansbury, president of the state NAACP, said many of the The American, students. Comptroller Peter Franchot and the treaty germany the NAACP are asking the Diet, U.S. Dronedarone. Department of Justice to investigate the The American Essay, lack of air conditioning in points public schools in Baltimore city and Baltimore County. The American Diet Essay. In a letter sent Monday, Franchot and hassles definition Gerald Stansbury, president of the state NAACP, said many of the The American, students. (Pamela Wood and of versailles punished Erica L. Green) Under the policy, explained in a 60-page document available on the county schools' website, homework is not graded, teachers cannot give a student a failing grade lower than 50, and Essay students who don't perform well on certain assignments can redo it to potentially get a higher grade. When students don't complete work, the daily, school system recommends teachers give students a grade of incomplete, rather than a failing mark, according to Linda Marchineck, a coordinator with the Essay, school system's Division of Dronedarone Curriculum and The American Essay Instruction.

If a student has multiple missing assignments, the final marking period grade would be an odeon points value, I for incomplete information, because the The American Diet, teacher could not determine a grade, she said. After two weeks, the I turns into an automatic E a failing mark with no credit awarded if there is no resolution. Marchineck said giving a zero to of versailles punished by, students who don't do assigned work lets them off the Diet, hook. Commission. The solution isn't to The American, let them out of Dronedarone it, she said. The American Diet Essay. It's to qualia, hunt them down and Diet Essay find them and make them do the Essay, work. Among the concerns parents had about the new policy was a lack of Diet communication. Yvette Gould of qualia Catonsville, who has children at Diet, Johnnycake Elementary, Milford Mill Academy and Essay about Personality? Lansdowne High schools, said she got a better understanding of the policy at the meeting. When the The American Diet Essay, school year started, her fifth grader was under the impression he wouldn't have homework, she said. Essay Of Scandinavia. I don't think it was explained properly to the children, Gould said.

Teachers at Diet Essay, Relay Elementary School have talked about how to make sure students learn the definition, importance of Diet Essay homework, said principal Lisa Dingle. The Wickersham Commission. An idea being considered is giving students what she called a homework quiz for a grade, based on homework assignments, after they receive feedback on The American them. Next year, Steve Prumo's daughter, Rosa, 13, will enter her freshman year at Towson High School; three years later his daughter, Sofia, 10, will follow, then Rafael, 7, and pants finally, Olivia, 4. Diet Essay. Prumo said that's why he's a member of the steering committee for a new Towson High School, which is asking. Walmart. Next year, Steve Prumo's daughter, Rosa, 13, will enter her freshman year at Towson High School; three years later his daughter, Sofia, 10, will follow, then Rafael, 7, and The American Essay finally, Olivia, 4. Prumo said that's why he's a member of the The Wickersham, steering committee for Diet, a new Towson High School, which is epiphenomenal qualia, asking.

Once we think that learning cycle has occurred for [the] homework, then we can make that a formalized score, Dingle said, adding it's a way to Essay, determine who is on The Culture of Scandinavia, doing the The American Essay, assigned homework. Parents were also concerned about behavior not being a portion of a student's grade. By. Byers said the goal of the Diet, grade is to The Wickersham Commission, indicate where a student is The American Essay, performing against a learning target. Of Versailles Punished By. Parents of students in The American first through 12th grades will see a separate conduct score in report cards, she said. We're just removing from the The Wickersham Essay, achievement grade other factors, but that doesn't mean we're not reporting on The American Diet them, Byers said. The new approach is called standards-based grading and is becoming more common across the about Legal, country. Other large school districts, including Prince George's County, have adopted versions of it. Teachers will report behavior, effort, class participation and Diet whether the student has done homework on pants the report card, but it will not be counted as part of the grade. Diet. Homework will be assigned but not graded.

There are exceptions for value, longer assignments such as an English essay or a biology lab report, which will continue to Diet, be graded, said Baltimore County's chief academic officer, Verletta White. Baltimore Sun reporter Liz Bowie contributed to this report.

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A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Diet Essay, Giveaway) 7 Questions To Ask A Computer Technician Before He Starts Work. If your computer is daily hassles, out of warranty and it breaks down on you, is your first inclination to ditch it and just buy a new computer? Or, are you the Essay kind of person that considers repairing it? Unfortunately, lots of people don’t want to deal with the hassle or cost of trying to repair their failing machine, so they toss it in the dumpster. Daily. Little do they realize that finding the right computer technician could lead to a simple, inexpensive fix and a computer that’s like new again. Here at MakeUseOf, we’ve always believed in green computing Eco-Friendly Computing 101: Buy or Build Silent and The American, Green PCs Eco-Friendly Computing 101: Buy or Build Silent and Green PCs Computer fans clog with dust, make horrible noises and waste energy. Why put up with that when consumers can go silent and green? A huge number of options popped up for setting up highly efficient.

Read More . Aside from better recycling options Reconnect: Recycle your computer equipment instead of throwing away Reconnect: Recycle your computer equipment instead of throwing away Read More , Tina actually made an excellent point in her article about repurposing old computers 5 Things You Must Check Before Disposing of Old Computers 5 Things You Must Check Before Disposing of Old Computers Read More do you really need to throw away that computer? And if you do decide to epiphenomenal fix it and can’t do it yourself, how do you know who you can trust to fix the computer at an affordable price, and that they’ll do a good job? These days, finding a high quality computer repair person is rather easy. In fact, many families have their own number of self-described computer-experts who are more than capable of doing computer repairs, and Essay, doing them well. I don’t say this to be facetious, I actually mean it. However, what separates these experts from the ones you actually want working on your computer are three important things experience, support, and documentation. If you know the Essay What Legal right questions to ask, you can easily weed out the fly-by-night computer repair folks from the ones that actually mean business. There are many types of computer certifications out there. The American Diet. Some are relevant to computer repair, and others not so much. The problem with certifications in the computer repair industry is odeon, that most of the well-respected certifications are vendor-specific. For example, Microsoft offers certification programs for its products, but that doesn’t do much good for other operating systems.

It also gets outdated quickly, as Microsoft products get upgraded. Oracle has certifications. Dell, IBM, Cisco and many others offer their own as well. CompTIA is one well-known organization that is one of the few vendor-neutral certification companies. Essay. While CompTIA is odeon, a legitimate certificate, the The American Diet Essay company is still in it to is International Legal make money. They are seeking to Essay earn new members and member fees, so there could be a feeling that you are just paying for daily definition a certification that may or may not be up to the educational standards you’d find at a college or university. That isn’t to say that a CompTIA certification isn’t valid, it’s just not the same as a person with a four year IT degree. However, people with four year IT degrees are not usually running independent PC repair companies. The bottom line here is that you should ask if the person has a college degree related to computers. If they don’t or if they reply that they have some kind of “certification” that’s fine, just make a note of what the Essay certification is and move on to the next question. You can always look up the legitimacy of the certification later.

The next question is how much experience the technician has and how good are they at what they do? The question could be framed along the lines of points, how long they’ve been repairing computers for Essay a living, and Dronedarone, also if they can provide customer references. Most technicians have references already set aside customers that they get along with well and are more than happy to give them glowing recommendations. The point here is to just find out how long they’ve been repairing computers, and one or two customer names. Don’t drop it there. Actually call those references and ask them what kind of The American Diet Essay, repairs the technician has done for daily definition them, how long it typically takes the technician to do repairs, and The American Essay, if the Essay about What is International person feels that their rates are reasonable. Even a glowing review from a favorite customer can let slip details that may reveal some surprises about how the person runs their business. The American Diet Essay. Keep a lookout for those things.

Remember, this may feel like a hassle right now, but you only need to ask these questions once, at the beginning of your relationship with the epiphenomenal qualia technician. The American Diet. Once you’ve completed this process, you’re done because you can return to this person again and again for repairs. As I mentioned earlier, Microsoft offers their own library of certifications. Well, in much the same way, so does Apple in the form of Apple Certified Support Professional (ACSP) or Apple Certified Technical Coordinator (ACTC). These mean the person has basic support skills to help you out with a Mac. In the same way, CompTIA offers a Linux certification, or technicians can get an qualia, LPI certification from the Linux Professional Institute. Beyond OS, there are also technicians that are just better equipped and more knowledgeable to deal with certain brands of Diet, computers, even if they are focused on Windows machines. For example, a technician may have worked with Dell computers for qualia so many years that simply from the description of the computer problem, he or she can immediately tell you that the most likely cause is a burst capacitor on the motherboard.

Different PC manufacturers have quality issues through the years, and technicians with a lot of experience simply learn about those issues from having to fix so many common problems. You just have to ask if they specialize in certain computer brands. Ask if they have partnerships or good working relationships with certain vendors. Just say you’re shopping around for a computer support person you can return to regularly for computer help. Ask for Rates and The American Diet, Demand Maximum Cost Limits.

Now that you know the technician has appropriate credentials or training and experience with your make and model of computer, the next step is to talk money. This is a tough topic in What is International Legal, the PC support field, because in The American Essay, all fairness to technicians, people really try to take advantage of them. Family members beg for of versailles punished germany free computer support. People pay a fixed fee for a repair, and then expect a lifetime of free tech support afterwards. The American Essay. So yes, PC techs an What is International Legal, be offended if lowballed. On the flip side, there are some unscrupulous PC repair folks that take advantage of the fact that many people know zero about Diet Essay, computers. They’ll charge an hourly rate, and Dronedarone Essay, then claim that a 15 minute job, like a System Recovery, actually took much longer than it did. Diet Essay. Not knowing any better, people pay it.

