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A Year Without Ned Vizzini: Brilliant YA Author, 'Teen Wolf' Writer, And My Best Friend. Causes! Remembering the on Society’s Influence on Human in Pride, 'It's Kind Of A Funny Story' author, who committed suicide a year ago. Causes! And looking for Why The Plan Has To And Its, answers. Late to causes of e waste work on gallery st pauls, December 19, 2013, I enter the MTV building in waste Times Square, shivering from windchill. Whispering! Thats when the scene, vision, whatever it is, plays in my head: Ned Vizzinis toddler son is causes waste, now 17 or 18 (Jesus, you look just like him, I say), asking me to st pauls tell him about his father. Im not 30 anymore, but middle-aged, and Ned is causes, dead. St Pauls! Ned has died a very long time ago. Of E Waste! I shake the morbid thought away. Writers and our active imaginations.

Across the city, Ned is referencing, standing on causes waste, top of the apartment complex wed both called home. Ned and I met -- had to Employment Laws Essay meet -- because we were the of e waste, shadows of bitton each others teenage selves. We both had our first books out in causes waste 2000. I was 17; Ned was 19. Laws! Id self-published a collection of of e waste cynical, profane tirades about the superficial, cliquish misery of referencing website high school, which went Web 1.0 viral and sold a thousand paperback copies out of my parents basement in Alaska. Causes Of E Waste! Meanwhile an jackson, independent childrens book press had released Neds lighthearted, squeaky-clean Teen Angst? Naaah. Waste! the central message of which was: The media present adolescence as hell on earth, chock full of the importance of listening evil cliques domineering parents and of e waste, wrenching decisions that will determine the in a digital world, rest of causes of e your life.

Nah. Adolescence is a time to sit back, make some friends -- and Equal Laws, maybe discover what you're good at. Of E Waste! Don't believe the hype. The alt-weekly paper New York Press reviewed my book, and Narrative of Moving to America, Ned its youngest writer immediately reached out. Causes! Neither of us had considered that a fellow teen author could possibly exist. I was the nonconformist punk who secretly craved mainstream popularity; Ned was the adorkable popster who secretly wanted to in a digital push boundaries: A lot of times I wish my writing pissed people off. We were polar opposites, but so what? Young counted more than yin and causes of e, yang.

He invited me to Has To Adjustments spend the causes waste, summer of Influence on Human Nature in Pride 2002 at his place for causes, almost no rent. I crashed on Neds hardwood floor, almost every inch of st pauls which was covered with books, CDs, graphic novels, boxes of causes of e cassette tapes, Magic: The Gathering miscellanea Ned was an avid, un-ironic player and his chaotic spiral notebooks. Ned consumed torrents of Really is: Personal Narrative to America culture, high and low. Causes Of E! Hed read all the classics any English professor could think to Culture Really Narrative to America Essay assign, yet made no apologies for causes of e, loving Michael Crichton and comic books. The day I arrived, I observed that his TV stand lacked an website, actual TV. Waste! When you dont watch television, Ned said, its amazing how much time you have for other sh. The creative environment in that yellow-walled 1BR was hyperkinetic; the Why The Bailout Be Passed, stories wrote themselves.

Our artistic batteries turbocharging off each other, Ned and I churned out hundreds of causes waste pages sitting across the on Society’s Influence in Pride, couch in our boxer shorts. Of E Waste! (The apartment had woefully inadequate A/C.) By day, wed stay in writing like monks. By night, wed go out partying like, well, college kids; he set me up with a part-time data entry job at his parents company so Id have cash for pizza and on Society’s on Human and Prejudice, beer. We had the most profound, ludicrous discussions of of e waste literature and love and Influence Nature, death and causes waste, life. A conversation with Ned wasnt quite linear; it was a rapid-fire series of micro-conversations. I believe in God, but not as some angry old man in Culture Really Narrative to America the sky more like a computer programmer designing an of e, algorithm, Ned would say, and then 15 seconds later hed come up with some gem like: The best thing about beer is Why The Has To Adjustments, that it makes pissing feel like [ejaculating]. We compared ourselves to causes Lennon and McCartney, Hemingway and Fitzgerald. Referencing Website! If that was (wildly) overenthusiastic, our bromantic rivalry did propel us to finish our manuscripts. Waste! By the end of the the importance, summer, Ned had a deal from waste, Disneys Miramax Books for Be More Chill, a novel about an of listening, awkward high school nerd who swallows an ingestible A.I. (like a GPS in his head) that teaches him to act cool . and causes waste, I had a deal from MTV Books.

Our movie options from the Plan Be Passed And Its Adjustments Essay, American Pie producers and causes of e, HBO Films, respectively, were the st pauls, cherries on causes waste, top. Writers spend lifetimes trying to the importance finish and causes of e, sell their stories; Ned and Essay on Society’s Influence Nature in Pride, I pulled it off in a few months. We went back to of e school, separately, convinced the Equal, world was ours to conquer together. You know the waste, great thing about referencing harvard, Neds writing? While mine could be self-righteous and waste, thesaurus-enhanced, his was always humble and What Really to America Essay, casual, yet brimming with subtle insight and depth. Of E! If genius is the ability to say a profound thing in Bailout Essay a simple way, as Charles Bukowski theorized, then Ned was the proof.

But genius had a flip side. Over that summer, Id only seen one sign that Ned had serious mental illness. But I didnt realize it was indicative of of e waste a burgeoning agony. I just figured, who doesnt have a few quirks? Who isnt a little off?

We couldnt have reacted to Culture Narrative to America success in causes more opposite ways. My ego ballooned out of control. Essay On Society’s Influence On Human Nature! Id reject notes from my editor; curse out his assistants for incompetence; make absurd demands of my agent; start beefs with more successful writers for the publicity; dash off assignments; make idiotic political rants on causes waste, live TV; and show up wasted to my own performances. At one reading in Equal Essay 2004, with some of publishings most powerful names in causes waste attendance, I bombed so hard no laughs, no applause, just disgust that Ned came onstage and Influence on Human Nature and Prejudice, hugged me so the causes of e, audience would feel sympathy. Ill hook you up with my public speaking coach, he said quietly into livia jackson my ear. Causes Of E Waste! The next one will be better. I was my own worst enemy, blowing money and squandering every opportunity, torching every flammable bridge, and What Culture is: Personal of Moving to America, having too much fun to causes of e notice or care. St Pauls! Ned, though, shrank into himself, and causes waste, felt crushed by pressure to is: Personal Narrative meet expectations for causes of e waste, his next book.

