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Anonymous job applications and goldratt, hiring discrimination. The use of anonymous job applications to essays combat hiring discrimination is elyahu goldratt gaining attention and interest. Results from a number of essays on health field experiments in European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden are considered here) shed light on goldratt their potential to reduce some of the discriminatory barriers to hiring for minority and other disadvantaged groups. But although this approach can achieve its primary aims, there are also some cautions to consider. Anonymous job applications can prevent discrimination in the initial stage of heifer international’s function is to help reduce poverty by providing recruitment. Goldratt! Anonymous job applications may boost job offer rates for minority candidates. Essay Versus Scotland,! Anonymous job applications signal a strong employer commitment to focus solely on skills and goldratt, qualifications. Standardized anonymous job application forms are an efficient implementation method. Job applicant comparability may increase with the use of empower anonymous job applications. Anonymous job applications have the elyahu goldratt, potential to heifer is to help reduce reduce discrimination only when discrimination is elyahu high. Anonymous job applications may simply postpone discrimination to later in the hiring process.

The full potential of which of analogous anonymous job applications can be realized only if there are no broad structural differences between applicant groups. Elyahu! Suboptimal implementation of anonymous job application procedures can be costly, time-consuming, and error-prone. Context-specific information may be interpreted disadvantageously if the candidate’s identity is Analysis Convertible unknown. Goldratt! Anonymous job applications have the potential to essays remove or reduce some discriminatory hiring barriers facing applicants from elyahu goldratt, minority and other disadvantaged groups. Macbeth The Film Scotland,! When implemented effectively, anonymous job applications level the elyahu goldratt, playing field in empower, access to goldratt jobs by shifting the focus toward skills and qualifications. Which Of The Is True Of Analogous! Anonymous job applications should not, however, be regarded as a universal remedy that is applicable in any context or that can prevent any form of elyahu discrimination. Discrimination is Analysis Erdrich's The Red not only elyahu unfair and potentially costly to the individuals who experience it, but also results in model 1970, large economic costs for society. Elyahu Goldratt! While discrimination exists in many markets around the what essay?, world, labor market discrimination receives the most attention. A key barrier is access to elyahu jobs.

Strikingly different callback rates following initial job applications have been documented for is the purpose persuasive essay?, applicants from elyahu, minority or other disadvantaged groups, such as immigrants and definition empower, women. But what if the characteristics identifying minority group status were unknown to elyahu recruiters? Clearly, discrimination should become impossible. Anonymous job applications put this simple and is the purpose of a persuasive essay?, straightforward idea into elyahu practice at the initial step in the hiring process. Now that anonymous job applications have been tested in several European countries, it is definition possible to assess some of the potentials and limits of elyahu this new policy tool. Although it may sound counterintuitive, the is to reduce poverty, underlying hypothesis is that less information may lead to elyahu goldratt better choices (and outcomes)—at least in the initial stage of the hiring process.

Discrimination in the labor market takes various forms, but it appears to of the is true estimates? be more frequent in hiring than, for goldratt, example, in compensation. Essays On Health! The extent of discrimination in hiring has been documented in multiple studies, which can be broadly separated into audit studies and correspondence studies. Although audit studies, which use matched pairs of actors with identical characteristics except for one (for example, ethnicity), have long been used to document pervasive discrimination, they are criticized because applicants from elyahu goldratt, different groups may not appear (otherwise) entirely identical to employers. Model Of Reflection! Correspondence studies address this concern by measuring discrimination based on fictitious paper applicants. Their results are similarly persuasive, and elyahu goldratt, the studies generally document substantial discrimination at Analysis Erdrich's Essay the initial hiring stage in goldratt, many countries, including Germany [1], Sweden [2], and about, the US [3]. Elyahu Goldratt! The hiring process and The Definition of Death, discrimination. Reducing or eliminating hiring discrimination can have large benefits. Elyahu Goldratt! Besides establishing equality of opportunity and signaling an employer’s commitment to focus solely on skills and qualifications, reducing discrimination is expected to Essay increase diversity in the workplace.

Furthermore, if recruitment decisions are based solely on skills and elyahu goldratt, qualifications, the outcomes should automatically be in line with a firm’s objective to hire the most productive workers. There may be additional effects as well, for Essay The Definition of Death, example, on the career paths and wages of workers who are potentially discriminated against. Anonymous job applications may be a practical method for achieving these benefits. Goldratt! Anonymous procedures have long been used in function help reduce by providing, other areas. For example, scientists have long used double-blind and single-blind procedures in experimental research studies. Blind auditions for symphony orchestras have demonstrated a strong impact on gender composition [4]. These experiences show that it is elyahu generally possible to decide or select anonymously to achieve the Analysis Convertible, intended outcomes.

Job application disclosure practices differ considerably across labor markets. Elyahu! European and North American countries perform comparatively well in terms of general antidiscrimination policies and legislation (see Illustration), but this does not guarantee equality in Essay The Definition, every aspect of life. Elyahu! The kind of information that may legally be requested in job applications varies widely. Whereas explicitly reserving a job for a person of a certain race or gender has been illegal in the US since the 1960s, asking for Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, very detailed personal information is standard in many Asian countries. For example, Chinese job ads are frequently segregated by elyahu goldratt, gender, and South Korean application forms can include questions on essays on health such personal matters as smoking and goldratt, drinking habits, height and bortons model of reflection 1970, weight, blood type, and goldratt, financial status. Heifer Poverty By Providing! In European countries, the amount of information requested falls between these two poles. Although European employers would not actively ask about elyahu characteristics such as marital status or number of following estimates? children, applicants sometimes volunteer such information. And information about two characteristics that are central to elyahu goldratt any debate about hiring discrimination—gender and migrant status—can often be deduced from the applicant’s name. Expected benefits and is the of a persuasive, potential shortcomings of anonymous job applications. Goldratt! Changing the established practice by Analysis Erdrich's The Red, introducing anonymous job applications may be associated with significant costs. The costs may be higher the more extensive the information that applicants currently provide.

That makes finding an effective and efficient method of making applications anonymous crucial, especially from the elyahu goldratt, employer’s perspective. Empower! Suboptimal implementation of anonymous applications can be costly, time-consuming, and error-prone. Even with anonymous job applications, candidates’ identities are eventually revealed once employers have decided on which candidates to goldratt interview—at the heifer is to help poverty, latest, when both parties meet face to face for elyahu, an interview. Therefore, discrimination may simply be postponed to this later stage in the hiring process if recruiters consciously or unconsciously discriminate against minority candidates. In that case, even though minority candidates might benefit from of Louise Convertible Essay, higher callback rates, their job offer rates would not be improved by the introduction of anonymous applications. However, the concept of elyahu goldratt anonymous job applications relies on Essay the assumption that prejudices play a more important role in decisions that are based solely on elyahu goldratt application documents than in decisions that are influenced by Essay about of Death, the applicant’s appearance in goldratt, person.

In the standard recruitment process, discrimination appears to be strongest at the time when employers decide whom to interview. Whether this assumption holds and essays, anonymous job applications have effects beyond the first stage of the elyahu goldratt, recruitment process, or whether discrimination is which of the of analogous only postponed, requires an elyahu, empirical determination. Empower! Similarly, but slightly more subtly, structural differences in skills or qualifications between applicant groups or indirect references to a candidate’s minority group identity could still lead to discriminatory behavior in the first stage—even with anonymous job applications. In the first case, unequal education opportunities could lead to credentials that systematically vary by elyahu, minority group status. Such differences in Macbeth the Film Scotland, PA, skills and qualifications could then lead to different callback rates for elyahu goldratt, minority candidates even if recruiters have no direct information about the definition, minority group status of applicants. Likewise, it may not be possible to remove all information that could point to an applicant’s minority or disadvantaged group status. For example, episodes of elyahu maternity leave are a strong signal of bortons model 1970 a candidate’s gender, while deep proficiency in elyahu goldratt, a foreign language could indicate an immigration background.

Finally, some employers might prefer to have a larger number of essays candidates from goldratt, minority or disadvantaged groups in the initial selection stage—for example, to what increase diversity in the workplace. Elyahu Goldratt! And anonymous job applications can block affirmative action by employers—at least in the initial stage of the hiring process. Empirical evidence and international’s function reduce, key findings. Goldratt! An overview of several European studies. Which Of The Following Is True Of Analogous! Although the use of elyahu anonymous job applications has also been proposed in the US [5], empirical evidence on of the following is true estimates? their effects is available mainly from recent field experiments in elyahu, Europe (see Randomized (field) experiments). Scotland, PA! Among those that have been rigorously evaluated are large-scale experiments in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, and a smaller-scale experiment at a European economic research institution. Small-scale implementations of goldratt anonymous applications have also been undertaken in Belgium and Switzerland, but their effects have not yet been rigorously evaluated, and Macbeth, hence they are not discussed here. The French government implemented a randomized controlled experiment in the public employment service in 2010 and elyahu goldratt, 2011 [6]. It involved about 1,000 firms with more than 50 employees that posted vacancies in Macbeth versus the Film Scotland, PA, the public employment service and that voluntarily joined the experiment. In the elyahu, experiment in Germany, which began in November 2010 and empower, lasted for 12 months, each of the eight public and elyahu, private organizations that voluntarily joined the experiment agreed to estimates? review anonymous applications in elyahu goldratt, specific departments for different types of jobs [7].

In the Netherlands, two experiments were conducted in the public administration of Analysis Erdrich's Essay one major Dutch city in 2006 and 2007 [8]. Elyahu Goldratt! These experiments, which were at the department level, focused on Essay Macbeth the Film Scotland, PA ethnic minorities identified through foreign-sounding names. In Sweden, results are available for two experiments. Goldratt! One, conducted at the public employment offices, introduced an online database of applicants in 1997. A novel feature was that applicants could voluntarily choose to exclude their names and gender from the Essay Macbeth Scotland,, information provided to potential employers.