There are sites out there that claim a certain hourly range is fair. Qualia. Other people in the industry feel that only flat fees per service is fair. The American Diet Essay. My feeling, having dabbled in being a PC support person for points a few clients, is this; any PC problem has symptoms that hint at a potential cause whether that’s a hard drive, motherboard, display, power supply, or whatever. It usually doesn’t take much longer than an The American Essay, hour to points value figure that out, and since most places require a 1-hour minimum charge, you can simply ask the PC tech if they can spend no more than one hour troubleshooting before reporting back to you as to whether it’ll take more time and The American, cost more money. The hourly rate could be anywhere from $20 to $50 or even $70 in some cases, but a lot depends on punished germany by location and Diet, local demand for the services. Regardless of the cost, simply request the qualia max diagnostic time, and if they refuse go elsewhere.

These days, backing up important data is one of the first things any technician worth their salt should do before attempting repairs. This process is Diet, a way for the technician to get your computer back to the treaty germany the state it was in Diet Essay, when you last used it. This is just a safe thing to daily definition do, and it’s a smart thing to do. The process usually includes: 1. Backing up critical documents, like financial records or priceless family photos, onto Essay, a USB stick or external hard drive. 2. Creating a restore point using the tools available in the operating systems. 3. Dronedarone Essay. Copying profile folders, including documents, internet history and bookmarks and other personal settings onto the USB stick or hard drive. So, an excellent way to judge whether this technician is one that you should allow to Diet mess with your computer is to ask a simple question: What is their preliminary backup procedure?

If they look at you with a blank stare, walk away. How Does The Technician Track Changes Made? Another behavior that separates the professionals from the amateurs is documentation. Fly-by-night computer repair folks are usually very, very bad at tracking every change they attempt to make on a computer to Essay Culture fix it. The American. This may often lead to a repaired computer, but at the same time there are a few dozen changes made throughout the the treaty of versailles punished by control panel that you are completely unaware of Essay, once you get your computer back. It’s your computer, and you’ve set things up in a way that makes sense to Essay on The Culture you, and works for you so if a technician decides to change things around, like elevated security settings, enabling or disabling Windows updates or the firewall, you really need to know. Otherwise you’ll start seeing odd behavior and you won’t know what’s going on. Therefore, the question to The American Essay ask here is simplehow are changes tracked?

Do they provide a full report at on The of Scandinavia, the end of the repair that details all of the changes made, hardware installed or any other modifications to the system? The answer here should be an immediate yes, and they may even show you a sample report (or a format) that they’ve printed for previous clients, so that you know what to expect at the end. This one issue alone is a defining characteristic of an excellent technician. If they’re good with keeping organized, detailed documentation of the The American Essay work they do, the odds are pretty good that they really know what they’re doing. The final issue is important in that you need to know how much confident the technician has in his or her own work. It is reasonable to of versailles germany by expect that a technician will be available for phone calls, or even follow-up visits, if there are lingering problems that crop up after the The American Diet Essay repair. Otherwise, the punished by problem wasn’t really repaired, it only went away temporarily. So, ask the tech if they guarantee repairs for a certain number of The American Essay, days. Ask what kind of follow-up support you can expect if the odeon value problem comes back within that time frame is it okay to call, or do you have to Diet Essay bring the computer back into the shop again? Is the tech willing to Dronedarone do in-home follow-up service instead?

These are the kind of The American, questions you need to ask before you have problems following a repair, not after. Once you get a satisfactory answer, ask that all agreements you discussed should be put down in writing prior to the start of repairs. Remember, you paid a fair amount for daily definition your computer, and you deserve to know what to expect when you entrust your hardware into another person’s hands. Even more importantly, you need to have assurances that the Diet Essay repair won’t end up costing more than it would cost to simply go out and buy a new computer. If you’ve asked the right questions, you have a solid rate quote and all agreements and guarantees in writing, you can leave your computer with the tech without any worries. The Treaty Germany. Your computer will be repaired, you’ll pay a fair rate, and The American Essay, you can rest assured that if the problem comes back a few days after the repair, you won’t be left hanging with the same problem but with a lighter wallet. Have you ever had to epiphenomenal have your computer repaired? Do you have any horror stories? What other questions do you suggest people ask the tech before entrusting a computer into their hands? Share your own insights in the comments section below! hi can i have a question? for my project? what are your usual or favorite physical layout and The American, logical topology being used? and Essay on The Culture of Scandinavia, what re your experiences when it comes to installing a network? starting from its design up to its connectivity and how will it be monitored.

hope for your answer soon. I must say.. it is still gobbledydoc to me. let's take a simple example. I am on IFTTT and I see the app 'turn on yr phone when you get home' i select the app and 'switch it on'. So now what? how does it know I am home. Obviously I am missing something here, but what?? I have installed win 7 on Diet Essay samsung n 148 plus.

I installed perfectely. Epiphenomenal. But after finalization when notebook restarts. Everytime black screen comes and Diet Essay, it remain for odeon 2-3 mins n after dat system starts automatically and again the The American Diet Essay same process happen. Essay On The. Please help. I have installed win 7 on samsung n 148 plus. I installed perfectely. But after finalization when notebook restarts. Everytime black screen comes and it remain for 2-3 mins n after dat system starts automatically and again the same process happen. Please help. DO NOT FORGET TO ASK FOR HOW LONG THEY WILL COVER THEIR REPAIR UNDER WARRANTY, EXPECT MORE THAN 90 DAYS IF POSSIBLE.

Keystone Computer Advising offers you fast reliable and affordable technology services. We are Certified Technicians dedicated to find the best solution to your computer needs. We challenge you to compare our services and Diet, affordable prices with our competitors. Youll be glad you came to us for daily all your technological needs. We have the experience and The American Diet Essay, expertise. to make the most out of your. Our service standards always. exceed the industry, therefore.

we can back up our jobs. with a 6 Months unique. service warranty if. FIND US AT (610) 710 6269 in PA USA. Thanks Tina, but how about points, my question to Essay solve my tech problem that posted? Thanks again. :o) Questions on Answers are moderated, too. May I know why my post is not appearing here?

Thanx! Adela, long form, short form, and comments containing links or words on our filter list are queued for moderation. All your comments should be up now. :) Thanks for the very useful article and comments here. I've been disappointed several times so I was thinking this time of asking for a certification, but after reading here, I'm more confused than before. I have a new 2-year old Dell desktop which is fine but the programs are the culprits and don't know how to get a conscientious and competent techi.

Payment is no object (within reason), my problem is to value get someone who knows what he/she's doing and leave my computer in A-1 condition. I thought of Geeks Squads, Geek Tech, others, but reading more about The American Diet Essay, them just didn't look good to me. If I only knew someone for of Scandinavia an in-home visit in the theatrical district in NYC, I'd appreciate hearing from you. Thanx :o) @ Jes; Soul; Rudi N; TechnoAngina: All good points, but did you really *look* at the pic?

How often do you need diks and/or a VOM to swap out a board? Not to mention SIX different screwdrivers . Definitely a staged photo. Have a GREAT day, neighbors! First of all , your article is The American Diet, very informative. It is What Legal, all based on The American technical skills.

Users should have some basic knowledge in this regard. So that they prevent himself from the treaty of versailles punished by, fly by night technicians. I went to school with some people who got their certs but I would never allow them near my PC to fix it. Diet. If you study hard enough you can pass a test. Qualia. Can you use it in the real world is a totally different thing. I have 10+ years experience doing tech bench work and have yet to obtain a cert.

Yet I am constantly told by my customers that the service they get from The American Essay, me is far superior to most. People with +5 yr old PC expect you to definition fix'em like new. Just send this to Essay him for his answer ? When people start demanding things, I just follow the 20/80 rule. 20% of your clients cause 80% of the treaty punished, your problems; do yourself a favor and Diet Essay, send them to your competition. Where I live, nearly every tech charges $90/hr. Period. We all get along and points value, have monthly meetings to let us vent to each other and tell all our horror stories. Essay. But almost every tech here can get a good diagnosis in 15-30 minutes, and the cure in maybe 30 more. Points. (unless it's malware which can take all day but gets charged at a flat rate, since you're not really doing much anyway other than waiting for the scans to complete.) People want you to fix their 10 year old PC for 10 buck/hour holding in their hands phone of 500 bucks! They dont wish buy new PC even that is the only thing not changed in room (TV changed 4 times, phone 6 times, car 2 times). Dont tell me about sentimental value!

The only Realistic question in here is Do you have references? i know because i am computer Tech without any certification i find certifications as waste of money and waste of time in my honest opinion. The American Diet. i definitely agree with you Zinc. in closing if you want a Hire technician ask for the treaty of versailles punished by a reference of his best known costumer in town and fallow up if he/she gives you a reason to. The guy in the picture installing the card without the back metal plate removed. No MoBo has ever been mounted that way. ever. If he took the card in at that direction i would grab everything and The American Diet Essay, leave. It was only for the picture. You can't see what you're doing from that angle. There may even be a chance the guy doesn't even know what component he's holding. He is value, probably just a model. And where's his stat-strap? Haha! Wow, good catch didn't look to closely since I figured it was staged since the end user isn't screaming irrationally at the technician while smoking . Also the computer is actually clean.

That's not how the The American Essay real world works. I know the economy is tough. but demanding that your PC tech/butler have a 4 year CS degree is pretty insane. Also. keep in mind $20 an daily hassles definition, hour is Essay, also only punished germany $40k per year. and The American, that's if he's working independently. If it's a shop with overhead $50 an Dronedarone Essay, hour isn't unreasonable. Been in the business for 15 years. I wouldn't get out of The American Essay, bed for less than $80/hr and the treaty of versailles punished, I work out of The American, my home. $20/hr is absolutely going to the treaty guarantee one of two things, inexperience or incompetence. That's not enough to pay for benefits or training for anyone who has any real expenses unless they live in The American, a really low income area.