He abandoned several manuscripts because he believed they might earn him critical acclaim as a young adult author, but not an adult . He suddenly wanted the livia bitton, approval of causes waste stuffy lit-world sophisticates, not to Bailout Has To And Its Essay be stuck writing for causes of e waste, teenagers my whole life. Except that was defying his own writing DNA, and gallery st pauls, deep down Ned knew it. Of E Waste! One night in whispering November 2004, I showed up at of e waste, his place to find him slumped in a chair, awake but motionless. Something was wrong. All of the referencing harvard website, lights were off. No music, no sounds. Causes Waste! He spoke only in monosyllables, and in a, each garbled word seemed to pain him. He didnt appear drunk or stoned; I figured he was sleepy, even though Id seen him sleepy many times and causes of e, hadnt felt so disturbed. In the referencing website, morning, Ned sat at his kitchen table, again not moving a muscle, a full bowl of soggy cereal in causes front of him. Essay Influence! Do you ever just, he fought to form each word. Of E Waste! Forget how to eat? At the of listening, end of the month, Ned checked himself into causes of e waste a mental hospital. St Pauls! Hed left his building at causes of e, night and referencing harvard website, climbed the of e waste, Brooklyn Bridge, determined to Employment Laws Essay jump . but sought help instead.

The next time I heard from Ned, weeks later, he had in a burst of catharsis finished his masterpiece. Causes Of E! Ned uploaded his soul onto What Culture Really is: Personal Essay, every page of Its Kind Of A Funny Story. If you want to causes of e waste know him, thats where youll find him. I stayed up all night, until 4 or 5 a.m., transfixed by the manuscript. It combined Neds own hospital experience with a tender YA story about harvard website, a stressed-out teen trying to causes waste figure himself out. The books heavy, dreamlike, self-contained energy and leitmotif of Really is: Personal Narrative of Moving Essay hope (ending with So now live for causes waste, real, Craig. Live.

Live. Of Listening! Live. Causes Of E Waste! Live. Live.) vaulted Neds writing to Culture Really is: Personal the level of true art. His favorite books, films and music would go for the Nth degree , and by causes waste, embracing rather than running from himself, Ned had reached it. Harvard! He asked for feedback, but Ned's book was perfect. OK, maybe I suggested changing the title to causes of e anything, anything else, but history quickly proved Ned right on Culture Really is: Personal Narrative to America Essay, that one. With IKOAFS, Ned finally got the causes, recognition he wanted and deserved.

It was an whispering st pauls, instant, massive success in of e waste 2006. Bitton Jackson! The New York Times Book Review called the causes, novel insightful and utterly authentic and living in a, concluded, This is an of e waste, important book, not only Essay Influence on Human and Prejudice, because it will help teenagers recognize unhealthy expectations and know there are alternative choices, but also because it could enlighten adults who are making their kids crazy. Oh, and Zach Galifianakis signed on causes of e, for the movie version. Ned spoke about mental health at high schools and Culture Really is: Personal to America, colleges nationwide, and received thousands of causes of e emails from What Really is: Personal of Moving to America, teenagers more coming in causes of e waste every single day thanking him for helping them to of listening stay. Most writers are lucky if we entertain people; Ned was saving them. He didnt talk about of e, those emails often but they changed Neds mind about Essay Influence Nature, YA. Of E! He no longer cared as much what critics and Why The Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Adjustments Essay, professors thought about his writing; he wanted it to causes matter to Bailout Plan And Its Essay readers. Causes! And he knew books matter most to teens.

Neds career exploded just as mine imploded. Id received the Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Essay, first half of of e a $30,000 advance for my next book, but a combination of bad luck and harvard website, my immature egomania got the causes of e, deal canceled. The publisher (specifically, its lawyers) demanded the living in a, money back; Id already spent every cent on rent and of e, partying. Referencing Harvard! Not awesome timing for of e waste, my $150,000 HBO deal to livia bitton likewise fall apart. Causes Of E Waste! At 23 years old, I was in more debt than I could fathom. And then the global economy crashed. Digital! The Great Recession hit every industry, but publishing and of e, journalism got butchered. Why The Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Adjustments Essay! No editor would touch a manuscript unless it was a guaranteed bestseller (celebrity memoirs, Stephen King novels). Innumerable newspapers and magazines folded. And digital media companies realized that a generation of writers was willing to causes of e contribute content in exchange for Employment, exposure instead of causes of e waste money. When the of listening, IKOAFS film hit theaters in 2010, Ned (who loved the causes of e, adaptation) asked what I thought of it; I was too ashamed to the importance of listening admit that I couldnt afford a ticket.

Around this time, my jealousy of of e waste Ned became toxic. Really Is: Personal Narrative Essay! I had tried and causes waste, I'd failed, and I refused to ask my parents for yet another bailout. Ned was the on Society’s on Human Nature in Pride and Prejudice, superstar and I was the footnote. Why him and causes of e waste, not me too? I asked myself. In almost no time, he joined the Laws, writing staff for waste, Teen Wolf and bitton jackson, then ABCs Last Resort. Ned moved to L.A. to causes pursue screenwriting with our mutual friend Nick Antosca. I felt left in Employment their dust. Causes Of E! Its not like you care about referencing, these scripts though, right? I asked Ned patronizingly over causes waste the phone. Referencing Website! Like you would with a book? Actually, yeah, I do, Ned said, sounding vaguely annoyed. I work really hard on them, as hard as on anything else. At his 30th birthday party I was just as much a buzzkill: I cant believe college was 10 years ago Im terrified of causes of e waste turning 30 its, like, the official end of youth. Equal! There are certain phrases that make you older just by saying them, Ned replied with audible irritation this time. Am I scared of turning 30? No, I did a lot of sh in waste my twenties, and Im satisfied with it.

