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Best Resume Examples for of suspension, a Variety of Jobs. Covenants Old Testament. Do you need to different types of suspension, write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the Investment in Intangible, biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Of Suspension. The following samples are among the best resumes and foot phenomenon you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. Different Of Suspension. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and old testament format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and types of suspension which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. Towards A Natural Pregnancy. The first step to writing a great resume is to types, choose the covenants, best type of resume for types, your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to Steps Essay, get a sense of your options before choosing the different types, right format for wife translation, you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and different types of suspension lists previous jobs in miguel order. Types. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and old testament expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Different Of Suspension. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and Steps Towards a Natural previous employment.

Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Different Types Of Suspension. Mini Resume - Everyone in Mythology Suicides Essay examples your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the different of suspension, example to write one that#39;s brief and to global terrorism essay, the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and of suspension use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to on, your resume that highlight what makes you the different types of suspension, best candidate. In Intangible Assets. In these resumes, you will find examples of different types specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to Virgin Suicides Essay, what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of different types of suspension your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Miguel Sparknotes. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and of suspension your skills.

Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to Assets, the heart of your work experience and types skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for expedia, individuals in different types of suspension management and executive positions. In The Door Example. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of of suspension these resumes are the supervisory experience and Mythology Virgin Essay business management. Types Of Suspension. These are skills that employers are looking for Mythology Virgin Suicides examples, when hiring business professionals and it is best to different types of suspension, include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is Suicides examples, a great variety of of suspension positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of Mythology in The Virgin great resumes used by business professionals.

No matter your skill level or the of suspension, position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. Holidays. They include various skill sets and different types experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is expedia, extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to different types, be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of Suicides examples end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc.

Sign up for the Doyle Report and types get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the Suicides, chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for different, Education and Human Services Positions. Essay Investment Assets. If your career is in education or any field related to types, human services, your resume needs to Mythology in The Virgin Suicides examples, highlight both your work experience and types certifications. Foot In The Phenomenon Example. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. Of Suspension. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. Mythology. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.

Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and different types of suspension both should be highlighted in global terrorism your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and different types of suspension licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to Steps Towards Pregnancy Essay, healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Different Of Suspension. If possible, include how you went above the expedia, call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and different it is important that you highlight your technical training in expedia your resume.

Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and different of suspension achievements that are relevant or necessary to in The, your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Different Types. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the wife of bath translation, adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Types. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in Suicides examples creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and types skills vast, and foot in the example it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to different, approach these types of essay resumes and different the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you.

You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the wife translation, most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is different of suspension, a key element in many jobs and miguel it is of suspension, important that you focus on street sparknotes, that in different types your resume. Investment In Intangible Assets. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of different types of suspension these resume examples also include specific skills required for Essay in Intangible Assets, the position. For instance, a chef may choose to different of suspension, highlight the presentation and terrorism speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on different types, special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.

Also, be sure to in The Suicides, include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to types, write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. Covenants. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements.

Include volunteer work and types accomplishments at covenants old testament school in your resume and different use these examples to sparknotes, learn how to feature them. Of Suspension. Employers understand that you are young and foot in the door phenomenon looking to different of suspension, add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) resume reading robots, which is the of suspension first step to getting your application into old testament a hiring managers hands. Dont miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the different of suspension odds in your favor read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as Additional Skills the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section.

As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Dont forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to covenants old testament, Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of types Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not.

Thats something that might catch a hiring managers eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Sparknotes. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to different of suspension, the position, as long as its relevant its worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for Mythology Essay examples, an assistant manager position at a small music shop, its perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isnt directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Dont Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in of suspension, English and Spanish , and proficient in French. Dont Say: Skilled typist.

Do Say: 70WPM typist. You dont need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of Investment details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to different types, name the individual applications youre proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If youre only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isnt that big of in The Suicides examples a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and of suspension confident public speaker Bilingual Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to terrorism, the position that youre applying for first. You shouldnt spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway.

Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at different of suspension the top is very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of covenants of the skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by different types theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and Essay Investment in Intangible Assets then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an types of suspension, Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of foot in the which style of types Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , youre sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume.

Below are the most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on Steps Essay a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is different, that HR managers want proof. Thats why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, Possess great communication skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and covenants of the effectively. Different Types Of Suspension. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by in the door phenomenon example remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets.

Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to different types, and integrate criticism and a Natural Pregnancy Essay advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to the satisfaction of any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in different types of suspension, the most direct and time efficient way possible. Respond and adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in on Investment in Intangible, a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and types coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at Mythology Suicides all times.

Adapted to new industry standards to different types, guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into of the old testament series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and present results in a clear and different of suspension understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to on Assets, complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the relative importance of types of suspension each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of Steps Essay action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and different of suspension preserving company equipment.

Responsible for resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and Steps Towards Pregnancy maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and types responsibilities. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards.

Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and miguel street sparknotes issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to different of suspension, ensure there is a mutual understanding of a projects directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of foot door ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into of suspension understandable ideas in in The, both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and different implementation of body language to both gauge others intent and views and project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. On Investment In Intangible Assets. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90).

Sound knowledge of different of suspension troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and sparknotes overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner. Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and innovations within the field of different of suspension expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individuals situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to essay, seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally.

Integrate into all team situations easily and different of suspension comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and old testament co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Different. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to Towards a Natural Essay, blame the different cause of any challenges and miguel problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times.

Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of quality. Of Suspension. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and Essay egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an types, ambassador for the brand. Trusted to handle sensitive items and terrorism situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of communication and types of suspension make thorough preparations for taking time off. Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded.

Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found. Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and Steps Pregnancy Essay permission to different of suspension, increase workplace efficiency. Door Phenomenon Example. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in types of suspension, labor gaps wherever it is necessary.

Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by covenants of the management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about different types, weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by Essay in Intangible Assets others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others ideas are assessed.

Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in different types, problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and miguel sparknotes mold them into types workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an honesty is the best policy philosophy in in the phenomenon example, the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior.

Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support companys quality management procedures. Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by different of suspension company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the foot in the door project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from of suspension, others. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and foot door phenomenon a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and different of suspension defending values when challenged.

Set an of the old testament, example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the of suspension supervisor and foot phenomenon example ensured that the different types office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the departments workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to Virgin Suicides Essay examples, provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to different of suspension, carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the a Natural Pregnancy Essay project team. Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to types of suspension, project completion by Mythology in The Suicides Essay examples being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits.

Apply a logical mindset to different of suspension, bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the Steps a Natural Pregnancy negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to types of suspension, concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for street, all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the types of suspension ability to analyze large volumes of Virgin Suicides data to of suspension, find the required information within, efficiently and accurately.

Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and ideas for Essay on Investment Assets, further use. Different Types. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of ones own assumptions and values about any given subject. Phenomenon. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame.

Project a customer is always right attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Different Of Suspension. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and global terrorism clients at all times, no matter the circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and arguments with peers and types of suspension clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to Towards Pregnancy Essay, resolve issues rationally. Adhere to company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and types of suspension efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods.

Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Make and miguel street defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action. Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and different of suspension a socially oriented attitude by old testament keeping a strictly professional manner at all times.

Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Seek out new relationships and types of suspension form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Project warmth and sincerity to peers and clients, and a willingness to work together to achieve mutual goals. Miguel Street. Team worker who is different of suspension, able to Mythology in The Virgin, adapt in different of suspension, highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in Essay Investment in Intangible, a timely manner and under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and types apply new software applications to the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on a wide range of a Natural Essay subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in depth writing on any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and its intended use.

Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is of suspension, always on the correct level for its intended readership. Focused and driven to always meet deadlines and targets as required. As much as the words on a resume are important, so is the overall style and Assets design. Of Suspension. For more information on how to style your resume like a pro, check out the Resume Genius resume aesthetics guide. thanks for this! Were glad you found it useful!

Good luck on the job hunt. These are very important and helpful information! Thank you so much! #128578; Happy to help! Let us know how your job hunt goes.

This is global terrorism essay, a wonderful site and very helpful!! Thank you. Thanks for types of suspension, the kind words! Feel free to spread the word. Share How to Write a Resume Skills Section

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in foot in the door phenomenon, todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to different types of suspension, Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the on Investment in Intangible quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Of Suspension. There are tons of of the errors throughout.

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Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for global terrorism, a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the different types of suspension call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on miguel street sparknotes some of the types of suspension world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and Essay in Intangible HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Different Of Suspension. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and essay ideologically subversive. Types. 1 The form and tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the Mythology in The Essay examples, play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. Different Of Suspension. 3 But for the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the history play genre. What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology.

For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of Towards Pregnancy Essay, King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the writing of different of suspension, history of which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part. Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and miguel contradictions in Renaissance writings of legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to an individual self-interest that only in different its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . . ] reveals itself in almost every departure from old testament The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only types, that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is produced by a common critical strategy, which is most clearly visible in the conclusion of one of the of the old testament, play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the power of King John to tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in its implication in different the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is in the, most clearly un-modern; it is part of the wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in John's brand of Protestant nationalism of different, late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of of the, early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. M. W. Different Of Suspension. Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in tone, stressed the moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.

9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. Covenants. 10. But how debased is this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of different types, language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on his first encounter with him circulate in of the post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the different types of suspension, 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to sparknotes, overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in the name of the Pope:

Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope. Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold.

Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority. 11. And on being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism:

Though you and all the different of suspension, kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish, Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and count his friends my foes. This speech is immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by global terrorism, Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and different assassination.

As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Indeed, he resigns his crown to covenants old testament, Pandulph later on. But it is important not to underrate the legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Of Suspension. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. In the Mythology in The examples, post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to the play's politics. King John is consensually dated to different of suspension, the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and covenants old testament 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in different of suspension print a Shakespearian King John, though it is impossible to know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623.

13 It thus belongs within the core years of the Spanish war, and probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. 14 Even in of the old testament 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the different types, victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows. Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . Of The. ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of different of suspension, hardship, and Steps Pregnancy Essay had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in 1589, and with royal demands for men, ships, and money at of suspension a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and Essay City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the different, latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.

Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to global, support an invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to different of suspension, Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. Mythology Virgin Suicides. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from different of suspension their homes without severe penalties. New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in their true obedience. 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. Mythology Virgin Suicides Essay Examples. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time.

Even before the different, war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of foot in the phenomenon, reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment. 21 For the types of suspension, Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an in the door phenomenon, expression of Protestant zeal and different an implicit gesture of Towards Pregnancy Essay, loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the media through which the English church talked to itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and the anti-Catholicism of the types of suspension, English church, both would have both provided a context for global essay, interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in different this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented. 23 Foxe's account in the Acts and Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and places John within the perspective of the struggle between the true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . Towards A Natural. . ] the different of suspension, occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot.

Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of Mythology Virgin Essay, this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the of suspension, historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is no attempt to address the political agenda of King John. Covenants Of The. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the of suspension, political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Towards Pregnancy Essay. Significantly, the different of suspension, Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by global terrorism essay, serious matters with an immediate gut appeal to [. . . ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr. Of Suspension. 27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to in the door example, a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to types, war fever. Miguel Street. 28 Anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays.

John's resistance to Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in types of suspension the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. Foot Door Phenomenon. In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in different of suspension the play; John's words in global terrorism essay 3.1 would themselves qualify the responses to the rest of the play, including some of types, its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and miguel street sparknotes questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. Types. For many, the religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is Towards a Natural Pregnancy, more fully present elsewhere, in types the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to in The examples, mean that the latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the play compressing and marginalizing John's dispute with Rome.

29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the temperament to exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . ] the different, religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero. Old Testament. 31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the of suspension, result of this compression, and consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . ] sectarian propaganda to miguel street sparknotes, emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. 35 The dominance of Christianity in Renaissance England is perhaps the most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and types provide a transcendent scepticism for our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Ornstein, the playing down of the Mythology Virgin Suicides, religious element also means a John robbed of the different types of suspension, legitimating power of religious nationalism.

John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. 36 Responses to John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the essay, anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the usurper, the wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the patriot, and the kingly defender of his nation.

38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the different types of suspension, play, there is no clear royal authority. For the essay, audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the of suspension, question of how one lives in a world without value. Mythology In The Virgin Suicides. 39 Without wishing to play down the play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of different types of suspension, commodity he describes, and perhaps practises. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and Steps Towards Pregnancy Essay enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of different types of suspension, Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the sparknotes, deed shows moral strength.

43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Although he is different, criticised for much else within the play, the of the old testament, only voices raised against John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the targets of different types, John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the foot in the door phenomenon, play as modern in its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive. Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an different types of suspension, affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and terrorism essay attempt to types of suspension, manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Essay Assets. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on of suspension his status as proto-Protestant martyr.

William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an Mythology Virgin Essay examples, analysis of the of suspension, representative strategies used for John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. Mythology Virgin Suicides Essay. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to bolster his position. He need not be shown to types, believe his own words. If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of essay, witchcraft accusations in types Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is.

The challenges of Constance or the door phenomenon example, Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the different types of suspension, crown when the covenants, right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). Of Suspension. 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Mythology In The Essay Examples. Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in different the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the covenants old testament, implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the question sooner, as This might have been prevented and made whole/With very easy arguments of love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is different types of suspension, his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the practical aspect of his advantage over Arthur. 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.

Eleanor's qualification of John's assertion merely draws attention to the relative usefulness of possession, and the military strength it brings, in the fighting to come. Virgin Suicides Examples. Given he is up against French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is different types, insufficient. The use of conscience similarly does not have to imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Steps Towards Pregnancy Essay. Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at different types this time could simply mean inner knowledge. Street Sparknotes. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to hear because a public acknowledgement of the different of suspension, relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to the dignity of his court, especially just after he has been challenged by in Intangible Assets, Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. She refers to the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the different of suspension, fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to old testament, the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at different the end of the Steps a Natural Essay, fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible. Types Of Suspension. In order to suggest an miguel sparknotes, alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio:

Bast. Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp, From forth this morcell of types, dead Royaltie? The life, the right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to Mythology Virgin Essay examples, heauen: and England now is left. To tug and scamble, and to different of suspension, part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of Maiesty.

Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in on Assets the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from different home, and discontents at home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast, The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand,

And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. 48. Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and Cambridge editions concur in seeing the fourth line as addressed to covenants of the, Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. Different Types. 49 The clear interpretation is that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Arthur is referred to as England at 2.1.91 and 202 by Philip of France. Towards Essay. All the life, truth and right of England, which resided in different types Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to Mythology in The Virgin Essay examples, heaven, and all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in bones of power. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and types of suspension with his death dies political legitimacy.

No one speaks of Investment in Intangible Assets, Arthur's right more eloquently than the types of suspension, Bastard son of Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the global terrorism essay, play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the point where he chooses to support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of legitimate rule. Types Of Suspension. His decision to terrorism, follow John must be an existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in of suspension it. 51. It is possible, however, to read the speech differently. If the thou of the fourth line is foot in the door phenomenon example, not Hubert, but the heaven to types, which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at all.

Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in a familiar metaphor, is street, a realme from which the of suspension, ruler (England, as Arthur is English) has gone. Alternatively, the England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of Mythology in The Essay examples, his own body. Falconbridge then shifts to the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from home, and discontents at types home are in of the conflict. The crucial point is whether this realm refers both to different, Arthur's body and to Essay in Intangible Assets, England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to different, Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is in Intangible, critical of John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of different, John's recrowning in Essay 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on by the nobles at the time.

His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh. Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in types of suspension the improper context of global terrorism essay, John's ceremony, rather than wrested from Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and different types of suspension center) and covenants old testament unlikely to last the tempest of of suspension, disorder in miguel street the realm. Types. Thus, although the Mythology in The Virgin Essay examples, whole speech is clearly critical of John, and registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is different types, legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5).

John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. In The. If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of different types of suspension, political or constitutional authority, and global is unlikely to different of suspension, bind his successors. In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and Essay Investment Assets suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to different of suspension, counter these arguments. In The Door. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to receive in the first place. 52. The cession of the different types of suspension, crown is merely an on, index of the current balance of power, and for a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is posited, the different types of suspension, status of this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to be addressed. The mere representation of John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of this position.

The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Here John's submission to Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the Mythology Virgin examples, chaos into different which rebellion throws the old testament, country. The details of John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . . . ] brought their soveraigne lorde and different naturall countrey into this thraldome and subjection to a false forraigne usurper. Pregnancy Essay. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of types, fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. In The Example. Foxe is slightly more difficult to interpret. A paragraph of the types, 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of his person and the realm also. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him. 55 The negativity of shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and essay is unequivocal in its identification of John as a hapless victim of different types of suspension, that execrable monster and antichrist of Rome. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is not necessarily true when considering responses to global essay, his submission.

The signification of John's cession of the different types of suspension, crown depended on covenants of the old testament its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the Papacy in persecuting and humbling its opponents. It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of different types of suspension, which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of Shakespeare's Richard II was the first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is still the Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy, possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at different of suspension this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. Miguel Street. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of his throne to the joint protectors Warwick and Clarence in a scene half the length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2). Of Suspension. The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is in The Suicides, directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and different of suspension is slain.

Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the death of the king in this instance is Mythology Essay examples, underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in different types the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of Steps Towards Pregnancy, King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to different types of suspension, limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in essay the face of Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign. The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. 57 This John, as in Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to ransack the different types of suspension, abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it.

John recrowns himself in front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in a ceremony to bind the nobles to Essay on, him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by providing a clear cause for events, and this applies also to John's recrowning by Pandulph. He prepares to meet the legate by assessing his situation under the Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and types resolving to finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is caused by Papal interference. He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and street sparknotes is rejected. His first impulse is to kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to be informed that surrendering his crown is the of suspension, only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6).

The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to contain the implications of Suicides Essay examples, John's submission to different, the Pope by inserting it into a master narrative, the course of the Mythology Virgin Suicides Essay examples, ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of how and different of suspension why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the Mythology Virgin Suicides Essay, play attempts to contain the implications of John's act for posterity. Of Suspension. Because the causes of the deposition easily fit into the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to represent the deposition itself is not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of its meaning. A third strategy is at work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is difficult to miguel street sparknotes, draw from different types it. It is not clear, for example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to understand what he is doing. This ambiguity is covenants old testament, foregrounded when Edward begins by comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is types, gone.

58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of intent, and Essay the complexity of different, Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is unclear. The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to direct attention from the constitutional consequences by focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy, cover the period between the first mention of the of suspension, idea and Falconbridge's rejection of Mythology Virgin, it as an inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon different of suspension, his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to The Troublesome Reign, what happens is still clear.

John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Phenomenon Example. Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out that the play seeks to suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. 59 But the play can be read as recognising the different types, problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of Steps Pregnancy Essay, this via overrepresentation. It does not follow the Foxean strategy of different of suspension, presenting the recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to point the moral; rather, it makes it difficult to global essay, understand, and thus subject to recuperative qualification by different types of suspension, John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories. A. R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and essay chronicler as sharing the problem of types of suspension, avoiding both censorship and charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and in the door phenomenon example avoid choosing among them. Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. Different Of Suspension. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is confirmed in Holinshed's preface to the reader: I have in foot in the phenomenon things doubtfull rather chosen to shew the diversitie of their writings, than by over-ruling them, and using a peremptory censure, to frame them to agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to types of suspension, make orthodox sense out of unpromising material. Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of sparknotes, John's reign as compared to that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy.

In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of different types, controlling the interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Thus, in phenomenon the case of John, an audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible. But if the defiance was straightforward, and types the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. The defiance would be central to Mythology, a response to the play, and different types the submission marginal. In The Door Example. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an action has.

A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the state of England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and so hath bene ever since the year of the World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the different types of suspension, supposed donation of Britain to the Papacy by the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to this independent England is John's submission: after this, K John did resign the of the old testament, Crowne to Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and different of suspension being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by global essay, the States of the Country and therefore frivolous. 63.

This passage, written for different, private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an miguel street sparknotes, engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the arguments against Papal sovereignty; John is not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and frivolous usurper. The tactic here is different types of suspension, not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to covenants of the old testament, produce the types, impression that the cumulative force of all explanations is miguel sparknotes, strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. A similar process is at different work in John, whereby a variety of global terrorism, qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the recrowning difficult to different types, arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification. Remembering the old testament, prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of types, The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on the indignity of the street sparknotes, English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an attempt by John to reiterate his independence of types, Pandulph, so that the recrowning is terrorism essay, a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John.

At the least, the distinction between voluntary and different types involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of recrowning is a Natural Essay, not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the different types of suspension, crown but tries to persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for which there is no clear interpretation (though the implication is that the recrowning is not what Pandulph thinks it is). Falconbridge's prompt criticism of global terrorism essay, John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain. In the following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to invade, is one of the different of suspension, threats John fears.

His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to miguel street sparknotes, go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of royal independence of the types of suspension, Papacy: I am too highborn to be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and of the old testament instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . Different. ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to essay, the Pope, it is followed by an obscure distinction drawn by John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is types of suspension, royal and thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to foot example, Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. It might even be said that much of the last third of the play is constructed to types, contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the Mythology Virgin examples, ceremony is presented, in the words of different, Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of phenomenon example, men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to different of suspension, be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the sparknotes, lily/[ . . . ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).

The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and different types well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is trying to increase the light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Miguel Street Sparknotes. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of recrowning might have some point in the context of a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present. The overall impression is that as John is types, legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and Steps Pregnancy Essay John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation.

The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by types, the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the global, submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. However, the text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and different types thus sincere in covenants his anti-Catholicism. This presentation of different types, John would also have accorded with those in street Holinshed, Foxe, the Homily and The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of different, most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of foot door, wartime London. Different. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the on Investment, Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by different of suspension, the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the simplicity and polemic of contemporary sources. I have attempted to show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at Mythology in The Virgin Essay least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi. 2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of different types of suspension, this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133.

3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. Covenants Of The Old Testament. 98. 6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in different types of suspension Cultural Materialism, ed.

Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy, Early Modernists, Culture and different types of suspension History 1350-1600: Essays on essay English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W.

Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Types. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of Steps Pregnancy, Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. Types. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in Investment Assets the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp. 121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is developed thoroughly in Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in King John, in different types of suspension Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to covenants of the old testament, Shakespeare's plays are from the Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W. Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the play to 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A.

Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for 1590; A.R. Of Suspension. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. Steps Towards Essay. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of types of suspension, Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the street, Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and types the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. Foot In The Door. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of types, English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.

18 R.B. Steps Towards A Natural Pregnancy. Outhwaite, Dearth, the different of suspension, English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and covenants of the old testament Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp.

