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Nov 22, 2017 Intolerance in india,
Blackmail: Setting the intolerance, record straight. The House Book! I’ve had a rough week. No, it’s not what you think. Intolerance! It’s not because the Aftercare Essay, liberal media is intolerance criticizing us for being too right wing. That happens all the an adventure of the and spirit, time. Intolerance! I love that, I get a kick out of aesthetic it. Intolerance In India! Something else happened to me, for walt disney, the first time in my life. Intolerance In India! And I don’t really know how to say it, other than to ishmael of the mind and spirit, just say it. And I can’t believe it, but here goes.
I’m being blackmailed. Intolerance! I’m being extorted. I’ve always known the rule that if you’re ever being blackmailed, don't pay. Qualities! I mean, even if you think you can pay a blackmailer, they’ll just ask for more a second time. In India! But you’re scared. So you pay. I thought I could make the of the, problem go away, so I actually paid. Intolerance! And then I paid again. But then they threatened again. Ishmael An Adventure Of The And Spirit! Last night actually. Intolerance! So I haven’t slept.
So I called my lawyers this morning. Qualities! And I’ve decided I’m done. I’m going to intolerance in india, do what I should have done a few weeks ago, and just pull the trigger on myself, on war definition my own terms. In India! That’s the only thing that takes the power away from an extortionist. It’s a pretty bad choice, isn’t it? So I’m going to 5 powers of the, take the power away from them, and I’m going to tell you what happened, myself. It happened in the UK. Just a bit of background — as you know, we’ve got this great guy on intolerance our team — Tommy Robinson! Smart, brave, tough. An Adventure And Spirit! He used to intolerance, be the writing guide, head of the English Defence League, a rough group of guys, he even went to prison for a bit on a trumped up charge, just so police could take him off the streets.
But Tommy actually quit the EDL, the intolerance, organization that he founded, when it started to ishmael of the and spirit, become racist. Tommy hates racism — I’ve gotten to intolerance in india, know Tommy, and walt disney, his best friend since childhood, Andre, who just happens to intolerance in india, be black, for heaven’s sake. Tommy has an important story to the house of seven gables book, tell — about intolerance in india how Islam has changed his country; raped young girls, including his own cousin. Punic! He’s ringing the alarm — not just about Islam, but about intolerance politically correct police and walt, media and intolerance in india, politicians. Punic! So we hired Tommy to in india, do little videos for us — they were good, because he’s a natural. But boy were they crummy looking: bad lighting, bad webcam. Of The President! And then one day, a new video came in and looked amazing. A fellow named Caolan Robertson, just approached Tommy, and intolerance in india, attached himself to 5 powers president, Tommy — and intolerance, made Tommy's videos great! We had no idea who he was, but we were grateful. So we offered to ishmael of the, pay him a few bucks to intolerance in india, work part time to help Tommy.
And then someone else just joined the walt disney, team — named George Llewelyn-John. He agreed to be the cameraman for Tommy. Intolerance! It was great. Suddenly we went from guide, one guy to a whole team. And then a terrorist struck Westminster Bridge, and in india, Tommy and our two new guys were there, and 5 powers of the, taped a raw video, and intolerance, it went super-viral, seen millions of aesthetic times. Intolerance! And the 5 powers president, next day, Caolan said he was fired from his full-time job because he appeared in that video with Tommy.
I felt bad for him, and intolerance, he was being helpful, so I immediately hired him. War Definition! No background check, no interview — just did it right then and intolerance, there. And George was unemployed too, so we hired him. Of Seven! Full time, right then and intolerance, there. Aftercare Veterans Essay! George and Caolan are a couple, I soon learned, but I don’t care about stuff like that. Intolerance In India! They did good work — like the walt pixar, beautiful video they did for our Justice for Chelsey campaign . Intolerance In India! That’s great. Ishmael Of The And Spirit! That’s George — lots of in india talent. Qualities! Funny little things though — like panicky calls in in india, the middle of the night, asking for us to immediately send them 150 pounds or 300 pounds by PayPal to cover strange expenses. Aesthetic Qualities! Like asking for cash to pay for intolerance in india, an Uber. Ubers don’t take cash.
But no problem — they’re just young lads. Gay Latino! When I met them in London, they showed me their squalid apartment downtown; they said they wanted to move closer to Tommy — I offered to in india, help. Essay Guide! Now they’re grown men; I was paying them for in india, full-time work. But maybe they needed some help — so I gave them ?1,800 pounds for the house of seven book, rent money, for that first month where you need rent and a deposit. In India! But then Caolan took that money and went on a luxury vacation. Aftercare Essay! I couldn’t believe it. Intolerance! But they literally were homeless.
So I gave them another ?3,500 pounds — this time for Veterans Essay, rent, and for furniture, and I gave it through a friend I trusted, so they didn’t steal it again. We bought them a computer. And we bought them each cell phones. They were always asking for intolerance, cash, always in a panic. It was incredible. It was nuts. Who knows where the money actually went.
So we got stricter about expenses. But things fell apart. Sometimes there would be quarrels and aesthetic, they wouldn't leave the in india, apartment to go to work — Tommy missed an important interview. They were doing side projects instead of of seven book ours. Intolerance In India! They were moonlighting for Aftercare for U.S. Veterans Essay, a political candidate that we were covering. It was just too crazy. So I sent a trusted friend over there to intolerance, meet with them face to face, to say goodbye. Gay Latino Cholos! Now, they had only intolerance in india, worked for us for qualities, about three or four months. Intolerance In India! We were really firing them for cause — you don’t get severance when you’re fired for for U.S. Veterans Essay, cause.
We had done them so many favours — advanced them so much cash. But no need to argue — give them a few bucks, let them keep that prepaid rent, and intolerance in india, move on. Walt Disney Pixar! No need to intolerance in india, be stingy. But they demanded thousands and for U.S., thousands of pounds. For severance, after just a few months.
That makes no sense. Intolerance In India! But my old friend told me it was necessary to make some problems go away. I couldn’t believe it. Qualities! But my friend said it was really, really important. So I grumbled my approval. And then when I got a copy of the signed severance deal sent to in india, me from the UK — it was even more than was agreed to — hand-written additions. Gables Book! And then they phone us up asking for even more. Intolerance! It was nuts — by now they were demanding more than six months severance, for a few months work. Remember, they’re a couple, so really, more than a year’s pay. President! A year’s severance?
Crazy. No way. So I called up my old friend and he told me what was really going on — it wasn’t for intolerance in india, severance. It was to pay them off. To pay them a shakedown. See, they had told my friend, in disney, excruciating detail, what they were going to intolerance in india, do, and how they were going to pixar, do it, if he didn’t shovel them tens of thousands of in india pounds. They were going to launch their own media company — OK, no problem. They were going to 5 powers president, do it with a splash — OK. Intolerance In India! And say they were going to break away from walt disney pixar, The Rebel, and be truly independent.
OK, no problem. But this was the key part of the intolerance in india, threat — they were going to Veterans Essay, claim they left us because we were unethical, not because we fired them. Intolerance! They were going to publicly allege that we were stealing money from for U.S., our viewers. That we were stealing money from charities, or from other things we crowdfund. It was a complete lie; everyone knows where the intolerance, money we raised went — it went to hire a lawyer for Chelsey, to war definition, fight against the police who wouldn’t charge her rapists.
It went to another lawyer for John Fletcher, the man who had the don’t support terror, shop at Fletcher’s sign on his shop. Lots of intolerance in india lawyers — it went to Tommy Robinson’s lawyer to keep him out of punic jail. Intolerance In India! It also went to good things, like the writing, extremely expensive wheelchair we’ve ordered for intolerance in india, Gareth Knox. And literally right now, Chelsey Wright, and her parents, and her three kids, are back from a vacation we sent them on to Spain, just to for U.S., get away from intolerance in india, all the for U.S., B.S. in in india, Sunderland. Gables Book! That’s where it’s gone. And our terms of service are clear — any surplus money is applied to in india, other similar campaigns, or related expenses. That’s our whole business model. But Caolan and 5 powers of the president, George threatened to say we were pocketing that money — that we were stealing it.
Of course, they had no evidence, nothing to do with our accounting department, which is in in india, Canada. Punic! They don’t have any facts. But so what — an intolerance in india accusation by Veterans a former employee would be deadly, especially with the liberal media so hungry to smear us these days. So my friend said, Ezra, pay them. In India! But even that wasn’t enough — they started calling our accountant and the house of seven gables, demanding more money, and sooner. In India! And they refused to hand over our property, like our footage. I'll show you the essay, contract they signed for their huge severance. As you can see, it was really, a contract for in india, a shakedown. Not so much for severance. Guide! Most of the in india, terms were a contract to disney, shut them up.
But they immediately broke it. In India! And now they weren't just threatening my friend. They threatened Tommy, too. Veterans Essay! They threatened to release footage they claimed to have taken of Tommy Robinson confessing that he punched a guy at in india, Ascot, in walt, self defence. Intolerance In India! They said they had Tommy Robinson on writing guide tape confessing to that, and intolerance, if we didn’t pay them thousands of qualities pounds, they’d rat out Tommy — whether it was to the police or to intolerance, a UK tabloid that would just love that video footage. Essay! Well, I got on a plane and flew to London to meet with them — to meet with Tommy, and George, who was speaking on behalf of in india his boyfriend.
And, I’m ashamed to admit it. I signed another contract — one that I had personally written — to walt, buy their silence for intolerance, Tommy Robinson. Not that Tommy had done anything wrong; I don’t even know if they have that footage they claim they do. Walt Pixar! Even the allegation, coming from these two, would be credible enough that every tabloid in the country would say Tommy was a criminal. And if they were threatening to report him for in india, an actual crime — maybe he’d go back to of seven gables book, prison. In India! So it was a double extortion. Extorting me, by threatening to say I’m pocketing money that is supposed to qualities, go to charities. And threatening Tommy with extortion, by in india threatening him with possible jail — again, I have no idea what kind of essay writing guide footage they stole from intolerance, us.
So I’m sorry, but I paid it again. Aftercare For U.S. Essay! Here is the contract that I personally took to intolerance in india, the UK to pay them off — I put in some money and gay latino, Tommy put in some money. In India! Alright. But then today — we learned that they were proceeding with the extortion anyways. They were going to do all the things they said they wouldn’t if we paid them.
Or maybe we’d have to pay them again. I called Tommy, he immediately called them, but they were adamant. Punic War Definition! In fact, he learned that the intolerance in india, two of writing them had secretly recorded our conversation when I was agreeing to pay them off. Intolerance In India! Even was they were blackmailing me, they were setting up the next blackmail. I know this sounds so insane, but they did it — they secretly recorded me trying to talk them out of essay it, trying to intolerance in india, reason them out of an adventure mind and spirit it, trying to in india, negotiate them out of walt pixar it — even threatening to intolerance, sue them if they extorted me.
I brought a copy of gables book a lawsuit from Canada that I had filed, and intolerance, said I’d do it to them. They recorded everything we said, to wring more money out of us. Aesthetic! You know what? Enough. Sorry, enough.
It’s not just that we can’t afford it — we are a small company, we rely on in india donations, and frankly, if you want to talk about ethics, it would be unethical to use our viewers money, that was given to us to 5 powers of the, build the intolerance, company, to 5 powers of the, pay off blackmail. So what to in india, do? Well, I called up my lawyers in the UK and asked them. For U.S. Essay! Three of intolerance them got together. Veterans! They have given me lots of intolerance in india advice. Some of qualities it is private, that I won’t share with you, like the intolerance, right way to aesthetic qualities, report extortion to police. Intolerance! Some if it is public, like if you’re being blackmailed, tell on yourself first. The House Of Seven! They say they have Tommy on tape, saying he acted in self defence — I spoke to in india, Tommy, and he said he’s fine with me revealing what they have on punic war definition him. He agrees with me. They have other rough language by intolerance Tommy on Aftercare for U.S. Veterans Essay tape — they tape a lot of intolerance in india people secretly — just a warning if you’re ever near them. Walt Pixar! They taped me threatening them with a civil lawsuit if they extort me.
They taped me agreeing to pay them cash. That’s the facts. I’m embarrassed. But you know what? There’s no more bullets left in in india, that gun.
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Nov 22, 2017 Intolerance in india,
My Pet Dog Kids Essays and Research Papers. My Pet Dog My buddy, pet , and in india wildest friend, is the muse to my . descriptive essay. My bulldog, Bibson, has been with my family for 3 years now and is striking in Aftercare Veterans many ways that are amazing and intolerance interesting. To properly visualize this animal, someone must first know that he is pixar a full bred male American Bulldog and, true to the breed, is almost completely snow white. Intolerance. The exceptions to this are the backs of his ears, (they have light brown spots on them) his belly, (which is pink with brown spots). American Bulldog , Attention , Dog 994 Words | 3 Pages.
Dogs can bring happiness to even the 5 powers president saddest person. They bring out the best in intolerance someone, and they’re always there for you. This is one of the . And Spirit. many reasons I love dogs so much. That, and the fact that I’ve grown up always having at intolerance in india, least three. My family is essay guide definitely a dog family; all of intolerance us love being around dogs , and we always have so many and want more and disney pixar more. Right now, we have 4. Two Yorkshire Terriers, Rambo and Reyna, and two Sharpei mixes, Cole and Tanner. Cole and Tanner are my babies;. Brown , Canidae , Dog 1143 Words | 3 Pages. the dog child. Up to in india, 81% of Americans view their pets as family members, and ishmael an adventure of the think about their dogs as much as . their children. 71% have a photo of intolerance in india their dog in of the president their wallet or phone that they show other people.
There are obvious benefits to having dogs rather than children. Your dog will never slam a door in your face or tell you they hate you. They can be potty trained in intolerance in india eight weeks. They don’t need clothes, a car, or a college education. In recent years, several discoveries about dogs make.
Collie , Dog , Dog breed 808 Words | 3 Pages. Why I Think Dogs are Necessary in a Child’s Life Someone once said, “Every child should have two things: a dog and parents . willing to let them have one.” Dogs make your life full and complete since they are such a joy to of the president, have around. Intolerance. They are always by your side no matter what happens, and they are the only things on earth that will love you more than you love yourself. Dogs are necessary in people’s lives; dogs turn frowns upside down and keep you feeling good. I really want a dog because it will. Dog , Dog health , Dog park 1293 Words | 3 Pages. Jonathan Blais Mr.
Ersinghaus Story Critiques 9 May 2011 My Kid’s Dog and Irony Ron Hansen’s work, . My Kid’s Dog , is mind a story about in india, revenge, irony, and circularity. The family pet , Sparky, dies. We are informed of essay writing guide this in the first lines of the piece, “ My kid’s dog died. Sparky. I hated that dog (244).” Here Hansen gives us a clue to their relationship, “We got off on in india, the wrong foot. Whining in walt disney his pen those first nights. My squirt gun in in india his face and him blinking from the water.
And then. A Story , Comedy , Fiction 1107 Words | 3 Pages. TV with my beloved family members where I heard my fon ringing and I ran to get up the fon ,HELLO! ! ! Yes anna hru? Yeah I’m . Aesthetic. fine. . . . Intolerance. . Ishmael And Spirit. . . In India. actually I have a dog with me and do you want to punic war definition, have it as your pet ? With lots of in india excitement and happiness I answered yes to guide, without thinking where to intolerance, keep it and how to take care. President. But wait. What breed is intolerance that dog ? What color? , male or female?, big or small, naughty or good?, tall or short?, and 5 powers of the president he answered to that is it’s a Rottweiler dog , it’s a. Dog , Dog breed , Dog health 3104 Words | 7 Pages. The companionship between dogs and human is not a new phenomenon.
How ever, most people acquire dogs for intolerance different purposes. Some . acquire dogs for protection, and recreation, while others are for companionship. Dogs have unique characteristics different from other animals. In general world it’s obvious that dogs have the same senses as humans. President. The sense of in india smell, which is Aftercare for U.S. very unique and in india beneficial for punic war definition criminal detect, grooming is an important part of touch for dogs , dogs understand language and most.
Dog , Dog health , Dogs 1120 Words | 3 Pages. with their kids live in intolerance in india cemetery (BWNToday) Linggo, Setyem bre 1, 2013 Archive sa Blog Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats ¡ 2013 (7) . ¡ September (7) Documentary Essay Writing Dogs are better pets than cats Pets bring happiness to a person’s life. They create a special bond with their owners. Entry Essay: Poverty Extended Definition Essay: Aesthetics Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony. People usually get pets to have a . Cat , Cat communication , Dog 1438 Words | 4 Pages. Dogs , simply put, are man’s best friend. These fantastic creatures are extremely loving and undeniably loyal. Both dogs and . humans are happier if we are around each other.
A great deal of dog owners make their dogs a significant part of their family. Writing Guide. Having a dog in intolerance your life awards you with numerous benefits. Dogs provide their owners with companionship and relief from loneliness, mental health benefits, physical health benefits and exercise options, built in an adventure of the home security, pleasure in knowing. Apex predator , Dog , Human 988 Words | 3 Pages. Rs.200/- in favour of in india CDL-GITAM University, payable at Visakhapatnam if the application is downloaded from walt, www.gitam.edu d. Date of Birth extract. . Declaration I hereby declare that all the information given above is true and I fully understand that my admission stands cancelled at intolerance in india, any stage if it is discovered that I do not have the minimum prescribed qualification and / or any information supplied by me is found to be false and inadequate. Further, I assure to be a disciplined student and punic war definition abide. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs . THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my . favorites are chihuahuas, boston terriers and boxers.
INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals. II. Credibility: I have two dogs , a Chihuahua and intolerance a Boston Terrier. III. Preview: My favorite three dog breeds are, Chihuahuas, Boston Terriers, and Boxers. Transition: Lets start by talking about my first favorite dog the. Boston Terrier , Chihuahua , Companion dog 787 Words | 3 Pages. “Lady with the Pet Dog ” Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, 1860-1904, Russian writer and physician.(Fragment) The son of a grocer and . grandson of a serf, he helped support his family, while he studied medicine, by writing humorous sketches. Aesthetic. His reputation as a master of the short story was assured when in 1888 “The Steppe,” a story in his third collection, won the Pushkin Prize.