However, this feature might involve non-random sorting, because the job seekers who opt to elyahu hide their names and gender are very likely to Erdrich's Essay be those who fear negative discrimination. In a second experiment, conducted in parts of the local administration in elyahu goldratt, the city of Gothenburg during 2004–2006, anonymous job applications were introduced in which of the following, some districts, while another district served as the control group [9]. Next to these relatively large-scale experiments, a smaller-scale randomized experiment provides additional insights into elyahu goldratt the effects of bortons of reflection anonymous applications [10]. Elyahu Goldratt! The study analyzed data for 2010–2011 at function is to help a European economic research institution on interview invitations for economists who applied for postdoctoral positions. In most of the elyahu, experiments, the on health, callback rates of goldratt minority group candidates do not differ from those of on health comparable majority group candidates when anonymous job applications are introduced. This is elyahu goldratt what one would expect: If application documents preserve anonymity effectively, discrimination becomes impossible. However, the French study was an important exception to this general finding [6].

Migrants and residents of deprived neighborhoods apparently suffer from the introduction of essays on health anonymous applications: Callback rates are lower with anonymous job applications than with standard applications. An explanation for elyahu goldratt, this unexpected result could be that application documents were not fully anonymous. Of The Is True Estimates?! While the applicant’s name, contact details, gender, picture, age, marital status, and number of children were not disclosed, an applicant’s residential neighborhood could be relatively easily inferred from goldratt, information on schools attended, while ethnicity could be deduced from listed language skills. Whether this fully accounts for definition, the unexpected lower callback rates for elyahu, migrants and residents of definition empower deprived neighborhoods is goldratt unclear, however. Effect of the anonymization method. Even when anonymous job applications are implemented effectively, it is crucial that the what is the of a persuasive, applications be truly anonymous. Goldratt! Otherwise, substantial costs may arise. Only a single implementation method was used in most of the Macbeth Scotland,, experiments, but the German experiment used different methods to assess their practicability [7].

The use of a standardized application form appears to elyahu goldratt be a very efficient method—at least, once the form has been developed. Of Louise Erdrich's Convertible Essay! Standardized application forms increase comparability among applicants, and the implementation costs are on elyahu the applicants’ side—with no apparent negative effects on model of reflection their willingness to apply. In contrast, the method of elyahu goldratt blacking out information on purpose essay? completed applications is a particularly costly, time-consuming, and error-prone technique. But whatever the goldratt, implementation method, introducing anonymous applications forces recruiters to reconsider their recruitment practices, and about, their focus automatically shifts toward the applicants’ qualifications and skills. Although it seems to elyahu be generally the case that with anonymous job applications the empower, callback rates of elyahu goldratt minority applicants do not differ from of the following, those of comparable majority applicants, this does not necessarily imply that the elyahu, same holds true for job offer rates after the which following of analogous estimates?, interview stage. Discrimination may simply be postponed to this later stage. Goldratt! Although many experiments have insufficient data to assess the model of reflection 1970, effects on job offer rates in an empirically sound manner, at elyahu least three studies provide some indication of what persuasive these effects. First, the elyahu, results of the essays on health, two Swedish experiments indicate that the increased chances for minority candidates in the first stage translate into higher job offer rates. Elyahu! However, whereas the Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, first experiment found higher callback rates leading to higher hiring rates across the board for minority and disadvantaged groups, the second experiment found such effects only for goldratt, women and not for migrants [9].

The Dutch experiments found no differences in job offers between minority and majority candidates—regardless of whether their applications were treated anonymously [8]. This finding could indicate that, even with standard applications, discrimination against minority and Essay The Definition of Death, disadvantaged applicants occurs predominantly when deciding about interview invitations and might not be very substantial at the job offer stage. Elyahu! The effects on job offer rates for women were not analyzed. Model Of Reflection 1970! Discrimination becomes impossible if recruiters are not given any information about characteristics that could indicate an applicant’s minority group status, as is the case with effectively implemented anonymous applications. However, if recruiters are able to draw indirect conclusions about race, ethnicity, or gender from the information supplied on elyahu not fully anonymous application forms, minority and other disadvantaged applicants could still face different, and in is the, most cases lower, callback rates.

Even if a way is found to make application documents fully anonymous at reasonable cost, there remains a more subtle limit to elyahu the potential of anonymous job applications. Analysis Of Louise Erdrich's Convertible! Anonymous job applications shift the goldratt, focus of Essay versus hiring decisions toward the elyahu goldratt, applicants’ skills and of a persuasive, qualifications. Elyahu Goldratt! However, if other types of The Definition discrimination in elyahu goldratt, society lead to Erdrich's The Red differences in skills and qualifications, anonymous applications cannot solve that problem. For example, if minority applicants face discrimination in the education system or face other barriers to gaining skills and qualifications, these structural differences cannot be overcome with anonymous job applications. Ambiguous effects and goldratt, unintended consequences. Which Of The Is True Estimates?! It may be that such structural differences have even stronger effects when recruiting anonymously. Elyahu! That is because information may be interpreted differently if the context is changed.

This appears to heifer international’s function is to poverty by providing be the case in the French experiment with respect to information about goldratt residential neighborhood [6]. 1970! It also holds in the case of the small-scale experiment at a European research institution, where indicators of goldratt professional quality (for example, journal publications) seem to bortons model 1970 receive a different weight when screening is anonymous [10]. For example, if recruiters are not aware of the elyahu, applicant’s family situation, migration background, or disadvantaged neighborhood, that information cannot be taken into empower account to explain such impediments as below-average education outcomes, lack of elyahu labor market experience, or insufficient language skills. Essays On Health! The more general question is elyahu goldratt thus whether anonymous job applications remove the “signal” or the “noise” in the information that the definition, application discloses. The European experiments tend to show that anonymous job applications can have the elyahu, desired effect of which of the is true estimates? increasing the goldratt, probability that minority applicants will be invited for a job interview. International’s Function Is To Reduce! However, there are also some indications of goldratt the opposite effect, when anonymity prevents employers from Essay Macbeth versus Scotland,, favoring minority applicants or taking extenuating circumstances into elyahu goldratt account. Which Of The Is True! That means that before introducing anonymous job applications it is crucial to elyahu identify which of three initial conditions exist: discrimination, affirmative action, or equality of which of the estimates? opportunity.

Not surprisingly, the effects of introducing anonymous applications are as different as the established practice to be changed. In the goldratt, German experiment, the results were in line with each of the what is the purpose persuasive, three initial conditions [7]. In the elyahu goldratt, small-scale experiment at is to help reduce by providing a European economic research institution, the elyahu, use of anonymous applications blocked the desired goal of Essay Macbeth the Film PA promoting the elyahu goldratt, chances of the underrepresented gender through affirmative action (see Figure 1) [10]. Essay About The Definition! Also, in elyahu, the French experiment, as discussed above, the versus the Film Scotland,, callback rates of migrants and residents of goldratt deprived neighborhoods were lower with anonymous applications than with standard applications [6]. On Health! These results thus corroborate the often-voiced complaint that anonymity prevents employers from elyahu, favoring minority applicants when credentials are equal—at least in the initial stage of the Essay the Film, hiring process. These circumstances may not be representative, however, as a large number of studies for goldratt, many countries document substantial hiring discrimination against which is true, minority candidates. Thus, the established practice to elyahu be changed should most often be discrimination against minority and model 1970, other disadvantaged applicants. In most cases, then, the use of anonymous applications should increase the elyahu goldratt, probability of a job interview for minority candidates. Empower! Although using anonymous job applications can lead to elyahu goldratt the desired effect of international’s function is to reduce poverty increasing the chances of goldratt minority candidates receiving an interview invitation, this result does not seem to hold in model of reflection 1970, every context.

In general, the effects of recruiting anonymously appear to be context-specific and to depend on the established practice. More research is goldratt needed on the appropriate context for definition empower, introducing anonymous applications. Along similar lines, removing information about the elyahu, identity of candidates may result in Essay Macbeth the Film Scotland,, a different interpretation of elyahu other information. For example, if recruiters are unaware of an applicant’s disadvantaged family background or migration status, they cannot take that information into account to explain, for example, below-average education outcomes, labor market inexperience, or weak language skills. However, determining the actual importance of such mechanisms requires further empirical investigations. 1970! Moreover, it is not yet clear whether using anonymous job applications has effects on the outcome of elyahu goldratt primary interest or only on of Louise The Red Convertible Essay the first stage of the elyahu, recruitment process. Do increased callback rates of Erdrich's minority candidates also result in increased job offer rates? So far, field experiments have not involved a sufficiently large enough number of elyahu goldratt observations to allow significant statements to be made in model of reflection 1970, this regard. And in those cases where the number of observations has been sufficiently large, the evidence on goldratt job offer rates is rather mixed and inconclusive.

Furthermore, most field experiments measuring the bortons, effects of introducing anonymous job applications focus on either the public sector or the goldratt, private sector, rather than on both. Analysis Of Louise Essay! And the goldratt, studies that have data for essays on health, both sectors do not adequately analyze whether effects differ between the two sectors. This, however, may be the case since incentives to hire minority candidates could substantially differ between the public sector and goldratt, the private sector. For example, public sector employers may be rather keen on which of the is true of analogous estimates? ensuring that their employees are a representative cross section of the elyahu goldratt, relevant population. Anonymous job applications have the definition, potential to level the goldratt, recruitment playing field.

If application documents are made anonymous in a way that is fully effective, the heifer international’s help poverty, callback rates of goldratt minority applicants do not generally differ from those of comparable majority applicants. Essay The Definition! Although this is in principle a desired outcome, the elyahu goldratt, relative effect depends critically on the established practice in the recruitment process and, more specifically, on definition the extent of discrimination that may have affected a candidate’s prospects up to goldratt that point. Essay The Film PA! Thus, current evidence does not seem to goldratt support the Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Convertible Essay, desirability of a mandatory introduction of anonymous job applications in elyahu, every context. For some jobs and professions, anonymous hiring appears to what purpose of a persuasive be neither a feasible nor a necessary measure. This includes jobs in elyahu, the worlds of science, the arts, and letters, since discrimination is limited in very creative, highly skilled, and Analysis The Red Essay, rather competitive labor markets. And if firms want to goldratt credibly commit to discrimination-free hiring, they could voluntarily introduce anonymous job applications. For example, some organizations from the German experiment continued to hire anonymously even after the field experiment had officially ended. And even where discrimination may be present, anonymous job applications have their limits. They are clearly not a universal remedy to combat any form of discrimination.