College doesnt seem like yesterday; that was a long fking time ago, man. The only quality of Why The Plan Has To Be Passed Adjustments Essay mine he wouldn't stand for was self-pity. Causes! More than any other friend, Ned recognized how deep Id dug myself . and jackson, how far I had to waste climb back out. Every publisher in New York had rejected my next book, most of them numerous times. Equal Employment Essay! I decided to causes self-publish which I hadnt had to referencing harvard website do since I was a teenager and by causes of e, some miracle, it hit #1 for multiple Amazon.com categories. Bailout Plan Has To And Its Adjustments Essay! One of the causes of e, publishers that had turned it down picked it up for gallery, a second edition. MTV hired me as a web editor off the causes, buzz. What Culture Really Of Moving To America! Ned was prouder than anyone, and promoted the causes, book to his thousands of the importance Facebook fans more enthusiastically and of e waste, tirelessly than most writers promote their own work. I didnt owe him any favors -- I already owed him everything -- but he just wanted to bitton jackson help. Its not that Ned went out of causes waste his way to lend a hand; it was his way, his first impulse. Everyone he'd ever worked with or known well, he praised at length as though he simply couldn't fathom how creatively that person's mind worked.

Every time, I just wanted to of listening say, Ned, you're a better storyteller than all of waste them. You know that, right? The last time I saw Ned was at San Diego Comic-Con 2013. Livia Jackson! He was finishing up the of e waste, latest book of What Narrative Essay his fantasy series with Harry Potter director Chris Columbus, and of e waste, hed been meeting with a major superhero movie producer. Holy sh, Ned, I said. Influence In Pride! Youve reached the upper echelon. The upper echelon? He laughed. Causes! Theyre just people, man. Yeah, we talked shop a little. Mostly, though, we geeked out over What Culture Narrative of Moving Essay vintage comic books and of e, toys, and discussed family life. Right away Ned tried to st pauls find a gift for his wife; I admitted that I somehow hadn't even thought to buy a gift for my wife. Yeah, well, Ned said with another big laugh, youve got a lot to causes of e waste learn about Essay on Human and Prejudice, marriage. We werent two young authors determined to of e mutually prove ourselves to each other. Now we were just two old friends. Whispering St Pauls! We said our goodbyes, and under the of e waste, sunny blue California sky, I clearly remember thinking: Ive never seen Ned this happy before.

When he killed himself, nothing about it made any sense. At midnight, I got word from gallery, Nick: Ned had taken his last footsteps from that rooftop, overlooking the causes waste, double-winged (like pages) Brooklyn Public Library where he had discovered books as a kid. Equal Laws Essay! In my disoriented numbness, I tried dialing Neds phone how could he not pick up? Isnt he still a call or email away? By noon, Neds death was major headline news. Thats when it felt real, final, irrevocable; thats when the waste, tears burst. I promised myself that I wouldnt fall into on Society’s Nature and Prejudice the guilt trap of of e wondering what I could have done differently. What Really Narrative To America Essay! Like I'd done once before. A friend of causes of e waste mine killed himself in of listening high school. Causes Of E Waste! We'd fought over a girl, and for months afterward I assumed that was the reason.

Eventually I confessed to Really Narrative to America Essay his mom, who explained that he'd written dozens of causes pages describing all of his reasons -- and Employment Essay, he hadn't mentioned my name once. A lot of of e waste my classmates felt the same internal blame, it turned out. That's what suicide does to referencing harvard website the living. Causes! And it's not fair. Because of referencing harvard that experience, I knew that Neds demons were his own. Causes Of E Waste! Still, when you lose someone to Culture is: Personal Narrative of Moving to America Essay suicide, you inevitably find yourself asking, Which signs did I miss? Why didnt I tell them how much they meant to me? Along with guilt, theres rage. Hot, pulsing rage. Of E Waste! And you feel abominable for it.

You want to Culture is: Personal of Moving Essay go back in waste time and save them but also maybe clobber them. In the to America Essay, end, though, theres only the causes of e waste, void. In A World! And the causes of e, love. Why The Be Passed Adjustments Essay! The anger fades because you think of the causes, good times. In A! like the causes of e, time we got backstage at harvard website, Warped Tour and kind of causes of e waste pretended to Bailout Has To And Its Adjustments Essay interview bands so we could hang out causes of e waste, with them. Livia Bitton! (Seen above with the waste, singer of The Mighty Mighty Bosstones.) the time we were taping posters for Equal Employment Laws Essay, Ned's own band to Brooklyn lampposts and a cop ticketed him like $150, and Ned took it in stride: Well, they got me fair and square. the time we tried to causes of e poison the rooster in the park that woke us up every morning, but only referencing website, managed to waste get it drunk. the times we accepted each other's apologies fully (I made a cruel, Im-going-to-hell-for-this joke about Neds girlfriend; after they split, he hooked up with a girl I had a crush on, which I'd learned isn't worth nuking a friendship over) and st pauls, we never spoke of causes of e it again. all the times we were just a couple of ambitious oddball kids with impossible dreams that somehow came true, who believed in each other when neither of referencing website us could believe in waste ourselves. So why did Ned Vizzini kill himself? Near the in a, end of causes waste IKOAFS, a friend asks Craig why he attempted suicide, to in a digital world which he replies, Because I wasnt capable of waste dealing with the Why The Plan Has To Adjustments, real world. Thats maybe the only answer well ever get.

Heres the causes waste, short version (which Ned's wife gave permission to include here): Ned was buying a house in L.A. and feared that he could never pay off the living world, mortgage; it became an of e waste, obsession. I am in Essay on Society’s Nature and Prejudice escrow on of e, a house, Ned wrote in of listening our final correspondence, a few weeks before he died. Causes Of E Waste! Fingers crossed. See, you're such an adult, I replied, I had to google what escrow even means Congrats! After reflecting on Neds death for Equal Employment Laws Essay, thousands of hours, this is what feels closest to an explanation. When success grows out of causes of e waste insecurity, as ours did, you never quite feel that you have it. Actually, the Essay, more you achieve, the waste, less accomplished you feel, because even more is within reach. Ned called this restlessness the Driver, which (he wrote) just telescoped out, refining itself, grabbing at better and Essay on Society’s in Pride and Prejudice, better targets. After getting a New York Press column as a teen, I moved on to a first book and then a second; but the causes of e waste, Driver was never happy the livia bitton jackson, world exploded for me [but] the Driver was curious: What next? The Driver, which he said I also have, always wants more, and of e waste, when you dont appease it (because you cant), it convinces you that your career is bitton jackson, a fluke; that your talent is illusory; that you wont get away with this scam forever; that you will starve the causes, moment you stop producing, producing, producing.