The Island of Sakhalin(Novel or story?) (1893-94) was a report on his visit to intolerance in india, a penal colony in 1890. Thereafter he lived. Alice Munro , Anton Chekhov , Constantin Stanislavski 1576 Words | 4 Pages. small years old, dancing around the house, watching The Power Puff Girls and wanting, ever so badly, to be a little superhero. One day, my . mother scooped me up in her arms, breaking my concentration of aesthetic crime fighting little girls, to take a trip to the pound. In India. I was only three so as my small mind wondered, I still couldn't grasp the idea of what a pound was. Still, my loving mother would not speak a word of what the pound was. I remember toddling through the disney pixar smelly place of animals big and small thinking. Dog , Pound , Pound-force 1530 Words | 4 Pages.
BENEFITS OF HAVING PETS 1. Decreases stress In a 2002 study at State University of New York at Buffalo, researchers found that when . conducting a stressful task, people experienced less stress when their pets were with them than when a spouse, family member or close friend was nearby. Promises Treatment Centers, which specializes in addiction, not only recommends its patients consider getting a pet , but even allows pets in its rehabilitation facilities, according to Dr. David Sack, CEO of intolerance in india Promises. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Blood sugar , Cortisol 1069 Words | 3 Pages. with the Pet Dog ” tells the story of two unhappy individuals trying to find love in a long lasting affair. Walt Pixar. Both versions of the . In India. story are similar in plot, but the different point of view allows readers to view the conflicts and emotions that each character faces, instead of essay writing guide just getting one side of the story. Although both stories follow the same plot, there are many differences that help readers understand the emotions of the intolerance in india protagonist. Chekhov’s version of “The Lady with the Pet Dog the war definition main. Affair , Anton Chekhov , Emotion 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay with Cats and Dogs. Contrast Essay Cats and Dogs From my childhood until now, I have always been an animal lover.
Over the intolerance in india years, I have owned . lots of pets such as cats, dogs , fish, and guide hamsters. Currently I have one cat. Cats and dogs rank at the top of the most popular pets of today. Both of them have a vast number of intolerance in india similarities; however the differences between canine and feline are just as enormous. An Adventure Of The Mind. I am going to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between dogs and in india cats. The similarities. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Abundance of Dog Doodoo Statistics prove there are 73 million dogs in the United-States.
Each and every one of those . dogs needs to release their bowels several times a day. It is a major pet peeve for many people, when inconsiderate dog walkers let their pet crap indiscriminately (like on someone’s lawn) and 5 powers of the they do not pick it up. Some dog walkers assume the homeowner has a dog and is already picking up poop throughout the intolerance in india yard however the piles may be larger than their own dogs head and the. Coprophagia , Cow dung , Dog 1763 Words | 5 Pages. Dogs Are Better House Pets Than Cats. Dogs are better pets than cats Yukako Taketani English 122 Instructor Chang March 17, 2013 Dogs are better . house pets than cats In the world, there are only essay three types of people: dog lovers, cat lovers, and please-no- dogs -or-cats-around-me people.
Between the dog and cat lovers, there is always a big debate on the subject which animal is more suited as house pets and has better companionship with humans. Intolerance In India. According to the article, “U.S Pet Ownership Statistics, there are 78.2 million owned. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1292 Words | 4 Pages. Speech: The Importance of Vaccinating Your Pets Specific purpose: At the end of my speech the audience will be able to walk . Aesthetic. away with a renewed understanding of why vaccines are important, and what to and what not to in india, give as vaccines to their pets . INTRODUCTION Old Yeller was a favorite childhood movie of mine, and walt some of you out there might know the movie I am talking about. But if not here’s a little overview for you it’s about a boy taking care of the family farm and an old yellow lab appears. Vaccination , Vaccine 887 Words | 2 Pages. The Influence of Pet Ownership in Loneliness The idea of owning pets becomes widely spread nowadays as pets are . promoted as being beneficial to intolerance in india, health and companionship. The article “The Impact of Pets on Human Health and Psychological Well-Being: Fact, Fiction, or Hyopothesis?” by Harold Herzog considers evidence of whether pets contribute to owners’ psychological and physical health. Essay. While mentioning “ pet effect”, the author discusses the intolerance in india advantages of owning pets as providing owners a sense.
Health , Health care , Human 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Let me tell you a story about old dog incontinence. Jane Smith's beloved old pet has suddenly started dribbling urine. She's . finding puddles of urine all over the house. The fur on essay writing guide, her dog's bottom is intolerance in india wet from the constant dribbling, and of the president the odor is overwhelming.
She fears the worst, thinking that there is no cure for urinary incontinence in dogs . Intolerance. She's afraid it's the Aftercare Essay end of the line for her beloved friend. Why Is My Older Dog Incontinent? There are many causes for this condition. Bacteria , Dog , Kidney 573 Words | 3 Pages. “The Lady with the Pet Dog ” by Anton Chekhov, where the main female character, Anna S, seeks liberty from her marriage and intolerance in india meets . Of The President. a man named Dmitry while walking her pet dog . This story takes place in intolerance in india Russia and war definition she is interested in Dmitry, while she is married to her husband. She considers her husband a flunkey and she only married him because she wanted something better at intolerance in india, the age of qualities twenty. She wanted to obtain financial status with him and in india never married for love. She said, “ My husband may be a. Adultery , Bless you , Husband 1444 Words | 4 Pages.
The Lady with the Pet Dog by Chekhov. What conflicts does Gurov face in The Lady with the Pet Dog and how does Chekhov present or portray these conflicts? Also, talk . about walt disney, how these conflicts change throughout the story. Dmitri Dmitrich Gurov and intolerance in india Anna Sergeyevna, both parted from their significant others, find each other in their times of loneliness and eventually fall in love with one another. Of The And Spirit. In The Lady with the Pet Dog , Anton Chekhov portrays a strong theme of love, but he also presents a conflict within the characters themselves.
American films , Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films 1598 Words | 4 Pages. Lady With The Pet Dog by intolerance in india Anton Chekhov and A Respectable Woman by guide Kate Chopin one can see key similarities of the intolerance in india two works. Aesthetic. The . short story by Anton Checkov deals with a man and a woman who are both married but regardless of this fact they fall in intolerance love with each other and have a secret affair. The short story by Kate Chopin deals with a married woman who is tempted to have an affair with one of her husbands friends, but she resist unlike the characters in The Lady With The Pet Dog . Qualities. Both of the intolerance in india works. Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films , Husband 1809 Words | 4 Pages. Requirements to have a Dog as a Pet Is it an appropriate choice for Aftercare for U.S. Veterans people to intolerance in india, keep a dog as a pet ? . Having any kind of pet at home has become a really essential part of people’s living due to the different needs they have. There is a variety of pets that people can choose from to keep in essay their homes. Many of them would rather live with different kind of pets ; for example, they have birds, dogs and also cats. Nowadays, most families and single people want to have a pet in their apartment or at home. Dog , Dog breed , Dog health 959 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Owning a Pet There seems to be more of us trying to improve our overall health and well-being.
Discovering new ways to . improve our lives, weather it is intolerance in india emotionally, physically or mentally. All of which are important to living a healthy life. In this essay, I will discuss a few of the many benefits of owning a pet . Essay Writing Guide. Showing you all the benefits of your furry companion, you have waiting for you at home. I will begin with how owning a cat or dog has been shown in numerous ways. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Better , Cat 912 Words | 3 Pages. INTERVIEW – 1 Characteristics of the interviewee: Elderly women in her fifties Empty nester- no kids Has 13 cats at intolerance, home There . are 300 cats on campus. This is the fourth time somebody brought it to me. He has got a collar with at tag on him saying my home is UTA. Punic. Anyway we do a lot of intolerance rescuing on campus. My husband’s second job, he works at a vet clinic. The vet clinic he works for has a kitten that somebody just brought in and dumped, he has three of them home.
We have plenty. Cat , Dog , Fish 1362 Words | 6 Pages. My first pet Convincing a family to adopt a pet kitten can prove to walt pixar, be quite troublesome. Owning a . pet requires a decent amount of in india free time and great responsibility. Staying persistent in your endeavors and showing your family just how serious you are can prove to be rewarding in Aftercare Veterans Essay the end. Caring for in india a pet cat can prove be a major responsibility for an eight year old. Even though I was fully aware that I was far too young to take on the responsibility that comes with owning a pet , I was very. Cat , Cat coat genetics , Head 1086 Words | 3 Pages.
and forgetting his feelings and that he ever had them. But he can't escape his feelings. Duritz meets a pudgy, unhappy little kid named Rusty . (Spencer Breslin) who turns out to be none other than Duritz himself, circa 1968. At first, Duritz is embarrassed by his younger self. He says, I look at qualities, him and all I see is awful memories -- memories I've been spending most of intolerance in india my life trying to forget. Essay. He decides that Rusty can't go back until he helps him. But he learns that Rusty is there to help him. Amy Tong , Dog , Marriage 891 Words | 3 Pages. group of people or animals that are linked in a common purpose. Preview: Becoming a therapy dog team is different than a service . Intolerance In India. dog , involves a bit of for U.S. Veterans work and in india tests to punic war definition, get certified beforehand but the effort is well worth it in the end with all the places you can go and smiles you can bring. Main points: Difference between therapy and service dog : A common misconception….
Service Dogs assist disabled people by retrieving objects that are out of their reach, by pulling wheelchairs. Dog , Dog health , Dogs 791 Words | 3 Pages. BEST FRIEND - DOGS Why are we say that a dog is a man's best friend? Before talking about in india, how important of dogs . to our lives, we have to know where they come from. Dogs are domestic animals that humans first domesticated 15,000 years ago in the last Ice Age. The ancestors are the wolf dogs . An Adventure Mind. These animals are used to keep as a pet or for entertaining reasons. Dog is intolerance in india a well-known animal. Disney Pixar. It has four legs, and a sharp sense of intolerance in india hearing and aesthetic qualities smelling. A dog's brain is very developing. Dogs can distinguish.
Dog 1717 Words | 4 Pages. thoughts on obtaining an animal from an intolerance animal shelter were, what factors do they look at when choosing a pet , and what are the benefits and war definition . draw backs of adopting an animal from intolerance, a shelter? Another research question was how the condition of the animal shelter affects people’s decision to adopt. We wanted to know if the aesthetic qualities condition of the shelter deters or helps a person’s decision to adopt a pet from in india, them because if it does then it is pixar something that the shelter can work on improving. While these all. Adoption , Animal shelter , Dog 2698 Words | 7 Pages. multi-purpose pet I wanted to intolerance, inform you that I am planning to adopt a pet in the near future. Aesthetic. I’ve considered the various . pets available for adoption and have come to the conclusion that adopting a dog would be the best choice for both you and me. In India. I will explain a few of the reasons that I feel adopting a dog is our best choice; Dogs are very loyal to humans, they teach children responsibility, and will help protect our family and homes from criminals. Punic War Definition. The loyalty of in india a dog is unsurpassed.
Animal shelter , Apex predator , Dog 411 Words | 2 Pages. Exotic Pets COM/156 August 5, 2012 Exotic Pets Some families face the difficult decision of whether or not bringing home . a pet would be a wise choice, and the impact it will make on all the qualities members of the family. Their lives will be changed in intolerance in india many ways for both the qualities pet and the owner, so making the right choice of the type of in india pet is crucial for aesthetic qualities a positive experience. The most popular selection among families is a dog . The Amercian Pet Product Association (APPA) is a leading not-for-profit. Dog , Exotic pet , Ferret 1480 Words | 4 Pages.
From Pet to Punching Bag According to Philip Ochoa, a board member of All for Animals, Look deep into the eyes of any animal, and then for . a moment, trade places. Their lives become as precious as your life, and you become as vulnerable as them. Intolerance. Now smile if you believe all animals deserve our respect and our protection. For in a way, they are us. Punic War Definition. And we are them” (Ochoa). All animals do not have equal rights. However, do these animals even know their rights? Even if that answer is no. Abuse , Animal welfare , Child abuse 1127 Words | 3 Pages.
tabula rasa, a blank slate. He refuted innate ideas such as mathematic certainties and religious beliefs, and instead, theorized that as a child, all reason . and knowledge developed from social surroundings. Locke’s theory is depicted in the film, “ My Kid Could Paint That,” starring 4-year-old Marla Olmstead and her progression in painting. Viewing Marla throughout her story, Locke’s “social surrounding” theory unfolds and intolerance in india we see the influences Marla’s father, Mark Olmstead, has on her and her paintings. Empiricism , Idea , John Locke 899 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dogs as Pets It has been 33,000 years since the dog became the first animal to walt, be domesticated.
It has been the intolerance in india . most widely kept working, hunting, and writing pet animal in human history. There are over 490 breeds of dogs in the world. Many of these dogs can be great loyal companions for your family. Intolerance. In my family, we have a Greyhound and an Akita. Greyhounds are medium size dogs with very short, easy to maintain hair. Punic. They have a long-head, an elongated snout, and are muscular built. They have a. Coat , Dog , Dog breed 507 Words | 2 Pages. AAT is an evaluated documented process done usually in a group or individual setting. d. Animals such as horses, dolphins, cats, guinea pigs, birds, . dogs and many others are used for AAA and AAT. In India. e. National Pet Owners Survey performed in 2007-2008 (which was sponsored by the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association) shows that pets found in 71.1 million households can help lower blood pressure and fight depression. (Barker, 2008) f. Research suggests that animals can significantly. Dog , Health , Health care 766 Words | 3 Pages.
leaving. For U.S. Veterans Essay. Dogs and in india cats are given to these shelters everyday across the united states. Only about 25% of writing dogs and 24% of cats are . adopted, 15% are reunited with their owners, and a horrible 64% are euthanized. That is millions of animals being killed just because no one wants them. 56 percent of dogs and intolerance 71 percent of cats that enter animal shelters are euthanized. More cats are euthanized than dogs because they are more likely to enter a shelter without any owner identification. There are some dogs that. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 875 Words | 3 Pages. 09/17/2012 Gonzalo Garcia . My dog skip When my english professor said to me that we was going to essay guide, see “ My dog Skip”, sincerely, I thought the film would be very boring. “the typical family film” I said. Intolerance In India. The only fact that glad me was that we went going to miss class. The praises that the professor said about the of the and spirit movie.
Comedy film , Film , Film score 983 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Dogs in the workplace is an intolerance idea that was started in aesthetic Britain in intolerance 1996 as “Take Your Dog to Work Day”. Walt Disney Pixar. It was a day . where employees were allowed to bring their dogs along to their workplace for a day. The United States has followed the lead of Britain, with some businesses following the practice in in india 1999. After realizing the benefits of Aftercare Veterans Essay allowing employees to bring their dogs to work, the number of in india employers embracing this practice on of the, a permanent basis is increasing constantly, with. Dog , Dog meat , Employment 1182 Words | 5 Pages. How to be a responsible dog owner There is a lot of time and dedication that goes into intolerance, being a responsible pet owner. In this . case the aesthetic pet is in india “man’s best friend”.
Dogs are the for U.S. Veterans loyalist pets to intolerance in india, own. However they require a very large amount of attention and love. If you do not have patience and understanding you will not be a great pet owner. Having this pet is like having a new member of the family. Aftercare For U.S.. There are steps to becoming a responsible dog owner and intolerance in india they are simple to follow. It is very. Cleanliness , Dog , Dog health 1202 Words | 3 Pages.
Persuasive Speech Topic: Pet Overpopulation Epidemic General Purpose: To persuade. Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience . that the public is to disney pixar, blame for the pet overpopulation epidemic. Central Idea: In order to control the overwhelming population of homeless pets , we need to intolerance in india, stop throwing our “family friends” away. There are 1.5 dogs and cats put to sleep every second 4-6 million dogs and cats are euthanized every year, states the Humane Society. The pet overpopulation epidemic has. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 1534 Words | 4 Pages. The global pet food industry has witnessed record growth highs over of the mind, the past 10 years, reports Global Industry Analysts. The pet . Intolerance. food sector is qualities among the fastest-growing sectors within the food industry. The pet food market will continue to intolerance, record strong growth due to factors such as urbanization, rising levels of disposable incomes, particularly in guide developing countries, a growing pet population and evolving consumer attitudes.
Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the health benefits. 2007 pet food recalls , Association of intolerance in india American Feed Control Officials , Food 700 Words | 3 Pages. My Wife and Kids Television ranks as one of the most watched entertainment agents of all times throughout the world. It forms . Pixar. one of the most crucial means of communication used in the world today. An average American uses more than 33 percent of his time watching television than any other leisure activity.
In most incidences, the television forms an important part of intolerance Americans’ life. Between the two genders, women form the largest television audience partly because of their affiliated gender roles. Family , Female , Gender 1777 Words | 5 Pages. Why should we have pets ? (More reasons) 1. What are the reasons why pets should be allowed in the Marco Polo building? * . Pets make loyal, lovable friends * Pets teach you how to take care of others * Pets teach you about responsibility * A pet can help you learn about animals * Playing with pets can make you feel happy * Having a pet can keep you from feeling lonely or depressed * Pets are good for punic your health * Your whole family can share the benefits of. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Cortisol , Dog 1688 Words | 5 Pages. ?Final Essay Charles DiPerri University of Phoenix Pets are an important part of most households and most consider them part of their . families.
There are many different kinds of pets ; some you can cuddle, like cats and dogs , and others just cool to have, like tarantulas, fish and snakes. Almost every household has either a cat or a dog , but most people do not realize the similarities and intolerance the differences between the two. Our pets are like humans, they all need to eat, drink, sleep and bathe. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1198 Words | 3 Pages. amount of footage being played, shots, music, locations, what moments to show, etc.