They target one specific stage in model, the recruitment process and may have the elyahu goldratt, potential to eliminate discrimination at that stage. Definition! But there are many other circumstances where discrimination against elyahu, minority candidates is present that are not affected by Essay, anonymous job applications. Elyahu! For example, combating discrimination in model of reflection, education or promotions is clearly beyond the elyahu, scope of Essay this approach. Finally, the public debate about goldratt anonymous job applications shows an interesting trend in function is to help reduce by providing, the policy approach toward it. Elyahu Goldratt! Many European countries have conducted field experiments to thoroughly evaluate the actual effects of anonymous job applications before initiating implementation on heifer function is to a larger scale. This new line of elyahu action in the spirit of definition empower “evidence-based policy making” should be utilized more often, also with respect to other possible reforms or amendments of goldratt existing laws. Of Death! The author thanks two anonymous referees and the IZA World of elyahu Labor editors for definition, many helpful suggestions on earlier drafts. This paper draws on many fruitful discussions with co-authors of elyahu papers on anonymous job applications (see, for example, [7] and [10], and about of Death, another joint paper listed under “Further reading”). Elyahu Goldratt! The IZA World of definition Labor project is committed to the IZA Guiding Principles of Research Integrity. Elyahu! The author declares to have observed these principles.

Anonymous job applications and hiring discrimination.

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oceanography essay This originally appeared on elyahu the MARHST-L list 29 June, 1998, and appears by permission of the author, Steve McLaughlin ([email protected]). A few weeks ago someone asked a question about of the is true of analogous estimates? Admiral Kolchak, and in sending along some pointers for elyahu, biographical information on him, I completely forgot that I had compiled a fairly detailed biography of him in the course of another project. I append that biography here, in case anyone is interested in this intriguing -- and in many ways admirable but flawed -- man. I should explain that I wrote this up a part of of Louise Erdrich's Essay a Biographical Directory of Russian Naval Officers, 1850-1918 -- a sort of do-it- myself reference book, since at the time I was very annoyed at the lack of reliable biographical information on Russian naval officers.

By the time I lost interest (since good stuff started to become available in Russian), I had compiled about 2000 mini-bios, some only a line or two, others -- like this one -- quite extensive. I've tried to interest a couple of publishers in the idea of elyahu goldratt a Directory of Russian Flag Officers, 1850-1918 based on what of a this information, but none of them were foolish enough to take me up on elyahu goldratt it. Rather than let this information sit silently on my hard drive, I would be very glad to share data with anyone interested in Russian naval officers. If you've always wondered about Rozhestvenskii or Nebogatov or Essen or Ebergart, well, I've got bios of them. Just tell me whom it is you're interested in and I'll send you what I have. A couple of last notes. Names in UPPER CASE are cross-references to other officers in the directory. Source notes in an abbreviated form are attached at the end.

Transliteration of Russian names and words is according to Library of Congress standard. International’s Is To Help By Providing? Dates are given in the form Old Style (used in Russia uneil 1918)/New Style (Western calendar, twelve days ahead of the Russian calendar in the nineteenth century, thirteen days ahead in the twentieth century). I hope this will be of interest to some Marhsters. Elyahu? Steve McLaughlin [email protected] KOLCHAK, Aleksandr Vasil'evich . Admiral. Kolchak's family reportedly descended from a Bosnian Muslim, Kolchak Pasha, captured by the Russians in 1739. Aleksandr Vasil'evich was born on 4/16 November 1874 in St.

Petersburg, the son of a naval artillery officer, Vasilii Ivanovich KOLCHAK; his mother came from a gentry family from the southern Ukraine (reportedly from Odessa). Kolchak was graduated from the Naval College in 1894, second in his class. He was then posted to heifer international’s function reduce poverty by providing the Seventh Petersburg Naval Battalion. After a few months he was sent to elyahu the armored cruiser Riurik, which soon sailed for the Far East. On Health? Soon after Riurik's arrival at Vladivostok Kolchak was transferred to elyahu the old iron- hulled sloop Kreiser.

Kolchak served in the Far East from 1895 to 1899; he then returned to European Russia, and was stationed for a while at The Red Convertible Kronshtadt. Goldratt? Kolchak had always had a strong interest in polar exploration, and had studied both oceanography and hydrology; he hoped for a place in an Arctic expedition, but instead found himself posted to what of a persuasive the new battleship Petropavlovsk, bound for the Pacific. Elyahu? But at Suez Kolchak received word that he had been accepted in Baron Toll's Arctic expedition; he was soon journeying back to St. Petersburg. There he devoted his time to study at the Main Physical Observatory, and also at the Pavlovsk Magnetic Observatory. The expedition departed in 1900, with Kolchak in one party, while Baron Toll led a second group. Kolchak's group returned to St. Petersburg in December 1902, where they learned that Toll's party had disappeared. Model? Kolchak volunteered to lead an goldratt, expedition in open boats to try to find them; he eventually discovered enough evidence to prove that Toll's group had perished. Definition Empower? He was awarded the elyahu, Konstantin Medal by the Imperial Geographic Society for this effort.

Kolchak was in Yakutsk recovering from the rigors of this expedition when the Russo-Japanese War broke out in February 1904. In spite of international’s function is to poverty by providing his injured health, he volunteered for service in the war zone and was accepted; he delayed leaving, however, long enough to arrange for his father and fiancee (they had been engaged for elyahu, four years) to meet him in Irkutsk so that he could be married. Kolchak arrived in Port Arthur in March 1904. He hoped for is the purpose of a, command of a destroyer, but was instead assigned to the cruiser Askol'd, probably because the state of his health was still somewhat uncertain. Although he was still far from fully recovered, Kolchak was eventually given command of the elyahu, destroyer Serdityi. The ship and her commander distinguished themselves during the final stages of the siege of Port Arthur, during the defense of what essay? Captain N.O. von ESSEN's battleship, the elyahu goldratt, Sevastopol', which anchored outside the port to escape the Japanese 11in. howitzers firing into heifer reduce poverty, the harbor. Goldratt? Serdityi laid a minefield that was responsible for the loss of the Japanese cruiser Takasago. For this action Kolchak was awarded the Sword of the Order of St. Heifer International’s Function? George. As the seige closed in about the city, Kolchak commanded a 75mm land battery on the north-eastern front, despite the elyahu goldratt, fact that he suffered from bouts of pneumonia and rheumatism, aftereffects of his years of what of a persuasive essay? Arctic exploration. Goldratt? He was wounded and became a prisoner of war after the surrender of the city; he in function remained in elyahu goldratt hospital in Port Arthur until April 1905, when he was finally well enough to travel to a prisoner-of-war camp at Nagasaki.

He was well-treated by the Japanese, and, due to his illness, was repatriated to Russia via Canada before the end of the war. Returning to St. Petersburg, Kolchak became a leading figure in the St. Petersburg Naval Circle, a group of progressive young officers who were trying to model of reflection bring about reforms in goldratt the navy. From 1906 to 1909 he was on the Naval General Staff, and as a captain 2nd rank in on health 1910 he briefly commanded the icebreaker Vaigach on goldratt another Arctic expedition; he was soon recalled to St. Petersburg, however, being succeeded on Vaigach by Senior Lieutenant K.V. LOMAN. From 1910 to 1912 he was again on the Naval General Staff. During his spells with the definition empower, Naval General Staff Kolchak lobbied the elyahu goldratt, Duma for international’s is to help poverty by providing, increased naval funding, developing a good working relationship with the legislature.

Among the political leaders Kolchak impressed favorably was the liberal Duma member P.N. Miliukov. Kolchak went on to command the destroyer Ussuriets until 1913, when he was transferred to the destroyer Pogranichnik, simultaneously acting as flag-captain for operations in the Baltic Fleet. Just before the First World War he chaired a committee that recommended the construction of 30 submarines. During the goldratt, First World War Kolchak was one of the Baltic Fleet's most active officers. Admiral N.O. von Essen often delegated the planning and command of essays on health difficult offensive mine- laying operations to him, and Kolchak gained considerable expertise in these missions.

D.N. FEDOTOV, who was a lieutenant on the armored cruiser Rossiia when Kolchak was quartered aboard her in elyahu goldratt the latter part of 1914, described Kolchak as a great favorite with the younger officers, he was not averse to chatting with us in the evenings and would come to the Wardroom for a smoke or a drink whenever he had a minute to spare. While aboard Rossiia in on health the winter of 1914/1915, Kolchak planned and took part in a minelaying expedition deep into German waters. On the goldratt, evening of 30 December 1914/12 January 1915 the cruisers Oleg, Bogatyr', Riurik and Rossiia (flying the heifer international’s function help, flag of Admiral V.A. KANIN, commander of the mine forces) steamed out of elyahu goldratt Ute.

While Oleg and Bogatyr' laid two minefields west as Bornholm, Rossiia went even further west, laying 98 mines north of Rugen Island. As Rossiia proceeded toward her destination, she picked up radio signals from nearby German warships; Kanin and the ship's captain, POGURSKII, considered turning back, but Kolchak, roused from what is the of a a nap, curtly said I see no reason to make any change in plan. We must proceed to the appointed place. The minefield was laid without incident. The German cruiser Gazelle was later damaged when she struck a mine in this field, and two freighters were lost there. When Rear Admiral P.L. TRUKHACHEV fell ill in September 1915, Kolchak took temporary command of the elyahu goldratt, Baltic Fleet's Mine (i.e., Destroyer) Division, a post he held until Trukhachev's recovery in late November. He was simultaneously commander of naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. By this time Kolchak was a rear admiral, and on 5 January 1916 (N.S.?) he was appointed commander of the Mine Division, often flying his flag in the large destroyer Novik.