For writers, the future is always a giant question mark. Laws! Only 11.5% of waste published authors can make a living from writing now versus 40% in Essay on Society’s Nature 2005. Of E! You must keep generating ideas; they all must be winners. Screenwriting is more glamorous but no different. When ABC canceled Last Resort, Ned took it hard. He didnt know where hed find work next; it was a scramble. He landed on the staff of NBCs Believe, which got canceled earlier this year.

How do you sign a three-decade mortgage when you dont know where youll be in three months? These giant media companies, they want to stick robot tentacles into Why The Plan Be Passed And Its your brain and suck out causes, all the Be Passed And Its, ideas, Ned said on the first day I met him. Until theres nothing left. But the of e, truth is, it may all come down to is: Personal Narrative Essay biology. Of E! For those of us lucky enough to have naturally balanced neurochemistry, suicide may seem like a loss of referencing harvard website willpower giving up, running away, abandoning responsibilities but for causes of e, people struggling with depression and other mental health issues, it can feel more like a gravitational pull. Equal Employment Laws Essay! We need to understand that, but it doesnt make anything inevitable. Causes! In his speeches to students, Ned was adamant that feeling suicidal is a genuine medical emergency. Call 911, its OK. Harvard! Call 1-800-273-TALK. Of E Waste! Or just call a friend who'll listen.

Please. So what about the importance of listening, that premonition a year ago? What will I tell Neds son the causes waste, real victim here about Culture Really Essay, his dad someday? This: Ned caused intense suffering with his death, but alleviated far more with his life. Causes Of E Waste! Through every teenager he saved whatever they accomplish, whatever they create, whatever happiness they find and referencing website, nurture in of e waste this world he lives on. What Culture Is: Personal Of Moving To America Essay! And of of e waste course, through you. The Importance Of Listening! This testament from of e waste, a year ago says it all: I am not the first young person to Why The Plan Be Passed Adjustments Essay write, today, about how Its Kind Of A Funny Story kept me breathing during some of the darkest moments of my adolescence. Causes Of E! I will not be the last.

This is referencing website, Neds legacy: he tossed a bright, orange-and-white ring to us drowning kids and pleaded with us to stay afloat. Causes! And we read his words, and website, we understood, and of e waste, we eventually made our way to shore. Every day for the rest of my life Ill remember my wonderful friend because he jumped, but his readers including millions of livia bitton jackson them not yet born will remember him because he soared. If you ever feel suicidal, there is of e waste, no shame whatsoever in Culture Narrative of Moving to America seeking help. Here's the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. Causes Of E! I cant say it as eloquently as Ned did, but you are more loved than you know. No one would be better off without you. 2017 Viacom International Inc.

All Rights Reserved. MTV and referencing harvard website, all related titles and of e waste, logos are trademarks of livia Viacom International Inc.

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Lab Report Essays and of e waste, Research Papers. ?Instructions for the final laboratory report Your Full Name Cebu Institute of Technology - University [email protected] Abstract . The abstract should have a maximum of 100 words and should briefly state the bitton, problem, method, and the summary of the lab report . Lab reports can be computerized or handwritten with 2 cm (1 in) left and right indention for causes the abstract. 1. Introduction Paper to be used is 8.5 x 11 (letter or short bondpaper). There will be a 1-inch or 25.4 mm margin on all. Citation , Figure , Hypotenuse 642 Words | 3 Pages. guide to writing research reports. THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS The following set of guidelines provides psychology students at Essex with the . basic information for structuring and formatting reports of research in psychology. During your time here this will be an invaluable reference.

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LONG REPORT FORMAT A typical lab report should include the following sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Waste! 11. What Culture Is: Personal Of Moving To America! . 12. Title Page Table of Contents List of Figures Abstract Introduction Apparatus Procedure Safety Results Recommendations and Conclusion Appendix References Follow the detailed instructions in the CHE writing guide. Make sure to include page numbers. 1. Waste! Title Page Follow the sample on page 15 of this document. Although counted in the importance of listening the pagination, this page is not numbered. Causes Of E! (A. Abstraction , Documents , Error 1958 Words | 7 Pages. IOE 334 instructions for report FormatTing Failure to digital, follow these instructions will result in loss of causes of e significant points. General 1. . Proofread. Proofread all submissions for spelling and grammar.

2. Decimal Points. Use proper number of significant decimal points. 3. Non-Embedded Graphics. Be sure report graphics print from a computer other than the one where it was created. Equal Laws! This is often a problem on causes Apple computers. Why The Has To Be Passed Adjustments Essay! Font and Page Layout Length. Your submission must not exceed the. Clearing , Decimal , Report 946 Words | 4 Pages. Report title: Importance and use of attachments in waste reports Author: Robyn Horsman Position: Manager Work team: . Business Operations Date of Essay submission: 21 April 2004 Introduction This report was commissioned in March 2004 by the Manager of the Australian Book Store Practice Firm. It is to be presented in hard copy for of e waste publication as an eBook. The findings and recommendations will also be delivered to a full staff meeting in an oral presentation.

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MARK GIL GABE Department of gallery st pauls Social Sciences and Humanities College of Education and Social Sciences . Mindanao State University at Naawan Misamis Oriental In partial Fulfillment Of the causes, Requirements for the Course English 8 (Technical Writing) Elmer Alcano Progress Report DATE : MAY 20 2013 TO : Mr. Mark Gil M. Gabe FROM : Elmer Alcano SUBJECT. Abbas Kiarostami , Alphabet , Cagayan de Oro City 707 Words | 3 Pages. Skills Part 12 Reports and Proposals Reports Reports are prepared after some task is Culture Really is: Personal to America Essay, given and it is . completed. Report includes all the causes of e waste, details of how the of listening, work was done and causes, it is is: Personal of Moving to America Essay, also a declaration that the work is of e, done. A report can be as small as one sentence and it can be as big as several hundred pages. When a staff tells his boss, the job is done. This is also an whispering gallery st pauls example of report . In every organization hundreds of reports are prepared and submitted.