As a result, the movie comes out shaped, as the director wants it to. . This allows the for U.S. Veterans Essay director not only to project his opinion, but also who he is as an artist. In “ My Kid Could Paint That,” Bar-Lev, the director of the intolerance in india documentary uses hand-held shots, close-ups, found footage and war definition open ended endings, which causes the viewer to change positively about Marla, to being more suspicious. In India. This allows the audience to see. A Great Way to 5 powers, Care , History of painting , My Kid Could Paint That 2062 Words | 5 Pages. How To Train Your Dog To Be A Guard Dog In Only 7 Days There are countless numbers of intolerance in india canines procured each and every year with . the aesthetic qualities sole rationale of becoming “hired” to work as a family members watchdog, but turn out devoid of the proper schooling to carry out so and at intolerance, some point set up on walt disney, the market.Question any professional dog trainer, in almost any city around the world, and so they will all attest to obtaining people carry their “watchdog” in along with the grievance that, “We bought him. Canine tooth , Dog , Dog health 2724 Words | 7 Pages. ?Sammi Picquet TRICIA'S CLASS DW.2 EXPLAINING ESSAY 3/10/10 HOW TO TRAIN A GOOD FAMILY DOG Wouldn't you love to have one of the the best . dogs in your own house?
It all begins with good training and great love towards your pup. Intolerance. Having a good dog doesn't just mean getting a dog and never being home, you have to be dedicated and of the president I will tell you how. It starts with picking out the intolerance in india cutest brown lab/pitbull with a little bit of white on his neck. An Adventure Of The. Then comes picking out the perfect name. In India. Roscoe. Dog , Dog training , Dog training and behavior 1764 Words | 5 Pages. people want a pet to accompany with them outside their studying and working time. Therefore the number of people who have a dog . is increased, and essay writing the needs of dog are raised significantly. The economy about intolerance, pets is disney pixar paid attention by people. In India. Not only concerned about punic war definition, what they eat, but also about intolerance, where they live and what kinds of cloth they wear.
It becomes a potential marketing in our daily life. Aesthetic. There are different kinds of pet kennels, and open variety projects such as pet grooming, pet washing and. Balance sheet , Cost of goods sold , Dog 1118 Words | 5 Pages. The varieties of dog -owners are as diverse as the different classifications of dog breeds themselves. From obsessed . dog owners to intolerance, the cruel, each group works under different views. Although you have thousands of people who will treat their pet as a true member of the family, there are thousands more who treat their pets like dirt. Lets show the essay variety of different types of dog owners. In India. The obsessed group of ishmael of the mind dog owner's doesn't seem to know how odd it is that they treat the in india dog better than other. Apex predator , Dog , Dog breed 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Is a Husky the walt pixar Right Pet for You?
Is the Siberian husky the right dog for you? Alix Marianne Cormier American Intercontinental University At a very young age I was always . fascinated with huskies, there beauty and wolf like features. My parents never let me have one; we had other dogs but never a husky. I can see why now. Intolerance In India. I didn’t know what I was getting myself into until about a year ago that I got one; don’t get me wrong, I would never trade her for anything in this world. This Angel had her own plan. This past year has been. Alaskan Husky , Alaskan Malamute , Dog 1340 Words | 3 Pages. We all have a desire to mind and spirit, own and care for a pet as children, many families in todays society do in fact have one or even multiple household . pets that they love and embrace as part of the family. Unfortunately I never had the intolerance satisfaction of having a pet , preferably a dog , in Veterans my family, but because of this I can compare cats and dogs impartially.
I chose to compare cats and dogs because I believe they are the most common and intolerance in india interactive household pets that one can have. Cats have been traced back. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 980 Words | 3 Pages. Pets are animals that have been kept as pets by people of the world for thousands of years. 5 Powers. The most common pets . are dogs , cats, parakeets, canaries, and fish. But many people keep unusual pets , such as raccoons, skunks, alligators, and monkeys. Many Japanese children tame mice and teach them to dance to music.
Australian children sometimes make pets of kangaroos. Intolerance. Pets can make interesting, playful companion. People enjoy teaching them to do tricks to obey commands. Disney. They must see that their pets . Africa , Famine , Hunger 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Positive Effects of Pets in a Family. to achieve. Pets can have a positive effect on children in a family because the pets help develop interpersonal traits necessary . later in intolerance in india life, pets help children grow emotionally, and mind and spirit pets can help keep the intolerance family’s immune system healthy.
Choosing to add a pet into ishmael of the mind and spirit, the family could be a pivotal choice in the family’s growth. Pets may help develop important traits like responsibility, self-confidence, and communication and relationship skills. The most recognizable trait that pets can teach children. Asthma , Cat , Dog 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Anton Chekhov’s, the intolerance in india Lady with the of the president Pet Dog. Anton Chekhov’s, The Lady with the Pet Dog , is a short story about an adulterous man, Dmitry Gurov, who falls in love with a . miserable married woman, Anna Sergeyevna.
The two find each other in intolerance in india their times of loneliness and Veterans quickly become involved in in india an affair. They soon have to say goodbye when Anna must return home to her sick husband. At first in the story Gurov refers to women as “the inferior race,” yet he confesses that he feels more comfortable with them than he does with men, but as the story. Affair , Anton Chekhov , Husband 1170 Words | 3 Pages. 1) Concept statement A) Description of idea (Features): OUR business idea is to open a pet shop. The purpose of the Pet Shop . Walt Disney Pixar. is to intolerance, define the minimum standards of war definition accommodation, management and care which are appropriate to the welfare, physical and behavioral needs of pet animals held for in india sale. Our pet shops generally sell not only a wide range of animals, pet accessories, but also provide foods and treats as well as health and grooming products. Our shop location is obviously important.
Animal , Pet , Pet store 1004 Words | 5 Pages. Pinscher Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally . developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Doberman Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and an adventure of the mind the breed is in india well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog . Although once commonly used asguard dogs or police dogs , this is less common today. Ishmael An Adventure. Hypoallergenic: No Life span: 10 to 12 years Origin: Germany Temperament: Alert. American Kennel Club , Doberman Pinscher , Dog 570 Words | 3 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of having the pets. Vu Research and intolerance in india Study Skills THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HAVING PETS . With the development of society, people have more . Ishmael Of The. demanding. So that, most people discuss the in india importance of staying healthy and guide living longer by diet, work, and exercise. But they do not know besides work, they need to intolerance in india, keep their spirit in optimism and love life. In the modern life, pets become popular with many households.
Since, pets are loyal friends. They also support a lot of things for people life such as. Chimpanzee , Dog , Exotic pet 2458 Words | 7 Pages.
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The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction. The predominant current-day meaning of intolerance, genotype is some relevant part of the DNA passed to the organism by its parents. The phenotype is the war definition, physical and behavioral traits of the organism, for example, size and shape, metabolic activities, and patterns of movement. The distinction between them is especially important in evolutionary theory, where the survival and mating of organisms depends on their traits, but it is the DNA, held to be unaffected by the development of the traits over the life course, that is transmitted to the next generation. Philosophical discussion mostly now takes the predominant meanings as given, focusing instead on questions about the genotype-phenotype relationship . Intolerance In India. For example: How can DNA be construed as information for the processes of development of an organism’s traits? What is the causal status of DNA versus other influences in the organism’s development? (see entries on inheritance systems and biological information and also Griffiths Stotz 2013). Without dismissing the importance of punic, such questions, the focus of this entry remains on the genotype-phenotype distinction . Given that discussion by philosophers of this issue has been minimal, this entry cannot take the standard form of a review of published debates.
In order to help frame and orient readers’ conceptual inquiries, another approach is needed. The entry builds from the observations that the original meanings of genotype and phenotype and the distinction between them as given by Wilhelm Johannsen (1911) were quite different from the in india, now predominant meaning (given above) and that different kinds of meanings coexist in Johannsen and up to walt disney pixar the present. To make sense of those observations, Johannsen’s paper is intolerance, recounted with special reference to practices or assumptions regarding control of biological materials and conditions. Subsequent developments are then described in relation to problems introduced by conceptualizing heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. This framing brings into play many areas of philosophical discussions, including the “New Experimentalism” in philosophy of biology (see entry on experiment in biology), abstraction (see entry on abstract objects), confirmation, ambiguity, Scientific Realism, descriptive versus normative approaches, and The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge. At the qualities, same time, the framing helps open up questions that have not been well addressed in those discussions and has implications for issues that might seem settled to intolerance in india many who, when they invoke the genotype-phenotype distinction, are simply thinking DNA versus trait. 1. Setting the Scene: Different Kinds of Meanings of Genotype and Phenotype.
The meaning of the terms given at 5 powers of the the start of the introduction may at first seem clear, but conceptual questions have accompanied or been implied by in india the use of the terms since their introduction to English-language readers by Johannsen’s (1911) “The Genotype Conception of Heredity” and up until the present. How does an individual organism’s DNA influence the processes of development of its traits over its lifetimeprocesses that also involve other influences? How can an aesthetic individual organism’s traits be used to identify its DNA sequence? Why are the terms genotype and phenotype still used if they simply refer to the individual’s DNA and traits? One answer to this last question is that what counts is less the meaning of the terms than what their use has come to signify , in in india, particular, that certain issues have been resolved: the barrier between the organism’s life course and DNA transmitted to qualities the next generation; evolution is change in intolerance, frequencies of genes or DNA sequences in populations over Aftercare Essay time; development of traits will eventually be understood in intolerance in india, terms of a composite of the effects of DNA on the organism; what counts is what is underneath or inside the observable surface; and findings about heredity derived using one meaning of terms affirm findings derived using a different meaning. How firmly resolved are these issues? If one wants to open them up for further scrutiny, it could be helpful to walt disney pixar question the meaning of genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them.
Another response to why the terms continue to be used is that the predominant meanings are not the in india, only ones. Type connotes a class . This sense of the terms leads to further questions: What makes organisms similar enough to be grouped in a genotype as a class? or in a phenotype as a class? How is the membership of organisms in a genotype manifest in their membership in a phenotypeor phenotypes? How can the aesthetic qualities, membership of in india, organisms in aesthetic, a phenotype be used to identify their membership in a genotype? Type also connotes an intolerance abstraction away from the full set of observed characteristics. What then is to be accentuated and what de-emphasized about a genotype and phenotype, as DNA and traits or as classesespecially when asking any of the previous questions?
And howby what concepts, methods, and modelsis what has been de-emphasized to be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific account? To make sense of the original meanings of the Aftercare Veterans, terms and the distinction between them as well as the coexistence of different kinds of meanings since then, a specific kind of abstraction (see entry on abstract objects) is pertinent, namely, the material practices of control over biological materials and conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding or entailed in the allied use of models in analysis of data . Intolerance. Reliable methods more than endorsable theories are the touchstone of this kind of abstraction. It is within a framing of controland the walt disney, consequent challenge of reintegrationthat this entry discusses the in india, other senses already mentioned of the walt, terms genotype and phenotype: in the context of the relationship between an individual’s DNA and traits; what the in india, use of the terms signifies; and grouping into walt disney pixar, classes. (Given the continuing coexistence of the different kinds of meaning of the terms, qualifiers are used when there might be ambiguity.) Although there may be grounds to revise various positions and inquiries about the genotype-phenotype relationship in intolerance in india, light of assumptions made about control and eventual reintegration, such discussion lies beyond the guide, scope of this entry. (If the genotype-phenotype relationship were the entry’s focus, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about intolerance causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims; see Winther 2014 for an entry point and section 7.) The entry also cannot do justice to essay writing the rich social and economic history of heredity, where concrete cases abound concerning the control of biological materials for production and breedingdating from well before the genotype-phenotype distinction through to present-day biotechnology. (Readers wanting to reintegrate the history and context might usefully start with the essays collected in Müller-Wille et al. 2008b, Deichmann et al. 2014, and Müller-Wille Brandt 2016, and in india, references cited therein. Müller-Wille 2008 and Bonneuil 2016, in particular, describe Johannsen’s professional and modernizing aspirations and disney, place them in their economic context. Rolls-Hansen 2014 places Johannsen’s 1911 contribution in in india, the context of shifts in 5 powers, his views over his career.) 2. The Goals and Open Questions of in india, Johannsen (1911) Marcel Weber (2014) notes that, because many areas of modern biology “are profoundly experimental disciplines, an increased attention [in philosophy of biology] to the experiment in biology was inevitable” (see also entry on gene). Yet, how an area of biology becomes experimental in the first place as well as the Aftercare Veterans Essay, implications of that shift also warrant attention.
A recounting of Johannsen (1911) in this vein serves not only to introduce his original genotype-phenotype distinction, but also to point to various conceptual and methodological complexities that are associated with redefining heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. The detail in this section and the next is important not as a matter of doing history, but to insert distance from the predominant current-day meanings and establish a space in which modern users of in india, his terms can consider issues that had been left behind. 2.1 Goals: Establish Repeatable Outcomes and Expose Hidden Processes. The overarching project for Johannsen (1911) was to promote a shift from “morphological-descriptive” natural history (1911: 134), in which appearances could mislead or be spun into speculative theories, to an “exact science” (1911: 131) using the experimental control of biological materials and conditions needed to establish repeatable outcomes and expose hidden processes. 2.1.1 Alternative to “Transmission-Conception” of Heredity. A specific variant of Johannsen’s overarching project was to articulate an alternative to traditional accounts of heredity, which, in 5 powers of the president, his words, tried to conceive or “explain” the presumed transmission of general or peculiar characters and qualities “inherited” from parents or more remote ancestors. (1911: 129) In rejecting such a “transmission-conception” of heredity (his term), Johannsen sought specifically to depart from two approaches: a) the analysis by biometricians of continuous variation (such as the intolerance, spread of heights in a given population), which showed traits of offspring to be numerically correlated with those of their parents, grandparents, and disney pixar, so onsuch analysis preserved the possibility of “ancestral influences” (1911: 138); and b) particulate theories, such as those of August Weismann and Darwinians that could be seen as consistent with transmission of parental traits to intolerance in india the zygote (the initial cell resulting from a fusion of gametes or germ cells , i.e., egg and essay writing guide, sperm). Johannsen saw no evidence for the idea that the “elements responsible for inheritance involve the intolerance, different organs or tissue-groups of the individual developing from the zygote” (1911: 131). Johannsen’s alternative involved four steps of concept and punic, method:
“[T]he objects for in india scientific research” are “‘types’ of organisms distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description, [which] may be characterized as ‘ phenotypes. ’ Certainly phenotypes are real things” (1911: 134); There are germ cells that form a basis for development of an organism of the next generation; Denote as a genotype the walt disney, class of organisms that share the same basis for intolerance development in the germ cells; Use experimentally manufactured subsets of of the mind and spirit, possible phenotypes, namely, inbred lines of beans, to demonstrate the significance of the preceding items. (An inbred line is produced by mating or “crossing” plants with themselvesthat is, “self-pollinating”many times.) In Johannsen’s experiments, the plants in any line showed variation in a given trait under differing conditions, but selection among the plants for that trait did not result in improvement from intolerance in india one generation to aesthetic the next. Whatever the nature of the germ cells that seeds from a line shared, and in whatever ways it “reacted” during the intolerance in india, plant’s development thus “interfering with the totality of all incident factors, may it be external or internal” (1911: 133), seeds of the next generation did not result in plants that matched their parent any more than plants from any other seed from the same line (a theory summarized in Figure 1). Plants from the inbred line were instances of a genotype; variation in the traits grown from the seeds was, borrowing from Richard Woltereck, the norm of reaction (Reaktionsnorm) of that genotype; a plant’s relative position in the norm of reaction was not transmitted to its offspring; and (with the emphasis Johannsen’s) “ selection is not able to shift the nature of genotypes ” (1911: 137). Because the nature or constituents of a genotype were stable , the “genotype-conception” of heredity was “ahistoric” (1911: 139). (Note: Johannsen did not adopt Weismann’s term germplasm to denote the material basis for animal development sequestered from the somatoplasm early each generation [Churchill 1974: 19]. Yet, whatever the qualities, material basis of development was for intolerance in india plant genotypes, it was similarly shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime within the organism and with the environment.) Figure 1: Johannsen’s view of walt, heredity: Germ cells that form a basis for development of an organism get reproduced for the next generation unaffected by the development of the in india, traits over the life course. 2.1.2 Unambiguous Use of Phenotypes to Distinguish Genotypes. Phenotypes might, Johannsen noted, be a mix of several genotypes (as illustrated by the sole figure in the 1911 article; Churchill 1974). To remove the ambiguity of appearanceto be able to ishmael mind and spirit use phenotypes to distinguish genotypeshe relied on research that was flourishing after the rediscovery in 1900 of Gregor Mendel’s experiments on peas. In India. Those experiments can be summarized as follows:
Conditions in which the peas were grown were kept as uniform as possible from one plant to walt disney the next. Intolerance. Inbred lines were established that differed one from the Aftercare for U.S. Veterans, other in ways that Mendel dichotomized, e.g., round or wrinkly peas; tall or dwarf plants. By preventing self-pollination, different inbred lines could be crossed to produce what are called hybrids (F1) and intolerance, then self-pollinated to produce the next generation (F2). The F1 hybrids all showed one of any pair of dichotomous traits. Around ¾ of the Aftercare Essay, F2 generation showed that trait; ¼ showed the other trait. (For example, when a pure breeding purple-flowered variety was crossed to a pure breeding white-flowered form, all the in india, F1 offspring were purple-flowered. When, however, these purple-flowered hybrids were crossed with each other, both purple-flowered and white-flowered plants appeared in the progeny.) From the F1 and F2 ratios Mendel concluded that two “factors” influenced each trait of the pea plant, one from the pollen and one from the ovary of the parent plants. In turn, only one of the two factors went to each pollen and 5 powers president, ovary (Law of Segregation), each unaffected by the nature of the other factor it had previously been paired with. Intolerance. When the two factors were of different kinds, the trait that resulted from development was not intermediate. Instead, it looked the same as the F1 hybrid and qualities, the more-frequent F2 offspring, that is, like one of the originally crossed lines (Law of Dominance).
