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John Dickie recommends the best books on the Italian Mafia. The three biggest Italian mafias remain a powerful presence, with tentacles reaching deep inside Italian business and politics. The author of Mafia Brotherhoods busts the myth that its all in the family. by Judge Giovanni Falcone. by Alexander Stille.

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Claudia Sadowski-Smith on Border Stories. Rather than referring to the Italian mafia, would it be more accurate to talk about Italian mafias, given that there are a number of critical essay criminal organisations operating in the country? Yes it would. There are three powerful mafias in Italy: the Cosa Nostra, or the Sicilian mafia as it is known today; the Ndrangheta of Calabria in the far south of the learning, country, and the Camorra in the Naples and the Campania region. The Cosa Nostra and the Ndrangheta are quite similar. The easiest way to define a mafia is as a freemasonry of criminals its the freemasons for critical thinking essay murderers and thats what the Cosa Nostra and Ndrangheta are. The Camorra is different in American that its a catch-all term for a much less centrally coordinated archipelago of gangs that range from thinking essay, city drug dealers to clans that look much more like the Sicilian mafia, like the The Wake Forest Experience, Casalesi who threatened to kill the journalist Roberto Saviano, the author of critical thinking essay one of the books I have chosen. Those are the three major ones, although there are smaller ones too.

As I say in my book Mafia Brotherhoods, Italy doesnt just have a mafia, it has a criminal ecosystem in which existing mafias evolve and new ones come into being. When did they first take root in Italy? Their origins are tied very closely to the emergence of pages words Italy as a unified state. Italy only became one country formally in 1861. Critical! The long process leading up to Italian unification il Risorgimento is really the key explanation of the emergence of the mafias.

Put very briefly, in cobb south Southern Italy il Risorgimento was much more of a revolution and was more violent than it was in the rest of the country. Revolutions need an armed wing, and critical the idealistic patriots who were conspiring to overthrow the how many words, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies as Southern Italy and Sicily were called and unite it with the rest of Italy, formed an thinking alliance with violent criminals whom they used as revolutionary muscle. Our best guess at why the mafias are organised like freemasons with admission rituals, hierarchies, internal courts and learning codes of behaviour is that they learnt that way of organising themselves from these patriots, many of whom were freemasons. There are a couple of riders to that theory. Firstly, the Ndrangheta arrived slightly later in the 1880s. The Camorra also died out at one point, principally because of a huge trial in 1911 to 1912. Critical Thinking Example! Since that point, Camorra has actually meant a number of different things, as I have already mentioned, ranging from common-or-garden smuggling gangs to much bigger, more formally structured crime groups.

The Camorra in the form of an Honoured Society re-emerged in the 1970s, in Raffaele Cutolos remarkable Nuova Camorra Organizzata. Cutolo probably borrowed the power, ideas for his organisation the most numerous in critical thinking essay Italian mafia history from the pages is 1400, Ndrangheta, into which he was initiated, as well as from books about the old Neapolitan Honoured Society he borrowed from prison libraries. In terms of their power today, how does it compare to, say, 25 years ago? In the late 1970s and 1980s, large parts of critical thinking essay Sicily looked like they would become narco-provinces. The Cosa Nostra was controlling the cobb africa, wholesale heroin market in the United States and critical essay making rivers of dollars. It had the organisation, wealth and firepower to confront the Italian state directly quite literally to kill anyone who stood in its way.

Add to that, it had also heavily infiltrated the Italian state. The two Salvo cousins who were probably both Men of Reconstruction Essay Honour, as mafia initiates are known ran the company that collected most of critical essay Sicilys taxes and pocketed about 10% of the islands tax revenue. This gives you some idea of the level of relations infiltration in the 1980s. There have been enormous strides since then. The streets are not filled with bodies to quite the same extent as they were 20 or 30 years ago.

Italy largely because of the sacrifice of heroic policemen and women, magistrates and thinking essay example carabinieri has far better organised and professional law enforcement than its ever had. The entire historical leadership of the Sicilian mafia, for example, is behind bars apart from one man Matteo Messina Denaro. That doesnt mean that the mafia is dead far from it. Cobb! One of the thinking, reasons that the Sicilian mafia is organised as it is, is that somebody is always ready to step into their bosss shoes. Power Relations Definition! But nonetheless, its a crisis that the Cosa Nostra is now living through and its having to thinking essay example, find different strategies to survive and prosper. To some extent thats also true of the Camorra and Ndrangheta, where the magistrature has also enjoyed some success. But we are still talking about deep-rooted organisations able to collect protection money. Last year alone, more than 140 journalists were threatened by them and there are still very high-level politicians being investigated for nazi ideology mafia links. So theres still a long way to go.

Your books talk about myths and misconceptions of the mafia in Italy. What are they? There are so many, and they are often so contradictory. One of the biggest is the widely held view outside Italy that the criminal organisations of Italy are not really organisations, but are an expression of the family and culture of southern Italy. Critical Thinking Essay! Thats complete nonsense. Historically the mafias have developed very specific forms to suit their business activities.

The Cosa Nostra and the Ndrangheta have a dynastic politics that resemble the royal families of medieval Europe. In other words, they keep their women at home and they use them as pawns in the diplomatic game. When a war is about to be fought, alliances are made by marrying off your daughter to the son of another family. Or if a war has just ended, you seal the peace with a marriage. Southern Italians just dont do that. Accelerated Learning! This is a very specific mafia form of behaviour to do with the politics of the organisations and with finding ways to project their power and wealth down through the critical thinking essay example, generations. Its remarkably far-sighted, and one of the power definition, things that differentiates mafias from critical thinking essay, mere gangsters. For many people outside Italy, perceptions of the mafia come from Mario Puzos novel The Godfather . This is nazi ideology, a book youre not keen on, are you? Its spectacularly and often comically wrong.

Not only is it very badly written, but it also gets the mafia wrong in one crucial respect it thinks it is about family and not about organisation. It falls fully for essay that myth of the ancient culture of southern Italy which defends itself by forming this entity called the mafia. The mafia is a criminal organisation and always has been. The Godfather is nazi ideology, a three bears story about the three sons Sonny, Michael and Fredo. Sonny is critical thinking example, too macho and too violent, and Fredo is too wimpy. Michael is just right hes the calculating family man. The book makes uncomfortable reading because it uses sex and sexuality as a metaphor for learning all of this.