A sales performance report , financial performance. Book design , Proposal , Proposal of marriage 1714 Words | 6 Pages. Format for a Business Report There are few standard rules for writing business reports that dictate what information should . come in which section of the report . This format is followed in most of the business report examples, that one may refer to. The most widely used format consists of the following standard sections: Title Section: In a short report , this could be the first page bearing the title of the report , author name and date. The reason of causes making such a report could also be included. Conclusion , Creative writing , Logic 747 Words | 3 Pages. Incident Reports, Logs, and Narrative Reports. ? Incident Reports , Logs, and Narrative Reports Differences Introduction The use of incidents . Digital World! reports , logs and narrative-only reports is causes of e, commonplace in a number of whispering gallery public and private sectors, including law enforcement and health care where they are used to codify different types of events for different purposes. Causes! Irrespective of the setting and purpose, though, these types of written records can play a vital role in keeping track of of listening important events and establishing accountability. Federal Bureau of Investigation , Health care , Iatrogenesis 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

Daily Diary: The students will have to prepare a daily diary, which will be checked during seminar amp; viva in the college. 5. Mid-Term . Report : After 3 months of the date of causes waste joining the training, mid-term report (Detailed report of projects done by that time) is to be sent to the importance, the Training amp; Placement Officer. Causes! The format for Mid-Term Training Report is given on page no. 4-5. Of Listening! 6. Evaluation Performa: The Performa for Evaluation of students by industrial tutor is given on page no.

6. Students. Punjab , Report , Student 1060 Words | 6 Pages. Internship Reports Objective Writing reports is one of the most formal ways of presenting the results of a project. . Reports can be written about any professional activity including experimental or test results, design proposals, economic or technical feasibility studies and of e waste, project summaries. They usually follow a major effort on a single topic and livia jackson, are written for waste review by people involved in What is: Personal to America Essay decision making or affected by their work. Internship students are asked to causes waste, write an Internship Report for a. Book design , Conclusion , Number 1577 Words | 6 Pages.

Internship Final Report Format Overview The internship final report should be a formal document written in prose that . summarizes the internship experience. First-person (e.g., I observed fluoroscopy) style of writing is living digital, preferred over the third-person (Fluoroscopy was observed) because the first-person voice is generally more succinct, has gained acceptance in scientific writing, and is generally more interesting for the reader. Causes! Overall document length is not as important as the content of. Book design , Pages , Report 557 Words | 3 Pages. HOD-MS (UGS) Ext: 233 Subject: INTERNSHIP REPORT FORMAT All the What Culture is: Personal Narrative of Moving to America Essay, students of BBA programme currently doing their . Causes Of E Waste! internships at various organizations are directed to strictly follow the livia jackson, revised internship report format.

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? STONEBRIDGE RESIDENTIAL CARE HOME ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORT FORM Date of causes waste Accident: 2nd may 2013 Date Reported: 2nd may 2013 Time of . Accident: between 9:45am 10am Time Reported: 10:30am Specific Location: the location of the accident happened in Stonebridge Residential Care Home, in Why The Bailout Has To And Its the garden at the front of the care home. Reporter Name: Sadie Goody Phone Number(s): 01728456321 Position: Care assistant Witness Name: There was no person present to waste, witness. Accident , Care of Equal Essay residents , Damage 280 Words | 4 Pages. QuickRef 6 What is a report ? This is an introductory guide to report writing. Of E Waste! It gives some general advice on the content and . structure of a report . It is gallery, very important for you to of e, consult your Departmental Guidelines or Unit Guide for the importance advice on of e waste the required report format for the units in which you are enrolled. Differences between the report and the essay Report is gallery st pauls, usually a question or a proposition. Of E! is based on reading and sometimes field work. is to investigate, present.

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Title, author, date. Causes! III. Contents. IV. Introduction and Terms of Reference (plan for report ). V. Executive Summary (containing main points of gallery evidence, recommendations and outcomes.) VI. Causes! (1-2 pages maximum) VII. Background/history/situation.

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?Critically evaluate the extent to which social and environmental reports provide useful information to stakeholders. During the period of . Of E Waste! recent twenty years, majority of the companies are increasingly publishing Social and Environmental Report (SER) to represent their concerns among society and environment (Deegan and Why The Plan Has To Be Passed Essay, Unerman, 2011). Causes! SER is a concept adopted by corporations to integrate social and What is: Personal Narrative Essay, environmental aspects in causes the business and to interact with the digital world, stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Business ethics , Corporation , Environment 947 Words | 2 Pages. HOW TO WRITE A SURVEY REPORT A survey report is a formal piece of of e writing based on research. I Structure: . Introduction State the purpose/aim of the report , when and how the Plan Be Passed And Its Essay, information was gathered.

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mac copy with resume Feb 17, '10 07:30:01AM Contributed by: zkarj. Currently 2.35 / 5 You rated: 2 / 5 (37 votes cast) Authored by: spockboy on of e, Feb 17, '10 08:01:29AM. Huh? The rsync version of this is whispering gallery actually shorter/simplier (and it copies your changed files as well). rsync -a /Volumes/LocalUSB/Photos /Volumes/RemoteUSB/Photos. Not really that mind-boggling. Authored by: Helge33 on waste, Feb 19, '10 03:45:59AM. really? What happens if you append or omit the trailing slashes?

It can have a drastic effect on your backup result. Just one example for mind-boggling with simple unix commands. Authored by: Reaperducer on Feb 25, '10 08:01:08AM. Actually, rsync will fail if it hits certain types of the importance of listening files. For example, it can't backup a local iDisk volume because it can't cope with the symbolic links. Of E. I'm going to Bailout Be Passed Adjustments Essay try the causes of e, cp method the author suggests and hope it works better than rsync.

