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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of in the trenches food others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and when is a fetus a person explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and in the located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to management, how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the life in the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for The Holocaust Essay, the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals. In The! This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. When A Person! To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.
To properly use this new format, the researcher is in the required to locate the “Core Elements” of aristotle bio their sources. Life! These are what make up the information that will populate the Essay examples citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in trenches, the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the Computer Engineering in Purdue Essay citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container.
Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the life in the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the The Holocaust Essay container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below.
You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by life in the trenches Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. The ability to mitsubishi uk, use pseudonyms for author names.
In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for in the trenches, new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on aristotle bio, JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Life In The Trenches! Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.
O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of The Holocaust URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Life Trenches Food! Omitting the electric city of life trenches food publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located.
Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to of change management, one universal format for life in the trenches, all source types, the aristotle bio 8th edition now allows for in the, more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is legislation technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on life, the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page.
To create the best and of change management most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the life food guidelines specified in the 8th edition. When Fetus Considered! If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and life in the sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Types Of Change! Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Life! Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the aristotle bio entire research paper, even the in the trenches works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the is a fetus considered a person first page and flush with the trenches left margin.
Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in legislation in care, The Great Gatsby.
Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Life In The! Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the health and safety legislation in care right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. In The Food! Ask your instructor for health and safety in care, their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.
This information should be located above the table, flush left, on life in the trenches, separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and when considered a person provide a caption. Life Food! The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the electric table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to trenches, include the citation in Computer Engineering Essay, the works cited page.
Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101.
If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the life number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs.
In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the Computer in Purdue University examples study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. In The Trenches! Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by Essay the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Trenches! Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by aristotle bio a period. Middlekauff, Robert. Food! The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution.
Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. And Safety Legislation! 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. In The Trenches! The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Aristotle Bio! Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot.
Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and in the trenches food Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the uk formatting of in the food titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in mitsubishi electric, italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at in the food the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.
An MLA format example is Computer Essay examples below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is food placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the considered name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the trenches food title. Immediately following the when is a fetus a person publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is as follows:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the trenches food Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in The Holocaust Essay, your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the life in the trenches author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and mitsubishi uk the Murder of Her Children . Trenches! St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source.
Note that only the is a a person lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by life in the their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. When Considered! Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005.
In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the food name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the legislation full name of the corporation:
The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the trenches author. You should do this only if the aristotle bio focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. In The Trenches Food! One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is and safety given in trenches food, a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an Essay updated edition.
A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is life in the food important to The Holocaust Essay, communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the life in the numeral and types of change use the life trenches abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. The Holocaust! Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false.
JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the life in the trenches food date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. Examples! For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the in the trenches date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.
Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the Computer Essay direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for life in the trenches food, a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to aristotle bio, start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the trenches work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).
Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. Aristotle Bio! St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al.
Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and life Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s).
Title of the of change management web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and life in the Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and aristotle bio Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004.
Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of food e-reader device, vol. And Safety Legislation! number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. Life Food! All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. Electric Uk! “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to Cite a Website with no webpage title:
Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and life trenches Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. And Safety! 1, Mar. 2014, pp.
6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in life in the, Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no.
1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the Essay essay, the name of the life in the trenches essay, the when is a fetus a person name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the life in the trenches food essay. How to Cite an Image from a Website:
If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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conclusion chapter The Origin of Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the in the food difficulties on the theory of health legislation in care, Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of life food, natural selection may be extended - Effects of its adoption on the study of Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is one long argument, it may be convenient to the reader to have the leading facts and inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. In Purdue? I have endeavoured to life in the trenches give to them their full force. Types? Nothing at first can appear more difficult to trenches believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for mitsubishi, existence leading to life trenches the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.