Fredo is dissipated and a bit of an aesthete, while Michael only ever has sex in the missionary position. Sonny is basically a walking male member the novel talks an awful lot about the dimensions of his virilia. So The Godfather has that kind of comic aspect to critical example, it. Relations Definition! Its a really strange novel and it seems extraordinary that it has managed to sell 21 million copies, given how clunky and weird it is. Its almost 20 years to the day since Giovanni Falcone was murdered by critical essay, the Cosa Nostra. Can you remind us who he was? Giovanni Falcone was an epoch-making figure in the history of the Italian mafia. He was a prosecuting magistrate who assisted by cobb south, his close colleague Paolo Borsellino, who was also murdered in 1992 developed a new method for critical thinking essay investigating the mafia. It was based around, in the first instance, following the money trail. They then assembled the prosecution case in the most important mafia trial of all time the Maxi trial in Palermo which ran from 1986 to nazi ideology, 1987. It was a massive trial that saw more than 400 mafiosi charged.

But more importantly than that, it aimed to establish a legal precedent for the existence of the Sicilian mafia. It may seem bizarre, but Italy did not recognise the existence of the mafia until the Maxi trial. In fact, it did not formally recognise the thinking essay, existence of the Sicilian mafia until January 1992, when Italys Supreme Court issued a ruling approving the verdict of the Maxi trial. Its no coincidence that Falcone and Borsellino were murdered within weeks of that ruling they had proved the mafia existed and the mafia reacted by killing them. Falcone also did something very important which is often forgotten. In the The Wake Experience, last phase of his career, when he was working in thinking example Rome, he set up the national coordinating structures for investigating and prosecuting mafia crime based on his methods. Everybody today who is involved in fighting the Forest Essay, mafia now works according to the Falcone method. Please tell us about critical essay, his book, Men of Honour . Its based on an interview with a French journalist a few weeks before Falcone was blown up on 23 May 1992.

Its basically a theme-by-theme account of The Wake Essay what the Cosa Nostra is and critical thinking how it works, by American Reconstruction Essay, somebody who knew it better than anybody else. You get a sense of the critical essay, mans extraordinary lucidity and humanity in the way he describes it. He famously says that the mafia is a human creation and cobb like all human creations it has a beginning and will have an end. So he certainly didnt subscribe to the theory that the example, mafia was hard-wired into the Sicilian psyche and couldnt be separated out and defeated. He really understood the mentality of pages mafiosi, especially the hidden meanings in their mannerisms and gestures, didnt he?

Thats principally because he was the first magistrate who actually took seriously the testimonies of mafia defectors seriously in the sense that he didnt just want to take bits and pieces of their evidence that he could use, but he wanted to critical essay, find out about the whole mafia system, its way of thinking and the rules that governed its internal behaviour. A lot of what he learns comes from Tommaso Buscetta, who in his own way made history just as much as Giovanni Falcone. Buscetta turned states evidence in July 1984 after most of American Reconstruction Essay his family was murdered by his mafia enemies. It was Falcones debriefing of Buscetta that set the essay, Maxi trial in Essay motion and gave Falcone a real grasp of the human reality within Cosa Nostra. He said Buscetta was like an interpreter who allowed him to thinking essay, finally speak and understand the language of the mafia. Falcone shows in this book that he really was the first non-mafioso to power, master that language.

The title of your next book comes from the phrase Cadaveri Eccellenti used to describe high-profile mafia victims. Please tell us more. Alexander Stille is an American-Italian journalist and this is a remarkable piece of journalism. Thinking Example! Its a narrative of the nazi ideology, investigations of Falcone and Borsellino from the essay example, crucial years of the 1980s when the Reconstruction, Sicilian mafia was filling the streets of critical example Palermo with bodies right up to their murder in 1992. Definition! Its an extraordinary and example passionate piece of journalism about the most dramatic and important moment in the history of organised crime in Italy. You cant get a better witness to it than Alexander Stille. There are relatively few books on the mafia by outsiders if one can really call Stille an outsider that become classics in Italy, and this is one of them. Stille puts the story of the Sicilian mafia in the context of postwar Italian politics, doesnt he?

Thats right. The remarkable parallel narrative to the story of American Reconstruction Falcone and Borsellino is of course the example, end of the Cold War and the virtual collapse of the Italian political system. Accelerated Learning! The parties that had ruled Cold War Italy the Communists and the Christian Democrats folded and a new political reality emerged from the chaos of critical thinking mafia bombs and corruption scandals. It was a very dramatic time and Stille is very good at nazi ideology placing things in critical thinking example that wider political context. I have to add that the title of The Wake Experience Essay Stilles book has always annoyed me. No one ever says excellent cadavers in English its just not a very good translation. It really should be Eminent Cadavers or Eminent Corpses. Essay Example! But that one small problem aside, its a fantastic book.

You have described Salvatore Lupo as the pioneer of mafia history. Please tell us more about his book Il Tenebroso Sodalizio . Salvatore Lupo is a friend of mine and an extraordinary historian from Sicily. This is a very dense but absolutely brilliant attempt to use the cobb, insights of the Falcone-Borsellino investigations of the Buscetta confessions to shine a light back into history and ask: What is the mafia? Where did it come from? How long has it been around? How has it changed, if it has changed at critical all? In some senses my book Cosa Nostra s unifying thread is words, Lupos research, although it does draw on many other sources as well. I was trying to make his research as well as a lot of other stuff accessible to an English-speaking audience. This book is precious because it publishes for the first time the Sangiorgi report a real and very vivid historical document from the end of the 19th century which is the earliest systematic portrait we have of the critical thinking example, Sicilian mafia. The author was a brilliant chief of police in Palermo, Ermanno Sangiorgi a man who spent much of his career fighting the Sicilian Honoured Society, and accelerated who knew more about it than anyone.

The report ended up buried and forgotten until Lupo rediscovered it in the 1980s, just when Falcone and Borsellino were risking their lives to discover the same things that Sangiorgi had known a century earlier. The book also contains my short biography of Sangiorgi, a forgotten hero of the fight against organized crime. I just hope some brave British publisher will decide to translate it into English. Please tell us about Roberto Saviano and his book Gomorrah , which has left him living in fear for his life. Roberto Saviano is a young Neapolitan journalist and the author of Gomorrah , which is about the Camorra. As a result of its success and his public pronouncements against them, he was condemned to thinking essay, death there was phone tap evidence that the Camorra planned to south, kill him. So he, like an awful lot of other people in Italy, is living under armed guard.

This is a book with many virtues and one or two faults. Its flawed, but I think that only this book could have made the impact that it did at the time that it did. It was also a book that desperately needed to be written. For a long time the Neapolitan Camorra was much more difficult to write about than the Sicilian mafia. The Sicilian mafia makes good copy youve got the Godfather and the figure of the boss of bosses and critical essay is easier to write about.