In other words, although the intolerance, F1 hybrids appeared the Veterans, same as one of the in india, inbred parents, the hybrids could be shown, through the ratios of the walt disney, two traits in the F2 generation, to belong, using Johannsen’s terms, to a different genotypea heterozygote (i.e., paired factors different from each other), not a homozygote (i.e., paired factors the same). 2.2 Advances, Ambiguities and Open Questions. The experiments of Johannsen and Mendel (summarized in Figure 2) can be seen as having achieved the goals given above (section 2.1). Figure 2: Mendel-Johannsen method: Inbreeding, controlled crosses, and control of experimental conditions allows unambiguous use of phenotypes to distinguish genotypes. Johannsen’s experiments on inbred lines produced repeatable outcomes and illuminated hidden processes: traits acquired during development in in india, certain conditions were not transmitted to offspring, that is, the nature or constituents of the genotype were shielded from most of the interactions within the writing, organism and with the environment that occur during the organism’s lifetime. Intolerance. Even if the reactions of different genotypes under various conditions resulted in “differences between the phenotype-curves [that] may vary considerably or may even vanish entirely” (Johannsen 1911: 145), a specific “genotypical constitution always reacts in Aftercare for U.S. Essay, the same manner under identical conditions” (1911: 146). Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines extended this genotype-conception of heredity. Hidden processes were exposed in the sense that sexual reproduction involves joining together of pairs of factorsfor which Johannsen coined the term genes. That meant the reappearance in in india, F2 of traits not visible in F1 could be explained without any ancestral influence. The rest of punic, his goals were also fulfilled: The dichotomous nature of intolerance, Mendel’s traits afforded Johannsen the of the president, distance he desired from the analysts of continuous variation who had entertained ancestral influences.
Mendelian researchers had a method to remove the ambiguity of appearance so genotypes could be distinguished from each other (and their constituents shown to be stable). In sum, these experimental approaches rendered irrelevant past speculations about the “elements responsible for inheritance” (1911: 131; Churchill 1974). At the same time, Johannsen (1911) introduced many ambiguities and questions about the import of his new terms. At first sight, the sense of classes is predominant. The phenotype, consisting of intolerance, organisms “distinguishable by direct inspection or by for U.S. Veterans finer methods of measuring or description” (1911: 134), is used to identify the genotype as a class of organisms that shares constituents stable from generation to generation. Intolerance In India. Yet, no method is discussed to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes, let alone identify a genotype-as-class in such populations. It is in the restricted realm of inbred lines that identifying genotypes from phenotypes is Aftercare for U.S. Veterans Essay, possible, albeit not reliably if a phenotype includes a mix of inbred lines. Notice, however, if an inbred line is bred true (i.e., not crossed with any other lines), it is intolerance, a genotype-as-class. There is punic, no need to divide up the intolerance in india, lines into writing guide, phenotypes in order to identify genotypes, and it matters not that the traits of individuals in an inbred line vary with the in india, conditions in which the of the president, individuals are raised.
Indeed, the norm of reaction of the inbred line is one way to intolerance think of the genotype as an punic abstracted type. Moreover, there is no need to identify the material basis of the genotypic constituents shared by the inbred line. Nevertheless, Mendel’s experiments had begun to expose the intolerance, constituents’ nature. When inbred lines were crossed then self-pollinated, the traits of individuals raised under uniform conditions could be analyzed statistically by employingand thereby demonstratinga model of 5 powers of the, genotypic constituents as pairs of segregating factors. In these experiments, phenotypes and genotypes as classes still play a role, with the F2 phenotypes being used to identify whether apparently identical F1 phenotypes are heterozygote or homozygote genotypes. Intolerance In India. It might be asked whether Johannsen’s reference to the “finer methods of measuring or description” could be construed to include the disambiguating analysis of ratios after inbreeding, crossing, and self-pollination? If the answer is yes, the inbred parent could be classified as a different phenotype from the F1 hybrid. Of The. In that case, the Johannsenian study of heredity would amount to generating phenotypesclasses of organisms distinguished by “finer methods of measuring or description” of traitsthat are isomorphic with genotypesclasses of organisms that share identical stable constituents. Yet, the experimental control of intolerance, biological material and conditions that make such a mapping possible also provided the Aftercare for U.S. Essay, Mendelian researchers of the early twentieth century a means to in india investigate the guide, genotype-as-material-constituents (see section 3). Indeed, Johannsen’s conception of the genotype as a class of organisms sharing stable genotypic constituents already pointed that way.
However, in taking up that direction of intolerance in india, research what was left unaddressed was the punic, relevance for in india understanding heredity in naturally varying populations of phenotype-to-genotype mapping and investigations of the constituents of genotype using Mendelian methods. Johannsen (1911) does not address those issues (which are returned to an adventure of the mind and spirit in section 5), but he does point to several other concerns about the concepts, methods, and implications of the genotype conception of intolerance, heredity. These follow. The continuous variation common in regular populations did not, for Johannsen, contradict the discontinuity of war definition, genotypes: The well-known displacement of intolerance, a population proceeding from punic generation to generation in the direction indicated by the selectionis due to the existence a priori of genotypical differences in such populations. (1911: 137) Such selection changed the relative proportion of genotypes in the population, not any genotype itself.
There could have been room here for reconciliation with the biometrical view of variation in non-experimental populations, but that avenue was not pursued by Johannsen. Intolerance In India. Instead, like many other exponents of Mendel’s rediscovered work, he chose to dispute the idea that different types of organism could be “evolved from each other by extremely small steps in genotypical change”. Guide. Instead, “the mutations really observed in intolerance, nature have all shown themselves as considerable, discontinuous saltations” (1911: 158; i.e., jumps). Mendelian experiments fostered a particulate view of aesthetic qualities, heredity in the way that two factors influence a given trait. (In that sense, the old transmission conception had not been fully banished.) Yet Johannsen wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole : “[C]haracters may be determined by several different genes, and one sort of gene may have influence upon several different reactions” (1911: 153). He advised that “the talk of ‘genes for any particular character’ ought to be omitted” (1911: 147).
If this view was to be made into exact science, some method for analyzing the genotypical constitution or genotype as a whole was needed. Johannsen did not provide one. Johannsen raised another concern about in india genes as particulate factors when he asserted that the traits “of the organism in toto are the walt, results of the reactions of the genotypical constitution” (1911: 147; his emphasis); there was no “suggestive value” in the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet Mendel’s original experiments could be seen to support that very idea: the traits of the in india, peas were not only dichotomous, but there was no pattern of co-occurrence of variants of the different traits, as would be the case if, say, crinkly peas occurred more often on dwarf plants. Given such independent assortment of traits, it would make sense, contra Johannsen, to talk of a pair of factors or genes for crinkly peas. President. A new transmission conception of heredity was plausible. Johannsen also noted that. there may be very narrow limits for [Mendelian] analysis: the entire organization may never be “segregated” into intolerance in india, genes. (1911: 153)
To put that in another way, the ishmael an adventure of the mind, influence of factors that are identical for all members of a species cannot be studied through Mendelian crosses. The genotype-conception of heredity, by centering on genotypic differences associated with phenotypic differences, shifted attention away from the species-typical aspects of the germ cells and intolerance, subsequent development. Mendelian analysis focused on differences over similarity , even though both aspects were included in then prevailing conceptions of heredity (Sapp 1987). (Similarity was part of heredity in the sense that, for the eye color of some flies to differ from the rest of the population, the initial cell or zygote of the fly has to be able to develop into an organism that has eyes with color.) Morphological-descriptive natural history is, as Johannsen (1911) desired, downplayed in of the president, the pursuit of experimentally generated and repeatable outcomes, yet his writing did not acknowledge that the same pursuit characterized a well-established field of zoological research, “developmental mechanics” ( Entwicklungsmechanik ). This experimental field had a morphological focus on how cells become arranged into tissues, organs, and intolerance, the organism’s overall form, and an adventure of the mind and spirit, how such organization is regenerated after disturbance or through the formation of germ cells (see entry on developmental biology). Important contemporaries of Johannsen grappled with the tensions between Mendelism and development (Deichmann 2014), but he merely evoked development in broad strokesas the genotypes reacting or “interfering with the totality of all incident factors” (1911: 133)and left the mechanics or dynamics as a secondary concern. For the new genotype-conception of heredity, stability of the genotype across generations was the primary fact. In putting mechanics to the side, the descriptive side of studies of in india, heredity that Johannsen decried can be seen persisting, to some degree, in his original definitions of phenotype and genotype as classes of organisms. 2.2.5 Shared Nature of the president, Germ Cells. Johannsen placed not only the developmental processes, but also the material make-up of the germ cells or the genes outside the scope of his genotype-conception of heredity: “[T]he nature of the ‘genes’ is as yet of no value to propose any hypothesis” (1911: 133).
Yet, the shift (mentioned earlier), where the focus in intolerance in india, studies of heredity moved on of the, to the material make-up, was prefigured by his referring to the genotypical constitution and noting that “a ‘genotype’ is the sum total of all the ‘genes’ in in india, a gamete or in a zygote” (1911: 1323). A further shift towards exposing the dynamics of writing, development that build on those constituents was prefigured when Johannsen referred to “phenotypes i.e., the reactions of the genotypical constituents” (1911: 145). Figure 3: Extensions of Mendel-Johannsen method: Identification of genotypes as parts of in india, germ cells corresponding to differences in phenotypes as specific traits → Location of pixar, genotypes on chromosomes → Further control and intolerance in india, reproducibility of genotypes and phenotypes → Heredity as transmission of genes (pairs of which make up genotypes) → DNA as material basis of genes. 3. From Mendelian Research and Models to the Present: Advances, Ambiguities and Persisting Questions. The conservatism expressed in Johannsen (1911) about identifying the material basis of genes, as the nature of the germ cells shared by a genotype, was not so evident among the Mendelian researchers who quickly came to adopt the new terms gene, genotype, and phenotype during that decade. The focus moved beyond refuting what Johannsen called the punic war definition, “transmission-conception” of heredity and towards heredity as transmission in the new sense of genes going from in india parents to the germ cells of offspring (Figure 3). Research in laboratory genetics and agricultural breeding extended Mendelian methods productively, but it also allowed some of the of the president, conceptual and methodological problems of Johannsen introduced in section 2 to persist and ramify. 3.1 Particulate FactorsMapping Genes Along Chromosomes. Mendelian research soon showed the independent assortment of intolerance in india, factors in Mendel’s experiments to disney be a special case, not a law. Departures from independent assortment of traits allowed the identification of linkage groups, in intolerance, which variants of two or more traits co-occur, which eventually were shown to correspond to the proximity of disney, their place or locus on distinct chromosomes. (Indeed, Mendelian research helped expose properties of the chromosomes, such as their role in sex determination, and investigate many other biological issues. Intolerance. Waters  criticizes philosophers who interpret Mendelism solely in terms of establishing a theory of 5 powers of the, inheritance: “Posing and in india, solving carefully orchestrated pedigree problems was the means, not the ends, of disney pixar, classical genetics”.) Johannsen’s resistance to the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance” (1911: 1312) was shared by others (Deichmann 2014), but such reservations did not hold back the rise of Mendelianism to a dominant position in research into heredity well before the material make-up and functioning of those particlesthe geneswas revealed in the 1950s.
The particulate view was affirmed by producing heritable alterations in phenotypes after bombarding organisms with high-energy ionizing radiation. It remained central to experiments involving crosses between lines that, as much as possible, those lines were inbred and identical and in india, homozygous for genes influencing all traits apart from for walt disney pixar the traits under study. While the identical homozygous genes might have an influence on the development of any focal trait, differences in that trait could be attributed to differences in the genes that were not identical among the crossed lines. (Indeed, by the 1930s heredity had come to refer to the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in these differences, not to the development of the similarities from which differences depart [Sapp 1987].) Genotype could be applied to classes of organisms with a specific pair of intolerance in india, genes (or small set of pairs) or to the specific pairs of essay writing guide, genes themselves (matching the connotation of intolerance in india, type as an abstraction away from the full set of qualities, observed characteristics). In Mendelian experiments phenotypes-as-classes demarcated by a small set of traits could be used to identify genotypes-as-classes. Then, once the genotype as pair(s) of genes was mapped to a locus on the chromosome, the direction could be reversed: the phenotype would then be the subset of an organism’s traits associated with the genotype under given conditions (a forerunner here of the predominant current-day meaning). 3.2 Identification of Phenotypes and in india, GenotypesComplications. Mendelian methods of inference based on a small set of traits and pairs of genes were complicated by phenomena that came to be called epistasis, expressivity, penetrance, and incomplete dominance and, to a lesser extent, by a background level of mutation for any gene being studied. 5 Powers Of The President. Muriel Wheldale’s genetic analysis of the intolerance, color of snapdragon flowers, for example, showed that plants with one or more dominant alleles (i.e., variants of the punic war definition, gene) at intolerance a certain locus would show color patterns that she was able to associate with the genotype at three other loci, but plants with two recessive alleles at the first locus would be white no matter whatthe homozygote recessive genotype had an epistatic effect over the other genotypes. A range of phenotypes may be shown to correspond to the same genotype expressivity . A phenotype that is war definition, associated with a certain genotype may be observed for only a fraction of intolerance in india, individuals in or with that genotype penetrance . With respect to pixar expressivity and penetrance, researchers try to link the observed variation to intolerance conditions occurring during development, stochastic developmental noise, or differences remaining at 5 powers loci not under study, and to decide where in the range of the trait, say, melanin pigmentation, to demarcate one phenotype from another. Intolerance. Incomplete dominance means the occurrence of an for U.S. Veterans intermediate phenotype (e.g., pink snapdragon flowers resulting from in india crosses of white and red inbred lines). Incomplete dominance removed some of the ambiguities in using phenotypes to distinguish genotypes, but the combination of the four phenomena and linkage for multiple loci meant that Mendelian researchers had to distinguish among multiple hypotheses about the genotypes consistent with observed patterns of traits in Aftercare for U.S. Essay, the offspring of crosses.
Background levels of mutation, including mutations in non-germ cells during the lifetime, ensure that even genotypes-as-classes consisting of clones or of identical or monozygotic twins are not made up of strictly identical members. Nevertheless, with suitable organisms and for intolerance certain traits, and under the inbreeding and control of conditions typical of Mendelian experiments, the painstaking work of inferring genotypes (as pairs of an adventure, genes) from intolerance in india phenotypes could bear fruit. Not all aspects of the study of heredity could be made an experimental endeavor through Mendelian methods. There were many traits for which the continuous variation could not be subdivided into discrete phenotypes, let alone linked to genotypes, especially for traits in agriculture of Aftercare Veterans Essay, economic interest such as yield of plant and animal varieties or breeds. Intolerance. By the end of the 1910s Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright had begun to president address the in india, need to essay writing guide reconcile the discreteness of intolerance, genotypes with continuous variation in many observable traits. In the aesthetic, mathematical models of in india, a field that came to be known as quantitative genetics , differences between unobserved theoretical genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) at Aftercare for U.S. Veterans each of a large number of loci contribute to differences in the trait, modulated by degrees of correspondingly theoretical dominance and epistasis. Under the reasonable assumption that more of the genes are shared among relatives than in intolerance in india, the population as a whole, data on a given trait as it varies across genealogically defined lines or groups of specified relatedness could be analyzed so as to provide predictions of changes in writing, the average value of the trait in the population under selective breeding. Of course, the trait values and thus the in india, predictions depended on the conditions in which the organisms developed, but in the laboratory and, to varying degrees, in of the president, agricultural breeding, conditions could be replicated.
For the breeder, the focus of the quantitative genetic data analysis on differences in intolerance, the trait makes practical sense; it is not necessary to know the mechanisms through which the traits developed as organisms reacted to conditions. In other words, the ishmael mind and spirit, meanings of genotype, phenotype, and in india, their distinction again make sense as an abstraction through practices of control over biological materials and conditions in agricultural and laboratory breeding and the allied use of models and Aftercare Essay, analysis of data. It should also be noted that, in agricultural breeding, the intolerance in india, lines or other genealogically defined groups became called genotypes as well. Genotypes in this sense are classes of individuals related by ishmael of the mind and spirit genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors. The relatedness takes a variety of in india, formsnot only pure (inbred or cloned) lines, but also offspring of a given pair of parents or a set of ancestors or an open pollinated plant variety in which the genes vary within replicable bounds among the generations of individuals in the class. The corresponding phenotype is then the range of values of the trait or set of traits as they are observed to vary for the genealogically defined line or group in the given location(s) or situation(s). In this sense the phenotypes from ishmael an adventure and spirit different lines may overlap; organisms are divisible into phenotypes as classes for the purpose of in india, quantitative genetic analysis not through “finer methods of measuring or description”, but because the lines or groups are separable. 5 Powers President. (Quantitative genetics extended to humans does not involve controlled breeding, but does rely on relatedness that differs between, say, monozygotic and intolerance, dizygotic (i.e., fraternal) twins. Even though a twin pair is not conventionally referred to as a genotype, human quantitative genetics has followed the same idea for data analysis as used in agricultural breeding.)
3.4 Continuous Variation; Particulate Factors. The mathematical models of aesthetic qualities, quantitative genetics could be readily extended from selective breeding to evolutionary change by having theoretical genotypes from a large number of loci each contribute to parameters for surviving and leaving offspringso-called selection coefficients . Data on the variation for a trait in a specific group or population could be analyzed so as to estimate the intolerance in india, parameters in the model that would generate the observed changes in the average value of the 5 powers of the, trait over time. Thinking about evolution in the terms of quantitative genetics meant that it was no longer necessary, contra Johannsen (1911: 138) (and others), to insist that evolution proceeded through “considerable, discontinuous saltations”. Notice, again the separate theoretical genotypes and their contributions, this time to selection coefficients, remain unobserved; the intolerance in india, focus of the data analysis could be on differences in the trait, not the mechanisms of trait development. The complexity of developmental mechanisms, which involve interactions with the aesthetic, environment, was collapsed in intolerance in india, the models into the selection coefficients modulated by parameters for dominance between alleles (i.e., variants of a gene) within, and writing guide, epistasis between, theoretical genotypes. A parallel development, initiated again by Fisher and Wright, as well as by J.B.S. Haldane, involved mathematical models of theoretical genotypes at one or a few loci each contributing to the parameters for intolerance surviving and leaving offspring. In this field, which came to be known as Population Genetics, estimation of selection coefficients of genotypes inferred from distinct phenotypes was possible, albeit more readily when the populations were subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time were observed in the wild (which was studied in the new field of ecological genetics ). Just as in quantitative genetics, the focus in population genetics was on difference in traits; complexities of development in its ecological context were typically collapsed into the parameters of the an adventure of the mind, models. 3.5 Shared Nature of the Germ Cells; Mechanics of Development; Material Basis for Genes. Some Mendelian researchers extended the investigation of the material basis for genes to their role in developmental processes.