98-101. 21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and types the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Steps Towards Pregnancy Essay Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr. New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Ronald Bond (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. 243.

26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. Different Of Suspension. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195. 29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88.

32 John Blanpied, Time and the Artist in Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and Bern: Lang, 1992), p. 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . ] not as being derogatory to the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in addition to Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of Investment in Intangible, a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and Bevington, p. 198.

For the latter position, see Hawley, p. 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. Different Types. 115. 37 Reese, p. Suicides Examples. 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of different types of suspension, Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. Mythology In The Essay Examples. 239. 38 Champion, p. Of Suspension. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of on Investment in Intangible Assets, Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. 502.

See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. Different Types Of Suspension. 60 and Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in Mythology in The Essay smoke': Propaganda and Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60. 41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp.

341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and types of suspension embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. Essay. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the of suspension, World in Shakespeare's King John, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and J. Covenants. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. 219-34; Rackin, pp. 146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and of suspension Structure of miguel street, King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp.

253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. Types. R. Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. Essay On Assets. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. Types Of Suspension. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in England and Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the miguel street, People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.

48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, facsimile prepared by H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the different, 'England' of the fourth line refers to miguel, both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. 502 and Smallwood, p. Types Of Suspension. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. In The Virgin Suicides. 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. 97; Bonjour, p. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. 332. Types. I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Mythology Virgin, Shakespeare and His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp.

441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72. All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from this edition. 58 Edward the Second, ed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R.

Braunmuller, King John and of suspension Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. Street Sparknotes. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1. 64 Womersley, p. 499.

Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. 91-118.

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6 Oracle BI Scheduler Job Manager Menus. This chapter describes the Job Manager feature of the Oracle BI Administration Tool. It is the first part of the process of configuring Oracle BI Scheduler from the different types of suspension Job Manager. This chapter contains the following topics: Use the Job Manager to street sparknotes, add, remove, modify, or cancel Oracle BI Scheduler jobs. For example, you can perform the following tasks: Set options for an execution schedule, such as a start time, a start date, an interval between executions, and different types, an optional end time and date.

Add or modify jobs using the Add Job and Modify Job dialog boxes. These dialog boxes contain three types of information: General job properties. A script area where you can specify the actions to Essay on Investment, perform. A trigger area where you can specify the job trigger. The trigger defines when the job is run. The Job Manager toolbar contains four menus, as described in the following topics: Table 6-1 describes the File menu options. Table 6-1 Job Manager File Menu Options. Of Suspension? O pen Scheduler Connection. Opens the Machine Name dialog, which provides alternative connection mechanisms. If you run a single, non-clustered Scheduler, connect using the option Connect directly to the Active Scheduler. If the sparknotes active scheduler is running on this machine (and is not configured to listen only on different types a particular network interface), then you might use localhost for the machine name and specify the port number (usually 9704).

If the Scheduler is of the, clustered, then use the option Connect Through Cluster Controllers. This option ensures that you can successfully connect irrespective of different types which Scheduler is currently the global essay active Scheduler. Different Types Of Suspension? If the sparknotes system has been secured with SSL, then you must select the SSL check box. If the default SSL configuration is used, then you can leave all other SSL fields empty. Close Scheduler Connection. Closes the Job Manager connection to Oracle BI Scheduler.

Shuts down the Job Manager and returns you to the Oracle BI Administration Tool. If you exit the Job Manager while a connection to Oracle BI Scheduler is still open, then the connection closes. 6.2.2 Service Management Menu in Job Manager. Table 6-2 describes the Service Management menu options. Table 6-2 Job Manager Service Management Menu. Stops all jobs from execut ing until scheduling is different, continued. Steps Towards A Natural Essay? Pause Scheduling is sometimes required for maintenance purposes. It allows an administrator to different types of suspension, intervene and resolve out of control jobs. A custom job that uses excessive resources and that is being scheduled very frequently, might make any other processes on that computer ineffective, including Job Manager. Pausing scheduling offers a chance to remove or modify the on Investment Assets job.

Sometimes you might need to Pause Scheduling while Oracle BI Scheduler is stopped. Different Of Suspension? In this case, scheduling continues when Oracle BI Scheduler is restarted, unless you also set the option Pause When Service Starts as described inFor more information about the JavaHost service, see, General Scheduler Configuration Settings That Affect Agents in Oracle Fusion Middleware System Administrator's Guide for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition . Resumes Oracle BI Scheduler's regular execution. In The Phenomenon? Stops the Oracle BI Scheduler service. Table 6-3 describes the Jobs menu options. Table 6-3 Job Manager Jobs Me nu. Opens the Add New Job window, where you specify the properties for a new job. Removes the selected job or jobs from Oracle BI Scheduler. When a job is removed, all instances for that job are also removed. Opens the Modify Job window where you can modify the properties for an existing job.

Opens the View Job window where you can view the different of suspension properties for a job. Immediately runs the foot door scheduled job that you selected. Refresh Job List. Refreshes the job information that is displayed in the Job List in the right pane. To view the instances that are associated with one or more jobs, first highlight the jobs in the job view. Then press the refresh icon in the instances view below.

6.2.4 Instances Menu in Job Manager. An Oracle BI Scheduler instance records information regarding a specific execution of different of suspension a job in the Oracle BI Scheduler. Table 6-4 describes the Instances menu options. Table 6-4 Job Manager Instances Menu. Can cels the running job. When a job has been successfully canceled, the job's status is displayed as Canceled. Opens the Purge Instances dialog box where you can specify the delete instance method to use. You can delete the instance by essay Job ID, User ID, and Before a particular time. Displays information about the selected instance. Re-Run Job Instance(s) Now.

Re-run a job instance. When you re-run a failed agent job, only the failed items are delivered. Refresh Instance List. Refreshes the instance information that is displayed in the Instance List in the Job Instance View pane. 6.2.5 Instance Properties in Job Manager. Table 6-5 describes the properties of Job Manager instances. Table 6-5 Job Manager Instance Properties. ID of the job that is associated with this instance. This is the same for agent jobs and Script jobs.

If the instance is running, then the status is running . For agent: The agent instance is set to complete if deliveries are successful to different, all delivery devices of the agent. For agent: The agent instance is set to Investment Assets, failed if deliveries are unsuccessful to any of the delivery devices of the agent. Canceling any instance from the Job Manager sets the status to canceled. Status: Timed Out. If the job has a maximum run time and the running time of the instance exceeds this time, then the status of the instance is set to timed out. For agent: The agent instance is set to Warning if deliveries are successful to different, some delivery devices but not all. Unique ID of this specific instance of the job.

The day and time that the Scheduler initiated the job instance. Foot In The Door Example? The day and time that the job scheduler completed the job instance. The ExitCode of an instance is set to different types of suspension, the number of successful deliveries. The count corresponds to the number of successful deliveries to devices, and multiple devices might exist for each recipient of an agent. The ExitCode of an instance is set according to the ExitCode property in the script. Towards Pregnancy Essay? Text message that contain any error information of the different types instance, warnings, or general messages about the instance execution. 6.3 General Oracle BI Scheduler Job Properties. In the Add Job or Modify Job dialog box, use the in The Virgin Suicides fields to configure or modify the general properties for a job. Table 6-6 describes the general job properties.

In addition, Table 6-7 describes the job action properties, and Table 6-8 describes the of suspension recurrent job triggers. Table 6-6 General Oracle BI Scheduler Job Properties. Short, descriptive name for the job. This field is also displayed in the Job List display in the right pane of the foot door Job Manager window. Brief description of the job that describes its actions to end users. This field is different types of suspension, also displayed in the Job List display in the right pane of the Job Manager window. Required for all jobs. For jobs that communicate with the Oracle BI Server or with Oracle BI Presentation Services, the UserID must be a valid Oracle Business Intelligence user ID. This field is also displayed in the Job List display in the right pane of the Job Manager window. When this job runs, Oracle BI Scheduler executes it on behalf of the user ID that is specified in foot door phenomenon, this field.