As I have said, the Camorra is a much messier phenomenon its a name for all sorts of gangs that come and go. Nobody even in Naples has more than a very partial idea about whats really going on and this makes it very difficult to alert the public to just what a danger it is. Saviano is viscerally enraged and disgusted at what the Camorra is and what its doing. The book has a colour, noise and emotional power in its descriptions that had a huge impact and helped create a public sense of the importance of The Wake Essay legality and the fight against organised crime in Naples and Campania in the same way that Falcone and Borsellino did in relation to Sicily in the 1980s and 1990s. Thinking! It has made the Camorra into a national issue, which is exactly what it should be. The Camorra is a national phenomenon.

Its politicians sit in the national parliament and government. It runs trucking and construction companies that are in south business right across the country. It is involved in drug trafficking across Italy. These are national problems, not just Neapolitan folklore. It took Saviano to raise public awareness of this. Unfortunately, its badly translated into English.

Apart from the critical essay example, ugliness of the prose, the translator has people robbing banks with air rifles and driving tanks down the streets of Naples rather than bulletproof cars all sorts of silly mistakes. Also, the figures quoted in lire in the Italian version are converted directly into euros in Essay the English version so a billion lire becomes a billion euros, which is thinking essay example, completely wrong. So the translation does turn some of the book into nonsense. Savianos prose is how many pages is 1400 words, also difficult. If you look at it in the cold light of day, some of essay example it is a bit over the top. Yes, I have just finished his later book Beauty and the Inferno , which makes me feel guilty for touching anything Italian in my local supermarket lest it be tainted with the blood of mafia victims. But what I find so shocking from accelerated, reading his books is example, that this widespread and nazi ideology brutal criminality is still going on for example, toxic waste being dumped across southern Italy by the Camorra and giving people cancer. Absolutely.

Before Saviano, the people who knew about this just hadnt found a way to break through and make people understand. They sure understand now. Thats the enormous merit of this book. Its strength and weakness is critical thinking essay, that he puts himself at the centre of the story thats what holds it together in this diffuse, confusing, chaotic, violent, amoral world of organised crime. He puts his own reactions and his own persona at the centre of accelerated learning it.

That can be seen as producing a cult of personality and hes attracted some criticism for that. But its precisely that tactic that gives the book its immediacy and allows you to feel his disgust. I know that one of the themes of your book Mafia Brotherhoods is how the mafia exploits women and critical thinking example family relationships. Please tell us more about your final choice, Clare Longriggs Mafia Women . In a way there is nazi ideology, a missing book. I would have liked there to be a sixth book and thats one that makes the Ndrangheta understandable to everybody, but it hasnt been written yet. Critical Example! The Ndrangheta has yet to find its Giovanni Falcone or Roberto Saviano but its extremely important and even more ignored than the Camorra. That said, I wanted to include another book that is well written and not just a bad translation. Mafia Women is a great piece of journalism and another one of those rare books on the mafia written by an outsider that commands respect in Italy. South Africa! It picks on an issue that is fascinating and historically very important its about critical example, what the mafia does to women and definition the role that they have. Were all fascinated by thinking example, the figure of the africa, female gangster, but Longrigg shows that there are many more dimensions to womens roles within Italys criminal organisations.

When you look up close, its not the active gun-toting women who are the most fascinating its the women whose existence is dominated by the task of breeding mafia sons and passing on to them the values of honour and thinking essay violence when their fathers are in prison or dead. They live under extraordinary psychological pressure and nazi ideology its a story that we have only just begun to find out about. Is this book a collection of individual stories? The basis of it is stories about individual women, some of whom are as much victims as perpetrators. One that sticks in critical example the mind as powerfully moving is the story of Rita Atria. She was a daughter of a mafioso and her brothers were mafiosi. She turned states evidence after her brother was killed. She was only a teenager at the time and had to unlearn the mafia brainwashing that she had undergone since birth. A number of mafiosi were convicted on the basis of her evidence. While going through this whole process she attached herself very closely to Paolo Borsellino, who became something of a surrogate father to her. Tragically, exactly a week after Borsellino was killed in July 1992, Rita Atria jumped to learning, her death from the window of her safe house.

Its a horrible story that just gives a sense of the extraordinary stakes involved in being a woman inside that mafia culture. Support Five Books. Five Books interviews are expensive to produce. If you've enjoyed this interview, please support us by donating a small amount, or by visiting our site before you make purchases from critical thinking example, Amazon. Since we are enrolled in their affiliate program, we receive a small percentage of any product you buy, at no extra cost to you. Maria Loh on The Lives of Artists. An Essential Reading List. Writer and investigative journalist George Monbiot recommends books that have shaped him, and that are crucial reading for those wishing to navigate the current economic and environmental crises. The Pulitzer Prize-winning critic celebrates a form in constant flight from definition, that finds expression in cobb south hybrid texts and plays-within-plays, and that is as at home in high art as in pop culture. We ask experts to recommend the five best books in their subject and explain their selection in an interview.

This site has an critical thinking archive of over one thousand interviews, or five thousand book recommendations. We publish a new interview every Monday and Thursday.

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Administrative Assistant Resume - Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Admin Assistant, Executive Assistant, Office Administrator, Office Facilities Manager, Executive Personal Secretary, Office Coordinator, Professional Assistant, whatever your job title is, you’re the critical thinking essay example reason everything in your office runs like a well-oiled machine. Power Relations! Without you, your boss might not even know when his next appointment is. Despite that, you’re not a precious commodity in critical thinking the workforce because thousands of power relations definition applicants have the same skills for critical resumes. Power! In a world where typing and critical thinking essay example email management are a dime a dozen skills, you need to nazi ideology prove that you’re a cut above the rest with a solid Administrative Assistant resume. a perfect sample resume for critical essay example an Administrative Assistant position examples of how to write about Experience Essay your administrative experience and achievements examples of how to add skills and critical thinking example keywords to cobb your executive assistant resume. Here's a sample resume for an administrative assistant made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in critical 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. The Wake Forest Experience! Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Here’s The Best Way to thinking essay example Format an Administrative Assistant Resume. Resumes come in three formats: The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format used by American Reconstruction Essay applicants.

And many admin jobs are with more traditional firms. Critical Thinking! That’s why it might be better to stick with this tried and tested format. Accelerated! It’s best to critical example avoid the functional or skills-based resume format. That’s because it hides your experience and focuses on your skills. While that sounds like a good deal, your skills aren’t backed by proof. What’s a good resume template for an Administrative Assistant? It’s best to pick a clean design that’s easy to scan and highlights your skills and achievements. Administrative Assistant job skills are based on organization. So, a chaotic design will reflect negatively on you.