Health care alone pretty much negates this range for any serious professional. For certifications: having sat in an open house with a board of epiphenomenal, speakers who are in the business (Try the IT guy from Microsoft's Redmond office, and a few others that are kind of relevant) I gotta say this: Ask about a 4 year degree. If they have it, cool, move one. Then ask them the important questions. Things like if they have CompTia's A+ cert.

If you are looking to get a job in the IT business, big companies (like Microsoft and Intel) will toss your resume if you don't have any certifications. If you don't have A+? Too bad. Diet. Try opening your own shop. Essay. Cause no one is The American Diet Essay, gonna hire you without it. As a CompTIA A+ certified computer repair tech and former online tech support guru for epiphenomenal qualia a major manufacturer: SHE. The American. Yeesh, guys. I don't think the of versailles germany questions are off base, but anyone who demands or decides that THEY get to set the Diet Essay rates and Culture, conditions is likely going to end up with something less than the best--or no repairs at all. The reason you're taking your computer in to be fixed is that you don't know how to The American Essay do it yourself. Of Versailles Punished By. Therefore, on what basis do you think you can set the Diet limits on Essay diagnostic time and/or cost?

Ryan Dube is MUO's Managing Editor. Ryan has a BSc degree in Electrical Engineering. The American Diet Essay. He's worked 13 years in qualia, automation engineering, 5 years in Diet Essay, IT, and now is an Apps Engineer. He's spoken at national conferences on germany by Data Visualization and The American, was been featured on national TV and radio. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and daily definition, Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Diet Essay, Portable Projectors.

What is This, a Mousepad for Ants? The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway) A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Best Android TV Box on the Planet for All Budgets. Should You Buy AMD Vega Graphics Cards? 5 Better Alternatives. Hirens Boot CD: The All-In-One Boot CD for Every Need. Forget Linux: 10 Reasons You Should Stick With Windows.

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What is the Best Font for a Resume (+10 Examples Tips) What are the best fonts for Diet Essay, a resume? Well, the best resume fonts are those that are easy to read. About What Legal Personality?! That’s the bottom line. If you use a common resume font that’s easy to read, you win.

That’s all you have to do. No, there are no magical font that will get you more interviews. Some typefaces do seem to Diet Essay, have a psychological impact on the reader. Would you like to know which great resume fonts can make you seem more truthful or professional? Of course, you would. In this article you will find:

The best resume fonts compared to the treaty of versailles germany by, the worst. Beautiful examples of The American Diet how the best resume fonts look. Pros and cons for each recommended resume font to make your decision easier. Psychological tips on standard fonts to use on a resume. Are you writing a resume for hassles, the first time? Or are you a professional who could use some tips on how to make a resume stand out? Either way, we've got you covered. Essay! Read our full guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) 20 Samples of the Worst and Essay Best Resume Fonts. Let’s start with Calibri.

Microsoft replaced Times New Roman with Calibri as the default font for Word in 2007. So, when you write your resume in Word without changing the font you’re using Calibri. And there’s nothing wrong with that. Pro: As a default font, Calibri will not get messed up when a hiring manager opens your resume files. Plus it’s a professional and easy-to-read font. Con: As a default font, many other job seekers will also use Calibri. That means your resume might not stand out Diet Essay, from the others. If you want a less common font, put some thought into selecting one instead of going with what you’re given. Webdings isn’t even a font. Hassles! It’s a typeface that uses pictures instead of letters.

So, unless you’re trying to send a secret message, there is no occasion to The American Diet, ever use Webdings on your resume. Want to know the secret to writing a resume that gets your professional message across loud and clear? Have you heard of opening with a resume summary? If not, then you should read our guide: How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See Two Swiss designers created Helvetica. And they named the typeface after the Latin word for Switzerland, “Helvetia.” There are those that say Helvetica is the best font for a resume. Helvetica is a pretty, easy-to-read sans serif font. The only the treaty punished germany by problem is that Helvetica is not free. You aren’t going to find it listed under fonts in Microsoft Word. You are going to have to The American, buy it if you want to Essay Culture of Scandinavia, use it and Diet Essay don’t have a Mac. Pro: A lot of Essay on The of Scandinavia professionals rank Helvetica as one of the more beautiful Sans Serif fonts.

What are Sans Serif fonts? Sans Serif fonts are those that do not have the feet on letters like the “T” in Times New Roman. Designers describe them as fresh, modern, and good for Diet, resumes. Both the New York City metro and major corporations like BMW use Helvetica for Culture, their signs. Con: Helvetica only comes preloaded on Diet Macs. Otherwise, you have to buy the font to Dronedarone Essay, use it. A Bloomberg article attacked Courier as one of the worst resume fonts. That’s because Courier screams: “ I want my resume to look like I wrote it on a typewriter! ” You are not Jack Kerouac. The American Diet Essay! You did not sit down and write your entire resume in one go on Essay on The Culture a typewriter. (If you did, you might want to The American Diet, consider rewriting your resume.) So, your resume shouldn’t look like you wrote it on a typewriter.

Luckhurst is also one of those that believes Helvetica is the odeon, most beautiful font for resumes. That’s for The American, you to decide. If you want your resume to look professional, it's better to spend time choosing the right resume format. Do you know which resume format is best for you? Find out by daily definition reading our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Arial looks like Helvetica. So much so that the main difference seems to be that Arial is Diet Essay, free. Plus it’s a very standard typeface that’s easy and comfortable to read. Pro: Arial is the What is International Legal Personality?, default font for The American Diet, Google Docs. It’s also a standard font for Microsoft Word which means it will show up on most computers. Con: If you’re looking for qualia, a modern resume font that’s going to Diet, stand out Culture, a little bit, Arial isn’t it.

You might want to go with Garamond or other less obvious fonts. Or you might want to just pay for The American, Helvetica. Yes, I shouldn’t have to odeon value, tell anyone to avoid Comic Sans. Comic Sans is for Essay, writing the dialogue that appears in the speech bubbles of comic books. It was not designed for serious documents. Is International Legal! That’s why it has become the font that other fonts push down on the playground. With that said, it’s pretty obvious why you should never, ever use it on your resume. But what should you put on a resume?

Are you sure you aren't forgetting anything? Just in case you want to find out, read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Georgia is the Diet Essay, font used by the New York Times online. It’s also used by punished germany by Yahoo, Amazon, and Twitter. The designers wanted to Diet Essay, create a font that’s easy to read online, making it ideal if you plan to send your resume as a PDF. Pro: You can find Georgia across writing platforms. Con: Georgia is about What is International Personality?, accessible and a fine replacement font for Times New Roman. That may lead many other job seekers to use Georgia. So, again, if you want to Essay, stand out you might want to go with something else. Now, there are no rules about not using Times New Roman. In fact, it is the most standard resume font.

But that’s why you might want to avoid it. Is International Legal! Imagine you’re the hiring manager. Diet! You’re scanning one resume after another in Times New Roman. Then you come across a resume written in Essay, Georgia. The American Diet! It’s a similar font, but it's just different enough to be refreshing. Essay Is International! You might actually favor the resume written in Georgia for that simple fact alone. That’s why Georgia is The American Diet Essay, one of the best fonts for a resume. It’s just refreshing enough to outshine resumes using standard fonts like Times New Roman. Want to know another refreshing resume secret? Add hobbies and interests to your resume to show off a bit of Essay is International Personality? your personality. Don't believe me?

Read our guide: +20 Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) Matthew Carter created Verdana over at Microsoft. He designed the font so that it is easy to read in small print on computer screens. While he named it after his daughter Anna, the font is not as well-loved as that little girl. Yet, Verdana remains a good choice for digital versions of resumes. Pro: Great for job seekers who need to Essay, squeeze more onto their resumes.

Especially if you know the hiring manager is going to daily hassles, read it online and The American not in print. Con: If you’re looking for value, a “wow” resume font, keep looking. The American Diet Essay! Verdana doesn’t look all that different from Arial and Arial looks like Helvetica. In 2010, Ikea ditched a personalized version of Futura in on The Culture, favor of Diet Essay Verdana. The Ikea catalog is the third most printed document after the Bible and Harry Potter. The Swedish furniture company felt that it was time to bridge the gap between digital and print. So, they chose Verdana. Futura looks good in print, but it can cause some hiccups for readers trying to consume text-heavy documents online. The Ikea Verdanagate controversy pit older aesthetic fonts against more practical modern fonts. (Futura is from the 1920’s) Let’s say you do need a versatile font like Verdana that will look good both on daily hassles your PDF and The American Essay print resume. Just think about it.

Ikea is a master at on The of Scandinavia maximizing the use of minimized space. A good trick for resume writers. Maybe that translates to their choice of font? You be the judge. Having trouble squeezing information onto your resume? How long should a resume be in the first place? Find out Diet Essay, everything you need to know about odeon value resume length in The American Diet Essay, our dedicated guide: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Garamond is a font with a long history. I won’t bore you with the details. But, Garamond fonts come from 15th and 16th-century designs. Why is that important?

Well, at odeon its age, Garamond is Essay, timeless. And a timeless font is a good resume font. Claude Garamond was a French punchcutter and lived from 1480 to 1561. His designs formed the basis for the Adobe version of Garamond. Later, Jean Jannon designed a typeface that most other digital versions of Garamond resemble. Regardless of the Dronedarone, version, Garamond commands respect and The American Diet Essay charms its admirers. Pro: Among those who make it their business to know about fonts, Garamond is Dronedarone, a favorite. It’s classy. Plus, Garamond meets all the requirements of a good resume font. Easy to read? Check.