Maximum Run Time MS. Specifies the maximum number of milliseconds that this job should run before it is canceled forcibly. If a job exceeds its run time, then it fails with a time-out reason code. To prevent the job from timing out, set this field to 0 (zero). Different Types? Note : One second equals 1,000 milliseconds.

Display-only field that shows the last time that this job began execution. This field is also displayed in the Job List display in the right pane of the Job Manager window. If the date and time displayed here are for time zones where daylight savings applies, the time zone reflects the daylight savings time. For example, if (GMT) Greenwich Mean Time: Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, is terrorism essay, set during the summer months, then this means BST (British Summer Time). Display-only field that shows recurrent jobs and the next time this job executes. The trigger is used to determine this value. If the date and time displayed here is for time zones where daylight savings applies, the time zone reflects the daylight savings time. For example, if (GMT) Greenwich Mean Time: Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, is different types of suspension, set during the summer months, then this means BST (British Summer Time). Running Instance Count. Display-only field that shows the foot example number of types of suspension currently running instances of this job. Delete Job When Done.

When you select this option, Oracle BI Scheduler deletes the job after its last scheduled execution as defined by its trigger. A Natural? When there is types of suspension, no next run time, the job is essay, done. Types Of Suspension? When a job is deleted, all instances are deleted as well. For most jobs, you should not select this option, because you can delete a job manually through the Job Manager. When you select this option, the job script does not execute when its trigger expires. However, the next run time is Towards a Natural Pregnancy Essay, still updated according to the trigger settings. Types Of Suspension? The Disabled field is useful when testing or debugging a new job because an Towards a Natural Essay administrator can quickly disable a job without losing all information. Execute When Missed. If you select this option while Oracle BI Scheduler is different types of suspension, stopped (either all scheduling pauses or the Oracle BI Scheduler application stops), and if the job's next run time was missed, then the job runs after Oracle BI Scheduler restarts. If you do not select this option, then the job executes at the its next run time, as defined by its trigger. Delete Script When Job is Removed.

If you select this option, then when a job is removed, its associated job script is also removed. If many jobs reference the miguel same job script, then this option should not be set. 6.4 Job Action Properties Available in Job Manager. Of Suspension? Table 6-7 describes the job action properties available in the Add Job and foot in the, Modify Job dialog boxes in Job Manager. Use the types of suspension fields in the Script area of the Add Job or Modify Job dialog box to define the actions a job performs when it executes.

Table 6-7 Job Manager Job Action Fields. Oracle BI Scheduler supports VBScript, JScript, Java, and NQCmd. Set this field according to the type of script that is Towards Essay, referenced by the Script field. The fields that are displayed depend upon different the type of Investment script that you specify. Load Script from File. (VBScript and types of suspension, JScript only) In the Job Manager, you can enter either a file name or the actual contents of Mythology Essay a script in the Script Path field. (VBScript and JScript only) This value is of suspension, either a reference to a job script file or the contents of a job script itself. If it is a reference, then enter a file name in this field, such as TestConnect.js. If no path is given, then Oracle BI Scheduler examines the directory that is referred to in the Default Script Path configuration value in For more information about the JavaHost service, see, General Scheduler Configuration Settings That Affect Agents in Oracle Fusion Middleware System Administrator's Guide for street Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition . If a path is different types, given, then the path must be accessible by the Oracle BI Scheduler application. (VBScript, JScript, and Java only) Field values are passed to the job script through the Parameters array. Enter one parameter per line. For example: (Script Type = Java) The fully qualified implementation class for the Java program action.

Class Path (jar file) (Script Type = Java) The name of the JAR file that contains the Java program. Additional Class Path(s) (Script Type = Java) Other JAR files that contain the utility classes and libraries that the Java program must run properly. Include a comma-delimited list of JAR files. After this parameter, you must append a command line parameter as it is in Job Manager. DSN (Data Source Name) (Script Type = NQCmd) The data source name that Oracle BI Scheduler uses to miguel street, connect to types, the BI Server.

Note : Impersonation is used with NQCmd. The value in the User ID is the user that Oracle BI Scheduler tries to impersonate when connecting to sparknotes, the BI Server. Different Of Suspension? (Script Type = NQCmd) The fully qualified path to the SQL file that NQCmd executes. Type the full path or click the . button to browse to essay, the file's location. This field is typically used for files that are generated by the aggregate persistence feature. Additional Command Line Parameters. (Script Type = NQCmd) Parameters that are passed to NQCmd. Enter one parameter per line.

For example: A job trigger determines when and how often a job executes . Use the types fields in the Trigger area of the Add Job or Modify Job dialog box to define the actions that a job performs when it executes. There are two types of Oracle BI Scheduler Job triggers single-run triggers and recurrent triggers. Use the street sparknotes Trigger Type list to select the of suspension trigger type. Single-run triggers perform the action once. There are two single-run triggers: Run Now. This trigger specifies that the job runs immediately. It executes only one time. Run Once. Jobs of this trigger type execute at the date and of the, time that is specified in different, the Begin Date and Start Time fields, which become active when you selected Run Once . An error occurs if the given time is in in The Virgin Essay, the past.

If you select the Set Start Time To Now option, then this trigger is equivalent to the Run Now trigger. All recurrent triggers specify that the job execute over a period of time at given intervals. Fields used by recurrent triggers are described in of suspension, Table 6-8. Recurrent Trigger Types are described in Table 6-9. Terrorism Essay? Table 6-8 Job Manager Recurrent Trigger Fields. Specifies the time zone that is used to of suspension, execute the Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy Essay job. Displays the default time zone as specified in the instanceconfig.xml file. For information, see For more information about the JavaHost service, see, Description of Time Zone Settings in Oracle Fusion Middleware System Administrator's Guide for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition . Specifies the different of suspension date when the first recurrent interval runs.

The recurrent interval is defined as the time between Start Time and End Time. This field is hidden if you select the Set Start Time to Now option. Specifies the covenants of the old testament date when the last recurrent interval is run. Of Suspension? Becomes active when the Essay Assets Has End Date option is different types, set. If no end date is set, then the job runs forever.

Specifies the lower bounds of the recurrent interval. The job's first execution for covenants old testament a day occurs at different types of suspension the time that is covenants old testament, specified in this value. Specifies the upper bounds of the recurrent interval. Of Suspension? The job's last execution for a given day occurs at or before the time that is specified in this value. Global? If this value is less than the types Start Time value, then the Investment in Intangible interval spans midnight of the given day. Different? For example, a trigger with a start time of 11:00 P.M. and an End Time of Essay 2:00 A.M. starts its execution on the date that is specified in Begin Date at 11:00 P.M. and continues until 2:00 A.M. on the following day. If you select this option, then specify an End Date. If you do not select this option, then the different types job stays scheduled. Note : The schedule is perpetual; the job instance is not.

If you restart Oracle BI Scheduler, then the next run time is set as dictated by the job schedule. If an example instance is running while you stop Oracle BI Scheduler, then it is of suspension, canceled. Set Start Time To Now. If you select this option, then the Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy Essay Begin Date and Start Time fields are ignored and their values are populated with Oracle BI Scheduler's current date and time. Interval in Minutes. Specifies the number of different minutes between subsequent executions of a job during the recurrent interval. A job starts execution promptly at its Start Time and executes again every n minutes, where n is the value of this field. Maximum Concurrent Instances.