Steer clear of Comic Sans and other funny-looking fonts. Have your resume saved in different formats depending on what’s required on is 1400 words the job advertisement , says Sarah Dowzell, COO at critical thinking, Natural HR. Some agencies prefer resumes in MS Word format, so they can add their logo to how many is 1400 words the file before sending it to a client ,” adds Dowzell. If the job offer does not specify a file format, consider saving your executive administrative assistant resume as a PDF. Critical Essay! The PDF format is the safer bet because it preserves formatting, font, and nazi ideology spacing. Using it ensures your resume is critical thinking essay, readable on any computer and in print. Still not sold on saving your resume as a PDF?

Need to see the pros and accelerated cons for yourself? Read our guide: “ Word vs PDF Resume: What is the Best Resume Format? ” Getting Started - Contact Information for the Administrative Resume. Include your complete name, phone number, and professional email address. Here’re some extra things you can consider adding: Links to Professional Websites (related to your role as an Admin Assistant) LinkedIn Profile Twitter Handle. Adding your address is optional.

It is no longer necessary to thinking add it to a modern resume. And excluding it might be better if you are applying for The Wake Forest Experience a job that isn’t local. Critical Thinking Example! Pro Tip: Review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. Also, take a moment to explore all of LinkedIn’s different features. Not sure how to make your LinkedIn profile reach All Star capacity? Read our guide on relations how to optimize your LinkedIn profile: “ How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile to critical Get More Jobs ” Start Your Admin Assistant Resume With a Bang.

Whatever introduction you use, it should be catchy but concise. Reconstruction Essay! When to use a resume objective for an Administrative Assistant resume: If you’re a fresh graduate. If you’re switching careers or industry. If you’ve been employed for some time, you’re better off with a resume summary . A resume objective is like an critical thinking example elevator pitch that explains what you’ve already achieved and nazi ideology why you’re perfect for the role. Critical Essay! Examples of an Admin Assistant Resume Objective. Strong Trait + Position + Value for the Employer. Multi-tasking English Graduate with proven communication, travel planning, and email management skills.

Seeking a position as an Administrative Assistant at Forest Experience, Acme Company, where I can leverage my organizational and research skills to help your team. A resume summary explains your most notable skills, achievements, and qualifications. Essay! That way, the American recruiter can easily verify that your experience matches their needs. Critical! It’s also a good place to insert keywords listed in The Wake Forest Experience Essay the job description. Examples of an Executive Assistant Resume Summary. Tips for Writing a Resume Summary or Objective for an Administrative Assistant Resume. Example! Keep sentences short and specific. Power Relations! Quantify skills and achievements where possible. Remove first person pronouns.

Focus on two to three critical skills that the job description also emphasizes. Essay Example! Use power words. Pro Tip: Sometimes it’s easier to write an introduction after you’ve finished the other sections of your resume. That’s because what you write here will probably be based on other sections. So, if you’re unsure what to write, just start with the other sections first. Still not sure how to power write a resume summary for your Admin Assistant resume?

Read our guide for tons of extra tips and examples: “ A Resume Summary That Will Get You the Job [7 Secret Steps] ” How to Put Your Experience on Your Administrative Assistant Resume. Back up the critical essay example claims in your resume introduction with stellar examples from your employment record. When I say examples, I mean examples of the impact you made in previous roles. Your work history section isn’t just a long list of all the responsibilities you’ve ever had. It’s where you differentiate yourself among other candidates with similar resume office skills. Sample Administrative Assistant Resume Work History: Administrative Assistant October 2013- Present. How Many! Trusted with a $350,000 budget to coordinate all international and domestic travel arrangements for executives going to corporate events.

Trained 3 Administrative Assistants on critical thinking essay customer service and other office procedures. Organized office transition from paper invoice to American Reconstruction Quickbooks and critical essay example online invoicing. Saved $3,000 a year in office supplies after negotiating a new deal with our current supplier. Tips for Writing Administrative Experience in Your Resume. Don’t list non-critical or routine tasks, unless they’re in pages words the job ad.

Pepper your work history with accomplishments. Ask yourself the following questions, when writing each job entry in your resume: Did you do anything (new procedure or initiative) that can directly translate to saved time or money? Did you train anyone? Did your boss ever praise you for doing something well? Have you ever received an award or promotion related to your work? List of critical essay Power Words to learning Pair with Your Admin Assistant Resume Qualifications. Critical Thinking Essay Example! Where possible, write a quantified achievement as the first bullet point for every role. This point is the accelerated learning first thing a recruiter reads after your job title, so make it count. Thinking! Let’s say you implemented a procedure for nazi ideology other employees to schedule meetings with your boss. Because of that procedure, back and thinking forth scheduling emails were minimized.

You’ve also minimized meeting interruptions because now everybody knows there’s a procedure in place. How much time did that save you and your boss? Estimate it, then write it as the first bullet point in your role. Decreased time spent in handling appointment requests by 40% after implementation of a new scheduling procedure. Are You Optimizing Your Education Section?

Find Out. Let’s start with the accelerated basics. Start your education section by listing the highest level of education you finished. Include the name of example your school, your degree, your major, and the year you graduated. The Wake Forest! If you’re still in critical essay school, list the nazi ideology year you’re expected to graduate. Don’t include your GPA unless it’s impressive and recent. If you completed college, don’t include your secondary school information. BA in critical thinking essay Business Economics - 2012 University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) 3.5 GPA. What if You Don’t Have a College Degree?

Not all Admin Assistants have completed a college education. There is some debate about whether or not having a degree should be on the list of africa mandatory Administrative Assistant qualities. So, I asked a couple of small business owners and recruiters if they’d hire an Administrative Assistant without a degree. Their answers were consistent: “ If they had the basic skill sets I’m looking for, I wouldn’t discriminate against someone who didn’t finish college. Someone gave me that same chance ,” says Camille Jamerson, CEO and critical thinking essay Senior Consultant at CDJ Associates. Power! Joanne Munekawa, Career Services Manager at Employment BOOST, adds, “ Having a degree as an Admin Assistant could make it seem like you’re too expensive unless the role is for an executive assistant. Essay Example! ” That said, it’s hard to ignore that there are still jobs and industries where a bachelor’s degree is a minimum requirement for entry-level applicants.

Read the job advertisement carefully, so you don’t waste your time. Reconstruction Essay! What if you have a GED or are continuing your education? How do you put that on critical thinking a resume for an Administrative Assistant? Read our guide to find out: “ How to Forest Experience Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] ” Examples of Administrative Assistant Job Skills and Keywords. Communication, computer literacy, organization, problem-solving, and research are common Administrative Assistant skills for resumes. Of course, it doesn’t end there. Administrative Assistants with a wide variety of thinking skills need less training, which means they can hit the ground running. That’s why some Administrative Assistants can command a higher salary compared to others in the same field. Below is a list of valuable Administrative Assistant skills for resumes. These examples of skills for resumes also double as Administrative Assistant keywords because some employers use them to filter applications. Since many Admin Assistants do work outside of their traditional job scope, applicants with experience in social media, cost reduction, social responsibility and cobb south africa community outreach, and basic photo editing will have a leg up against other applicants.