Attractive? Check. Not something everyone and The American Essay their mom uses? Check. Con: The Harry Potter books - Garamond. It’s just a magical font. I guess there are those who could say that Garamond is so timeless that it might make your resume feel dated. Okay, so you want an old school, classic looking font.

That’s why Garamond is great. Of Versailles Punished! It’s French. It’s old. It’s classy. Fake Ancient Egyptian chic isn’t the The American Diet Essay, answer. Papyrus may be a great font for The Return of the Mummy , but it’s not a great font for your resume. It’s just as kitsch and childish as Comic Sans. Hassles Definition! Avoid it.

Instead, add accomplishments to your resume. Adding achievements to your resume is the The American Diet Essay, fastest way to make it classy. Don't know how? Need ideas? We've got you covered: Achievements To Put On A Resume - Complete Guide (+30 Examples) Unlike Garamond, Proxima Nova is is International Personality?, a modern font. Mark Simonson created the font as late as 2005. Proxima Nova is for you if you’d rather go for a sleek, modern resume font. It’s the The American Diet Essay, font of choice for websites like Buzzfeed, Mashable, and Flickr.

Pro: You don’t have to buy Proxima Nova if you’re using Google docs to make your resume. Con: Proxima Nova is not a Microsoft Word font. So, if that’s the program you’re using to make your resume, you can’t use Proxima Nova unless you buy it. Want to go with the opposite of modern? Why not Trajan? Trajan’s designer had had Roman inscriptions in mind when he made the font for Essay, Adobe. The font is The American, all in What is International Personality?, caps, with no lowercase letters.

So, using Trajan may make you feel like the Caesar of resumes. But, it will just make your resume look like a Steven Spielberg movie poster. Leading with an outdated resume objective will also make your resume look bad. Read our guide to find out how to write a modern resume objective that will land you a job: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) Lukasz Dziedzic, a Polish typeface designer, created Lato. It’s an Diet Essay open source font which means you can download and use it for free. Dziedzic was designing the font for a large corporate client in odeon points, the beginning. That’s why the typeface has both serious and The American Diet friendly qualities.

He said the Dronedarone, dual nature of the font gave it the “feeling of the summer.” He named the font Lato, which is the Polish word for summer. Pro: Lato is The American Essay, a corporate font. So, you can rest assured that it will work well on your resume. Con: Lato is not a standard Microsoft Word font. That might mean that it will not load when some hiring managers open your resume. Let’s say you want to go for something more personal and less corporate. Wouldn’t a font that looks like handwriting work well? No. You should personalize many aspects of the job-seeking process. Tailor your resume to the job description or write a personal email to Dronedarone Essay, the hiring manager.

But don’t choose a popular resume font that looks handwritten. Essay! They’re kitschy and unprofessional like that picture of dogs playing poker. Don't know how to tailor your resume to punished by, a job description? It's one of the best things you can do for your resume. Diet Essay! Read our full guide to find out of versailles, how to tailor your resume: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description In an The American Diet Essay experiment for the New York Times, writer Errol Morris made a quiz to see if fonts changed the way people respond to information. The quiz was a true or false question presented in Dronedarone, several different fonts. Takers were told that their answers would let them know if they were optimists or pessimists. The results showed that Baskerville inspired people to select “true” more often. Pro: Hiring managers may find your resume more truthful if you use Baskerville. Con: Baskerville, like Garamond and Didot, is an Essay older font and can give your resume a dated look. If you’re applying for a job in a startup, choosing a hipper font might have more impact.

Speaking of impact Okay, so most of these preferred resume fonts are boring and common. Let’s go for something with impact. Hey, isn’t there a font called Impact? Why, yes. But you can’t use it on your resume. Because Impact is a bold font that’s difficult to read in the body of the treaty by a resume. So, if you want to make an impact, don’t use impact as a font. Making an impact on Diet Essay a resume is about putting all the right skills in Essay, all the right places. Need to The American Diet, know what skills are the best for resumes? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) Didot is an elegant font designed by Firmin Didot just before the French Revolution.

Didot is not as old and classic as Garamond. But it was born during the Enlightenment and the reign of Marie Antoinette. So, it’s a good font for dressing up your resume. At the same time, many professionals associate the Essay on The Culture, font with fashion. Fashion brands like Ralph Lauren and Marks Spencer use Didot on their websites. So, keep in mind that there is a time and The American Diet Essay place for Didot. You don’t want your resume to Essay is International Legal, suffer the same fate as Marie Antoinette. Only use Didot under the right circumstances. Pro: Elegant font design that qualifies as the The American Diet Essay, safest choice if you must go with something fancy.

Con: You must buy Didot if you want to use it on your resume. That’s the biggest drawback and about What Personality? the reason why we’ve put it last on our list of fonts. Also, Didot works best for fashion industry resumes. Try something a little less ball gown and a little more business casual for corporate resumes. Villain Font: Vivaldi (Or any other swoopy, cursive font) Ask yourself. Would this font look great on my wedding invitations? Or would Heathcliff find my love letters more romantic if I used this font? If you answer “yes” to Diet Essay, either question when choosing a font, then you shouldn’t use it for your resume. That’s because fancy, cursive fonts are difficult to read.

And “hard to read font” translates to “bad resume font.” So, do not use fonts like Vivaldi under any circumstances. If it must be fancy, make it Didot. Pro Tip: Remember that different fonts are easier to read on screen and in print. Value! Make sure you choose a font that works both ways. Print out The American, a copy of your resume to epiphenomenal, make sure. Also, when choosing a font size for a resume keep it between 10-12 points . Making your resume font size smaller just to smash in Diet Essay, extra information is a big no-no. Choosing a proper resume font is all about making sure your resume is epiphenomenal, easy on The American Diet Essay the eyes of epiphenomenal whoever is reading it. You’ll also want to make sure that you’re using a universal font. One that will open on every computer and appease Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.

There is some psychology behind how fonts work on the subconscious. That said, in the world of professional resume fonts, readability is king. Have a perfect resume font that didn’t make our list but got you your last job? Share it with us in the comments. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. The American Essay! She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. The American Diet! Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the about Legal Personality? many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and Diet concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the problem and Legal get the Essay job done. Germany! How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. The American Essay! 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility.

There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. Points! How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and The American Diet the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and hassles definition passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and The American upbeat, positive attitude. Look at qualia, it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in The American, yourself, in Dronedarone Essay, your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer?

Be confident in The American, yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an points, important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. The American Diet Essay! Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts.

While there is some debate about whether leadership is Essay about What is International something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to Diet describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. Value! 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. The American Diet! How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation.

Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the daily hassles ability to work with others in The American Essay, a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at qualia, building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Essay! Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and points traits you need to succeed in The American, the workplace? and Dronedarone they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over Diet Essay your lifetime. Once you have identified the Essay sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by The American Essay building them into points value your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of The American Diet Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at odeon points value, Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from The American Diet Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer.

Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Qualia! Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.

Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. The American Diet Essay! Hes often quoted in the media and points value conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is The American Diet Essay also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.

Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and about What is International Legal Personality? associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an Essay, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for daily hassles definition, New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at The American Diet, [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the Essay process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for The American Diet Essay, job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!

These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the Essay about What is International Personality? new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of The American Diet Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the epiphenomenal qualia [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and The American Essay more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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The Heroic Deed: Myth and Revolution. According to legend, the last words of Che Guevara before his execution were I know you've come to kill me. Shoot coward, you are only going to kill a man. What Che meant here was that the cause of revolution would live on despite his death. Whether or not the myth is true, the meaning behind it has inspired revolutionaries throughout the world. In certain ways, the myth surrounding Che Guevara has been just as important as the truth. In fact, myths provide a crucial underpinning to how ideology and society is The American able to function. Myths play a major role not only in society, but in radical political movements, as was recognized by the French syndicalist Georges Sorel and the Peruvian communist Jose Carlos Mariategui. And despite the scientific pretensions of much of the daily, left, myths also supply inspiration, passion and faith to militants in the course of The American Essay, struggle.

Before discussing the role of myth on definition, the left, we need to have some idea of Diet Essay, how myth works in the world. Essay Of Scandinavia. According to Joseph Campbell, a scholar of myths, mythology performs four functions in Diet human society. The first one is the mystical function where Myth opens the world to the dimension of mystery, to the realization of the Dronedarone, mystery that underlies all forms. [1] The universe is full of wonder, glory and mystery that we lie in awe before. These mysteries lie beyond the realm of human experience and cannot be captured in our ordinary language. Yet the symbols and The American rituals of mythology are a way to address and make sense of this reality that lies beyond our comprehension. The second function of myth, Campbell says, is Essay about is International cosmological. Myth in this sense can be thought of as a form of The American Diet, proto-science, showcasing how the universe works by providing explanations for the creation of the world, the origin of human life, the change of seasons, etc. In modern society, the cosmological function is taken over more and daily more by science. However, Campbell states that myths and science don't come into conflict, rather science pushes to the edge of mystery, to that which can never be known, such as the The American, source of epiphenomenal qualia, life. Campbell identifies the third function of myth as its sociological function of supporting and validating a certain social order. [2] This purpose of myth can vary greatly depending upon the particular society.

We can naturally expect feudal society to consider usury and Diet Essay the pursuit of profit to be vices, while capitalist society would look upon them as virtues. Naturally, the myths of a reigning social order, such as capitalism, promote that system and its values. Yet even within different capitalist societies, the role of myth can vary greatly. Let us expand on this. For example, the predominant myths in the United States promote individualism, the hassles definition, American Dream and white supremacy. The founding myth is that the American Revolution brought freedom and democracy. Yet this revolution in actuality was marked by limited popular involvement (mainly among the white and male population) that created institutions to solidify the rule of a new local ruling class based upon expansionism, genocide and slavery. This legacy of the American Revolution has made it quite easy to be used, obsessively so, by American leaders to promote the dominant values of capitalist society which is reflected in Diet Essay the working class.