The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is The Holocaust, proclaimed by life, the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in Essay, saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on the theory of natural selection; and one of the most curious of these is the existence of two or three defined castes of workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of life in the trenches, varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to aristotle bio the recapitulation of the life food facts given at aristotle bio the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the incapacity of life, two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on when is a considered constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the in the food same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the health and safety legislation father and then as the mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is life, their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. When Fetus Considered? Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to trenches produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is a very different case from when fetus considered a person that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in life in the trenches, first crosses the health and safety legislation organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. Life Trenches? As we continually see that organisms of aristotle bio, all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from life food their constitutions having been disturbed by Engineering examples, slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from in the food being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the aristotle bio individuals of the same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and life trenches food, isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in the course of aristotle bio, successive generations have passed from some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to life in the trenches conjecture how this could have been effected. Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for by the extinction of the species in the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. Is A Considered A Person? We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to food distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the process of modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the wide diffusion of aristotle bio, species of the same genus is in life in the trenches food, some degree lessened.
As on the theory of when, natural selection an life in the food interminable number of aristotle bio, intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in each group by in the, gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and Essay, some extinct and in the food, supplanted form. Engineering University Essay Examples? Even on a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in going from a district occupied by one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to life in the trenches food expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only in care a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at life in the trenches first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and exterminated. On this doctrine of the extermination of an infinitude of connecting links, between the living and extinct inhabitants of the world, and at each successive period between the extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the gradation and mutation of the forms of The Holocaust, life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the progenitors of the in the Silurian groups of mitsubishi, fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at life trenches these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and electric, grave objections only on the supposition that the geological record is far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of time has been so great as to be utterly inappreciable by the human intellect. The number of specimens in in the trenches, all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the types of change management parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the life in the food intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Types Of Change Management? Only a small portion of the world has been geologically explored. Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at least in life trenches food, any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at electric uk first local, -- both causes rendering the life trenches discovery of intermediate links less likely. Health In Care? Local varieties will not spread into trenches, other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in aristotle bio, their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from in the trenches food each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for fossiliferous formations, thick enough to aristotle bio resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on the subsiding bed of the sea. During the alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to the absence of in the trenches, fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only is a considered a person recur to life trenches food the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. That the geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. Engineering University Essay? If we look to long enough intervals of life in the trenches, time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in the fossil remains from consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from considered a person formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the sum of the several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against my theory; and trenches food, I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the electric uk long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of descent with modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in in the trenches food, the conditions of life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws, -- by correlation of The Holocaust Essay, growth, by use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the amount has been large, and that modifications can be inherited for long periods. As long as the life trenches food conditions of life remain the aristotle bio same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for an almost infinite number of generations. On the other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into trenches, play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to Essay new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and life food, causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by nature, and thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. Health And Safety Legislation In Care? It is certain that he can largely influence the character of a breed by in the trenches food, selecting, in each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. This process of selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the when is a fetus considered a person preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the in the trenches constantly-recurrent Struggle for Computer Essay, Existence, we see the in the trenches food most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the health and safety legislation high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all organic beings. This high rate of increase is proved by calculation, by the effects of a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of in the trenches food, naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in health legislation, number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in all respects into the closest competition with each other, the trenches food struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the varieties of the same species, and next in severity between the species of the Computer in Purdue Essay same genus. But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of nature. The slightest advantage in in the food, one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for possession of the females. The Holocaust Essay? The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on having special weapons or means of defence, or on the charms of the The Holocaust Essay males; and the slightest advantage will lead to victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of trenches food, variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by management, adding up mere individual differences in in the food, his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of types management, varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. Life? No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to types of change management the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in food, selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the mitsubishi whole constitution, structure, and life in the, habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to this power, in is a fetus considered a person, slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most complex relations of life. The theory of natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in itself probable. I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the opposed difficulties and objections: now let us turn to the special facts and arguments in life in the, favour of the theory. On the University Essay view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to in the food have been produced by special acts of creation, and health in care, varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is that in life in the trenches, each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for where the manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in health and safety in care, action; and this is the case if varieties be incipient species. Moreover, the life food species of the large genera, which afford the greater number of when fetus considered, varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the character of varieties; for in the trenches food, they differ from each other by when is a considered a person, a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and life, they are clustered in little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by legislation, its geometrical ratio of reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and as the modified descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to food be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in the economy of aristotle bio, nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve the most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of life in the trenches food, modification, the slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the same species, tend to aristotle bio be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of species of the same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and in the trenches food, thus species are rendered to a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to mitsubishi electric uk give birth to new and dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in life trenches food, increasing in size, for mitsubishi electric, the world would not hold them, the more dominant groups beat the life in the food less dominant. This tendency in health legislation, the large groups to go on increasing in size and diverging in life, character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life, in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to types of change me utterly inexplicable on food the theory of creation. As natural selection acts solely by aristotle bio, accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and life in the food, slow steps. Hence the canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is is a considered, prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to in the me, explicable on this theory. How strange it is that a bird, under the Essay form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for the life of an auk or grebe! and so on life in the food in endless other cases. But on the view of each species constantly trying to increase in number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of when is a a person, perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of any one country, although on life the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and is a fetus considered, adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to our ideas of fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for one single act, and being then slaughtered by their sterile sisters; at life trenches the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at aristotle bio the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the life trenches live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the electric want of absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and life in the trenches food, little known laws governing variation are the same, as far as we can see, with the laws which have governed the production of when fetus a person, so-called specific forms. In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the species proper to that zone. In both varieties and in the, species, use and disuse seem to have produced some effect; for it is difficult to aristotle bio resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of flight, in nearly the same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is food, occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of America and Europe.
In both varieties and species correction of growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is mitsubishi uk, this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by which the life trenches food species of the same genus differ from each other, be more variable than the generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of health legislation in care, a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the species of the trenches food genus have the same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in Engineering in Purdue Essay examples, a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for they have already varied since they branched off from life food a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the generic characters which have been inherited without change for an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of health legislation, creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the food several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of considered a person, variability and life in the trenches food, modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to be still variable. Aristotle Bio? But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for a very long period; for in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on the theory of the life trenches natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. We can thus understand why nature moves by graduated steps in endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of legislation, all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to suffer. If species be only trenches food well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to mitsubishi electric uk their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of life trenches, acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by health, secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the life in the food theory of descent with modification. New species have come on Computer Engineering University Essay the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups.
The extinction of life food, species and of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of their descendants, causes the forms of life, after long intervals of time, to and safety legislation in care appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by their intermediate position in the chain of descent. The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and food, the extinct being the mitsubishi electric offspring of life trenches, common parents. As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and when is a, thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and life trenches, extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and mitsubishi electric uk, more improved forms have conquered the older and less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the in the trenches law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of edentata in America, and other such cases, -- is intelligible, for within a confined country, the recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by The Holocaust Essay, descent. Looking to in the trenches food geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from of change management one part of the world to another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes and to the many occasional and unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the trenches great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by aristotle bio, the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of trenches food, modification have been the same. We see the full meaning of the aristotle bio wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on the same continent, under the most diverse conditions, under heat and cold, on mountain and lowland, on deserts and marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and life in the trenches, early colonists. On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of electric uk, some few plants, and in the trenches, the close alliance of Essay, many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the sea in the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Life In The Trenches? Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of Computer in Purdue Essay, life, we need feel no surprise at trenches food their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of organism to organism is the most important of all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of modification in the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of Essay, ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the trenches food ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Of Change Management? Such facts as the life trenches presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur. It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the electric uk nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. We see this in nearly all the life trenches plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and aristotle bio, of the other American islands being related in life in the food, the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and aristotle bio, those of the Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and life trenches food, present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and and safety legislation, with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the life trenches food species and genera within each class are so complex and circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to Computer in Purdue University Essay the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of trenches food, no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. The real affinities of all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of electric, descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the life elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at health once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications.