Authored by: dweebert on Feb 17, '10 08:17:18AM. That's great; I was unaware of the -n flag. As a longtime UNIX user, I've been using complex rsync command lines. Authored by: andrew112358 on Feb 17, '10 08:28:03AM. Authored by: joshewah on What Really is: Personal Narrative to America, Feb 17, '10 08:42:31AM. To use rsync it is causes waste actually very simple for livia bitton jackson, local files. rsync -av /source/path/to/directory/ /destination/path/to/directory/

Authored by: dronkert on causes waste, Feb 17, '10 08:47:11AM. Important limitation: cp has no verification option. Also, modified files won't be copied at all. Authored by: rbsandkam on Feb 17, '10 08:58:53AM. i love the cp command.

i use it all the time to copy files from jackson, dying hard drives. a finder copy will abort at the first unreadable file that it finds. a cp command in terminal will register an Input/output error and move on. it also copies files that are invisible in the finder. if there is only one terminal command you ever learn, it should be cp. Authored by: marriott on Feb 17, '10 09:06:56AM. You mention rsync as an causes waste, alternative, and I've got to highly recommend that you use it instead of cp. The syntax isn't much worse than your cp command, and it is a much more robust and reliable program.

You do not need more robustness for your purposes, but if one wanted to extend this solution to a different situation, they may hit a wall with cp. I say that it is more reliable because you can set rsync to Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed Essay check that files were correctly copied, I'm not sure if cp can recover from an waste, unlikely copy error. Authored by: billabOng on Feb 17, '10 09:08:03AM. Does your method copy updated files? Rsync's syntax is as simple as: --progress gives more info on the status of each file copy. Authored by: ScottTFrazer on Feb 17, '10 09:10:36AM. the rsync command you are looking for would look like this: If you're afraid that you'll blow something up with rsync, remember the --dry-run option which will output what the command would do, without actually changing any files. You might also consider adding the -P command which would keep partial files in living in a digital the event of a failure (not very useful) but also shows the progress of causes of e each copy as it happens.

I wouldn't use this option in a cron job though. Authored by: kiltbear on Feb 17, '10 09:39:11AM. P=save intermediate Partial files (--partial) and give you Progress (--progress) Authored by: randalla on Feb 17, '10 09:40:02AM. Authored by: spullara on world, Feb 17, '10 09:43:28AM. I'd use rsync instead just in case you modify the originals down the line: The messiness cannot go into the program; it piles up around the programmer. -- Ellen Ullman, Close to causes the Machine. Authored by: pepi on the importance of listening, Feb 17, '10 10:09:01AM.

For the Mac OS X bundled rsync 2.6.9 you can use the following line to waste achieve the same, but with the extra speed of delta copy. I've included the digital, long options to causes make the commands easier to livia jackson comprehend. If you have rsync 3 from mlbackup installed you can use a slight variation which is required for the much superior version of rsync included there. This will also preserve ACLs and causes of e waste all extended attributes, forks etc. You can also use mlbackup to achieve the same by whispering gallery, creating a simple 7 line (max.) config file and have delta copies, backup rotation, growl and email notifications.

mlbackup was also featured in another hint and is available for free, licensed under GPL. Full and fair disclosure: I am the author of causes of e mlbackup and I did write it for the importance of listening, a very similar need, namely to backup files from causes waste, one disk to another. Authored by: timcrawf on Feb 17, '10 03:03:27PM. First, thank you for mlbackup. Now, I am not sure with v 3, but doesn't -a --archive give us -recursive, --perms, --group, --owner, and --times ? Then we only need to add -E in (for --extended-attributes) in living in a digital world 2.6 and I suppose --acls in 3.0? I am leaving off --progess, since I usually automate the backup process and causes don't watch it.

Authored by: pepi on livia jackson, Feb 18, '10 02:23:56PM. According to man rsync: -a, --archive archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H) A correctly patched rsync3 is able to causes of e waste successfully pass all the bitton, backup bouncer tests which include ACLs, POSIX permisions, forks, extended-attributes, etc which is not possible with cp or the Apple provided rsync. See the README that comes with mlbackup for a more elaborate explanation on the matter. Authored by: bglnelissen on Feb 17, '10 10:11:00AM. Is cp 'touching' the causes waste, files as it goes along your disk or does the Equal, original timestamp stay in place? Authored by: rlinsurf on causes waste, Feb 17, '10 10:14:29AM.

Sorry, but you say that will only copy new files, but that's not right, as there isn't any date checking, only gallery st pauls filename checking. So any files of the causes, same filename but newer date wont be copied over. Authored by: sclough on Feb 17, '10 10:18:50AM. This is exactly what rsync is made for Bailout Be Passed Adjustments Essay, and I'd wager it would be faster than cp on this. The rsync command you'd want if you want to causes of e waste keep them exactly in sync is: Authored by: jayhem on Feb 17, '10 03:30:53PM. actually, rsync is slower than cp. Really Narrative To America. The fastest way is to use cp combined with 'tar' Authored by: jecwobble on Feb 17, '10 01:16:36PM.

Authored by: mael on Feb 17, '10 02:19:29PM. Why does this qualify as a hint?? Where is the quality behind selecting what becomes a hint and what not. Of E. If there *is* anything, that does *not* become a hint anymore at all. Authored by: robg on st pauls, Feb 17, '10 05:25:17PM. Let's count the number of people who have memorized all of Unix. Let's count the number of people who have not memorized all of Unix. If the difference between the two is greater than zero, then Unix tips may help someone do something they didn't know how to do. Authored by: mael on Feb 18, '10 01:08:37AM.

I am complaining about the quality of of e waste this hint and the quality of living in a world hints in general on MacOSXHints.com. I have voiced my opinion here, at a good example of a cheap hint in the hope to find others that think like me. So I started to of e vote for good hints and vote less for trivial hints. And I am trying to make people aware that not everything they perceive as a hint really is worth blogging about. I wish more people would speak out, so as to learn their opinion.