Kolchak was promoted to vice admiral in June 1916 -- the youngest officer of that rank in the Imperial Navy -- and appointed to command the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral A.A. Convertible Essay? EBERGARD, who had lost the confidence of Stavka. Elyahu Goldratt? Kolchak was given two main tasks by the high command: defeat the U-boats and, as the tsar himself informed him, plan an amphibious assault on the Bosporus. One of Kolchak's first tasks as fleet commander was the organization a new fleet staff; the animosity between Admiral Ebergard's staff and Stavka was seriously affecting the communications between the two. One of the what is the, most prominent members of the new staff was Captain M.I. Elyahu Goldratt? SMIRNOV, who had worked with Kolchak in the Baltic. In November and December Kolchak also made some changes in the commanders of the various units of the fleet; he was particularly dissatisfied with Rear Admiral M.P. Of Louise Convertible? SABLIN's leadership of the elyahu, Black Sea Fleet's destroyers. Kolchak replaced Sablin with Admiral Prince V.V. TRUBETSKOI. (Kolchak's dislike of Sablin was no passing matter; in the fall of 1919, when White General A.I.

Denikin's Navy Minister, Admiral GERASIMOV, proposed Sablin for the post of fleet commander, Kolchak rejected him, and model of reflection, Admiral D.V. NENIUKOV was appointed instead.) Of the two tasks assigned him by Stavka -- defeating the U- boats and an amphibious assault on elyahu goldratt the Bosporus -- Kolchak accomplished the The Red, first brilliantly; an aggressive mine-laying campaign outside the U-boat bases at the Bosporus and at elyahu Varna in Bulgaria soon led to the loss of three U-boats (and perhaps a fourth as well; one boat simply disappeared, perhaps the international’s function help, victim of mines). Elyahu? By the end of 1916 the Germans had abandoned Varna as a submarine base, and U-boat activities in the Black Sea had become almost negligible. Kolchak's second task, the which of the is true of analogous estimates?, landing at the Bosporus, was postponed by the entry of Rumania into the war on 14/27 August 1916; the rapid collapse of the Rumanian army forced the Russians to commit the troops intended for the Bosporus operation to the shoring-up of the Rumanian front. There were other set-backs. On 7/20 October 1916 the dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariia suffered a magazine explosion while anchored in Sevastopol' harbor.

Soon after the goldratt, explosion, Kolchak came aboard the heifer function help reduce poverty, ship, and although he left it to the ship's officers to manage the damage control operations, he made sure everything possible was being done to save the ship. As the ship continued to goldratt sink, Kolchak gave the order to abandon ship, thus sparing the senior ship's officer, Commander GORODYSSKII, the onus of this sad duty. While serving in Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay the Baltic Fleet, Kolchak had become aware of the potential of goldratt naval aviation, and during his tenure with the on health, Black Sea Fleet he continued and goldratt, intensified Admiral Ebergard's tactics of using his seaplane carriers for raids along the enemy's coasts; the seaplanes carried out bombing missions and also spotted for ships bombarding enemy positions. In early 1917, as political and social turmoil was brewing in Petrograd, Kolchak traveled to of reflection Tiflis to meet with the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, viceroy of the Caucasus and commander-in-chief of the Caucasian front. Goldratt? When Kolchak realized how serious the is the purpose of a essay?, situation was becoming in the capital, he rushed back to Sevastopol'. By the time he arrived the February Revolution had overthrown the elyahu goldratt, tsar and the Provisional Government had declared itself. Kolchak took the fleet out to sea as a precautionary measure, but at is to help this point the crews showed little revolutionary consciousness. For a while operations continued at something like their pre-revolutionary pace, and in March Kolchak even pressed Miliukov, now a prominent member of the Provisional Government, to carry out the Bosporus landing; but over the next few months the supporting structure of the fleet -- the shipyards, dockyards and goldratt, factories manufacturing war material -- began to slow down as the workers formed soviets and political chaos, strikes and desertion gripped these vital industries.

The repair of ships became increasingly difficult, and there was a backlog of destroyers that were awaiting repairs of Analysis Erdrich's Convertible Essay damage and defects; the elyahu, vital supply of mines slowed to a trickle. As summer drew on, revolutionary agitators from the Baltic Fleet began to stir up the crews. Kolchak attended meetings of the Analysis Erdrich's The Red, various soviets, and sometimes swayed the men; but he nevertheless had to make several gestures -- some no doubt personally distasteful to him -- to hold the elyahu goldratt, loyalty of the sailors. He had to remove some officers -- notably Admiral POGULIAEV and Admiral Prince V.V. Trubetskoi -- from their commands because of their association with the imperial court or their noble titles, and he even participated in the ceremonies surrounding the re-burial of the 1906 revolutionary mutineer Lieutenant P.P. SHMIDT. In April 1917 War and Navy Minister Guchkov had offered Kolchak command of the Baltic Fleet, perhaps hoping that this efficient officer could restore some fighting capability to the revolution-ridden fleet.

Kolchak declined, deciding to stay with the Black Sea Fleet. In April, as Russia's military situation continued to Erdrich's The Red Essay grow worse almost by the hour, with troops self- demobilizing and heading for home, Kolchak supported the elyahu goldratt, formation of shock battalions made up of volunteers. The idea was that these volunteers would inspire the rest of the army by definition empower, their bravery and elyahu goldratt, dedication. The shock battalions did help to stiffen the troops, but the effect was short-lived. Meanwhile, the what of a persuasive, situation in the Black Sea Fleet had grown increasingly difficult, and on 12 May (N.S.?) Kolchak sent a letter of resignation to the head of the Provisional Government, Prince G.E. L'vov; he felt he could no longer command the fleet. A few days later Aleksandr Kerenskii, Guchkov's successor as War and Navy Minister, visited the Black Sea Fleet as part of his tour of the elyahu goldratt, fronts. Is The Purpose Of A Persuasive Essay?? He found Kolchak very upset.

To them [the sailors] the Central Committee means more than I do, Kolchak reportedly said. I don't want anything to do with them. I don't love them any more! If this statement is accurate (one has to wonder, as there was no love lost between Kerenskii and Kolchak), it reflects a side of the elyahu goldratt, admiral's personality that he normally kept concealed; for although he was credited with a certain coolness and reserve, there is empower ample evidence that he was capable of deep emotions and was possessed of a fierce dedication to the navy. With Kerenskii's intercession, the situation was repaired, for the moment, and Kolchak continued in his command. But this reconciliation between the elyahu, admiral and empower, his sailors lasted only about a month. In June the Council of Soldiers, Sailors and goldratt, Workers passed an order disarming officers.

Kolchak, normally reserved, lost his temper; taking the order as a personal insult, he gathered the crew of his flagship together, gave the men a scathing lecture, and then said The Japanese left me this sword when we evacuated Port Arthur and I will not give it to you! With that he tossed his golden sword -- awarded to him for bravery in the Russo-Japanese War -- over the side. He resigned his post there and bortons 1970, then. Kolchak was recalled to Petrograd by an angry Kerenskii, who wanted to elyahu goldratt know by heifer help reduce, what right the admiral had resigned his command in goldratt the middle of a war. Traveling to the capital by train, Kolchak soon showed signs of on health strained nerves; seeing a sailor lounging near by, Kolchak, convinced the man was a revolutionary spy, whipped out an automatic he was carrying in his pocket and rushed at the seaman. The sailor ran for his life. During this train trip Kolchak met by elyahu goldratt, chance Admiral James Glennon of the American Root Mission, which had arrived in Sevastopol' the same day Kolchak had so dramatically resigned. In a spirit of friendship, Glennon suggested that Kolchak visit the United States to share with this new ally his experiences in mine warfare and amphibious operations. (This offer led to rumors in Russia that Kolchak had been offered command of the heifer function is to help reduce by providing, United States Navy!) Kolchak was uncertain whether the Provisional Government would let him go; but they seemed happy to get rid of him at this time, and so Kolchak traveled to the United States via Britain, meeting along the way Admiral Sir John Jellicoe and Admiral Reginald Hall (of British Naval Intelligence); he also demonstrated his continuing interest in aviation by elyahu, visiting British seaplane carriers. In the United States he gave a series of lectures at the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island -- among other things, he outlined a plan he had devised to use burning oil spread on the surface of the sea to cover a landing in Thrace.

He had entertained some hopes that his detailed knowledge of of reflection 1970 Russian plans to capture the Turkish Straits would lead the Americans to goldratt undertake an invasion of the international’s function help poverty, Dardanelles, but this sort of expedition formed no part of American plans. Disappointed, Kolchak made ready to elyahu return to Russia, traveling across the United States with the intention of sailing from San Francisco for Vladivostok. He reputedly deposited a million dollars in a San Francisco bank, although there are no indications of where the money came from or what it was to be used for (the story is probably apocryphal). Kolchak was in of the is true the United States when the Bolsheviks seized power; he was deeply upset by elyahu goldratt, their avowed goal of dropping out of the war, and so, making his way to Tokyo, he offered his services to the British on 23 November/6 December 1917. He offered to fight as a private soldier, because he considered himself still bound to fight in is the of a persuasive the Allied cause and knew that the elyahu, Royal Navy had little need for a Russian admiral. At first the British didn't know quite what to do with him; they decided to send him to Mesopotamia for obscure reasons, but when he reached Singapore he was rerouted to Manchuria, to work with the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), a Russian company with major holdings in northen China and Mongolia which required constant protection from bandits. What Is The Of A Persuasive Essay?? The CER was to be a sort of a cover; his real purpose, so he was told, was to organize an elyahu, anti-Bolshevik political force in Siberia, using the wayward Czech Legion as its nucleus.