For example, the eyes of fruit flies, normally red, are sometimes white. Geneticists identified the location on the chromosomes that corresponds to the white-eye mutation (Morgan 1919) and later investigated the pigment-formation metabolic pathway and the enzymes (proteins that modulate biochemical interactions) involved as fruit fly eyes develop the in india, normal or mutant color (e.g., Beadle Ephrussi 1936). Guide. Research since World War II that came to in india be known as molecular genetics or molecular biology went on for U.S. Veterans Essay, to identify DNA as the chemical basis of intolerance, genes and the mechanisms of DNA replication, mutation, transcription to for U.S. Veterans Essay RNA, and translation to intolerance polypeptides (components of proteins). Researchers probed the feedback networks that regulate these mechanisms, first in viruses and pixar, bacteria, then in complex, multicellular organisms; mapped and modified the specific DNA sequence of organisms; compared sequences among taxonomic groups (i.e., groups in different branches of the classification of life) so as to assess the degree of genetic variation in populations and to classify taxonomic groups into phylogenies; traced where and when in development specific genes are active; and examined the role of DNA sequences not associated with genes (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Such research, which now occupies the in india, center of biology, renders it plausible to many researchers and commentators that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences on the organism over time of identified DNA variants (see entry on gene). 4. Philosophical Issues Brought into Play by Attention to Control of Biological Materials and Conditions. Johannsen, as noted earlier (and conveyed in the contrast between the method of figure 2 and the theory of figure 1), provided no method to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes as classes of organisms, let alone to use these classes to identify genotypes as classes within such populations. What would be required then in order to apply his terms and distinction in the study of heredity for for U.S. natural varying populations? A number of pathways can be delineated:
reintegrate develop methods to bring back and in india, tie together what had been de-emphasized through the control of biological material and conditions employed in the experiments that provided the basis for his original presentation of genotype and phenotype and for subsequent developments in the study of heredity; engineer retain the experimental control within an increasing range of contexts; generalize theoretically use the theory and models that inform the Aftercare for U.S. Essay, control and engineering as a basis for intolerance in india explaining and/or intervening more broadly (Hacking 1983; Cartwright 1999; entry on the structure of scientific theories); liken think or act as if observations in natural varying population or less controlled situations derived from ishmael of the mind similar theory and models; and experiment more do not pursue reintegration, but continue to employ Mendelian methods to learn more about the intolerance, biology of organisms (Waters 2004). As a sociological, not a logical matter, success in engineering may underwrite theoretical generalizing and both may, in turn, make more plausible any assumed extension to naturally varying populations. Together with further experiments, these pathways may eventually lead to success in re-integration. It could be imagined that the processes exposed in walt pixar, controlled conditions would eventually explain heredity in naturally varying populations. This might happen by researchers identifying the intolerance in india, material constituents of the of the mind, genotype passed to the organism by its parents and in india, then tracing how all these constituents influence the aesthetic qualities, development over time of the organism’s traits or phenotypeperhaps first in controlled conditions, and intolerance, then in variable ecological situations (see entry on reductionism in biology). However, there is aesthetic, no guarantee that the intolerance in india, original experimental basis for the genotype-phenotype distinction or subsequent developments must lead to walt disney pixar effective engineering, theoretical generalization, or likening that clarifies. Indeed, as a sociological not logical matter, pursuing such steps may distract attention from the project of re-integration. Section 5 reviews what would be entailed in reintegration, doing so in intolerance in india, order to problematize the status of the aesthetic qualities, original experimentally based distinction as a basis for the study of heredity for natural varying populations. The rest of in india, section 4 points to mind several areas of philosophical discussions brought into play and extended by intolerance in india experiments followed by the pathways and steps above. The “New Experimentalism” counters or complicates a traditional emphasis in philosophy of science on theories by studying what goes on in laboratories, or, more generally, the practical methods of achieving reliable results (see entries on experiment in biology the president, structure of scientific theories). As noted earlier (section 2), attention is also warranted to the ways that an area of biology, such as the study of heredity, becomes experimental in the first place.
Experiments in biology may lead to the engineering of new phenomena or objects, such as knockout mice (i.e., a line with a specific gene deactivated), but, at intolerance in india the same time, they leave open the question of the significance of what gets de-emphasized through the control of biological material and conditions employed in the experiments. To continue the knockout example: does the effect of a gene knocked out in a highly inbred line of mice extrapolate to its effects in naturally variable populations of mice, let alone other species? In other words, the demonstration of genes in knockout lines that have defined effects could be a textbook case of something representedthe DNA sequence as genewarranting the status real given the reliable effect of disney pixar, its absence. Yet antirealists could point to what has not yet been observed given the special experimental conditions of Mendelian research and subsequent molecular biology (see entry on scientific realism). Such an objection notwithstanding, if there is a method that is productive of results, there will be scientists who apply it even if the results do not address questions that once motivated their line of inquiry (as evident, for example, when, as noted earlier, the study of heredity came to focus on differences not similarity and development). How is any such pragmatism to in india be viewed?are experiments in biology like a philosophical pragmatism concerned with truth or one concerned about Aftercare Essay achieving goals and formulating further goals that can be pursued in practice (see entry on pragmatism). Or is it a pragmatism highlighted more in sociology than philosophy of science, in which the researcher or the interpreter of science considers how difficult it is in practice to modify what has been established as knowledge (Latour 1987)?
The last sense fits well with this entry’s attention to abstraction in the form of the material practices of intolerance in india, control over biological materials and conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and walt pixar, agricultural breeding. It should be noted, however, that this form of abstraction centers on intolerance, objects that are concrete, not therefore conforming to the contrast abstract versus concrete (see entry on abstract objects). The interrelated issues concerning pragmatism, scientific realism, and writing guide, abstraction become even more pertinent when the theory and models that inform experiments, such as the genotype-phenotype distinction in Mendelian research, are extended to less-controlled situations, such as agricultural breeding trials, and to intolerance in india analysis of writing, data derived from them. As noted earlier, quantitative genetics relies on models of contributions from unobserved, theoretical genotypes. Analyses of intolerance in india, data using those models allow breeders to punic war definition decide which traits to in india enhance through selection even though they have no evidence independent of the data to confirm the assumption in aesthetic qualities, their models about intolerance in india theoretical genotypes and their contributions (Lloyd 1988). Yet, as publications, careers, release of varieties, software packages, and so on get built on such a foundation, it becomes ever more difficult in practical terms for researchers to promote alternatives that do not rest on the unobserved and unconfirmed entities and properties. Indeed, unconceived alternatives , the possibility that Stanford (2006) highlights, may well include theories that entail methods that are, for aesthetic qualities various reasons, impractical . In India. The pragmatic issue of needing a practical method applies in turn to philosophy: When philosophers make distinctions or otherwise point to issues that scientists have left unclear or under-examined, by what means do they envisage influencing the scientists to change their views or practices? That question is left open by this entry. The genotype-phenotype distinction has been positioned in this entry in Aftercare Veterans Essay, relation to control of biological materials and in india, conditions, thus drawing attention to Essay the challenge of reintegrating what had been de-emphasized through that control.
Yet, no method is provided for philosophers to get the challenge taken up beyond the implication that the descriptionthe framingwould be a helpful starting point. In other words, the entry has positioned the genotype-phenotype distinction in line with the descriptive emphasis in the New Experimentalism on scientific practice, a prescriptive possibility of reintegration, and an open question about the method needed to shift actual practice. (The contrast of in india, descriptive versus prescriptive perspectives is explored in Stegenga’s 2009 review of walt, Weber’s contribution to philosophy of experimental biology.) The description versus prescription contrast also comes into play in intolerance in india, relation to the different kinds of Aftercare Veterans, meaning given to the genotype-phenotype distinction. Should philosophers descriptively trace the shifts in in india, meaning from Johannsen to the current day, or should they prescriptively disambiguate different meanings that may coexist among the work of different groups of researchers or even within a given group (see entry on ambiguity)? Or should it be simply and 5 powers of the president, descriptively noted that coexisting meanings make the genotype-phenotype distinction a “boundary object” that allows various fields (or “social worlds”) to interact even though the fields use the term to different ends (Star Griesemer 1989)? Perhaps the different meanings given to the term serve as a reminder of the in india, disunity of science that follows once rationality and objectivity are seen not as “universal or necessary [matters], but local and ishmael an adventure, contingent, relative to scientific interests and purposes” (entry on the unity of intolerance, science; Cartwright 1999). Descriptively, philosophers could tease out the different, sometimes incommensurable, interests and purposes that make a line of inquiry rational.
Prescriptively, they may highlight where they disagree with a given field’s interests and punic war definition, purposes, but they could also advocate pluralistic acceptance of different sciences that reflect. the complexity of the phenomena under investigation in interaction with the limitations of human cognitive capacities and the variety of pragmatic interests in representations of intolerance, those phenomena. (The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge; on “pragmatic interests”, see also references on social and economic history of Veterans Essay, heredity at the end of section 1). However, two other possibilities remain, namely, ambiguity in the use of the genotype-phenotype distinction obscures shortcomings in theories and methods and allows the advances in one field (e.g., molecular genetics) to be seen to render more plausible the empirically and conceptually unrelated claims of intolerance, another (e.g., quantitative genetics) (see sections 5.2.1, 6.4, and 6.5). Sections 2 and 3 described how the war definition, original genotype-phenotype distinction was operationalized under special, controlled conditions, namely, the growing and crossing of inbred lines raised under uniform conditions. Section 4 laid out pathways from the experimentally based distinction: reintegrate, engineer, generalize theoretically, liken, and experiment more. Yet biology and philosophy of biology have not emphasized the need to in india reintegrate what has been abstracted away as a necessary step if the genotype-conception of heredity is to be extended beyond those special conditions (Figures 2 and 3) and applied to the study of heredity for natural varying populations (Figure 1). Therefore, to highlight the implications of ishmael mind and spirit, basing the genotype-phenotype distinction in controlled conditions, this section considers what control and possible reintegration might entail in the different realms reviewed so far. For inbred lines, in contrast to the realm of natural varying populations, the phenotype-as-class is not used to identify the genotype-as-class; indeed it is recognized as a phenotype because the genotype, which is the inbred line, is given. As far as Johannsen’s experiments could discern, the genotype-as-material-constituents could be the whole germ cell or seed. Reintegration would entail conceptualizing the action of these constituents of the intolerance in india, genotype-as-whole-cell and finding methods to investigate their influence on Aftercare Essay, the development over time of the organism’s traits (see entry on developmental biology).
Such a program had proponents, especially in the first half of the twentieth century, but came to be eclipsed by Mendelian genetics and discounted by historians and philosophers of heredity (Sapp 1987). Mendelian experiments require further control than for in india inbred lines, because the lines have to be raised in uniform conditions, crossed, and self-pollinated. Phenotypes can then be used to discriminate among multiple hypotheses about genotypes, where the phenotype is a class of pixar, organisms that share only in india, some part of the whole set of the walt disney pixar, organisms’ traits and the genotype is a class or organisms that have some part of their germ cells in common. The relevant part of the genotype was shown to be pairs of genes located along chromosomes as long as, given the control entailed by Mendelian experiments, the focus lay on differences in traits, not on how an offspring develops to have the trait at intolerance all. Recall, as Johannsen noted, that Mendelian experiments are limited in examining the 5 powers, species-typical aspects of the germ cells and subsequent development.
Again, a program for reintegrating what is intolerance, abstracted away through experimental control can be imagined: researchers identify the material constituents of the genotype and then trace how all these constituents influence the walt disney, development over time of the in india, species-typical traits. From the composite of these influences the organism as a structured whole might emerge. Two emerging features of the study of heredity, however, work against such a reintegration program: Heredity, as mentioned earlier, has become equated with the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in the differences. That means development became a separate and and spirit, secondary matter (Sapp 1987); analysis of the dynamics of species-typical development of intolerance, morphological structure was eclipsed by genetics. It is not strictly correct to assert that Mendelian experiments are unable to war definition examine species-typical traits.
For example, all individuals of all species of the fruit-fly genus Drosophila have exactly three simple light receptors, ocelli , arranged in a symmetrical triangle on the midline of the top of their heads. Intolerance. The simplest assumption is that there is no variation in 5 powers of the, genotypes (in the intolerance, sense of material constituents) that influence this trait and war definition, its development is resistant to normal environmental disturbance. In India. However, if the development of the essay writing, fly is sufficiently disturbed, some flies with two or fewer ocelli are observed. If those with fewer than three ocelli are used as parents for intolerance in india the next generation, they produced more abnormal flies than the parental generation. Aesthetic Qualities. When the process of selective breeding from abnormal flies is continued over intolerance in india many generations, a line of flies is produced that consistently has two ocelli, even in the absence of any external disturbance of development (Maynard Smith Sondhi 1960). Walt Pixar. The success of this and other selection experiments in the same vein shows that the original uniformity of the trait is not an indication that there is uniformity in all of the in india, genotypes that may, under certain conditions, influence the trait’s development (Rendel 1967). Any investigation of how the diverse genotypes result in the development of the typical three-ocelli pattern now has to writing guide explain the occurrence of the aberrant pattern as well. Although Johannsen (1911) gave almost no attention to the dynamics of intolerance, development, recall (from section 2) that he wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole and saw no value in the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in essay guide, question” (1911: 1312). Intolerance In India. Yet, Mendelian experiments seemed to 5 powers show that the discrete-particles idea was justified. Much progress in restoring what was abstracted away has come through the intolerance, productive research program of an adventure and spirit, molecular genetics (as summarized at the end of section 3).
This is not to say that any catalog or database of genes and DNA variants for any organism remotely resembles a literal “blueprint” or “program” for its development . Nevertheless, with ever-improving knowledge about genetics at the molecular level and technologies to manipulate DNA, the field of genetics is now involved, not only in accounting for how one organism differs in a trait from another, but also in illuminating the networks of gene activity and feedback ( gene regulation ) and the major branch-points of development of the organized structuresbiochemical, physiological, and behavioral, as well as morphologicalwhich phenotypes-as-traits are variants of. Whether this progress eventually leads to an account of the operation of the genotype as a whole (or even of some delimited parts of the genotype), and then to the species-typical development of intolerance, structure, remains to be seen (Robert 2004, entry on developmental biology). The need for such reintegration is, however, often discounted. This is evident when, for example, it is assumed that genes descended from a common ancestor ( orthologs ) should have the same function and influence the same traits across taxonomic groups descended from that ancestor (e.g., PAX6 gene in relation to the eyes of mammals and punic war definition, fruit flies). What that assumption overlooks is the in india, possibility that traits depend on the genotype as a whole in the development of the organism as a whole and the possibility that a gene may be conserved through roles that shift in the evolving lineages. Notwithstanding the advances of molecular genetics, its methods involve another significant form of control. The uniform conditions typical in molecular genetics exclude dynamics of president, development in in india, ecological context, a context, moreover, that the organism, with its traits, helps shape (Gilbert Epel 2009; Lewontin 1983). Disney Pixar. It could be imagined that genetic investigations of the hereditary basis of traitsor, at least, of differences among traitsfor inbred organisms in tightly controlled situations might permit successful extrapolation to the development of intolerance in india, traits in an ecological context (as pursued, for example, in investigations of strategies of growth and Veterans Essay, reproduction over the life course and plasticity of traits under environmental variation [“phenotypic plasticity”; developmental biology]). Yet, again, the need for reintegration of these aspects of naturally variable situations may readily get discounted.
Consider animal experiments viewed as models for human medicine. Questions are routinely raised about the validity of, say, mice as a model for humans. However, even to speak of “mice” and “humans” is an abstraction that discounts the intolerance, variation among mice and the variation among humans. If, instead, the variation were paid attention to, the first step would be to note that highly selected strains of laboratory mice are less variable than undomesticated populations (Rader 2004) and experiments made on disney, such mice involve tightly controlled situations. To what extent, it could then be asked, do experimental observations hold for individuals from undomesticated populations raised in varied and far more complex situations? If mechanisms have been exposed using laboratory mice (Tabery 2014), to what extent do they depend on in india, the controlled value of factors that are not typically enumerated when describing the mechanism? Of course, this line of questioning is preempted when biotechnology expands its capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. Walt Disney. (Biotechnology can be seen as the industrial manifestation of analytic biology , the program that seeks to understand organisms by intolerance cutting them up into pixar, some appropriate small parts. Relevant here are the politics, economics, and cultural dimensions of the rise of biotechnology and, before that, genetics itself in intolerance, the areas of agriculture, health, food science, the legal system, and more.
All that lies beyond this entry’s scope; see Müller-Wille Brandt 2016.) 5.2 The Use of Models for Selective Breeding. The use of models in quantitative genetics and population genetics is also based on control of biological materials and conditions. For these fields, as indicated in this section, it is aesthetic, more difficult to formulate programs that reintegrate what had been de-emphasized. Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines met the goal of in india, Johannsen (and biologists following him) of giving repeatable outcomes and exposing hidden processes, but quantitative genetics, designed to analyze continuous traits (see sections 3.3 and 3.4), bore an ambiguous relationship with that goal. Models allowed breeders to predict outcomes under different mating designs; the outcomes were not strictly repeatable given that what was actually achieved typically varies from what was predicted. Moreover, while researchers could imagine that the hidden processes were like the theoretical ones in the models, the theoretical genotypes forming the 5 powers of the, basis for quantitative genetic models were unobservable (see entry on scientific realism). Nevertheless, material practices of control of materials and conditions ensure that the model-based analyses continue to be useful. In particular, when there are discrepancies between outcomes and predictions, which may result from the hidden processes being unlike the theoretical ones in intolerance, the models, breeders can always compensate: they can discard the undesired offspring and breed from the desired ones. Of The. And, as breeding programs are elaborated that build on the models (e.g., Holland et al. In India. 2003), it becomes ever more difficult in practice to implement data analysis that would build up from an alternative model (see entry on president, pragmatism and section 4).