Administrative Assistant Resume Examples of critical thinking example Quantify Your Skills. Here’s How to power Add Side Projects or Freelance Work. If you’ve ever taken on side projects, you can add them to critical your Administrative Assistant resume to spice up your qualifications. “ Side projects ” can include freelance work, volunteer work, or personal projects. But how do you include them on your resume? Well, you can add freelance work directly to your experience section. You would write a freelance entry the same as a paid job entry. Adding freelance work is especially beneficial for people who otherwise have gaps in their work history or skill sets.

You can add volunteer work to your hobbies and interests section. If you haven’t considered adding a hobbies and interests section, you may want to think about it. Nazi Ideology! And that’s especially true if the company to which you are applying has a strong office culture. More and critical thinking more employers are looking for candidates who fit their company’s culture. But let’s say you happen to Reconstruction have completed a lot of projects in critical essay example your free time that don’t fall under freelance or volunteer work. What do you do with these? You can add a separate section to The Wake Forest Essay your resume titled “ Projects .” Make sure you keep subheadings like this simple, other Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can’t read them.

Next, you will add the following: Use a job title that describes your work while giving the impression that the organizations did not formally employ you to work on projects. “ Independent Executive Assistant ” The important thing to critical thinking essay consider here is your agreement with the company. Are you allowed to disclose that you do/did work for them, or was there a non-disclosure involved? If you’re allowed to list the company name, do so. Add each project as a bullet point, and include any achievements you’ve accomplished for each company. If you’re not allowed to disclose the company’s name, use a generic description of the business or industry. Cobb South Africa! Add a few bullet points that explain the basic nature of the project you completed. Independent Administrative Assistant- 2012 to 2015. Created a social media account for a car dealer.

Responded to critical thinking essay customer queries for travel quotations. Created and cobb maintained schedules and travel plans for their Senior Tax Consultants. Have you ever considered adding a hobbies and interests section to your resume? Your hobbies can show that you’re a perfect fit for a job with a strong office culture. Read our guide to learn how: “ Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on a Resume (5 Tips) ” Don’t Forget to Write a Cover Letter for Your Admin Assistant Resume. Finally, you’ll want to thinking write a cover letter to is 1400 send along with your fully-customized Administrative Assistant resume. Aim for critical essay a succinct letter that demonstrates why you’re perfect for how many is 1400 words the job. Critical Thinking! But don’t be too formal.

You’ll sound just like every other applicant on the planet. Play up your cover letter with a little show of humor and personality. Insert an interesting backstory that connects you to the company. Or lead with the name of the American Reconstruction person who referred you to example the position, if there’s one. Still don’t know how to get started with your cover letter? That’s okay. We’ve got you covered. Here’s our complete guide on south africa how to write a perfect cover letter: “ How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” Writing a sizzling resume for critical essay an Administrative Assistant is easy with ample research and the right template. Here’s a recap of those steps: Take your pick between two possible resume introductions, a summary or objective.

Don’t forget to include your up-to-date contact information. Spice up your work history with power words that make your skills and accomplishments shine. List your past and ongoing educational merits. Accelerated Learning! Add the most common Administrative Assistant job skills for resumes. And then add some more. Mention any side projects. Proofread your resume and thinking example send it with a customized cover letter.

Do you have any questions on how to accelerated make an administrative assistant resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Charley Mendoza is a freelance writer covering career development and business. She#039;s an expert in resume writing, interviewing, and negotiating, a topic she covers in publications such as Tutsplus, Business Insider, Brazen Careerist and more.

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Nov 22, 2017 Critical thinking essay example,

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Do the Lemba and the Falasha have Jewish DNA? Genetics and Linguistics in essay example Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAfA 2004. From high antiquity to nazi ideology recent history6, one of the thinking, more bizarre episodes in the attempt to link genetics and linguistics is the power definition, case of the Lemba in Southern Africa7 (Hendrickx 1991; Spurdle Jenkins 1996; Thomas et al. 2000). If you believe the many websites, the Lemba are a black Southern African Bantu speaking group who have Jewish Ancestry. They purportedly observe customs such as not eating pork, male circumcision, and keeping one day a week holy. According to example their oral history, they came to Africa from Sena in the north by boat. The original group, which is pages, said to have been almost entirely male, made its way to the coasts of Eastern Africa. If the Lemba do indeed have Jewish ancestry then one might expect to find a similarity between the Y chromosomes of Lemba men and those of Jewish men living in other parts of the world. Needless, to say, this has stimulated the lost tribes of essay Israel lobby.

Tudor Parfitt, a lecturer in Jewish Studies has made a miniature media career through a book and television programme, Journey to the Vanished City: Search for a Lost Tribe of Israel (Parfitt 1997). In this bold essay into the unknown the brave hero ventures into South Africa and lo and behold uncovers the Lemba. This was linked to a study that compared the Y chromosomes of around 136 Lemba to those of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews, Yemeni and American non-Lemba Bantu speakers (Thomas et al. 2000). Researchers found evidence of Semitic origin in the Lemba, although it was not clear whether this origin was Jewish or Arab, or a mixture of both.

The study also found that the Lemba carry the Cohen modal haplotype (CMH) at a frequency similar to that found in Jewish populations. The CMH has been suggested as a signature for the ancient Hebrew population. Non-Lemba Bantu speakers in the study did not carry the CMH. The researchers concluded that the Lemba most likely have a mixture of Jewish, Arab and Bantu origins, although the CMH present in Lemba men could have an exclusively Jewish origin. It is essay example, therefore claimed that the genetic evidence is therefore consistent with the Lemba oral tradition of a Jewish origin.

Wilson Goldstein (2000) even go so far as to refer to them as a Bantu-Semitic Hybrid Population. The whole story has more than a whiff of cobb south Wilbur Smith. These traditions are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the earliest records of the Lemba, but are an example of reinvention spurred by the interests of critical example outsiders. The Lemba only now claim to south be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in conformity with this spurious tradition. It seems very likely that even the claim that there is Semitic DNA would be difficult to support and the likelihood that the frequency of CMH is really similar to modern day Jewish populations unlikely in the extreme. Bizarrely, the Lemba are now also claiming to have built Great Zimbabwe.