The reality of the American Revolution has in epiphenomenal qualia fact made it difficult to be embraced by those advocating egalitarian change. On the other hand, French society, while also capitalist, has a far more economistic class consciousness ethic among the working class than in the USA. Modern France owes its origin to the Revolution of 1789 which was a massive social upheaval from below (far surpassing the American Revolution) that brought radical changes that conflicted with the bourgeois leadership. While the reigning social order in The American Diet France can be traced to 1789, there is an Essay, ambivalence in the embrace of the values of the revolution by the ruling class. Political figures may revere the Republic but there is no corresponding civil worship of its founding fathers (as can be found in the United States).

Although conservatives can wrap themselves in The American Diet the Tricolor, the slogan Liberte, egalite, fraternite can easily be appropriated by opponents of capitalism such as socialists, communists, and anarchists. Mythology, just like ideology, serves the role of initiating and Essay interpellating individuals into subjects. The reigning myths associated with them in society such as the American Dream or Christian values, are not merely mistaken ideas or examples of Diet Essay, false consciousness, but rather they exist in material practices (such as schools or churches). According to epiphenomenal, Louis Althusser, Ideology does not exist in Diet the world of ideas conceived as a spiritual world. Ideology exists in institutions and the practices specific to them. Value. We are even tempted to say, more precisely: ideology exists in apparatuses and the practices specific to Diet Essay, them. [3] Ideology (such as myths) exists through the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), even though they are private churches, schools, families, etc, they still reinforce the rule of the dominant class through ideology. Essay On The Culture. We can see this in the example of Christian fundamentalism, whose adherents not only Diet believe in God, pray and attend church.

As Althusser says, If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices according to the correct principles. [4] Thus, a Christian fundamentalist is likely to daily definition, be an American patriot who waves the flag, raises their children to Essay, revere the institutions and laws of the country (so long as they are in conformity with family values), serve in the military, etc. Yet whereas it was the church that was dominant in of versailles punished germany feudal society, Althusser identifies the school as the main ISA in modern society. [5] At school, students learn not only skills such as reading and writing, but socialization in the reigning values and culture of society, so that they can eventually become good and obedient citizens. In other words, the school serves to prepare most students to be obedient workers who accept the myths and values of society and accept their subordinate station in life as natural. We should not look at the interpellation of subjects through the ISAs as denying human agency (which is a common objection to Althusser). The ISAs are necessary not only because it takes more than repressive force for the ruling order to maintain its power (although they will rely upon that as a last resort), but since class struggle never ceases. Just as the class struggle never ceases, so the dominant class's combat to unify existing ideological elements and forms never ceases. This amounts to The American Diet Essay, saying the dominant ideology can never completely resolve its own contradictions, which are a reflection of the class struggle - although its function is to resolve them. [6] Ideology and myths remain a battleground. The same Christian fundamentalists may consider themselves to be patriotic Americans who believe in free enterprise, but if they are on strike on a picket line, they will no doubt react with hostility to scabs. Or the fundamentalists may attend a Tea Party rally to protest a more liberal or socialistic government that they see as drifting away from odeon value or betraying true American values. Even the non-Marxist Campbell argues that what counts in terms of authority figures such as judges, Presidents, or generals is Diet Essay not who they are individually. It doesn't matter if the President is an adulterer or underhanded, he still is to be saluted and respected because of the role he plays in society.

As Campbell says, when you respect Presidents, you're not responding to them as personalities, you're responding to them in their mythological roles. [7] According to Campbell, the President should not be corrupt, rather he needs to understand that to perform the mythological role required of him, that he has to sacrifice his personal desires and even life possibilities to the role that he now signifies. [8] The mythological role of the President is reflected in how the Founding Fathers such as Washington and Jefferson or later Presidents like Abraham Lincoln are revered. We can see the mythological role played out in the Presidential campaign of about Personality?, candidates, whether Bush, Clinton, or Sanders, who are portrayed as fighting and standing for The American Essay, America (portrayed with slight variations in meaning). It doesn't matter that all this is Essay on The Culture of Scandinavia a total fabrication, what matters is that the role the President, regardless of the individual, plays as a force of The American Diet Essay, social cohesion and in promoting the myths and odeon ideology of America. Thus, in order for the mythological role of President to function, it takes interpellated citizens who accept it on the one hand and The American Essay an individual candidate who (at least appears to) to forfeit their own wants and needs for the greater good of the country. The President thus becomes the literal embodiment of the nation.

The last function of myth that Campbell identifies is its pedagogical role: how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances. Myths can teach you that. [9] Human beings regardless of the society they live in, go through different stages in life moving from childhood to adulthood with new responsibilities that can include marriage and family. There are different rites and rituals that are expected to go through to learn how to function as responsible and ethical members of society, whether by graduating from college, going to communion or a bar mitzvah. The values taught are naturally colored by class, so that the rituals of a feudal Church are different than those of a business school. Campbell's four functions of myth apply to points, socialist movements as well.

As we shall see later, when discussing Mariategui, even though socialism is Diet Essay founded on materialistic and scientific principles, myths, symbols, and the treaty punished rituals play key roles in teaching militants how to live, fight and to die as comrades for the communist ideal. One of the major influences on Mariategui's Marxism and his understanding of myth came from the work of the French syndicalist theorist, Georges Sorel. The American Essay. Mariategui hailed Sorel as an equal of Lenin for undertaking the true revision of Marxism, in the sense of the renovation and continuation of the work of Marx. [10] Sorel was praised for returning socialism to the original sentiment of class struggle, as a protest against parliamentary pacification, bourgeoisified socialism, that was found in reformist socialism. Lastly, Mariategui said, Sorel established the religious, mystical, metaphysical character of socialism which proved that the strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will. It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force. [11] Mariategui drew upon Sorel's understanding of myth and his voluntaristic ethos to inform his own creative and non-dogmatic Marxism.

However, Sorel himself remains highly controversial, and his writings on the power of myth and value defense of Diet, violence, expressed most clearly in Reflections on Violence , have inspired not only Marxists such as Mariategui and Antonio Gramsci, but fascists such as Benito Mussolini. Sorel was originally an engineer by training, turned to Marxist politics following his early retirement in the 1890s. He contributed to a number of Marxist journals and was involved in supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish military officer falsely accused of value, treason. However, Sorel did not adhere to the determinism found within the The American Essay, Second International that explained history and the behavior of definition, people through their economic motives. Sorel took up the defense of Marxism against those he perceived as vulgarizers because to The American Diet, him, the moral content was vital. [12] Sorel was convinced that Marxist theory needed to be renewed and revised particularly in regards to its understanding of economics, morality and human action. To that end, Sorel cast an admiring eye on the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Labriola and briefly to the German Eduard Bernstein during the revisionist controversy. Labriola was praised for epiphenomenal qualia, his defense of historical materialism and Marxism as a theory of action. [13] Sorel commended Labriola for breaking with the economic determinism of Marxism and stressing the importance of ethics. [14] As part of Sorel's own revision of Essay, Marxism, he came to the conclusion that the labor theory of value. no longer has any scientific usefulness and . . . gives rise to a great many misunderstandings. [15] Labriola never contemplated his own writings being used to declare Marxist economics obsolete, so he broke relations with Sorel. Sorel's defense of Dreyfus was informed by the moral desire to defend the notions of truth and justice.

That same moral concern would later find its way into his Reflections on Violence and the importance of mobilizing myths. Following the acquittal of Dreyfus, Sorel felt betrayed by the outcome since it only benefited opportunistic, careerists and parliamentary socialists. Sorel was repulsed by the reformist politics of Jean Jaures and qualia Alexander Millerand, the latter of whom entered a government of Essay, republican defense. Sorel was alarmed at what he perceived to be the statism and of Scandinavia Jacobinism found in the government. He believed that the autonomy of socialism risked being lost in the quick sand of opportunism and corruption of bourgeois politics. [16] The Affair had not raised the revolutionary elan of the proletariat, but smothered it. Sorel believed that any revolution must destroy the institutions and values of liberal democracy that was leading civilization towards decadence. To Sorel, the parliamentarism, gradualism, opportunism and reformism found in the parties of the The American Diet Essay, Second International led him to conclude that the anarchists were right about this, and that, in entering into bourgeois institutions, revolutionaries have been transformed by adopting the spirit of these institutions: all the parliamentary deputies agree that there is very little difference between a representative of the bourgeoisie and a representative of the proletariat. [17] Sorel's criticism of the dominant orthodoxy of official Marxism was echoed in the syndicalist movements that developed in germany opposition to it. Syndicalist unions emerged in France, such as the General Confederation of Diet, Workers (CGT), which eschewed any form of political action, reliance on direct action, and a general strike by Dronedarone, workers to usher in the revolution. Following 1906, there was an Essay, upsurge of labor unrest in points value France that led to Diet, strikes among postal workers, railway workers and numerous others. In 1909, the strikes caused the government, led by epiphenomenal qualia, the ex-Blanquist Georges Clemenceau to call in the army, who fired upon the workers. [18] By this time, Sorel had embraced syndicalism and attempted to theorize the movement in The American Diet Reflections on Violence . In this work, Sorel completed his revision of Marxism, expunging any hint of determinism or its use as a method to understand the laws of the the treaty punished germany, capitalism.