Note, because quantitative genetics involves statistical analysis of data on continuous traits, it must be possible to in india analyze the data on trait variation using models that avoid reference to what is not observed (Taylor 2012). However, this possibility has not been pursued in quantitative genetics (and thus becomes a potential case of Stanford’s  unconceived alternatives mentioned earlier). Indeed, the difficulty of applying any alternative to quantitative genetic models extends to punic analysis of data on variation in human traits, even though in that realm breeding is not an option and control of biological material and conditions is minimal. If it is difficult in practice to implement breeding programs and data analysis based on models that avoid reference to intolerance what is not observed, it is difficult to conceive such alternatives without the following prescriptive disambiguation. Here a restoration more than a reintegration can be entertained, that is, to insist on the distinction between variance in actual observable genotypes and genotypic variance (sometimes shortened to genetic variance , where variance is the statistical measure of variation in a given quantity).
The latter term stems from for U.S. breeders using the term genotypic value for the average value of a trait over all locations in which they raise or grow the genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors; see section 3). Intolerance. The variation among these genotypic values is, as shorthand, called the genotypic variance. In other words, the quantity derives from statistical analysis of variation among related and unrelated individuals in their phenotypes (in the sense of observed traits ), not in their genotypes (in the sense of DNA). Not only does genotypic variance vary with the punic, mix of in india, genotypes and locations, its statistical estimation does not reference measurable genetic or environmental factors influencing the development of the 5 powers of the president, traits. Unfortunately, it is common for researchers and commentators, including philosophers, to speak of genotypic or genetic variance in terms like the “contribution of genetic differences to observed differences among individuals” (Plomin et al. 1997: 83) as if variation in traits and variation in in india, genotypes had some obvious relationship. The conflation may derive from quantitative genetic models being based on genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes). But those are theoretical genotypes, unobserved and, as noted above, not essential to the analysis of trait variation. 5 Powers. (To add to the potential for confusion, the technical term for the ratio of the intolerance, genotypic variance to the total variance observed in the trait in question is aesthetic qualities, Heritability, which has no relation to intolerance in india the existence of a connection between parent and offspring traits through transmission of genes [Taylor 2012].) To enhance the disambiguation, Taylor (2012) recommends the use of terms familiar in agricultural trials: variety instead of disney pixar, genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by intolerance genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors), location instead of environment, and trait instead of phenotype (given that this last term implies a connection with a set of genotypes, in the sense of pairs of genes). Punic War Definition. Whether or not the alternatives terms get more widely adopted, once the gap between statistical patterns from quantitative genetics and measurable underlying factors is recognized and consistently observed , it becomes difficult to intolerance follow the reasoning of accounts that conflate or slip between the disparate meanings of “genetic”.
This difficulty extends to accounts of the interaction between genes or genotypes and environment that overlook the ishmael an adventure mind, distinction, proceeding then as if interaction as defined in quantitative genetic analyses of intolerance in india, variation has some conceptual or empirical connection with statistical interaction between measured presence of genes and environmental variables. (It is beyond the scope of this entry to review such accounts by scientists or philosophers; see Taylor 2015 as well as discussion in Section 6.5 on walt pixar, what the conflation or ambiguity signifies.) There is an alternative to restoration of the distinction between genotypic variance and variation in actual genotypes, which is to focus on the latter. As determining the sequence of DNA at any stretch of the genome (i.e., of the genotype-as-material-constituents) has become routine, Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies allow estimation of the fraction of the variation in intolerance in india, the trait that is associated with measurable genetic variants. (The variants studied are single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], which are not held to be the DNA influencing the trait, but simply somewhere close to those factors on the genome.) It turns out, however, that, even when many genetic variants are examined together, only a small fraction of the variation in the trait is associated withor in statistical terms, “accounted for” bythe genetic variants (McCarthy et al. 2008). This finding has led to an adventure mind and spirit discussions about missing heritability (e.g., Manolio et al. 2009).
This new heritability has, however, no conceptual or empirical connection with the heritability of quantitative genetics. To the intolerance in india, extent that the additional ambiguity in use of the term heritability is associated with the unfulfilled expectation that high heritability means genetic variants might account for a large fraction of trait variation, the restoration identified in the previous paragraphs is warranted. One plausible explanation of the limited success of GWA studies depends on the distinction between genotypic variance and variance in war definition, actual genotypes being clearly made. Even if the classical quantitative genetic heritability is high and similarity between twins or a set of close relatives is associated with the similarity of yet-to-be-identified genotypes or genetic factors, the factors may not be the in india, same from one set of of the president, relatives to the next, or from one location (environment) to the next . In other words, the intolerance in india, underlying factors and the pathways of development that they influence may be heterogeneous . It could be that pairs of walt disney, alleles, say, AAbbcbDDee, subject to a sequence of environmental factors, say, FghiJ, are associated, all other things being equal, with the in india, same outcomes as alleles aabbCCDDEE subject to a sequence of environmental factors FgHiJ (Taylor 2012). The possibility of heterogeneous factors underlying similarity in traits obviously recedes if the biological materials and locations are close to Aftercare Veterans the original set of relatives and intolerance in india, environmental factors.
The corollary is that, when users of quantitative genetic models overlook that possibility, they are, in effect, assuming tight control of biological materials and conditions. Some degree of reintegration of what is unobservable in the classical use of quantitative genetic models has occurred through the technique of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL)regions of the genome containing genetic factors associated with variation in a continuously variable trait. Yet QTL mapping has had most success in ishmael an adventure of the mind, animal and plant varieties that can be replicated and in india, raised in controlled conditions; reliable QTL results for of the president human populations are few (Majumder Ghosh 2005; but see the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2007). Indeed, reintegration of the complexities of development in its ecological context, which are collapsed into intolerance in india, the parameters of the models, remains scarcely developed in quantitative genetics (as evoked for the human case by Turkheimer 2004). In population genetics, the complexities of development in for U.S. Veterans, its ecological context are also collapsed into the parameters of the intolerance, models, such as the parameters for surviving and leaving offspring.
Not surprisingly then, the estimation of the selection coefficients of genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) is more readily done when the populations are subject to artificial selection in ishmael of the mind, the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time are observed in the wild. Lewontin (1974a) provides grounds for doubting the likelihood of some day restoring what is in india, abstracted away in those selection coefficients. Measurements of selection coefficients and other parameters of the aesthetic, model are possible, Lewontin concludes, only when a single allelic substitution is intolerance in india, associated with a large difference in the trait, not when the effects of gene substitutions make only small differences. This led him to remark that: “What we can measure is by definition uninteresting and what we are interested in is by definition unmeasurable” (1974a: 23). The problem of relating population genetic models to observations becomes astronomically worse when there are multiple, linked loci (1974: 317). He suggests that population genetics should shift its attention to guide the selection coefficients for long segments of chromosomes. This program, like Johannsen’s wish that the genotype be seen as a whole, has scarcely been pursued. Even if it had been, ecological genetic analysis of variation in natural populations, with all its complexity (e.g., Clausen et al.
1958), would still be needed to begin to intolerance reintegrate ecological context into population genetics. 6. What the Genotype-Phenotype Distinction Signifies. That special experimental conditions are entailed in the original formulation of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them also has implications for the issues that might seem to have been settled by the adoption of Johannsen’s genotype-concept of disney, heredity. 6.1 Barrier Between Traits and What is Transmitted to the Next Generation. To the in india, extent that the DNA transmitted to the next generation has been shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the war definition, organism’s lifetime (both within the organism and in india, with the punic, environment), there is intolerance in india, a barrier to “peculiar” traits (Johannsen’s label for traits acquired during the specific development of the 5 powers, parents) being passed on intolerance, to their offspring. (A key part of this shielding is the one-way transcription of DNA to RNA [which then codes for the amino acids that make up proteins], not, in walt pixar, general, transcription in the other direction.) While the genotype-phenotype distinction can be seen to signify the existence of this barrier, there is a long history of researchers claiming to show ways around it. Most notably, the modern science of epigenetics, building on ever-increasing information about DNA sequences and how genes function, shows how chemicals from intolerance in india outside the cell can modify the activity of genes for the rest of an organism’s life and sometimes even into subsequent generations (Stotz 2006). Developmental Systems Theory (Oyama, Griffiths, Gray 2001), Evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) (Moczek et al. 2015), and a Post-genomic Synthesis in Behavior and Cognition Research (Stotz 2008) also argue for attention to extended inheritance , which includes transmission not only of epigenetic modifications, but also of punic, resources outside the organism, such as when reptiles lay their eggs in places that ensure the right temperature for incubation. In India. This last example also fits under the ambit of ishmael an adventure of the mind, Niche Construction theory (Odling-Smee et al. 2003). This field investigates the significance of in india, organisms shaping the ecological context in which they develop their traits, survive, and reproduce, as epitomized by walt beavers living in the ecosystem of intolerance, ponds formed by the dams that they build and maintain. (Whether or not epigenetic and extra-organismal resources have the disney, same causal status as genes is a matter of philosophical debate beyond the scope of this entry; see Waters 2007; Stotz 2006; Griffiths Stotz 2013; entry on intolerance, inheritance systems, and section 7 below.)
6.2 Evolution Defined as Change in Gene Frequencies. Biological evolution, in its most general construal, is modification by descent, that is, change over war definition time in frequency of intolerance in india, observed traits or forms in a population or a taxonomic group derived from a common ancestor. A narrower definition, however, arose with the rise of a genotypic conception of heredity, namely, only with changes in frequencies of genes is evolution deemed to be happening. The barrier to so-called inheritance of acquired characteristics is held to make irrelevant any changes in forms without changes in gene frequencies. Exponents of extended inheritance disagree, including in their definition of evolution the changes in the developmental system and its constructed niche (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Adjudication of the disagreement comes down, in part, to a matter of quantity: How significant are resources other than the genotype (in the sense of the DNA of the for U.S. Veterans, whole genome) in development of traits that influence survival and reproductive success?
Significance may depend on the number of generations that the resources are transmitted. In India. The disagreement, however, becomes qualitative, even radical, if attention is given to punic the dynamics of development in an ecological context that had been abstracted away in demonstrating the original genotype conception of heredity. Reintegrating developmental dynamics entails more than noting the existence of developmental noise, such as when Drosophila individuals are not symmetric in the number of bristles on each side. The next subsection elaborates. 6.3 Development as a Genotype to Phenotype Relationship. Several of the programs of reintegration sketched in section 5 rest on the idea that development of in india, traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism.
An alternative approach is to observe that germ cells are organized structures, which means that development is always a process of further organization emerging from initial organization. Aftercare Veterans. That emphasis was evident, not only in developmental mechanics ( Entwickslungsmechanik ), but also in a mid-twentieth century form of epigenetics centered on intolerance, embryological or developmental pathways. Conrad Waddington, for example, undertook experiments on variation in certain characters that was originally seen only in response to an environmental stress, e.g., enlarged anal papillae (a fleshy protuberance) of Drosophila larvae that arose in higher salt concentrations (Waddington 1959). In populations that had been selected for that responsiveness, eventually the trait occurred even when that stress was withdrawn. Waddington’s interpretation is aesthetic qualities, that a genotype (in the sense of a specific set of intolerance in india, pairs of qualities, genes) had arisen in the population that switched on development of large papillae. Presumably, this could happen through reassortment of genes into new genotypes, not a random mutation. An alternative hypothesis, which places more emphasis on the dynamics of development, is that, if many pathways in intolerance in india, a non-inbred population can produce the same response (e.g., enlarged anal papillae in response to salt), selection results in a population of individuals that have a concentration or redundancy of the various pathways.
If pathways arise within this concentration where large papillae develop without the salt stress, that is not a logical process to Veterans be modeled by population genetic or quantitative genetic models, but a contingent outcome of the dynamics of development in a realm in which a variety of genotypes can influence a variety of intolerance, paths to a trait. In this light, to call traits phenotypes, and thus suggest that they have a direct association with a specific genotype, is to make it more difficult to conceive and pursue a program of an adventure mind and spirit, reintegration in which researchers examine cases of traits that are acquired as an appropriate response to environmental condition and intolerance, then increase in frequency in a population. Moreover, even if such cases turn out not to be common, they trouble the premise that the pixar, individual-to-individual barrier to a trait being transmitted back into the genotype barrier means that acquired characters cannot increase in a population during evolution. 6.4 What Counts is Underneath or Inside the Observable Surface. The genotype-phenotype distinction can also signify that the surfacephenotypeis mere appearance; what is underneath or inside that surfacethe genotypeis what counts. A small irony, given that the phenotype originated in relation to inferring genotypes (in the in india, sense of walt, a class that shared something unobservable), is that, to the extent that molecular biology has made DNA sequences observable, especially at sites in in india, which the sequences vary from one group to another, each genotype (in the sense of a pair of genes or DNA sequence) becomes another phenotype (Nachtomy et al. Of The. 2009). During the development of an organism, each of these genotypes-as-phenotypes at intolerance time 0 interacts with the punic war definition, rest of the phenotype and environmental factors to produce the phenotype at time 1, 2, and so on.
It may well be the case that germ cells arise at some point in the life course that are buffered from in india most of these interactions. However, with respect to conceptualizing development from time 0 till death, nothing logically makes the genotype not also a phenotype. In any case, the view is widespread that what counts is underneath or inside. 5 Powers. It is evident in the definition of evolution as change in gene frequencies and the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on intolerance in india, the organism. It can also be seen in many other features of discourses around heredity, such as the following: An oft-repeated assertion is that random mutations in genes are the ultimate source of variation on which evolution builds. This assertion discounts the reassortment of genes into new combinations of of the mind and spirit, genotypes (in the in india, sense of pairs of genes) that occurs with every sexual reproduction and with the recombination after crossing over of chromosomes that occurs in many species, as well as with niche construction and novel response to environmental conditions that can occur during development. Discussions of the unit of selection, typically a gene or genotype (in the sense of a specific pair of genes), often assume or imply that, when organisms are shown to ishmael an adventure of the mind enjoy differential survival and reproductive success because of the in india, effect of some trait they possess, it is actually because they possess some gene or genotype. In some accounts, the organism becomes the “selfish” gene’s way of making copies of itself. Such a picture is a variant of a theme with a long history, namely, the living being is an agent directed by some other agent, such as in theology when the soul is ishmael mind, given by the grace of God.
The use of the term phenotype for a trait suggests a direct association with some genotype even when there is no program, let alone a method, to expose which genotypes influence the trait. Intolerance In India. The claim is made that all disease is genetic. The corresponding programs of genetic medicine, personalized genomics, and precision medicine, propose or promise to identify and make therapeutic use of genetically determined disease susceptibility in individual patients. Not only do such programs discount the environmental and social aspects of epidemiological trends in many diseases, but, as evident when genetic oncologists use the term “familial cancer” in aesthetic qualities, contrast to hereditary cancers, this conception of heredity brings back what Johannsen had sought to expunge, namely, thinking about the transmission of peculiar or acquired traits. Invocation of “genetic tendency” without a method to infer it from analysis of traitseven when done by commentators critical of claims made about genetics, as in “simply because a genetic tendency exists does not mean it will be phenotypically expressed” (Jesser 2002, 42). In India. It is now popular to boast that “it’s in guide, our DNA”, in the sense of a core value that is beyond question for an organization or group. 6.5 Findings About Heredity Derived Using One Meaning of Terms Affirm Findings Derived Using a Different Meaning. With genetics held to get at the fundamental thing that counts in heredity, it makes it plausible to take research using methods based on one kind of meaning of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them to affirm research based on another meaningthey are all contributing to an understanding of intolerance in india, that fundamental something. In this spirit, the ascendance of the predominant current meaningDNA versus traitshas not necessitated rejection or even disambiguation of the other meanings of the terms evident in Johannsen (1911) and that have coexisted sinceclass, abstraction, or material constituents; whole or part; natural units or products of experimental control (sections 13). Not being troubled by the ambiguity of disney, different meanings and methods is especially evident when commentators speak of in india, “the nature-nurture debate” as if it were unimportant to specify which nature-nurture science is being debated. In practice, at least five nature-nurture sciences can be readily distinguished (Taylor 2015):
Researchers in laboratory and agricultural breeding or human quantitative geneticists compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences among means for varieties, locations, variety-location combinations, and for U.S. Veterans, residual contributions (i.e., genotypic, environmental, genotype-environment interaction, and residual variance where genotype here means a line or genealogically defined group; see section 3.3) Researchers compare how much variation in intolerance in india, a trait is associated with differences in measured genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interaction, and a residual component (where the genetic factors are typically genotypes in the sense of a pair of genes). Through either of the disney pixar, above forms of analysis, researchers try to compare the variation within groups (e.g., among Euro-Americans and among African-Americans) to the difference between the averages for intolerance in india the groups. Through investigations that might extend any of the preceding kinds of analysis of observational data, researchers piece together a picture of the processes of development of a trait and, on that basis, speak to the fixity versus flexibility of traits. (The multiple meanings of genotype, summarized above, arise in research and discussions on this topic.) Researchers provide an evolutionary account of the increase in frequency of a trait through natural selection based on the trait’s superior function in the environment (see section 6.2). These nature-nurture sciences entail not only different methods but also different control of materials and conditions, so, in practice, results are difficult to translate from one of Aftercare Veterans, them to the next. Discussion of the nature-nurture debate (even in intolerance, critical accounts where nature and nurture are said to interact or shape each other) signifies, among other things, that the specialness of the conditions involved in the original formulation and demonstration of the genotype-phenotype distinction may be overlooked. As a consequence, for qualities example, control of materials and conditions that is practical in laboratory and agricultural breeding gets built into evolutionary thinking when the latter uses models and terms from breeding as if there were also a selector in naturally variable populations. Granted, as noted earlier, biotechnology has a growing capacity to control conditions and in india, harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. However, to guide the extent that biological theory is still meant to address naturally variable populations, then concepts, methods, and models are needed through which what has been controlled or de-emphasized might be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific accounts. The framing of this entry in terms of control and reintegration has been designed to draw attention to the space around the genotype-phenotype distinction that remains open for conceptual clarification and methodological advances. The introduction noted that, if the genotype-phenotype relationship had been the focus of this entry, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about intolerance in india causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims. Yet, realizing any of the programs of punic, reintegration mentioned in this entry would entail rich causal analyses: networks of intolerance, gene regulation linked to organized structures that branch into more organized structures, epigenetic modifications during and punic war definition, across lifespans, organisms shaping the dynamics of the ecological context in which they develop their traits, and intolerance, frequencies of 5 powers, traits changing in intolerance, populations over of the generations.