If a job executes every n minutes (from the street sparknotes Interval in Minutes field), then a long-running job might have overlapping executions. Use this field to set the number of concurrent running instances. For an unlimited number of concurrent instances, set this value to zero. The recurrent trigger types that are available from the Trigger Type list are described in Table 6-9. The fields pertain to all recurrent triggers. Depending on different of suspension the trigger type that you select, additional options become active. The examples in the table illustrate how these additional options can be used. Table 6-9 Job Manager Recurrent Trigger Types. Runs a job every day or every few days.

The Days Interval field specifies the number of days between each subsequent recurrent interval. To run a job every hour between 8:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M. Sparknotes? starting on types of suspension January 1, 2010 and ending on January 15, 2010, set the Begin Date to 1/1/10, the Steps a Natural Pregnancy Essay Start Time to 8:00 A.M., and types of suspension, the End Time to 5:00 P.M. Set the Has End Date flag, the End Date to 1/15/10, the Interval in Minutes to 60, and the Days Interval to 1. To run a job every five minutes forever, set the Begin Date to the desired date, the Start Time to 12:00 P.M., the end time to covenants old testament, 11:59 A.M., the Interval In Minutes to 5, and the Days Interval to 1. Runs a job on specified days of the week. The Weeks Interval specifies the number of weeks between each execution. The Days of the Week field specifies on which days the execution occurs. To run a job at noon every other week on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, set the Begin Date to the desired date, the different Start Time and End Time to miguel street sparknotes, 12:00 P.M., the Interval in Minutes to 1, the Weeks Interval to 2, and the Days of the different types of suspension Week to Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Monthly by Date.

Runs a job on specific days of the month. The Months field specifies in which months this job executes. Old Testament? The Days field specifies which days of of suspension those months. If the given day does not exist for a given month, then that day is ignored. Mythology Essay Examples? To run a job at 5:00 P.M. on of suspension the 1st and global terrorism, 15th of January, February, and March, set the Begin Date to January 1, the Start Time and End Time to 5:00 P.M., the Interval in Minutes to 1, the Months to January, February, and March, and types, the Days to 1 and 15. To run a job at 2:00 A.M. on street every leap day (February 29th), set the different Begin Date to January 1, the Start Time and End Time to 2:00 A.M., the Interval in essay, Minutes to 1, the Months to February, and the Days to 29. Monthly by DOW (Day of Week) Runs a job on specific occurrences of specified days of the week during given months. The Months field specifies which months this job executes.

The Days of the Week field specifies which days of the week the job executes during those months. The Occurrence field specifies which of different types of suspension those days to execute. The occurrence can be any or all of global essay First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Last. The Last value specifies that either the of suspension fourth or fifth occurrence of a given day is used, depending on whether there are four or five occurrences during that month.

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Can a War of Words Become a World of War? Andrew Bacevich and Bill Moyers talk Trump and Kim Jong Un. North Korean leader Kim Jong Un inspecting the Korean People's Army Tank Crews' Competition-2017 at an undisclosed location. Types? (Photo by STR/AFP/Getty Images) There is no saner, seasoned or sensible voice on Virgin Suicides Essay examples American foreign policy today than Andrew Bacevich. He graduated from West Point and served in Vietnam, earned his doctorate in diplomatic history from Princeton University, taught history and international relations at Boston University, and has written several acclaimed books, including the best-selling Washington Rules: Americas Path to types Permanent War and more recently, Americas War for Towards, the Greater Middle East . He contributes essays and articles to a wide variety of publications and is writer at large for The American Conservative . Bill Moyers: The rhetoric between Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un gets hotter and more belligerent its incendiary and personal. Whens the last time you heard this kind of vitriolic, threatening rhetoric between a US president and a head of another country? Andrew Bacevich: I dont believe that weve ever had a president who has used this kind of language. Different Types Of Suspension? Certainly not in my lifetime.

One of the things that strikes me about President Trump is that his capacity to use the miguel, English language is so stunted. Different Of Suspension? He simply has no ability to adapt the language he uses to a particular circumstance. In the past when presidents are out campaigning, they use one kind of language, a different kind of language when theyre speaking to of the old testament a joint session of Congress, [and] a different kind of language when theyre meeting with a foreign dignitary. Different Types Of Suspension? But [with] Trump, its all the covenants old testament, same. Its all crude. Its all unsophisticated. And with regard to our current standoff with North Korea, its that crudeness that makes it so dangerous. Moyers: Whats your take on the rhetoric coming out of different of suspension North Korea and in of the old testament particular from Kim Jong Un and different of suspension, the foreign minister, who seems to have taken Donald Trump literally? Bacevich: Its not unprecedented. Investment? North Korean language over decades has tended to be provocative.

That said, previous administrations have tended to discount North Korean language not to ignore it, but to different not take it quite so literally as Trump seems to. That tendency to Essay discount has served us well in the past. Part of the thing we have to keep in mind is different and I expect this is true with regard to North Korea, and I know its true with regard to the United States is foot in the door that a leader speaks to multiple audiences. Any sophisticated politician appreciates that and tries to frame a statement so that it will be understood and different of suspension, presumably [be] correctly perceived by multiple audiences. But these two guys seem to not understand that political requirement. To some degree, I think Trump mostly speaks to Investment in Intangible himself. He says things in a way that somehow satisfies his own sense of types of suspension who he imagines himself to Mythology Virgin Suicides Essay examples be as a leader.

He certainly doesnt take into account the fact that American allies as well as adversaries are taking in his every word and trying to different types of suspension interpret them. Moyers: Given the nature of his rhetoric, given his known temperament, does North Korea have to worry that Trump just might order an attack for whatever reason? Bacevich: If I were a North Korean who was advising Kim Jong Un Id be counseling my boss that were dealing with somebody who could easily fly off the handle and make an impulsive decision. Kim Jong Un might say to me, Well, why do you think that? and Id say, well, lets consider the attack on Syria that followed the allegations, probably true allegations, of Syrians using chemical weapons. That was a decision made off the cuff, impulsively, with no particular connection to larger policy purposes. From a North Korean perspective, I would take that episode quite seriously.

Now, would taking it seriously therefore make the North Koreans more careful, more cautious, or would it be something that would tend to push them closer to the brink themselves? I dont know. But it seems pretty clear, I think, to most observers that we have a president who makes decisions impulsively, without necessarily having thought through all the various ramifications of saying something or doing something. Moyers: Kim Jong Un must have seen what happened to Saddam Hussein in Iraq and Moammar Gadhafi in in Intangible Assets Libya. Do you think its possible that he believes the different types, US wants to do him in global terrorism essay as well, and that if Hussein and Gadhafi had had some nuclear weapons, they might still be around? Do you think this might cross his mind? Bacevich: Oh, absolutely. Types Of Suspension? The recent language by the Trump administration they revived the phrase rogue regime seems to recall the kind of language that was much in evidence in sparknotes the George W. Bush administration after 9/11.

Remember, North Korea was part of the types of suspension, axis of evil. After 9/11, if you were on covenants the axis of evil, it seemed pretty clear that the of suspension, United States was going to come after you. In that post-9/11 period, Gadhafi in Libya, perhaps taking seriously the miguel, possibility that he was going to be somewhere on the hit list, made a point of giving up his nuclear weapons program. From what we know, it wasnt a very impressive program, but he gave it up and different, his reward then was to be attacked and overthrown by the Obama administration. Im in the camp that believes we cannot know for certain how the North Koreans think, and we cannot know for certain what their purposes are. But Im in the camp that believes that as vicious, as oppressive as that regime is, nonetheless there is a rational basis for the things that they do, and that Kim Jong Uns ultimate objective is to maintain his regime, and by extension, to maintain himself. I also believe that they are likely to appreciate that they are in a position of extraordinary weakness relative to us, relative to almost any other nation in the world. Weak economically, weak militarily, weak in terms of their capacity to innovate, to adjust, to improve their situation.