Assuming the genetics result reflect anything at all, it is probably intermarriage with Arab traders in critical the past few centuries. It is noticeable that the Lemba have no language of their own and indeed no linguistic trace remains of their supposed Jewish forbears. Nonetheless, as quoted in Thomas et al. (2000), the Lemba are now writing books about themselves, recounting traditions of Experience apparent Jewish origin. Search websites on Bantu genetics and this is the main topic they want to critical example discuss; Judaic websites have begun to elaborate an entire mythology of the lost Jewish populations of sub-Saharan Africa8. Ruwitah (1997) has indeed pointed to cobb africa this reinvention but to essay no good effect. By some irony, a series of Reconstruction Essay studies of the Falasha, the Black Jews of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and who were certainly practising Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at essay example all (Lucotte Smets 1999). 6 It is hard not to be reminded of Karl Marx observation Hegel remarks somewhere that all great, world-historical facts and personages occur, so to speak, twice. He has forgotten to add: the Reconstruction, first time as tragedy, the second as farce. Opening sentences of thinking example The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon.

The Lemba Story: A Re-Invention? The whole story has more than a whiff of nazi ideology Wilbur Smith. These traditions are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the earliest records of the essay example, Lemba, but are an example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders. The Lemba only now claim to be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in nazi ideology conformity with this spurious tradition. It seems very likely that even the claim that there is Semitic DNA would be difficult to support and the likelihood that the frequency of CMH is thinking essay, really similar to nazi ideology modern day Jewish populations unlikely in thinking essay the extreme. Genetics and Reconstruction Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAFA 2004, p. 10. the lemba do have jew dna, and i dont think they jjust claim to critical thinking essay example be jew for the fantasy of it. but the falasha dnt have jew dna. To be sure the Cohen Modal Haplotype found among the Lemba would prima facie show evidence of Jewish origins that would presumably link them to genotypes found among all worldwide Jewish communities. It is true if we give credence to the scientific literature that such genetic linkages are completely absent among the Falasha Beta Israel. However, it should be noted that the matrilineal DNA among the Ashekenazi show the L2a1 haplotype originating in Africa that begs the question of possible Bantu origins! The latest studies by Essay Soodyall in critical thinking essay 2013 show that they are not likely to be Jewish at all, but Arabic. Cobb South Africa? The Cohen modal haplotype was extended to 12 instead of 6 markers, and was found only in jews and not at all in essay the Lemba.

The matrilineal DNA of the American Essay, Ashkenazi is largely Italian The paternal ancestry of Ashkenazim is entirely Jewish from the essay, Middle east whereas only a portion of the Lembas are Middle Eastern I suggest you read the latest population studies instead of power relations misquoting. @Davis, Lemba oral history is not a re-invention. This is one of the many stories of the essay, many faces of the Jewish people. The biggest problem in the west is their failure to liberate themselves of Victorian fantasy that being Jewish is being white of Polish or Russian or British or French origin. Being Jewish by matching with Ashkenazim is simply one of the worst attempts of European Jews of declaring everyone un-Jewish. Science has become a tool in the hands of people of the lie. Dear Mr. How Many Pages Is 1400 Words? Wuriga, Thank you for visiting the AIH blog and your response. Before I can address I would term as your misdiagnosis of The biggest problem in the west let me refer you to this article to further inform your bias. https://africaisrael.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/the-problem-with-constructing-a-history-of-the-african-jewish-identity/.

One thing we can agree upon to example be sure, Science has become a tool in nazi ideology the hands of people of the lie. The question is whos lieing? Thanks for visiting my blog africaisrael where I present my Africa Israel Hypothesis. Is that all you cared to comment about i.e, to submit your blog address and article about the Lemba Jewish identity phenomenon? because my entire blog is essay example, a response to The Wake Forest Essay this Africa Jewish identity issue. Thinking? I think it is important to consider all sides of the relations definition, issue in critical thinking order to get a proper perspective of the reality. What that reality is, is the The Wake Experience, object of the discussion that my blog invites it readers to comment on and participate in.

@Davis. Who has Jewish DNA? As for the Ashkenazim there are questions concerning their Jewishness due to critical thinking such information relating to cobb south a huge wave of conversions to Judaism of critical example Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and other people. Power Relations? Of specific mention are the thinking essay example, theories surrounding Karzar conversion. These days facts are manufactured in Experience all sorts of example labs.

It is difficult to conclude that someone has a Jewish blood when we cannot tell who is a real Jew. Only if we are ready to accept that if there is a people called Jews, then Jewish people have many faces. @Davis. Accelerated Learning? I am starting to suspect that the author of this article is a Muslim attempting to critical thinking essay example prove that all people are Muslims. By trying to how many is 1400 tell us that Lembas and Falashas dont have Jewish DNA tells me you are simply misguiding yourself. We have received this kind of thinking essay example information before using other tricks. Dont be conned by this rubbish article what the hell is Cohen DNA? When was it named this?

Lmao! Real Israeli Jews are Semites like Arabs which would essentially make them Arab. Judaism is a religion not a race or even a people. the attempt to prove that Judiasm is a people may be linked to trying to justify building a colony in learning the Middle East then claiming it is critical thinking, a homeland for what now appears to be a bunch of Forest Experience Essay racist White Europeans claiming to be returning Jews. There is also more than a whiff of the old Hitler penchant for trying to prove you are unique God chosen race apart from all others. Critical? There is no such thing as Cohen whatever. And the quack geneticist has probably just named some Europe-Semite mix with this fraudulent name. There is no such thing as Jewish DNA, this is an absolute load of rubbish.

I will agree that there is no such thing as Jewish DNA. But IF there were, it would appear that the Lemba would be more Jewish than any Jew on earth today. The latest studies with higher resolution show the Lemba not to be Jewish at all. Cobb South? See Wikipedia. There is such a thing as DNA that is customarily found in the Middle Eastern and critical thinking example Africa. In the Middle East today you find a mixture of DNAs which reflects all the people who have converged to that specific area. There is also African DNA. But there is no such thing as Jewish DNA. Jewish is not a race and has never been a race, calling any DNA Jewish is a con.

This would be akin to talking some nonsense about Muslim or Christian DNA, there is no such thing. Those saying that the Lemba are not Jewish need to ask themselves what the hell they think they mean? It would be correct to say that the Lemba are not European, most Israelis of the pages is 1400 words, Ashkenazi pedigree test mostly as European. so saying people do not have their DNA is a moot point/ What needs to be checked is Middle Eastern and African DNA. Hebrew is an Afroasiatic language, which shows that the critical thinking essay, original Hebrews started out cobb as African indigenes. Trying to compare anyones DNA to people who are nothing to do with the ancient Hebrews and arrived in example the Middle East speaking Yiddish a Germanic language is how many pages words, nothing but a White supremacist con.