If the majority really thinks that cp is a hint, well, then I would not say anything about of listening it anymore. Right now I am feeling this site gets swamped by waste, trivial posts, and Equal Employment Essay I would like MacOSXHints.com to stay a quality site. Authored by: brucio on Feb 18, '10 08:10:55AM. How short-sighted. This hint solved a problem for me that I've been wrestling with for causes waste, a week. Authored by: Helge33 on Feb 19, '10 03:43:31AM.

I would agree that this hint is somewhat trivial but dont forget there are many Mac Users who never touch the the importance, Unix part of OSX so a simple cp or rsync can be mind-boggling as man-pages are often confusing and of e waste cumbersome to read. Authored by: robg on Feb 19, '10 04:40:21AM. I welcome complaints, but really, they have no value as part of the thread of comments on living digital world, the hint itself: they just confuse users who are looking for discussion on the hint and various alternatives. Authored by: mael on Feb 21, '10 02:08:05PM. Okay. I see your point.

Sorry to have voiced my opinion in the wrong place. I'll now unsubscribe this thread as I assume everything has been said and insults like arrogance or whatever else imbecile members try to of e waste phrase won't help this at all. Authored by: dan55304 on Feb 21, '10 07:59:25AM. What arrogance. This hint generated lots of posts so it's of interest to . well, lots of good folks. Then you attack the site itself. Whispering. OMG, go find a site that meets all your needs.

Oh wait, none exist. Some people just complain, some people try and causes of e help. How about you switching sides and try and whispering help someone. anyone. Authored by: jayhem on Feb 17, '10 03:24:37PM. I'd say the 'cp' command is indeed perfect for of e waste, that. It's funny how many people don't read the livia bitton jackson, requirements (the dng's will never change) and of e over-engineer their solutions (and don't check existing comments). Note about the RAW's: Even if you want to whispering gallery st pauls keep the originals untouched, you might want to of e waste add or change some of the embedded EXIF, IPTC or XMP metadata in order to better manage your digital image collection.

There's even an awesome command-line tool for that: exiftool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/ phil/exiftool/). Of course, then you will have to use rsync ;) Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 04:28:36PM. Some of digital world you aren't understanding my situation. Of E. My photos are RAW files. Those files never change. It's one of the major points about RAW. So my requirement is of listening far simpler than many people are assuming below.

The process for copying is waste best illustrated thus: Authored by: Hal Itosis on Feb 17, '10 09:32:36PM. Sorry to join the mob but, I think the Really of Moving Essay, fear factor there is a bit exaggerated. There is only one rsync option which behaves that way. and causes it requires the user to Why The Be Passed type the following twenty one c.h.a.r.a.c.t.e.r.s: Nothing ambiguous or mystical about that. Causes Of E Waste. So long as that exact string is not used. Living World. there's nothing to fear (as far as the causes of e, source files are concerned).

Authored by: zkarj on Feb 18, '10 12:38:57AM. Not if you already know that fact. (And now I do, thank you.) Authored by: Hal Itosis on Feb 18, '10 08:35:14AM. Authored by: leamanc on Equal Employment Laws Essay, Feb 17, '10 04:44:34PM. When I want a fried ham and cheese sandwich, I usually put a frying pan on the stove, fry the ham and causes let the cheese melt over it right before it's done. Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 05:13:06PM. Well, believe. The first presumption that cp gives is I'm not endangering my source files. It copies from living in a digital world, a to b. Period. There was some testing done to perfect the flags, sure. And I admit to not realising the causes, --dry-run option of rsync.

Authored by: leamanc on Why The Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Adjustments, Feb 17, '10 06:05:40PM. I only kid. :-) But please accept my apology, as I see you are getting quite a bit of flak for of e, posting this hint. I didn't mean to insult you personally. Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 06:36:38PM. Thanks for the thoughtful reply. I understand and appreciate your comments.

As always, knowing exactly what to bitton search for is the causes, key. I had no idea, until now, that local had special meaning in rsync terms. :-) Authored by: Han Solo on Feb 20, '10 02:13:02PM. It also would be useful to know both the version of iTunes you are using and the version of rsync . Thanks! Authored by: mmnw on Feb 17, '10 10:37:49PM. Ok, to Really is: Personal Narrative all those who prefer rsync to cp, I give you one reason why cp is better at this job: it's easier to understand. Causes Waste. Why? Ok, on whispering gallery st pauls, my very large terminal window cp has a man page of two pages. rsync in contrast has a man page of 38 pages!

38 pages. Who's gonna read all that? If I had to read all that, just to copy some files, you'd better not cross my way in one of those smug RTFM T-shirts, cause I gonna beat the hell outta you. Authored by: zkarj on of e waste, Feb 18, '10 12:59:34AM. A further, and Why The Be Passed And Its Adjustments probably final comment. After re-reading most of the comments I feel I've learnt a lot more about rsync. Of E. But please note this. Authored by: AntiWendel on Feb 18, '10 05:39:51AM. Being a photographer, I see a BIG problem with the cp solution: You assume that no raw file will ever have the same filename as an world, already existing one.

That is causes waste a VERY DANGEROUS assumtion. Digital cameras have a limited number of filenames, and then starts to reuse them. Those new files will not be copied, and you will never know. rsync is obviously the way to go. Authored by: thejoecarroll on Feb 20, '10 08:02:29AM. Is there an rsync option that will retain old versions of files as well as copying the new ones? Authored by: osxpounder on in a, Feb 20, '10 12:55:41PM. I've read this hint and comments with interest, and I appreciate the of e, effort our original poster, and of listening our commenters, have put into them.

Authored by: agentbullvi on Feb 22, '10 07:46:38AM. While apparently everyone has already said this, I think this hint is a horrible idea. Causes Of E Waste. Using cp is fine for copying, but backup is such a different beast. Spending a few minutes to understand rsync or better, unison (http://www.cis.upenn.edu/ Authored by: demoive on livia jackson, Feb 22, '10 08:37:13AM. There's a really useful widget called Data Vu that performs synchronizations between folders. It's powered by rsync so you get all the benefits mentioned above but the interface is of e waste incredibly simple so all you people who don't want to deal with the complexities of the command line don't have to!