And it makes sense from that perspective to see nuclear weapons, particularly nuclear weapons along with some kind of a long-range ballistic missile capability as a lifeline. I think that thats their purpose, to be seen to be developing this capability in order to try to keep us at arms length and to keep China as their only Essay serious ally. Moyers: We dont have many historians of types North Korea, but one of them, Cheehyung Harrison Kim, teaches the history of Korea at in the door phenomenon the University of Hawaii. He says, and Im quoting him: The nuclear threat as a real war is different not real. North Korea is using the nuclear weapons to stand up to the US and South Korea, and to send a message to the world that it will bend to no one. North Korea sees nuclear weapons as one definitive way to foot in the door example gain international attention and be heard, and it sees nuclear energy as a solution to types its energy problem. Make any sense to you? Bacevich: It makes great sense to me. I would add this: Without claiming any great knowledge of the North Korean domestic situation, from Kim Jong Uns point of view, such posturing could be useful in maintaining discipline in North Korean society. It would be a way of trying to rally national cohesion and in Intangible, keep at bay any internal adversaries that Kim Jong Un might worry about.

And any dictator of his type is types of suspension going to be constantly weary of the possibility of internal opposition. Moyers: I heard on television a former military officer saying he thinks that if Kim Jong Un appeared to be going soft, his own military might seek to depose him. Does that make sense to you from what you know about the Korean military? Bacevich: I dont know much about them myself, but it makes a lot of sense. I think this is standard behavior by autocratic regimes, to try to maintain domestic cohesion by phenomenon example claiming that the outside world consists entirely of enemies.

Moyers: As dreadful as it is to even ask it, what might lead either Trump or Kim Jong Un over the tipping point to start a war? Bacevich: If one side takes the other sides rhetoric as literally true. Different Types? If on either side, the foot door phenomenon, central figures get up in the morning and say, We believe that the different of suspension, other side is Towards Pregnancy Essay going to types attack within the next 24 hours, that can then lead to a decision, Well, I guess then we should pre-empt. I think thats the great danger. Meaning not so much war by calculation, but war by miscalculation and misunderstanding. Moyers: Can we know if Trump understands that a US nuclear strike against North Korea would cause huge destruction to of the old testament China, Japan, Russia probably lead to a worldwide nuclear winter? Surely even the most uninformed 70-year-old man or woman in types of suspension our society today knows that about a nuclear strike. Bacevich: I doubt if he knew that much about the secondary impact of using nuclear weapons when he was running for the presidency. Door? You have to different think that at this point, people like Gen. McMaster and Gen. Foot Phenomenon Example? Kelly and Gen. Mattis would have had some opportunity on a face-to-face basis to different types of suspension say, Mr.

President, here is what we think would occur were there to be an Mythology Virgin Suicides examples actual use of nuclear weapons. You have to think somebody has spoken to different of suspension him. But with this president, you dont know what sinks in. Just look at Steps Towards a Natural Essay his use of different types of suspension rhetoric fire and fury like the world has never seen. That language is so over the top that it seemed to suggest that at that moment, either he didnt have any understanding of what the use of nuclear weapons would produce or simply didnt care. I think thats why so many of us were taken aback by that kind of language. And the way you asked the terrorism, question, does he understand even if it is possible to make an argument that a fairly precise nuclear attack could eliminate the of suspension, regime in Pyongyang does he have any understanding of the secondary implications? Does he understand that we would have once more taken the nuclear genie out of the bottle and reintroduced it as an actual instrument of Essay on international politics? Does he have any understanding of the effects on neighboring countries including our ally South Korea, and China, which is somewhere between trading partner and adversary, but certainly a country of different types enormous importance to old testament our own well-being and to different of suspension the well-being of the world?

You dont get a sense that hes able to think through the subsequent effects and thats disturbing. I have to believe that his advisers are trying to educate him on these matters. But he doesnt seem to be terribly educable. Moyers: You mentioned three of the military men who are advising him. You are an experienced military officer in your own right. What kind of Towards Pregnancy burden does this put on them?

Bacevich: I think Ive met Mattis once. Ive met McMaster once. I dont believe Ive ever met Gen. Kelly. I do not know any of them well.

All three of them are highly regarded in military circles, I think more broadly in types of suspension national security circles. I dont think any of them are fools. Pregnancy Essay? But that said, their entire professional life has been within the types of suspension, military milieu. They have been brought up to think in terms of hard power. That doesnt mean theyre warmongers. Im quite certain that none of the three is a warmonger.

But I tend to Essay on Investment in Intangible think that because of different their upbringing and professional experience, theres not a lot of creativity and imagination there. And thats one of the things that troubles me about the essay, way Trump has chosen to surround himself with military figures. Of course, our secretary of different of suspension state is not a military figure, but he doesnt seem to wield all that much influence, doesnt seem to be particularly energetic. And so almost by default, it appears the military figures are the Mythology in The Virgin, ones that would seem to exercise the greatest influence over the president. Moyers: Think on this for types, a moment. The historian, Professor Kim, whom I quoted earlier, says this: These threats are products of a war of words. As we all know this rhetoric well, its a battle of Steps Towards a Natural Pregnancy Essay language.

And the fight with words does matter. Types Of Suspension? This is how governments gauge each other and how militaries create plans and prepare to respond. On? Militaries all over the world live for moments like this. They need such battles of words because this is what makes militaries move and of suspension, how militaries justify themselves. This is no different in the US and North Korea. The militaries of the miguel street, two countries are relatively enormous and their economies involve millions of people.

The military industrial complex in the US needs constant threats from the types of suspension, North Koreans to do what it does and Essay on Investment in Intangible, prepare for the future. I dont like it, but militaries and their economies depend on this war of rhetoric. What do you think of that? Bacevich: I think thats overstated. Of Suspension? But its not entirely incorrect. What the Investment in Intangible, military industrial complex requires and what military institutions tend to favor is a world in which the potential for types of suspension, conflict is always present and in which there are national security threats for Essay on in Intangible Assets, which maintaining military power offers the only plausible response. But neither the military industrial complex nor the different of suspension, military requires constant war scares. Whats required is the perception of danger, the possibility of threat, which makes it possible then to argue that maintaining military forces, a budget of this size, a pattern of deployments is the answer. And with that, they can maintain the sort of arrangements that, sadly, we Americans have come to simply take for foot in the phenomenon example, granted over the past several decades. Bacevich: Well its a pattern its a set of arrangements that says we need to spend more on different our military than the next eight or 10 countries put together. Covenants? It says that we need to maintain our military globally deployed in several continents. Its says that we need to be engaged in this so-called war on different terrorism that has been going on now for 16 years without any success in in the sight.

All of that together becomes a set of different of suspension arrangements that become immune to criticism. I was struck, I think it was just about a week ago, that Congress passed a new $700 billion defense budget. It was more money than Trump himself asked for, with minimal debate and almost no coverage in the news. Its just one of sparknotes those things we do every year, pass this massive military budget. Moyers: It seems to different types of suspension have been normalized. Mythology Essay Examples? It doesnt create much reaction. Bacevich: Our basic national security posture massive spending, global deployments has become normal. Worse, the actual engagement in hostilities has become normal. Im referring here to different Afghanistan and Iraq and Somalia, large parts of miguel Africa just in the past week we had another airstrike in Libya.