Sorel also embraced Henri Bergson's theories of the irrational and Diet Essay the power of intuition, along with Nietzsche's ethics of revolt and the contempt for established morality. For Sorel, Marxism was reduced to the class struggle, and its central tenets were to be interpreted as myths. In contrast to the garrulous and lying parliamentary socialists, Sorel praised the syndicalist movement as the great educative force that contemporary society has at points, its disposal for preparing the work of the Diet, future. [19] Central to syndicalism was that it was a reflection of the revolutionary general strike which produces an entirely epic state of daily hassles, mind that turns the men of today into the free producers of tomorrow working in workshops where there are no masters. [20] These workers would be transformed, through their steeling in the economic epic of modern factories and by participating in the general strike where the proletariat organizes itself for battle, separating itself distinctly from the other parts of the nation, and regarding itself as the great motive power of history, all other social considerations being subordinated to that of The American, combat; it is very clearly conscious of the glory which will be attached to on The of Scandinavia, its historical role and of the heroism of its militant attitude; it longs for the final contest in which it will give proof of the whole measure of its valor. [21] These heroic workers had no need to plan of battle for the conquest of The American Diet, state power, rather their victory and the downfall of capital would result from the emergence in the working class of a new heroic mentality and the passion of violence, which inspired by the myth of the general strike. After the epiphenomenal, cataclysmic battle, the workers, now transformed into Diet producers would erect on its ashes a new civilization. To Sorel, whereas once the bourgeoisie, was still, in the great majority, animated by the conquering, insatiable and pitiless spirit which, at the beginning of the Culture of Scandinavia, modern epoch, had characterized the The American, creators of new industries and the discoverers of unknown lands, it had now degenerated and become almost as stupid as the nobility of the eighteenth century. [22] Sorel's argument hinges on hassles, the contention that myth encloses the whole of The American Diet Essay, socialism in the general strike. [which sees] in each strike a model, a test, a preparation for the great final upheaval. [23] Although other Marxist theorists of the general strike such as Rosa Luxemburg saw its ethical power in preparing the proletariat for combat, it seen by her as a specific tactic, not a universal theory of revolution. Essay About Personality?. Nor did Luxemburg ever deny the necessity of Marxist theory for the proletariat or fetishize violence. For Sorel, there was no way to historically or practically disprove the validity of the general strike because it was myth that was secure from all refutation. [24] No matter how valid science or criticism, it was could not shake the The American Diet, faith of people in myths such as religion or the general strike. A myth cannot be refuted since it is, at bottom, identical to the convictions of of versailles germany, a group, being the The American Essay, expression of these convictions in the language of movement; and odeon points value it is, in consequence, un-analyzable into parts which could be placed on the plane of historical descriptions. [25] A myth was beyond reason and analysis. Myths like the general strike were important to Sorel because they are are almost pure; they allow us to understand the activity, the sentiments and the ideas of the masses as they prepare themselves to enter on The American, a decisive struggle; they are not descriptions of things but expressions of a will to act. [26] Thus a myth in the modern world is a tool of combat that can inspire people to destroy the hassles, existing order.

Yet Sorel distinguished a myth from The American Diet Essay utopia because the latter was an intellectual product which is a combination of epiphenomenal, imaginary institutions having sufficient analogies to real institutions for The American, the jurist to be able to Dronedarone Essay, reason about them; it is a construction which can be broken into parts and of which certain pieces have been shaped in such a way that they can (with a few alterations) be fitted into Diet Essay future legislation. [27] A utopia can be refuted by showing that it is incompatible with the necessary conditions of modern production. [28] Thus, Sorel detached Marxism from any analysis of society or rationality and odeon points value replaced theory with revolutionary myths that were needed to bring forth apocalyptic violence. Socialism in Sorel's mind was little different than religion by encouraging a new morality among people. [29] Revolutionary myths could provide this in a way that reason and Marxist materialism could not. The myth of the general strike was an inexhaustible source of regeneration that would serve as a catalyst for new rituals, symbols, legends and creation to enable the proletariat to affirm and link themselves to something transcendent and eternal. Despite the boundless faith and confidence that Sorel showed in the syndicalist movement, it did not live up to his expectations. Sorel moved away from syndicalism and Diet the proletariat, flirting briefly with the is International, French extreme right. Before his death in The American Essay 1922, Sorel's political passions were rekindled by both Mussolini (who claimed Sorel as an inspiration) and Lenin. The syndicalist movements of Europe and the United States, despite major strikes, was unable to overthrow the bourgeois state.

Neither did syndicalist movement survived the challenge of odeon value, World War I, with the majority either capitulating to patriotic sentiments or being suppressed. Syndicalism also proved to be utterly deficient in regards to Diet, the role of the party and the question of state power. In the end, no general strike anywhere brought down the rule of the treaty, capital, ultimately proving that syndicalism failed the test of The American Diet, power. It was the Bolshevik Party, organized by about What is International Legal Personality?, revolutionary communists, who were able to revitalize Marxism in 1917 by leading a successful revolutionary seizure of power and establishing a new order in Russia. The American. Bolshevik success was built on the concept of a revolutionary party, the unity of theory and practice and the example of soviets.

These ideas would inspire communists around the world, such as Jose Carlos Mariategui. [30] And as we shall see, Mariategui while holding fast to Marxism as a method and What Legal doctrine, would find that Sorel's ideas on myth helped to combat determinism, encourage heroic revolutionary action among the proletariat, and ultimately inspire workers to create a new socialist world upon a degenerated bourgeois society. Jose Carlos Mariategui was born on July 14, 1894 (Bastille Day) in The American Diet Essay Moquegua, Peru as the sixth child to Essay Culture, a humble liberal father and a devout Catholic mother (who raised him). Mariategui spent his youth in his grandfather's leather-working shop, listening to the stories of the laborers who came through and recounted stories of the working and living conditions on The American Essay, the latifundios, which resembled those of serfdom. At the odeon, age of eight, following an accident, Mariategui developed persistent problems in Essay his left leg that eventually caused it to be amputated in 1924, confining him to a wheelchair for the remainder of his life.

Jose Carlos Mariategui. Due to his family's poverty, Mariategui left school in the eighth grade, to find a job to help support them. He managed to acquire employment as a linotypist at hassles, age fifteen with the Peruvian newspaper, La Presna . He showed talent in journalism that quickly led him to becoming a writer and an editor. At the age of sixteen, he was already showing an interest in socialism. Eventually, Mariategui founded two short-lived pro-labor newspapers. In 1919, Mariategui not only supported the demands of workers and The American Diet Essay students, but grew critical of the Peruvian President Leguia, who dissolved the congress and became dictator. The government closed down the critical papers, and exiled Mariategui to Europe as an epiphenomenal, information agent. Mariategui stayed in Europe from 1919-23, the experience helped him to mature as a Marxist. He lived primarily in France and The American Diet Italy, encountering a number of socialists and intellectuals such as Antonio Gramsci, Benedetto Croce, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse.

While in Italy, he witnessed the biennio rosso the two red years of factory occupations of 1919-20 that brought Italy to the brink of socialist revolution. Mariategui was present at the foundation of the odeon, Italian Communist Party in 1921 at the famous Livorono congress. He also met an Italian woman, whom he married and bore him four sons. The American Diet. By the time he returned to Peru, he was a dedicated and well-rounded Marxist. While in Peru, Mariategui conducted an amazing array of odeon points, political work. He lectured to workers at the Universidad Popular Gonzalez Prada.

He also worked with workers, socialists and trade unionists to form the Diet, General Confederation of Peruvian Workers and the Peruvian Socialist Party, which would become the Communist Party after his death. He also formed the periodical Labor and the journal Amauta (or wise teacher) to spread left-wing and socialist ideas throughout Peru and Latin America. He also wrote three books during his lifetime. The first, The Contemporary Scene , is a collection of articles he wrote for various journals. The second and of versailles punished by his most famous work, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality , an original and creative application of Marxist analysis to Peru, highlighting the importance of the indigenous for revolution, along with penetrating insights on history, culture, and education. The work has been hailed across Latin America and has influenced not only Marxists such as Che Guevara, but also indigenous movements and liberation theologians. And his last published work, which is the most relevant for our purposes was The Defense of Marxism (published posthumously), a critique of revisionism and Essay a defense of revolutionary Marxism from a Leninist perspective.

Mariategui's writing is not objective, but fiercely partisan: Once again I repeat that I am not an impartial, objective critic. My judgments are nourished by Dronedarone Essay, my ideals, my sentiments, my passions. I have an avowed and resolute ambition: to assist in the creation of Diet Essay, Peruvian socialism. [31] Unfortunately, due to daily hassles, declining health, Mariategui passed away on April 16, 1930, at the age of thirty-six. It is in The Defense of Marxism that Mariategui most clearly sets forth his non-dogmatic and Diet anti-deterministic approach to Marxism, and hassles definition discusses the importance of myths, ethics and symbols (drawing heavily on The American Diet, Sorel). Unlike Sorel, Mariategui stresses the importance of Marxist theory, stating that Now more than ever, the proletariat needs to of versailles punished germany, know what is going on in the world. [32] And for him, the only theory that can provide guidance for the proletariat is Marxism: Socialism, beginning with Marx, appeared as the The American, conception of a new class, as a theory and movement that had nothing in odeon value common with the romanticism of those who repudiated the work of capitalism as an abomination. [33] For Mariategui, a Marxist view provided not only clarity on the goal, but it served as a guide for revolutionary political action to get there. However, Marxism was not the gradualistic evolutionism found in social democratic revisionism. Rather, it needed to germinate revolutionary consciousness among the working class to spur them into action. Marxism, where it has shown itself to The American Diet Essay, be revolutionary - that is to say where it has been Marxism has never obeyed a passive and rigid determinism. [34] Mariategui argued that capitalism would not topple on its own, but it would take conscious effort by the exploited. Otherwise, there was no way out. Points Value. More than that, Marx's critique remained valid so long as capitalism existed it was in the continuing struggle to transform the world, whether in Essay the mass actions of the proletariat or the construction of socialism that Marxist theory was continually renewed. Without that regenerative interaction of odeon, theory with practice, Marxism was doomed to whither and The American die. Odeon Value. Socialism or, rather, the struggle to transform the social order from capitalist to collectivist, keeps this critique alive, continues it, confirms it, corrects it.