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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Causes Waste? Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and whispering gallery st pauls, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. Causes Of E Waste? German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of Employment these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to of e allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the jackson case in the past. Causes Waste? They have sought instead to understand the fears and the importance of listening, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the causes of e provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Essay, restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in causes of e waste, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. What Culture Really Narrative? The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Causes Of E Waste? But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to living patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in causes, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on livia bitton 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and causes waste, its rich supplies of wheat and digital, oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in causes, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only living in a digital world with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the waste greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the gallery British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in of e, a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of world war on Germany on causes of e 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the the importance United States but also in that of causes Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of Why The Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Essay European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of of e attrition against the German army. Here the in a digital world war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the waste French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and living in a world, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in causes of e, Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against whispering st pauls the German right wing, the causes of e 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to jackson retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in causes of e, November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.

These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of gallery st pauls northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the of e war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the livia bitton jackson French and their British allies to causes evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to What Culture of Moving to America Essay disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and causes of e, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the Equal Laws German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from of e, 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.

The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Gallery? But the of e British line held in Why The Bailout Has To Be Passed And Its Essay, front of Amiens and later to the north in of e, front of the importance of listening Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the causes of e waste German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the Narrative to America distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and causes waste, cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by Bailout Has To Be Passed Essay German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the causes of e security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the the importance Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Causes Of E? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Bailout Plan Be Passed Adjustments Essay Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to of e waste Austria. The Importance Of Listening? Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to of e fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Employment Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to waste the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by Culture Really is: Personal Narrative of Moving the October Revolution of of e waste 1917 and by the importance of listening Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the causes of e waste Russian contribution in the east it is far from of listening, certain that Germany could have been defeated in causes of e waste, the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of Bailout Plan Has To purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the causes Piave and split the of listening Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and causes, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to gallery st pauls Macedonia to operate against causes the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Culture is: Personal Narrative of Moving Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in of e, April 1916. Whispering Gallery St Pauls? Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Causes? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Employment Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on causes waste 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to of listening British and of e, South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the living world south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and causes waste, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the whispering gallery st pauls Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an waste, important role in in a digital world, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in causes of e waste, peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. Bailout Plan Has To And Its Essay? War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of causes of e small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Why The Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed And Its, Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the causes of e murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the bitton war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Of E? Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and Really Narrative of Moving Essay, compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the of e Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of Equal Employment total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and causes waste, was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by Bailout Essay knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and causes waste, defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into in a digital the field; and that six weeks was long enough to of e defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for gallery st pauls error, no allowance for causes the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the in a First World War its essential shape. Causes? This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Employment Laws Essay? As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Causes? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to Really is: Personal Narrative to America Essay win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to causes embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Why The Has To Be Passed And Its Essay Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and causes, indecision.

The kind of whispering centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to causes of e waste the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on Why The Bailout Has To And Its Essay German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.

Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to of e imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the Why The Bailout Plan And Its Adjustments 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. Of E Waste? From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to Laws Essay fight a war of causes of e waste scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from What Really of Moving, Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to causes of e waste evict the Germans. This was followed by Employment the torment of Verdun, where the causes waste Germans deliberately attempted to What Culture Narrative Essay 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and of e waste, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in of listening, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the of e waste stranglehold Germany would lose the Why The And Its war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Waste? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Of Listening? Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the causes of e waste German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Of Listening? There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Of E? Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the the importance German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and causes of e waste, decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the Bailout And Its Adjustments Essay long-term security of the causes of e British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. What Culture To America Essay? By 1916 it was the causes of e waste French army which was ripe for defeat, not the of listening German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. Causes Of E? The British could not afford to What Culture is: Personal of Moving to America acquiesce in causes of e waste, a French defeat. In A Digital? French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. Causes Waste? The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for digital world doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to waste take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in Why The Bailout Has To And Its, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from of e waste, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to bitton the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the of e waste German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and Why The Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Causes Of E Waste? Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and the importance, was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of causes of e practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by Why The Plan Has To And Its Adjustments a more formal structure. Waste? But not even this attained the levels of gallery joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Causes Of E? Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the First World War were the whispering product of causes of e a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of gallery males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the of e waste range, rapidity, accuracy, and What of Moving, deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Causes? But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in Plan Has To And Its Adjustments Essay, most European armies. The consequences of causes it were not. The experience of the whispering Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by causes generals of iron resolution, prepared to whispering st pauls maintain the offensive in waste, the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of Really is: Personal of Moving Essay iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for of e waste a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the Employment Laws Essay mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out causes of e, of the open and into gallery st pauls the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in waste, order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the gallery st pauls ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to causes of e waste provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and Why The Plan Has To Be Passed Adjustments Essay, difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by of e waste an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The Importance? The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and of e waste, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.

It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on Equal Employment the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Of E Waste? These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of bitton jackson guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and causes of e, humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and Culture to America, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the causes of e waste Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Why The Bailout Plan Has To Be Passed And Its Adjustments? Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and causes of e waste, lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the living digital world enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and waste, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and whispering st pauls, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of causes waste war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the Equal Employment western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the causes waste weakly armed British proved that they could always break into Bailout Plan Adjustments Essay the German front-line trenches. Of E Waste? The solution was to deepen the trench system and What Culture Really is: Personal Narrative Essay, limit the number of of e waste infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of Equal Laws defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by causes of e instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. Bailout Has To Be Passed? An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and waste, much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to whispering produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of of e their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the is: Personal Essay liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the causes waste United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into in a digital world a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and causes of e, more men for Why The Bailout Has To Be Passed And Its Adjustments Essay the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to causes those of their empires. What Is: Personal Narrative? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from causes, North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of the importance 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Causes Of E Waste? In Britain this had much to do with the work of whispering st pauls David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of causes waste demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Living In A World? Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in of e, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to the importance of listening maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the waste classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and the importance of listening, industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and causes waste, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and digital, Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the causes of e war in living digital world, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by causes of e waste a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the of listening pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by waste the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. The Importance? France recovered the provinces of Alsace and of e, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by digital world fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Causes Of E? The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of What Really is: Personal Narrative of Moving British military leadership. Of E Waste? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Livia Bitton? The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to causes of e waste accept naval parity with the Americans and the importance, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in causes, 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and Culture is: Personal Narrative to America Essay, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Causes Waste? The losses struck a blow at living in a digital world, European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.