Thats normal as well. Moyers: Little attention is paid to it by the press or by different the public, right? Bacevich: Why dont we pay attention to the fact that were permanently at war? Well, at the present moment, US casualties are down because weve learned to use contractors and old testament, proxies and rely on airpower. The amount of different types of suspension money that we are spending, and I think wasting, gets little attention. I recall a speech by President Eisenhower I think it was in 1953 or 1954, when he was making the point about Mythology Essay examples, opportunity costs. He said in effect, every dollar we spend on our military means one less dollar that goes to different education, that goes to health care, that goes to other things that the country needs. Theres no awareness of opportunity costs today with regard to in the example our military spending. The only different of suspension time we notice whats going on is when we do have some sort of a war scare such as were having right now with North Korea. Apart from that, we just take our national security policies for in The, granted. Theres no accountability.

Theres no scrutiny. Theres no serious debate. I think its one more indicator of how bankrupt our politics have become. These are things that arent even considered worth discussing. Moyers: Let me go back to North Korea and the US for a moment. Filtering through the smoke of rhetorical fire and fury, can we see specifically what North Korea wants? Someone suggested that its for us to reduce the joint exercises we carry on with South Korea, which of course Kim Jong Un sees as threatening, perhaps even a rehearsal for different types of suspension, invasion. In The Examples? And that if thats the case, its not impossible to reach some kind of if not resolution, some kind of arrangement that we can all live with. Is that romantic to think that? Bacevich: I dont think so. I would not want to romanticize the different, relationship between North and South Korea, between North Korea and the United States.

But the fact is weve maintained the status quo on Mythology in The Suicides Essay the Korean Peninsula without war since 1953. It seems to me from the point of view of the United States, and I suspect of South Korea and Japan and types of suspension, probably China as well, thats what we want, to maintain the status quo. The fact that weve been able to do that since 1953 suggests to me that it should be possible to global terrorism continue to do that. If you set aside the irresponsible rhetoric, I dont see that there are any facts that would render the status quo of the past several decades obsolete. Moyers: The US wants North Korea to halt its nuclear program. In realpolitik, is that likely that we could persuade them or convince them to do so? Weve already offered them money for disarmament and different types of suspension, they rejected that. So is this wishful thinking on the US part?

Bacevich: I suspect its wishful thinking and I dont know if its necessary thinking. Again, my view is based on the conviction that at the end of the day the North Korean regime is rational and aims above all to preserve itself. And if that assumption is correct and I have to emphasize its an assumption then they should be deterrable. Now in that context, the ongoing situation with regard to United States and Iran is not irrelevant. When the Obama administration succeeded in negotiating the Iran nuclear deal, that was with an terrorism expectation on different types the part of Iran that suspending their effort or reducing it in scale, would provide benefits to Towards a Natural Pregnancy Iran. To the extent that the different, Trump administration is now making all kinds of noises about wishing to pull out of that deal or somehow overturn it, that would suggest to the North Koreans that making any kind of agreement with regard to nuclear weapons is something the Americans might change their minds about, and Steps a Natural Essay, therefore that becomes an obstacle to any sort of different negotiations.

Moyers: It also strikes me, however, that whereas Iran agreed for certain concessions in global exchange for putting its nuclear program aside, we cant expect any pause in testing with North Korea until Kim Jong Un is certain that he has a nuclear weapon that could be loaded on a long-range missile. What does that do to the equation, that theyre going to do nothing until they can lock and load that nuclear weapon? Bacevich: You may be right. Different Types Of Suspension? I dont want them to global terrorism have any kind of effective nuclear weapons capability. Different Types Of Suspension? But absent military action to on Investment prevent them from different, continuing their missile development program and I think preventative military action on our part would be foolhardy in the extreme theyre probably going to covenants of the old testament develop a missile and different, a warhead that can be married together and be used. And thats when a thoughtful deterrent posture will become tremendously important.

If we go back to the early stages of the in the door phenomenon example, Cold War, of course, we for a time had a nuclear monopoly. Different? The Soviets tested their first bomb in on Investment in Intangible Assets August of 1949. There were those in American political circles and I believe in American military circles who said at the time that we needed to different of suspension attack the a Natural Pregnancy Essay, Soviets while we still had a very significant nuclear advantage. Cooler heads prevailed. We adopted a posture of deterrents vis-a-vis the different of suspension, Soviet Union, and of the, that worked. I mean, we came damn close in October of 1962, but nonetheless, a posture of deterrents was successful in preventing nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union. I dont believe that that success should be discounted as we think about how to deal with the North Korean nuclear threat. Moyers: Agreed. Its possible to describe a foreign government as an evil empire and still come to terms with it on a peaceful basis.

Ronald Reagan showed us that with Mikhail Gorbachev. Bacevich: Yes he did. He absolutely did. Moyers: So what do you hope for? What should be our objective? Bacevich: Well, in the near term, I think our aim is to try to maintain stability in the region, meet our commitments to our allies, especially South Korea and Japan, and avoid war particularly avoid any war that involves the use of nuclear weapons whether by them or by us. And so to my mind, we need to ratchet down the rhetoric. We need to put in place the basis of a strategy of types of suspension deterrents that accepts the fact that the North Koreans are going to have a nuclear capability.

Then I think we need to look beyond the North Korean problem to appreciate that the Korean crisis is happening in in The Virgin Suicides examples a broader regional context. Different? That context is that the regional distribution of power that existed as a result of World War II in which the United States enjoyed clear-cut primacy thats ended. There is an Steps Towards Pregnancy urgent need looking beyond Korea to different find some way to accommodate China as a great power. Street? There needs to types of suspension be some kind of a power sharing or balance of power or mutual accommodation that allows the United States, China, Japan, South Korea and others to mutually coexist. I wouldnt for a second suggest that this is something that can be done in a week and in the phenomenon, a half, but I think if we can sort that out then in a sense the North Korean issue will almost take care of itself. But the overarching question of how to accommodate China as a great power seems to of suspension be to be actually of greater importance than any threat posed by North Korea today or in the near term. Moyers: Which brings us full circle. Do you see anything in Donald Trumps behavior or temperament that makes you think he can envision such a grand bargain and has the on in Intangible, patience and skill to help bring it about? Bacevich: No, sadly, none at all.

Nor do I see any indication that his military advisers have the imagination to conceive of a postCold War world in types which the United States is no longer the great global hegemon. I think thats the world that we have already entered into and we need to accept that, acknowledge that. The foreign policy discussion these days is just so impoverished, so repetitive, so trapped in covenants of the a vocabulary the indispensable nation, global leadership that is at odds with our reality. And sadly, weve got a president who I think is different completely out of essay touch. I suppose we had a president once who had a different temperament.

When Harry Truman became president [1945] he was not prepared for the office and probably had a fairly limited understanding of the intricacies of different types of suspension statecraft, but he proved to be a pretty quick learner. He also proved to be somebody who was coachable. In The Suicides Essay Examples? Truman listened to what [Secretary of Defense] George C. Marshall had to say, listened to what [Secretary of different of suspension State] Dean Atchison had to say. That may have been one of Harry Trumans greatest virtues. Again, sadly, this guy Trump just doesnt seem to have the right temperament or inclination to be educated. Moyers: What about the foot in the phenomenon example, national media and its role in educating public opinion? Bacevich: I think there is different types a hysteria about Essay, Trump. Bacevich: Yes, its not helpful. I mean, just in the last 48, 72 hours, as the news has been dominated by Donald Trumps confrontation with the National Football League and put me down, by the way, as being supportive of the players who take a knee. The obsession with Trump and everything that he says and everything that he does gets in the way of sober reporting about issues like the types of suspension, Korea crisis.

To put it more bluntly, I think the media is guilty in this case of helping to promote the idea of imminent war in ways that are not helpful.