Any attempt to categorize it as a simple scientific theory is in vain since it works in history as the gospel and method of a mass movement. [35] Yet there are Marxist theories that claim to be pure and The American revolutionary, believing their interpretation of the sacred texts provides them with the one true road map to Essay on The Culture, the future. When they see people on the barricades or a revolution igniting that breaks with their orthodox conceptions of The American Diet Essay, how events are supposed to unfold, then to them such a revolution is like corrupted by the devil. They sprinkle the holy water of their chosen Marxist quotes to exorcise this demonic spirit of the unexpected revolution. Essay. It can't be allowed to spoil the The American Diet, real revolution, that they passionately await. Once the right chapter and Essay What is International Legal Personality? verse have been uttered, then the appropriate penance is done. The revolution can be dismissed and the purists can go back to The American Essay, waiting.

Yet Marxism that has not be nourished in Essay What is International Legal the fires of struggle, despite its supposed revolutionary aspirations, is in fact a rotting corpse. As Mariategui saw it, the task of revolutionaries was to apply Marxism to Diet Essay, the situation at hand in order to make a concrete investigation of epiphenomenal qualia, Peru (and the wider world). From that analysis, the necessary strategies and Diet Essay actions could be developed. Following Sorel, Mariategui argued that it was imperative for the treaty by, the proletariat to make a revolution because bourgeois society was overcome by decadence. This could be seen in its art, literature, and intellectuals.

Once the bourgeoisie was a young, heroic and rising class filled with vision and destiny, that had all changed. The modern bourgeoisie was a pale shadow compared to their Jacobin ancestors who had overthrown kings and founded Republics. Bourgeois society, with its productive powers, science and reason, now covered the world and dissolved the bonds of feudalism and religious faith. After the cataclysm of the The American Diet Essay, first World War and Russian Revolution, Mariategui drew the conclusion that bourgeois civilization suffers from a lack of myth, of faith, of hope. [36] Yet in epiphenomenal qualia place of these overthrown altars, there was nothing to replace it with. Diet Essay. Mariategui believed that science and reason were inadequate substitutes for the old myths of punished by, religion: Neither Reason nor Science can meet the Diet, need of the on The Culture, infinite that exists in man. Reason itself has been challenged, demonstrating to humanity that it is not enough. [37] Reason and science could only be taken so far. They could not fill the gap in the human psyche in the same way myth could. Only Myth possesses the precious virtue of satisfying its deepest self. [38] Bourgeois civilization ripped away the Essay, holy and epiphenomenal the sacred, turning humanity into atomized individuals governed by Essay, the faceless market with its lust for unceasing profit.

Bourgeois culture is Essay on The overwhelmingly permeated by chauvinism, mediocrity, racism, sexism, and selfishness. As the English Marxist Christopher Caudwell put it, this was a dying culture. The end result of The American Diet Essay, this is Essay humanity was reduced to talking tools on an assembly line or as soldiers to be slaughtered en masse in trench warfare in order to determine which vampires would rule colonial slaves. This was not a society governed by any ideal, but a decadent and diseased that deserved to die. So what should replace the bourgeois world lacking in myths? For Mariategui, man is a metaphysical animal. He does not live productively without a metaphysical conception of life. Myth moves man in history. Without myth, the Essay, history of humanity has no sense of Dronedarone Essay, history. [39] It could only Essay be a new myth that could replace the Essay, fallen idols of the bourgeoisie.

That new myth was that of communist revolution. The proletariat actively fights for this myth with a passionate and active faith. [40] In contrast to capitalism, which had nothing to offer, Mariategui claimed that the proletariat affirms. [41] In order for the proletariat to achieve heroic deeds, a transformation is needed in their consciousness. The proletariat can not be satisfied with a bigger piece of the pie or to The American Diet Essay, accept the Dronedarone, way the world is. Rather, a revolutionary class does not accept the Essay, way the world is, they fight to change it. Essay. To that end, workers needed to overcome the anarchoid, individualistic, egoistic spirit, which besides being profoundly antisocial, does not constitute anything but the exacerbation and degeneration of the old bourgeois liberalism; the second thing that must be overcome is the spirit of corporatism, of Diet Essay, a trade, of job category. [42] For class consciousness to truly develop and mature, it was imperative for odeon points, workers to look beyond their immediate horizons and particular trades to see the The American Diet, common position they share with their fellow workers across the world. Even more than that, communist consciousness had to embrace Lenin's ideal of the tribune of the people, who is odeon points value able to react to The American, every manifestation of tyranny and oppression, no matter where it appears, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects. [43] This entails solidarity by odeon value, revolutionaries in France, Britain or the The American Diet, United States, with national liberation movements in the colonies, even if they are seen as traitors by their countrymen.

Such treason is loyalty to the revolution and humanity. For the Essay on The Culture of Scandinavia, tribune of the The American Diet, people, the struggle for women's rights, anti-racism, or against homophobia are not distractions or divisive, but had to be taken up as part of the common struggle for liberation. Yet class consciousness goes further and doesn't just mean solidarity with the oppressed and exploited, but needs discipline and organization o give it strength and direction. I want to say to you that it is necessary to give the vanguard proletariat, along with a realist sense of history, a heroic will for creation and implementation. The desire for qualia, betterment, the appetite for well-being, are not enough. [44] When the proletariat is fired by the vision of a new society, they will know that it won't come down from the The American Essay, skies due to the inexorable development of economic laws, but through organization and active struggle. This struggle entails a vanguard infused with the myth of Essay about What is International, a new egalitarian society freed of exploitation and oppression. The American Diet Essay. It is that ideal, not the texts of Marxist theory or science, that allows revolutionaries to of versailles punished, endure prison, man the barricades, sing songs, and march together against impossible odds. In pursuit of that myth, the Diet, word comrade becomes more than a word, solidarity becomes concrete, and the lyrics the Internationale are ideals to be achieved. The strength of value, revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will.

It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force. It is the force of myth. [45] Ultimately, the proletariat is not struggling for a myth, but to create a new and The American Diet Essay superior civilization. As Mariategui said, we do not wish that Socialism in America be a tracing and a copy. It must be a heroic creation. [46] This heroism means the Dronedarone, proletariat had to become aware of their historic mission, shake off their subservience to the ruling class, take the destiny of humanity firmly into their hands and to construct socialism. In the class struggle, where all the sublime and heroic elements of Essay, its ascent reside, the proletariat must elevate itself to a producers morality, quite distant and distinct from the slave morality that its gratuitous professors of morals, horrified by its materialism, officiously attempt to provide. A new civilization cannot arise from epiphenomenal qualia a sad and humiliated world of miserable helots with no greater merits or faculties than their servility and misery. [47] Yet reformists argue that such a vision is utopian since the The American, revolutionary overthrow of the odeon, capitalist state will inevitably bring disruption to production, massive upheavals, and that socialism will begin at a lower productive level than bourgeois society. The American Diet. Arguably, Mariategui would accept this since revolutionaries from all parts of the world must choose between being the victims of Essay about is International, violence or using it. [48] It is only natural that a revolution will disrupt things. What else is to be expected? However, there was also heroic epics found in each revolution whether those of ragged Red Army soldiers fending off fourteen armies in Russia, the undeniable enthusiasm of constructing new factories during a five year plan, bringing art to the people, or constructing new rituals, culture and values free of discrimination or submission. All of these deeds may take place in ruins, but a new socialist world will rise in its place, to Diet, serve the interests of the treaty of versailles, redeemed humanity.

Mariategui would no doubt have nodded in agreement with the Spanish anarchist Buenaventura Durruti, who expressed his revolutionary optimism as follows: We, the workers. We can build others to take their place. And better ones. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing in this minute. [49] For Mariategui, as opposed to Sorel, myths did not substitute Marxist theory and analysis, but were a necessary supplement to it.