Lombokula commented, There is critical thinking essay, such a thing as DNA that is customarily found in the Middle Eastern and cobb Africa. This DNA that is customarily found in the Middle East is lacking in essay example the Falasha population as the article points out, a series of studies of the Falasha, the American Reconstruction Essay, Black Jews of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and thinking example who were certainly practicing Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at all (Lucite Smets 1999). I also challenge the relations, contention that, the Falasha were certainly practicing Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, That certain indigenous African people groups were practicing Judaism has been the observation of many European explorers first encounters when they observed certain African people groups practicing, laws of niddah womens menstruation), circumcision, new moon observances and animal sacrifices. None however except for the Falasha were observing the Jewish sabbath, which is the distinguishing feature and primary identifier of any Jewish community, Jewishness or of example Judaisms. Sabbath observance among Ethiopian Christians rather than reflecting social or genetic origins may instead point to American Reconstruction the primitiveness of their Christian practices whose first or earliest communities were observers of the Jewish sabbath. Mr. Lombokula, your conclusion There is no such thing as Jewish DNA is correct, but it escapes me why you would say Dont be conned by this rubbish article (Genetics and thinking example Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa) when the point of article supports the accelerated, conclusion you make. Williams thesis is based upon the premise that the Hebrewisms he observed originate from the myth of a supposed Hebrew/Jewish/Israel migration or dispersion into Africa from Southwestern Asia and as such are not indigenous to the African people groups he writes about. He does not conclude that such so-called Hebrewisms are originally and authentically African sourced. yes,i believe because i am also a Lemba DNA has proven. if someone does not even understand do not respond harshly,please!! Perhaps you should read the critical example, PDF article Genetics and Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAfA 2004 a little more critically. Nazi Ideology? It says among other things: These traditions are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the critical essay, earliest records of the Lemba, but are an example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders. The Lemba only Reconstruction now claim to thinking essay be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the how many pages is 1400, case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in conformity with this spurious tradition.

It seems very likely that even the claim that there is Semitic DNA would be difficult to support and example the likelihood that the frequency of pages is 1400 CMH is really similar to example modern day Jewish populations unlikely in the extreme. Bizarrely, the accelerated learning, Lemba are now also claiming to critical essay example have built Great Zimbabwe. Assuming the genetics result reflect anything at accelerated all, it is critical example, probably intermarriage with Arab traders in the past few centuries. It is noticeable that the Lemba have no language of their own and indeed no linguistic trace remains of their supposed Jewish forbears. Accelerated? Nonetheless, as quoted in Thomas et al. Critical Essay Example? (2000), the Lemba are now writing books about themselves, recounting traditions of apparent Jewish origin. Search websites on Bantu genetics and this is the main topic they want to discuss; Judaic websites have begun to elaborate an entire mythology of the lost Jewish populations of sub-Saharan Africa Ruwitah (1997) has. indeed pointed to this reinvention but to accelerated learning no good effect. Critical Thinking Essay Example? By some irony, a series of studies of the The Wake Forest Essay, Falasha, the Black Jews of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and critical thinking who were certainly practising Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at all (Lucotte Smets 1999) How do you answer these observations? Where in scripture soes it say that Israelites ever wore skull caps?

It doesnt. And as someone else has pointed out what was the basis of for the baseline dna? How does a group of whites claim a black ancestry? Egyptians or Mizriam (one of the sons of learning Cush) at thinking that time were all BLACK. Josephs brothers could not tell him apart from the Reconstruction Essay, Mizraim or Egyptians who were all BLACK. When Moses was on the run from Pharaoh the young girl at the well told her father that the Egyptian, read Mizraim the black son of critical thinking essay example Cush, helped them. The images painted on the walls of Egyptian crypts show the Hebrews as having dark brown skin.

The Persian kings that defeated the south, Israelites have paintings that depicts the Israelites as having dark brown skin and thinking hair braided in American Reconstruction the same cornrow style that you see on just about any African American from South Central LA. So if the idea is truth (which I doubt is the real objective) then we should be looking for critical example, the true Jews among people with dark brown skin. I would suggest you start the line of Haile Salessie, the Lemba and the beta Israel in India if and when you are looking for true Israel. You stated, The images painted on the walls of Egyptian crypts show the Experience Essay, Hebrews as having dark brown skin. What are your sources that substantiate such claims? I would appreciate any facts or evidence within Egyptian archeology or art depicting Israel in thinking essay Egypt that corroborates the Genesis/Exodus narratives. Maybe you should read this book which clearly puts HEBREW not Jew customs in the heart of how many is 1400 Africa. Critical Thinking? Showing that if anything it is those Europeans claiming to be related to africa the ancient Europeans that took up African customs not the other way round. How you wanna start speaking nonsense about Jew cultures who the hell are the thinking essay, Jews? Stop wasting peoples time with your BS and lies about these Jews who came from Europe speaking a Germanic language. Power? They are nothing to example d with the Afroasiatic hebrew speakers.

Lembas also known as vhalungu which means white man have old Jewish customs that are not similar to most modern Jewish populations and these Jewish or semitic customs where noted by the early Christian missionaries who observed the lembas customs and they concluded that the Lembas have customs and nazi ideology traditions that are non African and were similar to old testament biblical customs and that they have a secret prayer that has a mixture of Hebrew and Arabic and that they end their prayer by the Hebrew word Amin therefore the critical example, lemba have been Jews before the arrival of modern researchers and the statement that they are example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders is completely untrue. Dear BHUBA, When one engages the research and the literature objectively your statement the statement that they are example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders is completely untrue will not bear up under scientific scrutiny or the available evidence presented for your consideration in the documentation presented in these blog articles. You cannot say is completely untrue if you cannot demonstrate it. That the Lemba have old Jewish customs that are not similar to most modern Jewish populations and these Jewish or semitic customs where noted by the early Christian missionaries is not unique to the Lemba. Such old Jewish customs are found in many other African people groups. Id like to point out that the study about the Essay, extended CMH in 2013 by Soodyall concluded that.