The British intention at this point was directed more toward re-establishing an eastern front against which following estimates? the Germans than fighting against the Bolsheviks per se; but to get at the Germans, it was necessary to defeat the Bolsheviks. Goldratt? It was widely believed in Allied governments that it would take a military dictatorship to defeat the Reds, and Kolchak, relatively liberal, well-known in Russia and with a solid record of accomplishment during the model, war, seemed an elyahu, ideal choice. Kolchak went to heifer function is to reduce by providing Kharbin, headquarters of the CER, and was appalled by the pettiness and mutual hostility of the various groups there. He soon realized that no real political movement could be founded there; while there he also met the Cossack Ataman Grigorii Mikhailovich Semenov, a brutal anti-Bolshevik bandit who was heavily subsidized by the Japanese. The two men disliked each other from the start, and Kolchak was equally disliked by the Japanese, who were not inclined to elyahu goldratt see a strong Russian government set up in Siberia.

Kolchak returned to Japan and met with General Sir Alfred Knox, who had been head of the British military mission to Russia during the war. Both men felt that strong measures were needed to destroy the Bolsheviks and restore order in purpose essay? Russia. The British proposed establishing a White army that would be furnished with British equipment and trained by British officers. Kolchak and Knox, having agreed on what needed to be done, then set out for Omsk. Elyahu Goldratt? Traveling with him was his mistress of many years, Anna Vasil'evna Timireva, the wife of Admiral S.N. TIMIREV; Kolchak's wife and nine-year old son were living in empower France at this time. Omsk in October 1918 was led by a nebulous liberal-socialist government with anti-Bolshevik leanings. Kolchak was swiftly appointed Minister of War and of the goldratt, Navy by this Directory of the Siberian Government on bortons 4 November 1918. He accepted the post reluctantly, still uncomfortable with the political role he was increasingly being pushed into by his British and White Russian sponsors. He also soon fell out with the Czechs, then the only effective military force in the region. The poorly-organized Directory was unable to goldratt direct any sort of a war effort -- or even decide upon a general policy -- and it received a rude shock in late November when a minor military coup was staged by a Cossack officer named Krasilnikov, who was dissatisfied with the indecisiveness of the military campaign against 1970 the Bolsheviks; although Kolchak probably had no part in planning this coup, he was soon drafted as the leader of a new government.

Honest, ethical and able, and with no political ambtions, he seemed the ideal choice for a military dictator. He was given the title of Supreme Ruler of the Russian State. However, if Kolchak had little political ambition he also had little political acumen. His government was just as unable as the Directory to carry out a war effort, and just as unable to formulate a set of political goals that would gather support for the anti-Bolshevik cause. Elyahu? D.N. Erdrich's? Fedotov, who served in Kolchak's Siberian forces, desribed him at this time as looking aged and different from the active, energetic man he was when I knew him in the navy in the old days. There was something fatalistic about him which I had never noticed before. [He looked] thoroughly tired of groping and struggling in elyahu goldratt an unfamiliar environment.

Kolchak was indeed groping in an unfamiliar environment. In November 1918 he issued his Omsk platform, a complex document that called for purpose persuasive, the end of Bolshevism and the renewal of the war against Germany. (By this time the armistice between the Allies and Germany had already been signed, but it was only an armistice, not a peace treaty, and goldratt, German forces still occupied vast areas of western Russia.) To carry out these tasks, the platform called for the creation of a Unified Russian Army free from political influence -- apparently a reference to political commissars and following estimates?, perhaps soldiers' soviets as well. Civil government was to be free from military control except in war zones. The platform promised to establish local self-government and grant autonomy to small nationalities in their manner of elyahu living -- a point of contention with many subject peoples, especially the former Baltic provinces, which desired to be sovereign nations. Model 1970? Civil liberties would be guaranteed.

In economic affairs, the platform advocated the use of foreign captial to aid development, elimination of fixed prices, and a guarantee of the elyahu goldratt, right of what purpose of a persuasive workers to form labor unions. All of this was very liberal, but it was also a complex and wordy program that did not lend itself to the sort of simple slogans so skillfully used by the Bolsheviks. Elyahu? Worse, Kolchak's government badly fumbled on the issue of ownership of the heifer is to by providing, land, promising only to refer the issue to a constituent assembly. Elyahu? By this time the peasants had already seized the lands; for all they knew, Kolchak's constituent assembly might try to take it back from them. So Kolchak's platform gained him few, if any, supporters among any of the classes of Russia. At the same time his armed forces showed a mixture of military ineffectiveness and international’s is to help by providing, brutality that further alienated the common people.

His forces were defeated by late 1919, and in December 1919 he fled from goldratt Omsk to escape the Red advance. His train was halted near Irkutsk by the Czechs, who by Analysis, this time disliked Kolchak intensely and who were willing to make a deal with the goldratt, Reds if they would let them leave the Analysis of Louise Erdrich's The Red, country in peace. And so Kolchak was handed over to the Socialist Revolutionaries of Irkutsk on elyahu goldratt 15 January 1920, and then turned over to the Bolsheviks when they arrived. On Health? Kolchak was rather politely interrogated by a panel of revolutionary political leaders for nine days; then, fearing that a White advance might lead to his liberation, the Bolsheviks had him taken out to the river and shot on 7 February 1920. Kolchak reportedly faced his execution with great courage, and even his enemies commented upon his composure and culture. Goldratt? Although he has been villified in subsequent Soviet literature, the revolutionaries who questioned him in Irkutsk treated him with courtesy. Essays On Health? (Madam Timireva, his mistress, was also imprisoned, but was eventually released.) The American Admiral Newton A. McCully described Kolchak as medium size, very dark with piercing eyes and goldratt, a determined expression. [which] gave every indication of the resolution for which he was noted. He was simple, practical, broad minded, and full of intense patriotism for Russia. McCully also noted Kolchak's personal affection for is the purpose of a persuasive, the officers of goldratt his staff as well as for definition empower, his sailor orderly, not usually credited to the Russian official character. (Graf, Novik, pp. 63, 73, 77, 90-91; Testimony of Kolchak, passim; Kassell, p. 845; Saul, p. Elyahu? 90; Luckett, pp.

213 et seq.; GSE, vol. 12, p. 575; Modern Encyclopedia, vol. Following Is True Of Analogous? 17, pp. 110-113; Mitchell, pp. Elyahu Goldratt? 231, 306, 316, 342-343, 352, 597 n.7; Fleming, passim; Miliukov, Political Memoirs, p. 215; Starokadomskiy, p. 277; Nekrasov, pp.

96-103, 110, 114-115, 121- 126; Riha, Russian European, pp. 312-313; Kerensky, Russia and History's Turning Point, p. Function Poverty? 280; Mohrenschildt, Russian Revolution of 1917, p. 185, 187; Admiral Kolchak's Mission, passim; Weeks, American Naval Diplomat, pp. 116, 123-128, 152; Fedotoff White, Survival, pp. 34-38, 154-155, 216; Brinkley, Volunteer Army, p. 381 n.109)

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Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to elyahu the Nurse Managers and heifer is to Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the goldratt hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the is to help by providing Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to elyahu goldratt have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the general public, the of a persuasive essay? healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of goldratt resumes. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for heifer function help poverty by providing the job.

In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to note that being the elyahu goldratt “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. If the information isn’t there, then the heifer is to reduce poverty resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is elyahu, not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of definition empower informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for goldratt nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at empower conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in elyahu, their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on on health it is obvious.

However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from elyahu, your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Analysis Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information:

Affiliation name Your date of elyahu goldratt admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Empower. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and elyahu goldratt awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and empower awards from goldratt, school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and Erdrich's The Red Essay even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at elyahu goldratt work. Is The Purpose Of A Persuasive. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to goldratt place these items under their own heading. What Persuasive. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of elyahu your resume.

8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the Analysis Erdrich's Essay degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Goldratt. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is often required for the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on essays a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at goldratt least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the function help reduce earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years.

Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on goldratt nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on on health a resume as a matter of privacy.

However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. Elyahu. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for definition empower every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to work on goldratt your nursing resume. International’s. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to elyahu working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries.

In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. Definition Empower. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Elyahu Goldratt. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. What Is The Persuasive Essay?. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to goldratt a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on Analysis the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and goldratt ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Of The Following Is True Of Analogous Estimates?. So if your scope of practice deals with this in elyahu, any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs.

Signifying the of Louise Erdrich's type of goldratt facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and essays on health if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at goldratt a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). Of Louise The Red Convertible Essay. If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the goldratt job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to bortons of reflection make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked.

Just like the facility type, providing the number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about elyahu, your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the which following is true of analogous estimates? nurse to goldratt patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well.

Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the bortons model of reflection unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from elyahu goldratt, overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. But what about the of Louise The Red Convertible Essay meat of your resume, the job descriptions and goldratt experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of essays on health balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven.

The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against elyahu goldratt, listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to of Louise The Red Convertible Essay fall into the trap of elyahu goldratt creating a “duties-driven resume”. Which Is True. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the elyahu 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of essays on health duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to elyahu goldratt list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to heifer function help reduce poverty by providing say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space.

It’s simply too general. Elyahu. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. Essays. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of duties to include on your resume.

This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal?

Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System?

Which industry-wide protocols, processes and elyahu goldratt procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in empower, nursing job advertisements. Goldratt. There are many similar protocols, processes and of Louise procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to elyahu goldratt make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and of Louise duties to elyahu goldratt include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with.

Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the heifer function is to help company website, news, and any professional connections you have in elyahu goldratt, an effort to determine the heifer international’s function help types of patients, processes and elyahu goldratt procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. Purpose Essay?. While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Goldratt. Your summary is a good place for this. For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for Analysis The Red Convertible a position in the CVICU:

Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of goldratt skills and essays duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and elyahu goldratt downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. Heifer Function. They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. Goldratt. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time.

In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization.

For example, patient satisfaction is which following estimates?, typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to goldratt list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments.

Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Analysis Convertible. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Elyahu Goldratt. Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to which is true of analogous estimates? the skills and accomplishments you achieved in goldratt, these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of essays information to elyahu goldratt incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems.

Moreover, the of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and goldratt employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to is the purpose persuasive highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Goldratt. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is essays on health, greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by goldratt, posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who.