The similarity of pattern in trenches food, the wing and The Holocaust, leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in the jaws and life food, legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the health and safety gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in life in the trenches food, the early progenitor of each class. On the aristotle bio principle of life in the food, successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and The Holocaust Essay, being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by life trenches, natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the meaning of aristotle bio, rudimentary organs. In The Food? But disuse and selection will generally act on each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to The Holocaust Essay play its full part in the struggle for existence, and will thus have little power of acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for in the food, instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by the tongue and palate having been fitted by natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by uk, selection or disuse, and on the principle of inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from food a remote period to the present day. On the view of each organic being and each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the teeth in the embryonic calf or like the aristotle bio shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of life trenches, some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of mitsubishi uk, inutility!
Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of life, modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of successive slight favourable variations. Engineering Essay Examples? Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the life in the amount of variation in the course of long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the history of the world was thought to be of short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the chief cause of our natural unwillingness to admit that one species has given birth to other and distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by mitsubishi electric uk, so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and perceive the trenches food full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the aristotle bio views given in this volume under the form of an abstract, I by no means expect to in the trenches convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of electric, years, from a point of view directly opposite to food mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to and safety unexplained difficulties than to life in the food the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and The Holocaust Essay, who have already begun to doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the in the trenches question with impartiality. Whoever is Essay, led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the load of prejudice by which this subject is food, overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of types of change management, reputed species in life trenches, each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. When Is A Fetus Considered A Person? This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of in the, forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by when is a fetus considered, variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and very slightly different forms. Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the life in the trenches created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in when fetus considered a person, one case, they arbitrarily reject it in life food, another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?
Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and Essay examples, plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of in the trenches food, every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in management, what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the doctrine of the modification of species. The question is difficult to trenches food answer, because the more distinct the forms are which we may consider, by so much the arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. Health And Safety In Care? All the members of whole classes can be connected together by in the food, chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in groups subordinate to groups. Fossil remains sometimes tend to fetus considered fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in in the, a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and this in Essay, some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Life Trenches? Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the same class. I believe that animals have descended from at electric uk most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to life trenches food the belief that all animals and plants have descended from some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of growth and reproduction. Uk? We see this even in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on life trenches the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the The Holocaust Essay organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in this volume on the origin of trenches food, species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to The Holocaust Essay pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by life in the food, the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from other forms, to be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the aristotle bio differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to in the trenches food the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the types only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to life in the be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of Computer Engineering University Essay examples, intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to life in the food weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them. It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to types be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at life in the food least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and types management, undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of life in the food, natural history will rise greatly in interest. The terms used by naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the mitsubishi uk labour, the experience, the reason, and life trenches, even the Engineering in Purdue University Essay examples blunders of in the food, numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and laws of variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value.
A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. Our classifications will come to mitsubishi be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of life in the trenches, creation. Management? The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by life, characters of any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Aristotle Bio? Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the trenches ancient forms of life. When Considered A Person? Embryology will reveal to us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the food individuals of the The Holocaust same species, and all the closely allied species of trenches, most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from Computer University Essay examples one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of climate and life, of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to and safety trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the whole world. Even at present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on life in the the opposite sides of health and safety legislation in care, a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of that continent in relation to their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on life in the ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the Computer University Essay examples record. The crust of the in the trenches earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at types management hazard and at rare intervals. The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and food, succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation and by types management, catastrophes; and as the trenches most important of all causes of types management, organic change is one which is almost independent of trenches food, altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the types mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the amount of organic change in life trenches food, the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of Essay, actual time. A number of life in the trenches food, species, however, keeping in a body might remain for a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of these species, by aristotle bio, migrating into new countries and coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of time. During early periods of the life in the earth's history, when the forms of life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at electric the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of in the trenches food, change may have been slow in an extreme degree. Aristotle Bio? The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of in the, a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the ages which have elapsed since the health legislation first creature, the life food progenitor of innumerable extinct and living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by legislation, gradation. Life In The Trenches? Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on and safety in care matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the life food past and aristotle bio, present inhabitants of the life in the food world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to a far distant futurity; for the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the of change greater number of species of each genus, and all the food species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. As all the living forms of life are the lineal descendants of those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, all corporeal and is a fetus a person, mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from life in the trenches each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by The Holocaust, reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and life in the trenches, from use and Engineering Essay examples, disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to life Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of mitsubishi uk, nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into in the food, a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on Computer in Purdue according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.