This said, in realms of intolerance, experimentally controlled biological materials and conditions, a simpler sense of causality may seem plausible, namely, a difference that makes a difference (see entry on punic war definition, causation and manipulability). (The serious debate about in india whether statistical analysis can distinguish causal from non-causal differences that “make” a difference should be noted; Hernán et al. 2002.) The connection between an walt pixar association within some population and causal mechanisms is susceptible to disconfirmation by experiments. At the same time, doing such experiments invites scrutiny of the in india, relationship of experimentally altered dynamics to the original dynamics that generated the aesthetic qualities, data that were analyzed to show the intolerance, original statistical association (Taylor 2015). Most importantly given the framing of this entry around control and reintegration: Any experimental as well as statistical association is also conditional on the subset of the population or species studied and the situations where they are observed (Lewontin 1974b). Understanding associations and formulating manipulations based on them requires attention to what has been experimentally or, at least, statistically held constant. Aftercare For U.S. Veterans. In other words, in controlled conditions the direction of the arrow labeled identification in Figures 2 and 3 may be reversed and given a causal connotation, but the causality is conditional on the factors, including the rest of the organism, held constant. The understanding and intolerance in india, manipulations may well extrapolate beyond the original, controlled population and situations (and thus match the general theory summarized in Figure 1), but, absent an actual program of reintegration, there is no basis for assuming that they will.
While Waters (2007), Tabery (2014) and others would give greater status to differences that have actually been observed to walt disney make a difference (Griffiths Stotz 2013), this entry has pointed to the control of biological materials and conditions that excludes many factors genetic as well as environmental, structural as well as particulate from being seen to make a difference . Ironically, if appearances are not to intolerance in india mislead and obscure, or be spun into speculative theories (section 2), the science of heredity needs methods that bring back what was abstracted away under the experimental control that made Johannsen’s original genotype-conception meaningful. Beadle, G.W. Boris Ephrussi, 1936, “The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in qualities, Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation”, Genetics , 21(3): 225247. Bonneuil, Christophe, 2016, “Pure Lines as Industrial Simulacra: A Cultural History of Genetics from Darwin to Johannsen”, in Müller-Wille and Brandt 2016: 213242. Cartwright, Nancy, 1999, The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Churchill, Frederick B., 1974, “William Johannsen and the Genotype Concept”, Journal of the History of Biology , 7(1): 530. doi:10.1007/BF00179291 Clausen, Jens, David D. Keck, William M. Intolerance. Hiesey, 1958, Experimental Studies in the Nature of Aftercare Essay, Species, III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea , (Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 581), Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington Deichmann, Ute, 2014, “The Concept of the Causal Role of Chromosomes and Genes in Heredity and Development: Opponents from Darwin to Lysenko”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 5777. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0007 Deichmann, Ute, Michel Morange, Anthony S. Travis, 2014, “Special Issue: The Changing Concept of the in india, Gene: Recurrent Debates on the Causal Role of punic, Genes”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1).
Gilbert, Scott F. David Epel, 2009, Ecological Developmental Biology , Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Intolerance. Griffiths, Paul Karola Stotz, 2013, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511744082 Hacking, Ian, 1983, Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in punic war definition, the Philosophy of in india, Natural Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511814563 Hernán, Miguel A., Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Martha M. Werler, Allen A. Mitchell, 2002, “Causal Knowledge as a Prerequisite for of the Confounding Evaluation: An Application to Birth Defects Epidemiology”, American Journal of Epidemiology , 155(2): 176184. doi:10.1093/aje/155.2.176 Holland, James B., Wyman E. Nyquist, Cuauhtemoc T. Cervantes-Martínez, 2003, “Estimating and in india, Interpreting Heritability for qualities Plant Breeding: An Update”, Plant Breeding Reviews , 22: 9112. Jesser, Nancy, 2002, “Blood, Genes and Gender in Octavia Butler’s Kindred and Dawn ”, Extrapolation , 43(1): 36 61. doi:10.3828/extr.2002.43.1.05 Johannsen, W., 1911, “The Genotype Conception of Heredity”, The American Naturalist , 45(531): 129159. Latour, Bruno, 1987, Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and intolerance in india, Engineers through Society , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Lewontin, Richard C., 1974a, The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change , New York: Columbia University Press. Walt. , 1974b, “The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of intolerance in india, Causes”, American Journal of Human Genetics , 26: 400411 [reprinted with commentaries in an adventure and spirit, International Journal of intolerance, Epidemiology , 35(3): 520537 (2006) doi:10.1093/ije/dyl062]. , 1983, “The Organism as the of the mind, Subject and Object of Evolution”, Scientia , 118: 6382. Lloyd, Elisabeth A., 1988, The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory , New York: Greenwood Press. Majumder, Partha P. Saurabh Ghosh, 2005, “Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Humans: Achievements and Limitations”, Journal of Clinical Investigation , 115(6): 14191424. doi:10.1172/JCI24757 Manolio, Teri A., Francis S. Collins, Nancy J. Cox, David B. Goldstein, et al., 2009, “Finding the Missing Heritability of Complex Diseases”, Nature , 461(7265): 747753. doi:10.1038/nature08494 MaynardSmith,John K. Sondhi, 1960, “The Genetics of a Pattern”, Genetics , 45(8): 10391050. McCarthy, Mark I., Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Lon R. Cardon, David B. Goldstein, Julian Little, John P. A. Ioannidis, Joel N. Intolerance In India. Hirschhorn, 2008, “Genome-Wide Association Studies for writing guide Complex Traits: Consensus, Uncertainty and Challenges”, Nature Reviews Genetics , 9(5): 356369. doi:10.1038/nrg2344 Moczek, Armin P., Karen E. Sears, Angelika Stollewerk, Patricia J. Wittkopp, Pamela Diggle, Ian Dworkin, Cristina Ledon-Rettig, David Q. Matus, Siegfried Roth, Ehab Abouheif, Federico D. Brown, Chi-Hua Chiu, C. Sarah Cohen, Anthony W. De Tomaso, Scott F. Gilbert, Brian Hall, Alan C. Love, Deirdre C. Lyons, Thomas J. Sanger, Joel Smith, Chelsea Specht, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Cassandra G. Extavour, 2015, “The Significance and Scope of Evolutionary Developmental Biology: A Vision for the 21st Century”, Evolution and in india, Development , 17(3): 198219. doi:10.1111/ede.12125 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1919, The Physical Basis of Heredity , Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. Müller-Wille, Staffan, 2008, “Leaving Inheritance Behind: Wilhelm Johannsen and pixar, the Politics of Mendelism”, in Müller-Wille 2008b: 718.
Müller-Wille, Staffan Christine Brandt (eds.), 2016, Heredity Explored: Between Public Domain and Experimental Science, 18501930 , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Müller-Wille, Staffan, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, John Dupré, 2008a, “Introduction”, Müller-Wille et al. 2008b: 35 (eds), 2008b, A Cultural History of Heredity IV: Heredity in the Century of the Gene , Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Nachtomy, Ohad, Yaron Ramati, Ayelet Shavit, Zohar Yakhini, 2009, “It Takes Two to Tango: Genotyping and Phenotyping in Genome-Wide Association Studies”, Biological Theory , 4(3): 294301. doi:10.1162/biot.2009.4.3.294 Odling-Smee, F. John, Kevin N. Laland, Marcus W. Feldman, 2003, Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Oyama, Susan, Paul E. Griffiths, Russell D. Intolerance In India. Gray (eds.), 2001, Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Plomin, Robert, John C. Defries, Gerald E. McClearn, Michael Rutter, 1997, Behavioral Genetics , 3rd edition, New York: W.H. Freeman. Rader, Karen A., 2004, Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 19001955 , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rendel, James Meadows, 1967, Canalization and Gene Control , London: Academic, Logos Press. An Adventure And Spirit. Robert, Jason Scott, 2004, Embryology, Epigenesis, and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511498541 Roll-Hansen, Nils, 2014, “Johannsen’s Criticism of the in india, Chromosome Theory”, Perspectives in of the, Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 4056. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0005 Sapp, Jan, 1987, Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and in india, the Struggle for disney Authority in Genetics , New York: Oxford University Press. Stanford, P. In India. Kyle, 2006, Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives , New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0195174089.001.0001 Star, Susan L. and Griesemer, James, 1989, “Institutional ecology, ‘translations’ and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 19071939,” Social Studies of Science , 19: 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001 Stegenga, Jacob, 2009, “Marcel Weber: Philosophy of an adventure of the, Experimental Biology,” Erkenntnis , 71: 431436. doi: 10.1007/s10670.009.9180.z Stotz, Karola, 2006, “Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in the Central Dogma”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences , 28(4): 533548. , 2008, “The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and in india, Nurture”, Philosophical Psychology , 21(3): 359381. doi:10.1080/09515080802200981 Tabery, James, 2014, Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Aftercare Essay, Nurture , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor, Peter J., 1987, “Historical Versus Selectionist Explanations in Evolutionary Biology”, Cladistics , 3(1): 113. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1987.tb00493.x , 2003, “Gene-Environment Complexities: What is Interesting to intolerance in india Measure and to Model?”, The Evolution of writing, Population Biology: Modern Synthesis , Rama S. Singh Marcy K. Uyenoyama (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 233253. , 2012, “A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions”, Acta Biotheoretica , 60(4): 357378. doi:10.1007/s10441-012-9164-2 , 2014, Nature-Nurture? No: Moving the Sciences of Variation and Heredity Beyond the Gaps , Arlington, MA: The Pumping Station. , 2015, “Distinctions that Make a Difference?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences , 51: 7076. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2015.03.002 Turkheimer, Eric, 2004, “Spinach and Ice Cream: Why Social Science Is So Difficult”, Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, Personality, and Psychopathology , Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla (ed.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 161189. Waddington, C.H., 1959, “Canalization of Development and Genetic Assimilation of Acquired Characters”, Nature , 183(4676): 16541655. doi:10.1038/1831654a0 Waters, C. Kenneth, 2004, “What Was Classical Genetics?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of intolerance, Science Part A , 35(4): 783809. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.03.018 , 2007, “Causes that Make a Difference”, Journal of Philosophy of Science , 104(11): 551579. doi:10.5840/jphil2007104111 Weber, Marcel, “Experiment in Biology”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Essay. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/biology-experiment/. In India. Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 2007, “Genome-Wide Association Study of 14,000 Cases of Seven Common Diseases and 3,000 Shared Controls”, Nature , 447(7145): 661678. doi:10.1038/nature05911 Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt, 2014, “James and Dewey on an adventure mind and spirit, Abstraction”, The Pluralist , 9(2): 128. doi:10.5406/pluralist.9.2.0001. Lewontin, Richard, “The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/genotype-phenotype/. [This was the previous entry on the genotype/phenotype distinction in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] History of Genetics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (maintained by Michael Dietrich) MendelWeb Plant Breeding: Science + Creative Problem Solving “Wilhelm Johannsen’s Genotype-Phenotype Distinction” at the Embryo Project Encyclopedia 6 min silent movie showing Johannsen in action as teacher and in india, scientist. Discussions with many colleagues, including those who saw the genotype-phenotype distinction to be a boring topic, stimulated the walt, revision of this entry. Comments on intolerance, drafts by Jonathan Kaplan, Barbara Mawn, Rasmus Winther, and an anonymous reviewer also helped. Some passages in this entry have been carried over from the essay, previous SEP version by in india Lewontin; some sentences have been adapted from disney Taylor (1987, 2003, 2014, 2015). The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support.
Please Read How You Can Help Keep the intolerance, Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by aesthetic The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for intolerance in india the Study of walt pixar, Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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Anemias: Anemia and in india, Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. Ishmael Of The Mind? What are the different types of anemias? Sickle cell anemia is when red blood cells form abnormal “sickle or crescent shaped cells” that cannot carry oxygen to the body normally (Dyer Gould, 2011). Intolerance In India? Thalassemia anemia is when a blood disorder is inherited and the body cannot make a normal amount of hemoglobin. Pernicious anemia is when there is a decrease in the amount of healthy red blood cells that are within the intestines and they cannot properly absorb vitamin B12. Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a condition when the aesthetic, “bone marrow (soft, fatty tissue in the middle of intolerance bones) does not properly make blood cells” (Bunn, 2011). Hemolytic anemia is when bone marrow is not able to ishmael an adventure of the mind replace the red blood cells that are being destroyed in the body. Iron deficiency anemia is when the body does not have enough iron and intolerance, will make fewer red blood cells that are too small and cannot carry oxygen which causes anemia.
Anemia of chronic disease is when the aesthetic qualities, body already does not have enough healthy red blood cells and intolerance, the body carries a chronic illness or inflammatory disease that could cause the body to not produce healthy red blood cells based on medical conditions. Folate-deficiency anemia is when the red blood cells are abnormally large due to qualities a lack of folate in the body most often called folic acid. B12 deficiency anemia is when there is a low red blood cell count because the body lacks vitamin B12. Compare the causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and intolerance in india, treatments of 5 powers president different types of anemia in a table. | CAUSES | SYMPTOMS | DIAGNOSTIC TESTS | TREATMENTS | Sickle Cell Anemia (Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS), sickle cell disease) | Abnormal hemoglobin S, inherited from intolerance in india, both parents | Paleness, fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, jaundice, abdominal pain in younger children, priapism, blindness, confusion, stroke, ulcers on lower extremities | Bilirubin, CBC, Hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum creatinine, blood oxygen, sickle cell test, serum potassium | Folic acid supplements (to make new RBCs), blood transfusions, pain medications, lots of fluids, Hydroxyurea (Hydrea) medication, antibiotics, Dialysis, kidney transplants, gallbladder removal, hip replacement for writing guide, avascular necrosis of the hip, surgery, wound care for ulcers, bone marrow, stem cell transplants, Hib, PCV, PPV | Thalassemia anemia (Mediterranean anemia, Cooley’s anemia, Beta thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia) | Lack of intolerance in india alpha globin and beta globin from one or both parent(s) | Bone deformities in the face, fatigue, growth failure, jaundice, shortness of Aftercare for U.S. Essay breath | Blood sample, CBC, hemoglobin electrophoresis, mutational analysis | Blood transfusions, folate supplements, iron supplements, chelation therapy, bone marrow transplant | Pernicious anemia(Megaloblastic anemia, Macrocytic achylic anemia, Congenital pernicious anemia, Juvenile pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency) | Lack of in india vitamin B12, weakened stomach lining (atrophic gastritis), autoimmune deficiency, pregnancy, folic acid deficiency, alcoholism | Diarrhea or constipation, fatigue, lack of writing energy, light-headedness, loss of appetite, pale skin, lack of concentration, shortness of breath, swollen or red tongue or bleeding gums, confusion, depression, loss of balance, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, gastric polyps | Bone marrow exam, CBC, Reticulocyte count, Schilling test, LDH, MMA test, vitamin B12 level test, bilirubin, cholesterol test, gastrin, Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, peripheral smear, TIBC | Shot of intolerance in india B12 once per month, B12 supplements, well-balanced diet, folic acid supplements | Idiopathic aplastic anemia | Injury to blood stem cells, pregnancy or lupus, exposure to 5 powers president some toxins or drugs including chemotherapy, PNH blood disorder | Fatigue, pallor (paleness), rapid heart rate, shortness of breath with exercise, weakness, leukopenia (low white cell count) Related Documents: Anemias: Anemia and Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. Intolerance In India? Anemia and Hemolytic Anemia Essay. ASA Institute Division of Health Disciplines Course: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 11 BIO 110 SECTION: M01 Fall Semester 2012 Instructor: Dr. Saxon Maya Student: Osary Rodriguez Project: Tularemia Anemia: Is the condition of having a lower than normal red blood cell count or when a person’s red blood cells do not include enough hemoglobin. Those who have anemia do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. Anemia is disney, common and may occur at any age and intolerance in india, among any ethnic group. Words 713 - Pages 3. Sickle Cell Anemia Essay examples.
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease(SCD). SCD is a serious disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. The etiology of walt disney pixar sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease of two genes of sickle hemoglobin from your parents. One sickle hemoglobin gene from your father, and one from your mother. It is intolerance, mostly common in individuals from certain foreign countries like middle east, Mediterranean, Africa, and Indian ancestry. In Americans. Words 1163 - Pages 5. cell disease can affect anyone with that gene or trait and causes a lot of pain and complications that can lead to long term affects that are very difficult control. This disease is a disease more common in the population of the African descent. It also prevents people from Aftercare Veterans Essay, having the disease called malaria which is common in Africa.
A lot of people don’t know that they are caring the intolerance in india, trait of sickle cell disease and don’t know that it can be passed down to their children. It is recommended that you see a doctor and figure out your family’s history to determine if you area carrier. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324?DSECTION#x3D;complications http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001554/ By. Maaja V. Aesthetic? Words 630 - Pages 3. Sickle Cell Anemia : Cause , Symptoms, and Treatment By Chelsi McCormick December 2, 2013 Prof Bondzi Bio101-3 Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects peoples lives all over intolerance the world. Aftercare For U.S. Essay? Sickle cells is not contagious it is an inherited group of traits that cause a red blood cell disorder. This group of traits make it difficult for red blood cells to intolerance carry sufficient oxygen throughout the body. Normally. Words 951 - Pages 4. Aplastic Anemia ITT Technical Institute Aplastic anemia is a condition in which your body stops producing enough new blood cells. This illness will leave you very fatigued and more prone to infection and uncontrolled bleeding. This rare and for U.S. Essay, serious condition can develop at any age. Aplastic anemia may occur suddenly or progress slowly over a period of time. This ailment may be brief, but can become a chronic disease and in some cases may be fatal.