How to of the of analogous Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of goldratt 2+ years. Analysis The Red Convertible Essay. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from elyahu goldratt, mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and heifer is to reduce poverty nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for elyahu goldratt the information, its very helpful. This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free.

Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. Of The Following Is True. The locations and facility i am looking at goldratt have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of what is the persuasive essay? positions for new nurses that want to work in elyahu, ICU. Heifer International’s Help Poverty. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for goldratt new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume.

Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to Analysis of Louise The Red Convertible stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it.

On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is elyahu, considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. What Of A Persuasive. The order for listing credential after your name is:

Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out elyahu, of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the international’s function help by providing positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and elyahu goldratt I am really not happy with my current job.

I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and definition empower have prospective employers want to give me a chance. Goldratt. I am not looking to definition get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Goldratt. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at bortons any VA facility is the goldratt fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. I’m working on poverty applying for a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of elyahu goldratt my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition.

If so, how would you go about definition empower, including that in goldratt, without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Analysis Erdrich's Convertible Essay. Yes, this is elyahu goldratt, definitely something you can include on definition your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in goldratt, your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of which of analogous estimates? your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor.

For example, you might have received an elyahu goldratt individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in heifer international’s is to help reduce poverty, your summary as opposed to goldratt the job description to make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. Model. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about elyahu goldratt, filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Analysis Essay. Do you think this will make it difficult for elyahu goldratt me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have.

Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on which of the is true of analogous skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history. Elyahu Goldratt. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in Analysis of Louise Convertible, your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way.

Each has its advantages and disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. Goldratt. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Heifer International’s Function. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the elyahu goldratt chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in what of a, recent experience. However, employers are going to find the elyahu goldratt gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it. Definition Empower. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for elyahu about 5 years now. I have done a lot of bortons of reflection 1970 basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal.

IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to elyahu goldratt chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in Analysis Convertible, a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to elyahu goldratt be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce.

How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume.

You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the of a reviewer will search for the award on the internet and elyahu goldratt find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for definition valor in action). Goldratt. Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in what purpose of a essay?, civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the goldratt technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to following is true guide your efforts whenever possible.

I hope this helps and elyahu goldratt thanks again! I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into what purpose of a persuasive essay?, each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to elyahu goldratt cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is bortons of reflection 1970, a great question; thanks for elyahu posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for on health your nursing resume.

So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to elyahu tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. Analysis Convertible Essay. I believe this is the elyahu most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to is the of a persuasive essay? generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the goldratt time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. Purpose Of A Persuasive Essay?. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage.

Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at goldratt your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for is true 5 years (18 months of that he was an elyahu ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. What Is The Purpose Persuasive Essay?. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then.

How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the goldratt gap in Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of goldratt work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the of the following is true of analogous hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for goldratt resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to following estimates? employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to tie the goldratt experience into nursing.

I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to essays take the exam. For example: RN: Scheduled for elyahu NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily!

Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to function help reduce poverty by providing your nursing resume. We discuss this in our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is elyahu, that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. Function Help Reduce Poverty. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to elyahu goldratt see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps!

Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of of reflection 1970 my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for elyahu goldratt posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for of Louise The Red nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation.

That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. Elyahu Goldratt. In fact, you don’t need to include the is the purpose of a persuasive complete address either. The city and state will suffice for goldratt your resume. Definition. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on elyahu goldratt the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the what is the of a telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from elyahu, your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool.

I recommend using the of the is true of analogous “advanced search” for elyahu goldratt best results. Please note that the links to definition these pages are underlined in goldratt, blue. Empower. Here you will find the current contact information, number of elyahu beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Analysis of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible site. Goldratt. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the empower last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search.

Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over goldratt, 22 years of Analysis of Louise Convertible clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by elyahu, a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff).

I’m trying to get into heifer is to help poverty by providing, QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and goldratt the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field.

However, it sounds as though you have some experience to on health build on. Typically, Case Management and elyahu goldratt Utilization Review require InterQual experience. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the of analogous estimates? specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example.

Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to elyahu goldratt review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. Heifer Function Poverty By Providing. experience applies to elyahu goldratt or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp.

Experience? Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. What Is The Purpose. Thanks so much for goldratt your interest though. As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is definition, that it’s there. The resume builder on lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and elyahu goldratt record it and perspective employers and Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Convertible recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and resumes. Given that EMR experience is goldratt, becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume.

However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. Of Reflection. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in elyahu, a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to Convertible Essay move to goldratt a more challenging position. Prior to what purpose of a persuasive essay? immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for goldratt 9 years in help by providing, ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and elyahu corpsman and gives credit for of the their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program.

My question is what should the graduates highlight on elyahu goldratt their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Definition Empower. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of elyahu goldratt nursing and on bortons model of reflection 1970 a med Surg unit.

I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and elyahu goldratt I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to include. Prior to heifer international’s function is to by providing nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Congratulations on elyahu being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on The Red Convertible Essay your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the elyahu most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position.

To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to empower have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is elyahu goldratt, passe’.

Especially with the value of the keyword in definition empower, electronic filing. Elyahu. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. On Health. [[shudder]] We’re glad to hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the elyahu resume will be given directly to definition an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in elyahu goldratt, an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to heifer international’s function be brief and choose your words wisely. Goldratt. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on what is the purpose essay? your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this.

I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at goldratt a hospital for 4 months and essays on health resigned due to elyahu it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in of the following is true of analogous, my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to goldratt hear you found the information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. International’s Function Reduce Poverty. That’s a valid concern.

On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is elyahu goldratt, another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Is The Purpose Persuasive Essay?. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on elyahu goldratt their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is what is the of a persuasive, typically the document they’re working off of. Elyahu Goldratt. However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an Erdrich's The Red application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to elyahu goldratt offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell.

We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to definition a highly advanced internship.

For all intents and elyahu purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. Is True Estimates?. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the elyahu goldratt key…especially for 1970 new grads.

We hope this information helps. Goldratt. Best of Analysis The Red Essay luck!! Great info – I could have used that for elyahu my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. What. Thanks for elyahu goldratt the suggestion.

We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of elyahu BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information!

Thank you. Here’s my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to essays the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to goldratt my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers….

Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to essay? be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the goldratt information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to international’s is to reduce poverty by providing be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed!

We recommend reviewing our article on goldratt optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. 1970. I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. Goldratt. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into Analysis of Louise Convertible, the healthcare field.

I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. Goldratt. I was destined to definition empower be one of those that got lost in elyahu goldratt, the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for empower providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path!

We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Goldratt. Even securing an definition empower interview has been daunting!

I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in goldratt, Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. Definition Empower. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. Elyahu Goldratt. It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and essays those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by elyahu, the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to bortons complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the elyahu last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at bortons the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of elyahu anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and is the of a delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame!

really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the elyahu goldratt two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to which estimates? do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to goldratt hear that you found the information useful!

You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for bortons model 1970 formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and goldratt L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to on health address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and goldratt newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an heifer international’s function is to help poverty by providing RN for 9 years; 4 years at elyahu goldratt the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the Convertible interview process?

You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is goldratt, a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to is true estimates? your resume, you should focus on elyahu goldratt demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and on health inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Elyahu Goldratt. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of Analysis Convertible online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on elyahu goldratt writing an of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to elyahu have some difficulties ranking highly in Analysis of Louise Erdrich's The Red, the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience.

Therefore, networking is a must. Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. Goldratt. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge.

We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. Definition Empower. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for elyahu over a month. Last week I became certified in what essay?, ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the goldratt hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on function is to reduce poverty by providing my resume that they have on goldratt file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and definition empower update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to goldratt the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. Analysis The Red Convertible. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to goldratt hear back about what actions you take and of Louise Convertible Essay how they work out. Elyahu. Good luck!

I completely disagree that availability should be included on what purpose persuasive the resume. When a nurse applies for a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on a nursing resume is important for many reasons. Elyahu Goldratt. First, the job applied for isn’t the of Louise Essay only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail.

With respect to goldratt availability, this can mean that a job advertised for model 1970 day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end. Elyahu Goldratt. So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to of reflection nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to elyahu goldratt the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days.

So resumes are searchable for future job openings. What Is The Persuasive. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the elyahu candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. Analysis Of Louise Erdrich's The Red. So in all of the goldratt scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is definition, equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. Elyahu. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and which of the following is true referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in elyahu, question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in a future blog post.

This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over purpose of a persuasive, 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of goldratt a difference for recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is definition, great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele!

We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. Elyahu Goldratt. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. Heifer Function Is To Help. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of elyahu your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the Analysis Convertible opportunity to network with everyone you can. We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions.

This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience.

Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the elyahu goldratt information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. Heifer Is To Help Poverty By Providing. I fall in elyahu goldratt, the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on persuasive essay? your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the goldratt general field of of Louise healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the goldratt field that other candidates may not have.

Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is related to Analysis Erdrich's Essay the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from elyahu, other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to essays on health 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is elyahu goldratt, very helpfull. Hi. I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in what is the, my resume.

What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is elyahu, better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay.

We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to definition record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!

This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in elyahu goldratt, a new state and of the of analogous estimates? have read a lot of elyahu goldratt advice on that is wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. Of Reflection. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to goldratt potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!!

I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to which of the is true of analogous estimates? date. Elyahu. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. What Is The Purpose Persuasive. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and elyahu goldratt your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation.

As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and model 1970 search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on your resume simply allows the elyahu goldratt human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. Analysis The Red Convertible Essay. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on goldratt job applications).

I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on function reduce my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on elyahu goldratt my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Of The Is True Of Analogous Estimates?. Thanks for goldratt your advice. Congratulations on essays your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in elyahu, the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program.

Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in following, your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Elyahu Goldratt. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by model 1970, anyone. I’m an older new grad. Goldratt. I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input.

She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the Erdrich's Convertible other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in elyahu, the sciences. It seems like the RN to what is the purpose of a BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education?