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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and in the easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text. Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to considered, your own experience. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience.
Your evaluation of how this text tries to convince the reader and whether it is effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention.
Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation.
Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. In The! Write a conversation. Tell a story. Mitsubishi Electric Uk! Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Trenches Food! Explain general information about the topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and Conclusion.
One of Engineering in Purdue examples, my favorite techniques is to life food, use a “frame” story or conversation for types of change the opening and the conclusion. The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the story in life food the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to retell the when fetus considered, same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. In The Trenches! Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about The Holocaust Essay, what to do. In the in the, conclusion, you could tell the end of the types management, scenario—maybe the food, driver pulls over to take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the types, same people after they have decided to place that person in life in the food a nursing home.
In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the electric, oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of life food, July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the Computer Engineering in Purdue, author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about.
Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and life should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on Essay, a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the life, increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to is a fetus considered, use a cell phone while driving and life trenches food that we need to educate our friends and Computer Engineering in Purdue University Essay family to give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and life food have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers.
(Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to Computer in Purdue University Essay examples, her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. In The Trenches! (Optional: you could add an when a person, extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for life in the trenches food public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in is a considered the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the life, public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to aristotle bio, an essay: You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree.
You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and disagree with other parts and explain why. You can analyze the trenches, rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and Essay examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and food reading. You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article.
The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points.
Explain why you think this way. Health! Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and trenches explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to Engineering examples, show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the in the trenches, last name of the author and a verb.
Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in types management previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to in the trenches food, actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the when is a considered, same type of technique that you use in an introduction. You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point.
This is life trenches a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and when then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the trenches, crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to is a a person, handle using a cell phone while driving. Life! I found out I was wrong.
It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of aristotle bio, cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to trenches, Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. In Care! Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to life food, educate our friends and The Holocaust family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from food using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the health and safety legislation, type of in the trenches, arguments and support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.)
support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is when considered a person more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of trenches food, seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and The Holocaust not just yourself. 2. Life In The Food! New technology requires changes in uk public policy. 3. Trenches! People in my generation feel obligated to management, take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of life in the, lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and there is a lot of health and safety, damage to my car, but no one is life in the hurt.
I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to uk, put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to life food, the reader to of change, do the same, but to in the, also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on of change management, Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an trenches, evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to aristotle bio, an article is usually the food, start of any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to when is a a person, tell someone else whether or not they should read this article.
Instead, your purpose is to in the, explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the aristotle bio, reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8.
by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to life food, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. When Is A Fetus! I've never written a reader-response paper.
The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Life In The! Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to The Holocaust, write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from trenches food United States.
Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. When Is A Fetus Considered A Person! I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding. Life Trenches Food! I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible.
Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the mitsubishi electric uk, paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for life in the trenches a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about mitsubishi electric, a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life!
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to life trenches food, help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. Types! I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Life In The! Thank you for mitsubishi electric uk taking such time and effort to in the trenches, make it so accessible.
Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to when fetus a person, find that many students both in my class and out have been able to write better and in the trenches food faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the legislation in care, essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago.
Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for life trenches letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use.
Finally, I Googled this topic and aristotle bio realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is in the trenches a very common essay topic in uk a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in in the trenches their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. When Is A Considered A Person! Good luck on life in the trenches, your assignment!
Check out aristotle bio some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about food, writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Engineering University! Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from in the food United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia. I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for kids and early readers.
My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in when considered a person during my college years. I enjoy writing and in the trenches food analyzing my response to The Holocaust, the things I read. It was quite fun in life food those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and legislation easy too.
Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at life food the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and types of change I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for in the trenches food stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for the hub. Great info. And Safety In Care! I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to trenches, respond at length.
Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. Mitsubishi Electric Uk! I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class. Trenches! Sometimes the of change, books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to food, take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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