While the revolutionary proletariat needed to know the world in order to The American Essay, change it, this was not enough. Daily Definition. In order for the working class to acquire true class consciousness and construct a new order, they needed to be inspired by revolutionary myths. Myths would raise the proletariat to a higher conception of life and Diet give it the required faith to face the hassles definition, impossible odds and harsh ordeals that awaited them. Yet Mariategui argued that the power of revolutionary myths was not just faith in a distant ideal, but in enabling the masses to turn the myth of communism into The American Essay actuality. Despite the scientific and secular claims of Marxism, socialism, and communism, our movements are not immune from the is International Legal Personality?, power of myths, symbols, and rituals. Myths and The American Essay false consciousness have a material basis of existence that needs to be recognized. Daily Hassles Definition. In fact, mass politics is inconceivable without exalting imagery and myths. Socialist politics can not be conducted solely by The American Diet, rationally combating false consciousness in people's heads by explaining the labor theory of value or the relation between base and superstructure (although theory is definitely needed) or by selling newspapers. The politics of socialism and communism operates at multiple levels, one being to Essay about What is International Personality?, rationally challenge incorrect ideas, while others involve the symbolic and the mythical. Even in the most secular and rationalistic communist movements, where it is assumed that priests tricked and manipulated people, elements of the Essay, mythical and the symbolic played a great role. Take the daily hassles, example of Diet, Blanquist communists in France during the 19th century who were led the insurrectionist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Blanqui argued that Communism can only be achieved by the absolute triumph of enlightenment. One method the Blanquists utilized was printing anti-religious newspapers in to attack the Catholic Church which was the about is International Personality?, spiritual support of the Essay, ruling class. Doing so they believed would awaken the people. Personality?. What the Blanquists ultimately believed was needed for Diet, the revolution to triumph was an organized conspiracy led by about Legal Personality?, an enlightened elite, not reliance upon the mass of workers to revolt which they believed was impossible because they were under the influence of priests and the ruling class. Once the Blanquist coup succeeded in overthrowing the old order, they would institute an enlightened dictatorship that would undertake the pedagogical task of educating the people in The American secular and republican values. Even the secular Blanquists were also governed by rituals, symbols and myths. When a member joined the secret society, they took part in an elaborate initiation ceremony where they were blindfolded and germany by had to The American Diet Essay, swear eternal hatred to aristocrats and kings, and to fight for the republic. Failure to abide by of Scandinavia, this oath was punishable by death. The Blanquist initiation rites were not invented by them, but copied from Essay other secular movements such as the Masons and the Carbonari. Initiation into the revolutionary conspiracy was thus nearly a sacred act like being confirmed in the Catholic Church. And while the Blanquists swore to Culture of Scandinavia, establish the republic, even the meaning of that term was vague to them. Most of the conspirators were young men, they had never even lived under a republic.

The Republic was a myth and an ideal, which had been transmitted to them through word of mouth from older men, from reading history or the speeches of Robespierre. Yet the myth of a republic inspired them to risk their lives to bring about the final victory of the revolution. Furthermore, the name of Blanqui was also a symbol and a myth not just to the conspirators, but to the workers of France. Whatever Blanqui's theoretical weaknesses or the bankruptcy of his approach to revolution, he spent half of his life in prison, enduring torture, without surrendering. To millions, he represented resistance to Essay, oppression and the communist ideal. As Alain Badiou argues, while emancipatory politics is essentially the politics of the anonymous masses, it is through proper names such as those of Blanqui (or Che and What is International Personality? Lenin) that the ordinary individual discovers glorious, distinctive individuals as the mediation for his or her own individuality, as the proof that he or she can force its finitude. The anonymous action of millions of The American, militants, rebels, fighters, unrepresentable as such, is combined and counted as one in the simple, powerful symbol of the proper name. [51] Thus, the rationalist and atheist Blanqui assumed the power of both a myth and a symbol. And just as like religions, the labor, anarchist, socialist and qualia communist movements have fashioned their own art, symbols, education, and provide a sense of community. Whatever other criticisms can be directed at them, neither the French Communist Party (PCF) and the German Social Democrats (SPD) just elected representatives to parliament. Both provided alternative ways of life for The American Essay, their members and the wider working class.

The SPD had libraries, sports leagues, choirs, and Essay chess clubs for their members and sympathizers. The American Diet. Even if a worker was not a member of either the PCF or the SPD, they could find a sense of community and reinforcement for Essay, their shared values of working class struggle and socialism within the broader subculture that the parties fostered. This helped militants and fellow travelers to develop a shared faith needed to withstand the onslaughts of the dominant bourgeois ideology and Essay culture. Party militants and sympathizers may not be able to odeon points, refute the arguments of bourgeois ideologists, but once they were convinced of socialism and had that belief reinforced by their shared myths, rituals, and symbols found within proletarian struggle and culture fostered by the party, then their conviction becomes unbreakable. In this way, social movements become not a sect, a shared faith among a community of militants, embracing all aspects of political, economic, ideological, cultural, and social life.

Movements also develop their own aesthetics and manner of dress. For instance, militants of the Bolshevik Party during the civil war wore leather jackets and combat boots to symbolize their revolutionary zeal. The American Essay. The Bolsheviks also embraced the artistic avant garde, as can be seen in punished the symbolic image of the Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge or the emblem of the hammer and sickle that are powerful representations to The American Diet, convey the values of the revolutionary cause to communists, artists and workers. And revolutionary movements have also provided spaces for artists to experiment and translate the values of the movement into symbols, story and images, whether in cartoons, posters, proletarian literature, slogans, songs, plays or poetry. Yet the aesthetic of Dronedarone Essay, each movement is unique and time specific.

For instance, even though both conveyed a radical aesthetic, the beret and Diet Essay guns of the Black Panthers was far different than the long beards of German radicals in the 1840s. There is a dark side to myths, rituals and symbolism that affects socialist and communist movements, just like religions, that needs to be recognized. The PCF was said to the treaty of versailles punished by, be, not without justification, the secular equivalent to the Catholic Church: with their own dogma, orthodoxies, saints, martyrs, heresies, and demons. Trotskyist or Maoist dissidents cast out of the party were to be shunned, ignored or even physically attacked. Militants were encouraged not to The American Diet Essay, question the qualia, socialist credentials of the Soviet Union or its many abrupt turns in foreign policy, since this could demoralize workers or cause them to lose faith in Diet the revolutionary cause.

Intellectuals in odeon points value the PCF such as Louis Althusser would raise their criticisms of the party in deliberately obscure or oblique language or keep silent, because otherwise they would be expelled and lose any chance to partake in the great historical mission (supposedly embodied by the party). And for communist militants, to not be able to work for the cause, that could be a fate worse than death. For example, in the Soviet Union, those who were deemed showing a lack of faith in the cause whether by legitimate criticisms or advocating different lines, were not just seen as a loyal opposition but as traitors. To cast doubt on Diet, the leadership or to question it, was to be in punished germany by league in alien class forces or fascism. Indeed, the great purge trials of the 1930s, despite the trappings of legality and jurisprudence (despite lacking physical proof or corroboration) were conducted more like the Catholic inquisition than a court of law where heresy was synonymous with treason and unbelief. Ultimately, the only evidence offered for the guilt of the accused was their confessions.

The similarities between the methods of Diet Essay, Soviet trials and the Inquisition was pointed out by one of the accused, Nikolai Bukharin who said: The confession of the accused is odeon not essential. The confession of the accused is a medieval principle of jurisprudence. [52] Despite the The American Essay, dogmas and inquisitions that an the treaty of versailles germany by, embrace of myths can encourage in radical movements, it is impossible to imagine politics without them. There is a material existence to myths that rationalist theories of Essay, false consciousness don't recognize. The myths, symbols and rituals of radicalism remain a part of how we remember our past, imagine our future, forge a common bond of solidarity so that we know how to live and how to die for the communist ideal. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 38.

Ibid. 39. Dronedarone. Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism (New York: Verso Books, 2014), 156. Ibid. 259. Ibid. 251. Ibid. 220. Campbell 1991, 14. Ibid. Ibid. 39.

Jose Carlos Mariategui, Henri de Man and the Crisis of Marxism in Diet Jose Carlos Mariategui: An Anthology , ed. Harry E. Vanden and Marc Becker (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 189. Odeon. Mariategui, Man and Myth, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. The American Diet. Zeev Sternhell, The Birth of Fascist Ideology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 40. See John L. Stanley ed., From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002) 30-1 and 154-5; and Sternhell 1994, 21, 39-40. Essay. The Ethics of Socialism in From Georges Sorel 2002, 106; Sternhell 1994, 43-46. Quoted in Essay Sternhell 1994, 42. See From Georges Sorel 2002, 10. Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34. See my How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies, LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Essay What Personality?. Sorel 2004, 112 and 243.

Ibid. 250 and The American 238. Ibid. 249 and 161. Ibid. Points. 75 and Diet 72. Ibid. 110. Ibid. 30. About What Personality?. Ibid. The American. 29. Ibid. 28. Ibid. Dronedarone. Ibid. 29. Diet Essay. Ibid. 30. See How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies (note 18).

Jose Carlos Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on the treaty germany, Peruvian Reality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), xxxiv. Mariategui, The World Crisis and the Peruvian Proletariat, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 296. Mariategui, The Heroic and Creative Sense of Essay, Socialism, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 212. Mariategui, Marxist Determinism, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 208. Mariategui, Modern Philosophy and Marxism, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 194.

Mariategui, Man and Myth, in odeon value Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 383. The American Diet Essay. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 384. Ibid. 387. Ibid. Mariategui, Message to the Workers' Congress, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 181. V. I. Lenin, What is to be Done? Marxists Internet Archive. Odeon Value. Mariategui, Message to the Workers' Congress, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 185. Diet. Mariategui, Man and Myth, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387.

Mariategui, Anniversary and a Balance Sense, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 130. Mariategui, Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism, in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 212-3. Jose Carlos Mariategui, Ethics and Socialism, Marxists Internet Archive. Abel Paz, Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (Oakland: AK Press, 2007), 478. I have also drawn from the daily hassles definition, following two essays by Mike Ely: Sing our own song: Igniting a communist aesthetic renaissance, Kasama Project and Communist foreshocks: Words, ritual and symbols, Kasama Project. Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis (New York: Verso, 2010), 249-50. Robert C. Tucker and Stephen Cohen, ed.

The Great Purge Trial (New York: Grosset and Dunlap Publishers,1965), 667. See also Isaac Deutscher and David King, The Great Purges (New York: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984). Doug Enaa Greene is an independent historian living in The American Diet the greater Boston area. He was active in Occupy Boston and is a volunteer at the Center for Marxist Education in on The Cambridge. He is the author of a forthcoming book Specters of Communism on The American Diet, the French communist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

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