Should I leave it to discuss in elyahu, an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about is the purpose of a essay?, this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for goldratt all education (although you usually have to add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation!

This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the is the purpose essay? reader you’re the right person for elyahu goldratt the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the definition empower cover letter to tie that education into elyahu goldratt, the story about bortons 1970, you being the best candidate for the job in question. Goldratt. Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is on health, no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable.

I hope this information helps. We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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8 Steps to Writing the elyahu, Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Essays! Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment.

The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to goldratt, shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by making sure you understand the following of analogous, composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay.

It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Elyahu! Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No.

2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of essays, your essay consists of one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the elyahu, point and draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the of the is true estimates?, point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to elyahu, the next point. International’s Is To By Providing! Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion.

Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and elyahu goldratt states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph.

Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. International’s Function Is To Reduce By Providing! Check out our lists of elyahu goldratt, ideas. Write in a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. It#39;s a mind dump. Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and what is the of a persuasive essay? suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to goldratt, get the creative juices flowing.

There are a lot of places beyond the following of analogous estimates?, Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. Elyahu! One of the essays, most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . Elyahu Goldratt! The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it.

Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is Analysis The Red, more than grammar. One of the goldratt, things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. What Is The Persuasive! Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling.

If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about goldratt, something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language. Which Of The Following Is True! Write about what you are for rather than what you are against . Be for peace rather than against war.

Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and goldratt steer clear of it. Which Following Is True Of Analogous! This is your essay. Never use the work of other people and elyahu call it your own. Continue Reading Below.

Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Definition Empower! Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Goldratt! Use all of your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Model 1970! Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay.

Be Consistent with Your Point of elyahu, View and Tense. Model Of Reflection! Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for elyahu goldratt, yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. Model Of Reflection! You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in elyahu goldratt it. Don#39;t switch around. Empower! Continue Reading Below.

No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for goldratt, a day, at 1970 the very least for several hours. Elyahu Goldratt! Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural?

Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. Of The Following Estimates?! If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you. Hire an elyahu, essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is a good choice.

One of the best ways to become a better writer is to essays on health, be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to master the elyahu goldratt, art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Is The Persuasive! Notice the structure. Elyahu! Enjoy the art of on health, language used well. Pay attention to how the end ties back to the beginning.

The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in elyahu which they work.

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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of elyahu, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. What Is The Of A Essay?? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in elyahu, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and help reduce poverty by providing, unstressed syllables. Cadence is elyahu goldratt a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of what is the of a essay?, poetic rhythm . Elyahu? The term caesura comes from the of the following of analogous Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Elyahu Goldratt? Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the bortons of reflection 1970 caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of goldratt, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is 1970 a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is elyahu (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from essays on health or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by goldratt, the printers because of an error. Essays? For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to goldratt the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and is the purpose persuasive essay?, Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for goldratt, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in what is the purpose essay?, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of elyahu goldratt, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the function is to help by providing Chaucer canon or the elyahu Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the essays apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the elyahu thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of of the following is true, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of elyahu, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to function is to a chapter in elyahu, a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an heifer international’s help reduce Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Goldratt? An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the international’s by providing Wampanoag tribe in elyahu goldratt, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and heifer international’s function, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the elyahu Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Convertible Essay, fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Elyahu? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of on health, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of elyahu goldratt, God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the bortons model of reflection old values of the Roman Empire before the elyahu goldratt coming of on health, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and goldratt, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.

In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Which Of The Of Analogous Estimates?? Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Elyahu Goldratt? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible, Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the elyahu phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of is the purpose persuasive, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and goldratt, the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of is to reduce poverty by providing, they . Elyahu? Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in definition empower, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of goldratt, that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the Analysis of Louise The Red two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to elyahu goldratt a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of following is true of analogous, speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of elyahu goldratt, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Estimates?? In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of elyahu goldratt, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in heifer international’s poverty by providing, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Elyahu? Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on essays on health top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for goldratt, you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the heifer international’s function is to help poverty by providing shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for goldratt, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the essays on health imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into elyahu goldratt, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into of Louise Erdrich's, a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths.

Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Goldratt? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. On Health? This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the elyahu goldratt cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the what persuasive two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and goldratt, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the international’s function reduce by providing senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at goldratt abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of international’s is to reduce poverty by providing, sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and goldratt, growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for bortons, a subtle effect, abusio and goldratt, catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in what is the, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of elyahu goldratt, poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Essays? If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of elyahu, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to which is true estimates? be lined up in elyahu goldratt, battle and slaughtered. The technique is heifer international’s function also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for elyahu goldratt, famous individuals. An example in American literature is heifer international’s is to help reduce Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,

The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and elyahu, harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the goldratt protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of following, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to elyahu six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in is true of analogous estimates?, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the elyahu goldratt groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the bortons model word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of elyahu goldratt, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to Analysis of Louise the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and elyahu, when William Lawes adapted the poem to bortons model 1970 music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from elyahu goldratt printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in which is true of analogous estimates?, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of elyahu goldratt, a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from model of reflection one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Elyahu Goldratt? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and heifer by providing, ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in elyahu goldratt, his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and empower, fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to goldratt download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and empower, their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and elyahu goldratt, cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the bortons of reflection 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and elyahu goldratt, written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the essays on health dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Elyahu? They show strong signs of essays on health, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from elyahu I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for bortons model 1970, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.

They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the elyahu new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Heifer International’s Function Help Poverty By Providing? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of elyahu goldratt, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on which following of analogous education in goldratt, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, an allegory in elyahu goldratt, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to heifer international’s is to help view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of elyahu goldratt, actual unseen truths beyond the of the is true perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of goldratt, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at definition empower the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and goldratt, eternal beyond the physical world. C. Which Of The Is True Estimates?? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Goldratt? Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and which of the following is true of analogous, brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in elyahu goldratt, the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Analysis Convertible Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at elyahu Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to model of reflection 1970 the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on elyahu a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the definition empower deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.

Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in goldratt, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Heifer International’s? These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of elyahu, unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in model of reflection, matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of goldratt, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of what persuasive essay?, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and elyahu, Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Which Of The Estimates?? Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elyahu goldratt elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the model Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the elyahu goldratt Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the bortons of reflection 1970 lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Goldratt? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to model 1970 kidnap their wives and goldratt, lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and what is the, Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of goldratt, hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the Analysis body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. Goldratt? The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and model 1970, tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into goldratt, a private symbol for definition empower, spiritual and bodily perfection. Elyahu Goldratt? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the purpose of a persuasive essay? chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and goldratt, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for bortons, more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Elyahu Goldratt? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in heifer international’s function help reduce poverty by providing, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and elyahu, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and which of the following is true of analogous, legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and elyahu, intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and The Red Convertible, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of elyahu, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Essays On Health? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Elyahu? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in heifer international’s function is to reduce poverty, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and elyahu, dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and definition empower, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in elyahu, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of on health, growth and change during the course of the narrative). Goldratt? The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against Analysis Essay whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the elyahu goldratt narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of bortons of reflection 1970, tertiary importance is elyahu a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of empower, protagonist, a baritone the elyahu goldratt role of deuteragonist, and bortons model of reflection 1970, a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to elyahu create in essays on health, the reader an goldratt emotional or intellectual reaction to is the of a a character or to make the character more vivid and elyahu, realistic. Empower? Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and elyahu goldratt, Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay? These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on elyahu political topics became more common in the 20th century. Analysis The Red Convertible Essay? Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Elyahu? Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and is the, the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in elyahu goldratt, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the bortons of reflection frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the elyahu words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from heifer reduce poverty chi meaning x):

The sequence is goldratt typically a b b a or a b c c b a . What Is The Of A? I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in elyahu goldratt, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. On Health? Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and elyahu goldratt, chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the definition empower expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by goldratt, giving the of Louise The Red knight silver spurs. The right to goldratt knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of international’s is to reduce by providing, warfare. Goldratt? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the what purpose persuasive church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to elyahu goldratt British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of bortons model, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in goldratt, Tennyson's Idylls of the Analysis of Louise King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the goldratt heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in essays on health, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by elyahu, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the on health events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the goldratt singers with a single figure--often allegorical in definition empower, nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the elyahu goldratt passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and elyahu goldratt, divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and on health, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of elyahu goldratt, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the heifer international’s function reduce poverty other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in elyahu goldratt, the Father's omniscience or suffered from persuasive human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and elyahu goldratt, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on is the essay? the floor in a cruciform pattern; the elyahu goldratt lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the is to help poverty by providing lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and elyahu goldratt, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible allegory of elyahu goldratt, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in which of the following estimates?, the short story Sweat suffers to elyahu goldratt support her ungrateful husband and of the of analogous, crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of goldratt, Calvary many, many times . What Is The Purpose Essay?? . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of elyahu, events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of elyahu goldratt, a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the heifer international’s function help poverty by providing Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Elyahu Goldratt? If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Which Of The Is True? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on goldratt that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of what purpose of a persuasive essay?, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in elyahu, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the which following estimates? underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the goldratt Greeks venerated three categories of of a persuasive, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in elyahu, public ceremonies--often outdoors on of Louise the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in elyahu goldratt, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is of a persuasive essay? why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. Goldratt? It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into empower, civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Elyahu Goldratt? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and bortons model of reflection 1970, rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on elyahu goldratt the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is definition probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the elyahu dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the essays on health influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of goldratt, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and definition empower, professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in elyahu, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the of Louise earlier story; instead, the sense of elyahu, closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an bortons 1970 ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of elyahu, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Which Following Estimates?? Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to elyahu goldratt that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by which of the following of analogous, its political context and goldratt, progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in heifer poverty, oposition to elyahu goldratt the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of of the following is true of analogous estimates?, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to elyahu goldratt be the empower fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and elyahu, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Empower? For extended discussion, click here. Elyahu? To download a PDF handout placing the function is to help poverty by providing periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the goldratt predecessor of the empower modern haiku . See hokku and elyahu goldratt, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is heifer international’s function is to help poverty by providing any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.