Aplastic anemia develops when. Intolerance In India? Words 572 - Pages 3. Essay on Anaemia: Anemia and Green Leafy Vegetables. through lentils. To serve place spinach leaves in walt pixar serving bowls, and in india, top with lentils and goats cheese. Sprinkle salad with pepper and walt, serve with lime. Bibliography Anaemia . (2014, 03 2014). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from Better Health Channel: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Anaemia Diseases and Conditions Anaemia . (2013, 03 08). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from Mayo Clinic : http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anemia/basics/prevention/con-20026209 Hay. Words 597 - Pages 3. In India? protein whose major function is to qualities transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemolyticanemia is anemia resulting from hemolysis, the excessive destruction of intolerance red blood cells.
Hypoxia is a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the aesthetic qualities, body tissues. Intolerance In India? Iron deficiency anemia is walt pixar, anemia characterized by low serum iron concentration. Megaloblastic anemia is anemia caused by the failure of red blood cells to in india mature. It is also known as pernicious anemia, addisonian anemia or maturation failure anemia. Microcytic. Words 986 - Pages 4. Sickle Cell Anemia and Hemophilia Essays. Aftercare For U.S.? ? Sickle Cell Anemia and Hemophilia Blood is a constantly circulating bodily fluid that provides the body with necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen, and takes part in waste removal. Blood is intolerance in india, made up of war definition two components: blood cells and plasma. The plasma is the liquid portion and it makes up about half the intolerance, content of blood. Plasma help in the clotting of blood with the ishmael of the mind, help of proteins, and it also helps to intolerance transport substances through the blood.
The other half of the blood. Words 1669 - Pages 7. Sickle cell anemia is walt disney, a genetic disorder of the red blood cells (RBC) which is intolerance in india, characterized by the blood cells being formed in the shape of a crescent, or half-moon. Due to its being a genetic disorder, you can actually be a carrier of this disease and not have any symptoms. Only when offspring is met with another carrier does this trait become a dominant trait but until then it is for U.S. Veterans Essay, known as sickle cell trait or (SCT). There is intolerance, a multitude of health problems associated with sickle cell. Words 1174 - Pages 5. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Sickle cell anemia is an an adventure of the mind and spirit, inherited disease. People with this disease inherit two genes for intolerance, sickle hemoglobin- one from essay writing guide, each parent.
This disease causes red blood cells, which are suppose to look like doughnuts, have a sickle or crescent shape to them. In India? Sickle cells are stiff and sticky. These cells tend to block the blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. This can cause pain and organ damage. Plus it can also raise the risk for infection. 5 Powers Of The? A good way to in india handle. Words 429 - Pages 2. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website.
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Introduction to the audiovisual essay: A child of intolerance in india two mothers. by Cristina Alvarez Lopez Adrian Martin. The audiovisual essay is not a strict genre or a delimited form – it is the name for a burgeoning field of inquiry, research, and aesthetic experimentation within academia and also beyond it; the expression of critical, analytical, and theoretical work using the resources of audiovisuality – images and sounds in montage. The specific inflection of a chosen name always matters. Out of the various possible candidates in intolerance the air at present – video essay, visual essay, videographic moving image study – we choose audiovisual essay because: a. we all need to put an ishmael an adventure end to the casual ignoring of the decisive role of sound in in india every form of modern media; b. video (as in electronic videotape) is already an anachronistic term in the digital age and has been for some time; c. essay is a word which, in the spheres of film and media (both their analysis and production), has come to carry the simultaneous connotations of intellectual research and poetic exploration – neither simply a vehicle for instrumental rationalism nor art for art’s sake. It is a word which can create its own problems (see remarks below) but, at present, remains charged and useful as a probe to identify a new energy in creation and critique. The objection is aesthetic, sometimes heard in in india public forums: but is ishmael an adventure mind, any of this really new? From Joseph Cornell’s surrealist collage Rose Hobart (1936) to Jean-Luc Godard’s epic Histoire(s) du cinema (1988-1998), filmmakers and artists have long been cutting together appropriated images and intolerance in india sounds in order to make a critical point or pursue their particular politico-philosophical ‘vision’. Celebrated multimedia border-crossers including Agnes Varda, Chris Marker, Ken Jacobs, and Harun Farocki have been extending the aesthetic qualities, ruminative, speculative form of the written essay into renewed, audiovisual formats since at least the 1950s. However, something fundamental in the contemporary situation of in india media has changed for a large number of actual and potential producers (including our students). First, computers offer relatively simple but highly effective technologies of digital production and an adventure and spirit (particularly relevant for intolerance in india the audiovisual essay) post-production. Of The! Second, the raw materials – the in india, images and aesthetic qualities sounds of pre-existing films, television, and media items – are available to acquire and manipulate via digital channels in a way that is historically unprecedented.
For close to intolerance in india a century experimental filmmakers sourced out-of-copyright movie trailers and black market prints and literally scoured the bins and Veterans Essay dumpsters of rejected footage in order to re-edit, re-film, and creatively manhandle them. Film/video essayists such as Farocki and Marker invented ingenious schemes in order to access the official streams of in india imagery made by essay and for corporations or recorded on security cameras. Godard, alongside hundreds of other artists worldwide in the 1980s, went the VHS or Super-8 route, forensically taping from television broadcasts or reshooting playback off of video monitors. The audiovisual essay, in intolerance in india the wide range in which we are encompassing it within NECSUS, is – to adapt the title of Massimo Bontempelli’s novella that Raul Ruiz filmed as The Comedy of Innocence (2000) – the ‘child of Aftercare Veterans Essay two mothers’. In India! At least two! There is the tradition of research and experimentation that comes through avant-garde film and video, particularly all that is gathered under the rubric of found footage work. The subject of this kind of aesthetic qualities audiovisual essay is not restricted to but tends at its primary level to be focused on the critique or examination of cinema itself in some respect – particular filmmakers or genres, specific movies or fragments therein, or a more theoretical aspect of the ‘cinematic machine’ in general, as a medium and as a part of cultural history. Then there is the in india, essay-film (or film-essay), that historic breakaway from punic supposedly objective documentary which stresses the elements of the personal and intolerance in india the reflective, and which has itself spawned many sub-forms in the digital age. Where found footage pieces use little or no audiovisual material originated by the maker the essay-film may use a great deal that is generated first-hand (very often with a small or large component of some pre-existing media archive blended into its overall mix). Walt Disney! The range of subjects of intolerance in india essayistic works treated in this mode tends to be broader than in the found footage tradition; cinema and 5 powers of the president other media may function as a key reference point but usually only as part of intolerance in india a larger social and walt transpersonal ensemble under investigation.
These are not intended as hard-and-fast categorical distinctions. As always, anything that is deemed by intolerance some commentator to be a genre, type, model, template, or tradition has usually already produced ample examples of for U.S. Essay hybrid combination, anti-type, or peculiar exaggerations of the posited form. We simply wish to flag two extreme points that can be used to collate and compare the diverse works and in india tendencies within what is currently a vital, operative field. In the essay, present academic climate, and in light of the resistances to and questions about the audiovisual essay that sometimes arise, a dual campaign needs to be waged, exerting pressure from two sides. First, we need to assert and demonstrate that seemingly ‘purely’ poetic forms can carry intellectual ideas and embody practices of scholarly research. Intolerance In India! This is more a matter of fighting ingrained perceptions and assumptions (even among humanities scholars) than of changing the nature of artistic work itself – although that too has been entering a new, hybridised phase in our era of ‘PhDs through practice’ and research-driven art, as more and more practitioners abandon the once fragile and now completely crumbling economy of cultural subsidies and choose to enter the academy to pursue their lifetime of work. Second, and conversely, we need to stress the constitutively creative aspect of essayistic forms when they are forged in of the image and sound. The traditional academic habit of intolerance both beginning with words (in the form of a plan, such as a pre-written script or structured outline) and ending with words (as final justification and elucidation) is challenged by an adventure mind and spirit a great deal of work appearing under the audiovisual essay umbrella.
Godard himself was probably the first to intolerance articulate this problem back in the late 1970s when he explained to television commissioners that his forthcoming found footage/essay works (including Histoire(s) ) would not proceed from a pre-formulated script but be arrived at solely within the editing process itself, in qualities order that an idea could be seen and heard in intolerance in india a new and more direct way. He would usually be met with the initially enthusiastic but then immediately defensive response: ‘[t]he originality is that it will be visual! […] But can you tell us how it will be visual?’ We do not go so far as Godard in polemically denigrating ‘the word’ in favour of some pure audio-vision. In fact, Godard has never entirely refused words himself, despite the provocative film title Farewell to Language . It is Aftercare, rather the case that in our much-vaunted age of multimediality , intermediality , and transmediality , we should practice what we preach. All the diverse elements of media (image, sound, graphic design, text, etc.) are available for us to use in different combinations, and intolerance we stand only to of the mind gain from exploring the possibilities of this ‘infinite semiosis’. However, we do need to tread a little carefully with the very word ‘essay’.
What is positive and helpful about the term is, as we have asserted, the clear link it makes between audiovisual creativity and reflective research/scholarship. Its principal pitfall has been discerned, recently, by intolerance Volker Pantenburg at the conference Critical Theory, Film and Media: Where is Frankfurt Now? in August 2014, during a presentation titled ‘Essayism and its Discontents’. Pantenburg argued that in celebrating the potential of the aesthetic, essay (in whichever medium) to be digressive, reflective, subjective, and so forth, we court the risk of intolerance freezing and reifying it into ishmael an adventure of the mind and spirit, a genre with fixed characteristics – a paradoxical and indeed self-defeating gesture, since it amounts to a way of regularising and in india codifying what is meant to mind and spirit be surprising, inventive, and boundary-breaking. Intolerance In India! The aspiration to see and hear anew through the invention of and spirit new forms is salutary; the enumeration of a recipe for cooking this up is less so. As Pantenburg (alongside Hito Steyerl in 2011) reminds us, the essay came into being not only with the famous, founding reflectivity/subjectivity of Montaigne, but very shortly after with the ‘moral instructions’ of Francis Bacon. Our commonplace experience today confirms this sometimes self-cancelling duality: while the essay-as-experiment triumphantly belongs to the tradition of Roland Barthes, Judith Williamson, Walter Benjamin, Christa Wolf, or Ross Gibson, the essay-as-business-as-usual, the conservative and normative op-ed ‘think piece’, belongs to intolerance Clive James, Peter Fuller, James Wolcott, and a thousand other high-end journalists (sad confirmation of this can be found in James’ treatment of radical essayists including Benjamin and Marker in his appalling 2007 bestseller Cultural Amnesia ). After all, the extremely schematic, rule-bound assignments that our students are taught to write are also called essays – often duly expunged of what Adrian Miles has rightly and enthusiastically inventoried as the essay’s finest propensities toward ‘disjunction, exploration, asides, rambles, excursus, and even digression’. Again, the drive to practice what we academically preach stands to gain much from a concerted push into thoroughgoing audiovisualism. In this inaugural audiovisual essay section we have curated two very different works that give a sense of the possibilities currently sparking to life across the two ends of the spectrum we have sketched out.
Found Found Found (2014) is a digital essay by the celebrated Dutch-Australian avant-garde film artist Dirk de Bruyn, who has recently been the subject of the documentary The House That Eye Live In (Steven McIntyre, 2014). Found Found Found might be seen to be taking as its point of departure the type of ‘personal travel diary’ which is of the, a hallowed tradition in avant-garde cinema – especially as associated with Jonas Mekas who, increasingly today, approaches his own very intimately shot footage as a vast archive to revisit and re-edit. In India! The title Found Found Found flips that of Mekas’ famous poetic film-essay Lost Lost Lost (1976) – but this fond homage/allusion is also a trenchant critique of a particular cinematic tradition, since the ‘world viewed’ by today’s audiovisual essayist has transformed itself so profoundly in the intervening four decades. Irony looms: what or who is 5 powers, exactly ‘found’ in de Bruyn’s piece? Mixing, as he has done for some 35 years, an immersion in media theory (Marshall McLuhan, Guy Debord, and particularly Vilem Flusser) with the free-play of abstract, structural, and poetic forms, de Bruyn produces a meditation on the type of ceaseless loss (of a sense of self, of intolerance in india geo-physical co-ordinates, and of social values) produced by a neo-capitalist world premised on international travel, social mobility, and all-pervasive communications networks. Its ‘argument’ is channelled all at once through a montage of visual and sonic fragments (many recorded by his digital camera) and through the sensations produced by light, colour, and 5 powers of the rhythm.
As ever, de Bruyn’s audiovisual art challenges us to think dynamically in frames, pixels, and micro-seconds, relentlessly tumbling one upon intolerance the next – to be a part of the sensorial, media-saturated world as it is experienced, on the move, but also to somehow get outside of walt pixar it and intolerance view the logic of its ideological power structures. Laura Lammer is a student in aesthetic the Department of Theatre, Film and intolerance Media Studies at Goethe University, Frankfurt. As a participant in our practical/theoretical class on the audiovisual essay she produced a kinetic reflection on the ‘Apocalypse Trilogy’ of U.S. filmmaker Gregg Araki, using only short samples layered and of the president treated within a digital editing program. Her Smells Like Armageddon Day – Dreamlike Settings and Magnified Trash (2014) bypasses an in india excessive dependence on writing guide text-as-instruction in order to deliver its analysis through the careful arrangement, in in india multiple fragments and two major clusters, of the main strategies in Araki’s cinema as Lammer sees them: first, the punic, often garishly-coloured environments in which his characters live; second, the types of fetish-objects that he presents in eye-popping, close-up inserts. Lammer’s piece offers a clear case of something that an in india audiovisual essay can do which a written piece, no matter how detailed or brilliant, can scarcely touch: even the typical journalistic words I have just used (‘garish’ and ‘eye-popping’) do scant justice to the design-assault of colour, tone, shape, gesture, and vocal inflection that Lammer accumulates and co-ordinates in writing her montage. Through her work we can get closer analytically not only to intolerance in india what Araki’s films materially are but also to what a neo-cinephilic, subcultural taste for his type of cinema means and walt pixar feels like, especially when scored to intolerance the music she selected. Smells Like Armageddon Day renews the possibilities for thinking in and through what has too often been hastily dismissed since the mid-1980s as the war definition, degraded ‘MTV-style’ music clip. NECSUS is in india, far from acting alone as an academic journal in guide acknowledging this current ‘moment’ of the rise of the audiovisual essay. Clearly it is intolerance, spreading in many directions at once – and this is all to walt pixar the good. By tentatively circumscribing one spectrum or continuum of the field for the purposes of this section – with digital, found footage collage at one end and the film/media essay at the other – we hope to orient the thoughts and works of intolerance our contributors and readers toward those audiovisual possibilities that actively produce knowledge and ideas via the multiple paths of performative, material research.
Corrigan, T. Essay Writing! The essay film: From Montaigne, after Marker . London: Oxford University Press, 2011. Godard, J.-L. Introduction to a true history of cinema and television . In India! Montreal: Caboose, 2014. James, C. Cultural amnesia: Notes in the margin of my time . London: MacMillan, 2007. Lebow, A (ed.). The cinema of me: The self and subjectivity in first person documentary . London: Wallflower, 2012. Miles, A. ‘Materialism and essay writing guide Interactive Documentary: Sketch Notes’, forthcoming in Studies in Documentary Film , 2014. Accessed via academia.edu. Rascaroli, L. The personal camera: Subjective cinema and the essay film . Intolerance! London: Wallflower Press, 2009. Steyerl, H. ‘The Essay as Conformism?
Some Notes on Global Image Economies’ in Der Essayfilm . Asthetik und Aktualitat , edited by S. Kramer and T. Tode. Konstanz, 2011.  See Lebow 2012, Corrigan 2011, and Rascaroli 2009, among others.  Godard 2014, p. xxxviii.  Cinema Journal and Media Commons have sponsored [in]Transition (http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/intransition/), which is in its third issue. One of that journal’s editors, Catherine Grant, via the REFRAME research platform of University of Sussex, has spearheaded an invaluable web resource titled The Audiovisual Essay (http://reframe.sussex.ac.uk/audiovisualessay/). The latter includes the proceedings of the ishmael an adventure of the and spirit, conference Audiovisual Essay: Practice and intolerance in india Theory which was held in November 2013 in Frankfurt and organised by the present authors through Goethe University.
These recent events and publications build upon previous special issues of walt disney Frames (Issue 1, 2012) on ‘Film and Moving Image Studies Re-born Digital?’ (http://framescinemajournal.com/?issue=issue) and the dossier in Filmidee (Issue 5, 2012) on ‘Pratiche del videosaggio’ (http://www.filmidee.it/archive/34/category/144/category.aspx). We should not forget the ongoing, vibrant focus upon audiovisual production in extra-academic, cinephilic endeavours including Transit (http://cinentransit.com/), Press Play (http://blogs.indiewire.com/pressplay/) at Indiewire , Photogenie (http://www.photogenie.be/photogenie_blog/), the Vimeo group Audiovisualcy (https://vimeo.com/groups/audiovisualcy), and the online extras provided by intolerance Sight Sound as well as movie-streaming enterprises such as MUBI (https://mubi.com/notebook), Fandor (http://www.fandor.com/keyframe/category/daily), and the ‘Tan lejos, tan cerca’ section of Filmin (https://www.filmin.es/blog/tag/Tan+lejos%2C+tan+cerca). We would like to thank the following partners for qualities their support: The electronic version of NECSUS_European Journal of Media Studies is published in Open Access and is therefore free and accessible to the public. We feature PDF downloads to aid referencing and there will also soon be a Print on Demand option.
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