A sample of 261 males (76 Lemba, 54 Remba, 43 Venda and 88 SA Jews) was initially analysed Although 24 individuals (10 Lemba and 14 SA Jews) were identified as having the original CMH (six STRs), only one SA Jew harboured the extended CMH. Therefore this study is inconclusive in terms of critical thinking essay example identifying true Jewish DNA because out of the 88 SA JEWS who were all Ashkenazi Jews only one harboured the learning, extended CMH so that means out of the thinking essay, 88 SA JEWS only Forest one person can be identified as a true Jew which means 87 SA Ashkenazi Jews are actually claiming to be Jews. And one more thing I would like to point out is that the critical essay, extended CMH is found at a frequency of 1.5 % amongst the cobb africa, general Jewish population in Israel and only 29.8% of all cohanim(Jewish priests) were found to have the extended CMH so judging from this we can conclude that the extended CMH is a rear genetic mutation of the critical essay example, original CMH and how many pages is 1400 words therefore we cannot base Jewish DNA ancestry upon critical thinking essay, that because only a very small portion of all Jews have this extended CMH while the majority that say they are Jews dont have the extended CMH so this means the is a lot of discrepancies about this research because it is nazi ideology, biased. About the issue that most African tribes share the same customs as the Lemba that is essay, a false statement and should be corrected put because Lembas have similar customs as Jews, for example they do not eat pork which all African tribes eat pork, and they do not eat meat that is not ritually slaughtered the accelerated learning, kosher way. Lemba culture prohibits eating animals that are not considered kosher e.g animals without hooves and that do not chew the cud. All these NonAfrican food taboos makes lembas distinctly different from all the critical essay example, other African tribes that lives among them who eat bush meat(bats/bush rats/rabbits/monkeys ect. Those are not the only old jewish customs to found among Africans. Many Africans have one day as a holy day which is often saturday, some such as Yoruba prostrate to elders, and have traditions similar to Sampson abd Samuels letting the dreadlocked hair grow. Nazi Ideology? Many West Africans share many words or similar words as Hebrew and some as the Ewe have a similar name for god as Yhwh.

Marriage rites, menstral traditions, marrying of the brothers wife, same sacrifices and thinking essay example even tribal names are same are similar to Forest Experience biblical characters. Lemba are not the critical essay, only tribe with oral stories of coming from that region. One last thing they have not any ANCIENT Hebrew dna to compare modern Jewish dan to for confirmation that Ashkenazi Jews are descended from those Hebrews! You stated among other things that Many Africans have one day as a holy day which is often saturday Please inform us what indigenous African people group observe Saturday as a holy day, and which indigenous African people group have a seven day week in their indigenous calendar traditions or cosmology? Sources or references for your citations would be appreciated,

Id rather you do your own research as people can be source biased sometimes. Those few socalled old jewish customs that were mentioned are few as many more customs can be found among one etnic African group. Find out what the missionaries said of the Igbo or what Olaudah Equiano had to say! Precolonial Akan/Ashanti Ohene dress customs and power day of. Just research African naming ceremonies day and day of circumcision. Simpler Jewish customs in africa. That cohen gene marker is just that, a cohen marker not an Israelite marker. Tribes could be part of the thinking, Hebrews and not of the priestly Aaronite clan, so just because a people dont have the accelerated, priestly genes dont mean they wouldnt be hebrews, theyre just not of the Aaron line! Still where is source of the critical thinking essay, proof of Jewish dna being actually Jewish? Did they ever find Judahs remains or Aarons to verify? Stop conning yourselves all these customs are African customs there is no such thing as Jewish customs, and the Arabs have long been accusing Israel of stealing their customs and Essay putting their name on them.

Even circumcision comes from sub-Saharan Africa and critical essay predates Islam and Arabia. Do not be conned by nazi ideology those claiming to be Jews today. The only thing those s called Jews came to Israel with is thinking example, a Germanic language called Yiddish. In fact those so called Israeli cant even live in the area without contracting skin cancer because they are not indigenous to that region of the learning, world. Lombokula commented , Stop conning yourselves all these customs are African customs there is critical essay example, no such thing as Jewish customs To this I would tend to agree. Much of nazi ideology what we know to be indigenous African customs are the same or similar to thinking essay example what we identify as Biblical customs. It is this very observation that led many outsiders initial gaze on African culture to make the conclusion that theses African people groups found observing such customs originated from the The Wake Forest, mythical lost tribes of Israel. Mr.

BReel, if you have looked at critical thinking the articles on this blog, it will testify to the length and breath of power definition my scholarship and research. To date I can find nothing to support what you allege with regard to a Saturday holy day or of an indigenous reoccuring seven day week cosmology that is more in line with a Roman solar calendar tradition. I rely more on African sourced anthologies rather than the European based anthologies you reference. As far as Olaudah Equiano is concerned, you must take into consideration that his recollections of Igbo traditions and the conclusions he makes of essay them are informed from and his thoroughly European and nazi ideology Christian Negropean world view of Africans. I have studied Akan traditions and am familiar with the god of Saturday just as much as I am familiar with the god of Wednesday neither of which are holy days. Critical Thinking Example? Male circumcision originated in Africa and is an Africanism not a so-called Hebrewism. Relations? Male circumcision is Africas contribution to the book religions. This as well as female circumcision was a feature of the African ritual traditions including among the Agau Falasha (before they became Beta Israel), but I doubt one would call that a Hebrewism or any part of so-called old jewish customs or Jewish customs in Africa. I recommend you refer you to the About section to this blog.

Yes about critical essay example, Equiano and accelerated his CONclusion (but who knows) but I was just refering to the traditions he noticed. Thinking Example? One thing with the Igbo though is that the people who inhabited Jerusalem before Israels conquest had the same name in pronunciation as Igbo, the Jebu (Ybu or Ebu, Ibo depending on what vowel is put in) Circumcision being Africas contribution to the book fair enough, thats where I was headed with the whole thing that these socalled old jewish customs are in fact age old African traditions. Not to say all of Africas traditions or any or Jewish in origin but that many if those Jewish customs can be found among MANY African nations. Im aware of the calendar differences and week counting as Igbo had a four day week. The people who inhabited Jerusalem before Israels conquest were black peppercorn nappy headed people, ethnically and phenotypically African Canaanites that some want to denominate as Jew, Hebrew or Israelite. As Rabbi James Kugel speaking of Jewish origins puts it, We have met the Canaanites and they are us. James L. South? Kugel, How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now (New York: Free Press, 2007), 382.

Whatever happened to just reading the thinking essay example, bible? There is no mention of Jewish customs Leviticus 23 clearly states these are the feast of the The Wake Essay, Lord not feast of the Jews. Essay Example? And to American Reconstruction pinpoint the true Hebrew isrealites, just read the curses in Deuteronomy 28. Not to mention revelation 2:9 where Jesus has a special plan for critical thinking essay example, those who say they are Jews, but are not. People forget about the Qahtanis. Who are the words, Qahtanis and how are they relevant to this blog thread? Why do they keep comparing African Hebrews to essay Arab and Reconstruction Essay European Hebrews? There is more proof that Hebrews are originallyof African stock. Critical Example? This is literally putting the nazi ideology, horse before the cart. Rael commented, There is more proof that Hebrews are originally of African stock. What do you call proof?

Moorjani 2011 Harvard all 8 Jewish populations tested were 3-5% SubSaharan African!