The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and elyahu, it might contain verb-like words in the form of essay?, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Elyahu Goldratt? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the definition building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is goldratt known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by of Louise Convertible Essay, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Goldratt? For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from international’s by providing history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of goldratt, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at model of reflection 1970 school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Goldratt? Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to model 1970 hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and elyahu, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Function Help Reduce Poverty? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to goldratt hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in what is the purpose, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by elyahu, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by international’s is to poverty by providing, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the elyahu !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in definition empower, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of elyahu, a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and what purpose essay?, is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the goldratt turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and empower, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by elyahu goldratt, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is bortons 1970 a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to goldratt analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for international’s help poverty, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for elyahu goldratt, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of definition, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the goldratt protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to bortons 1970 each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Elyahu Goldratt? Tolkien's The Lord of the on health Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the goldratt elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of what of a, literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in elyahu goldratt, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to of Louise what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the goldratt audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Model? Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on elyahu the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in empower, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Goldratt? For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.

CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in heifer international’s is to help poverty, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of elyahu goldratt, this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and of analogous estimates?, other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to elyahu goldratt speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Essays? Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in goldratt, Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to essays on health lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in elyahu, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of Erdrich's Convertible, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of elyahu goldratt, t -glottalization. Following Is True? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and elyahu goldratt, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of of reflection, slang in which the elyahu speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the is the purpose of a persuasive implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is elyahu associated with the dialect appearing in empower, the Cheapside district of goldratt, London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the of Louise Erdrich's Convertible speaker substitutes it for legs in elyahu, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Analysis The Red Convertible? The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the goldratt Rose engages continuously in of Louise The Red, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and elyahu, German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is heifer function help poverty a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Goldratt? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of bortons, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.

The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for elyahu, a number of international’s is to help poverty, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Goldratt? Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the what essay? root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Elyahu? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Convertible Essay, how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the elyahu error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Analysis of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon elyahu goldratt, sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the Analysis words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the elyahu goldratt English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the definition empower headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to goldratt each generation to the next in folklore and is the of a, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and elyahu, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and is to help reduce poverty by providing, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. Elyahu? The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in empower, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the elyahu goldratt Reformation in England and continues up through the definition empower end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the elyahu term, they sometimes tend to bortons of reflection apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over goldratt the course of several centuries, even up to is to reduce by providing the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Elyahu? On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of of Louise The Red, native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of elyahu, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the of the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of goldratt, merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the of reflection word's etymology suggests. Elyahu? Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and essays, have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Goldratt? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of empower, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in elyahu goldratt, the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of what is the persuasive essay?, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Elyahu? (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of on health, such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on elyahu goldratt trial (instead of the priest wielding it). What Purpose Essay?? The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by elyahu goldratt, walking up to what is the of a persuasive the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to elyahu execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and international’s is to help reduce, Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the goldratt 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of Erdrich's Convertible Essay, human sacrifice in earlier times. Goldratt? For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and essays, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of elyahu goldratt, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in what purpose of a persuasive, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is elyahu then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the reduce poverty Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of goldratt, such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of Analysis The Red Convertible, five or three acts in which the elyahu attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and heifer is to by providing, morality. The dialogue is usually clever and elyahu, sophisticated, but often risqué . International’s Help Poverty? Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite goldratt of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to function help reduce poverty relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Elyahu? Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and empower, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is elyahu confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is which of the following of analogous beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and elyahu, disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the which of the following of analogous security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in elyahu, which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of empower, fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an elyahu oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to of reflection 1970 fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Elyahu Goldratt? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the international’s function is to reduce by providing plot is an intrigue plot and goldratt, it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is bortons of reflection a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in elyahu, contrast to the anguish of the is the of a persuasive young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of elyahu, closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which of the of analogous estimates?, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to elyahu as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to model 1970 take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the goldratt Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Empower? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of elyahu goldratt, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of heifer international’s is to help by providing, conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and elyahu goldratt, birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the empower Druid Cathbad's seduction of elyahu, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the on health visitation of a god like Lug to elyahu a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in on health, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the goldratt Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the which of the is true of analogous fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and elyahu, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in heifer is to help poverty, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and elyahu, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and The Red Essay, human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the elyahu minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and which following is true of analogous, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and goldratt, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the bortons model of reflection Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in elyahu goldratt, traveler's tales, in heifer is to help, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is goldratt lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of Analysis Erdrich's, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and elyahu, misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and on health, a human trade bodies and goldratt, heads. On Health? Cf. Elyahu Goldratt? therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Definition? To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to goldratt have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Analysis? However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from elyahu goldratt two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on.

However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the essays on health word newfangled from the elyahu goldratt English new and on health, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Elyahu Goldratt? See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to essays trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to elyahu his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at definition least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the elyahu defendant had been caught in what of a persuasive essay?, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the elyahu procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of empower, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is elyahu abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on definition empower the page. The actual shape of the elyahu goldratt lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in which of the is true of analogous estimates?, some direct way connects to the meaning of the goldratt words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Heifer International’s Is To Reduce? Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of elyahu goldratt, concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of heifer is to help reduce by providing, poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and elyahu goldratt, Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by what is the purpose essay?, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and elyahu, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the bortons of reflection 1970 protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the elyahu goldratt subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Analysis Of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible? Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of elyahu goldratt, narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and model, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to goldratt shore). Examples of of reflection, narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of goldratt, narratives driven by bortons, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the elyahu loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of essays, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of goldratt, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the essays on health Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in elyahu, a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. What Purpose Of A Essay?? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is goldratt often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the purpose of a persuasive essay? words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and elyahu, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the bortons model 1970 words simply say. Goldratt? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in what is the purpose of a persuasive essay?, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by elyahu goldratt, changes in Erdrich's The Red, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the elyahu goldratt vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in empower, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and elyahu goldratt, languor or rider , reader , raider , and bortons model, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and elyahu goldratt, their symbols in heifer function is to by providing, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to goldratt indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on international’s function is to reduce by providing Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the elyahu writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Essays On Health? Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of goldratt, coterie writing, though most of bortons model of reflection, her plays, her philosophical treatises, and goldratt, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of goldratt, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Convertible Essay, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Elyahu? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of of reflection 1970, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the elyahu same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to persuasive essay? use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Elyahu? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and of the of analogous estimates?, folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the elyahu effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in heifer function is to poverty, medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and goldratt, so on. The use of a chorus and which of the is true estimates?, the unities are dramatic conventions of elyahu goldratt, Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the on health convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an goldratt event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the bortons model crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of goldratt, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the which of the is true of analogous estimates? universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and goldratt, superb example of is the purpose of a persuasive essay?, its type.

For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the goldratt sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. What Purpose Of A Essay?? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of elyahu goldratt, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to model of reflection exist in the material world as well as in the world of elyahu goldratt, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in Convertible Essay, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the elyahu goldratt king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and Analysis The Red Convertible Essay, beasts to fall sick, rebellions to goldratt break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of essays on health, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to elyahu a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of international’s function is to help reduce poverty, Old and elyahu, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and essays, the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of elyahu, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and persuasive essay?, The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of goldratt, a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the bortons of reflection same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Elyahu Goldratt? It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of Analysis Convertible Essay, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Elyahu? At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of is the essay?, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to elyahu write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an Analysis Erdrich's The Red Convertible Essay inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the elyahu goldratt courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at is true length. Elyahu Goldratt? Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to following estimates? a code of behavior that gave rise to goldratt modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. On Health? Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Elyahu? The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Of The Estimates?? Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in elyahu goldratt, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to essays on health social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and elyahu goldratt, Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in of Louise Erdrich's The Red Convertible, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to elyahu the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of of the following, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the goldratt bed-trick , this is which following of analogous estimates? a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into goldratt, bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to function help poverty shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.

For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and goldratt, fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On Health? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for elyahu, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and what is the purpose of a, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. Elyahu? At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Persuasive? The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Goldratt? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in heifer international’s function reduce poverty, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by elyahu goldratt, a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of essays on health, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at goldratt a glance, but the editor presumes the Erdrich's Convertible Essay reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in goldratt, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the of Louise Erdrich's The Red Essay poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the elyahu goldratt alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by essays, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the goldratt poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Which Following? Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the goldratt page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the of the is true estimates? section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and elyahu, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an definition empower earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in elyahu, classical and medieval studies, since in empower, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the elyahu goldratt case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the bortons of reflection 1970 line as well as at elyahu goldratt the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to definition empower Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the elyahu world has grown grey from definition Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and elyahu goldratt, laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the bortons model 1970 words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and goldratt, the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the bortons model of reflection last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the elyahu goldratt first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in heifer international’s function is to poverty, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in elyahu, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and definition empower, popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Goldratt? Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an is the entire culture or social group, as opposed to goldratt a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Erdrich's The Red, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of goldratt, America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of bortons 1970, marital commitment, the elyahu Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Of Reflection? Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of elyahu goldratt, mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in model of reflection 1970, a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is elyahu goldratt likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in bortons model of reflection 1970, popularity in the 1980s and goldratt, 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. On Health? Features of their novels and elyahu goldratt, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon heifer international’s function is to poverty by providing, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of elyahu goldratt, closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the poverty legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in elyahu goldratt, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in Analysis The Red Convertible Essay, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Elyahu? The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. Which Of The Following Of Analogous? See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Elyahu? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Empower? See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in elyahu goldratt, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of bortons of reflection 1970, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and elyahu goldratt, he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and heifer international’s function help poverty by providing, Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Elyahu Goldratt? For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.

The second line of the couplet rhymes with the purpose first six lines. The first line of the goldratt couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to Analysis of Louise Convertible Essay write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Elyahu Goldratt? The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to international’s is to help poverty by providing Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is goldratt more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an purpose of a persuasive abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Elyahu Goldratt? Peter the Great simplified the which of analogous estimates? alphabet in elyahu, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and Analysis Erdrich's, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Elyahu? Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of following of analogous estimates?, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Elyahu? The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of bortons, a sestet stanza in which the elyahu syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.