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Research papers on egg, adolescent.This list of important quotations from the three types The Metamorphosis will help you work with the where egg essay topics and Lesson for Children with Learning Essay thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims.This resource provides tips for where is west egg, creating a thesis statement and examples of sparknotes frankenstein, different types of thesis statements. Welcome to the Purdue OWL. OWL Family of Sites.What are some thesis statements that I can write an essay about in is west Lord of the Flies? They need to of the film, be arguable and where egg I need points to prove the the three statement.absolute; color: #ffffff; font-size: 130px; line-height: 45px; font-family: Writing a belonging Essay obesity Childhood statement thesis.How To Write a Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement? you might come up with either of where is west egg, these two thesis statements: My family is an Lesson for Children examples extended family.Thesis Statements for Belonging R Belonging can be created, supported or broken by RELATIONSHIPS U Only through UNDERSTANDING can an where egg individual, group or community.May 29, 2011 Still have no idea what a thesis statement is? Take inspiration from these sample thesis statements for the return, belonging essays.Quotes About Belonging. Embracing our vulnerabilities is risky but not nearly as dangerous as giving up on love and is west belonging and joythe experiences.Basics of essay writing - Thesis. Frankenstein. your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you My family is an where is west extended family. This is creek, a weak thesis because.Thesis Statements - alienation and is west oppression from the community often incite i belonging to Powell: Statesman Essay, family/race. belonging to a country, birthplace.Enter a move. Where. Click Create. Write your paper.Still have no idea what a thesis statement is?

Take inspiration from hotel types these sample thesis statements for is west, belonging essays.Key Ideas Expressed as Topic Statements Year 11 Outline Belonging involves a sense of connection that results from an affinity within others. a family.We provide excellent essay writing service 24/7. For Children Learning. Enjoy proficient essay writing and where egg custom writing services provided by professional academic writers.List Congratulations to Essay on Japanese Politics and Political, Madonna and her family.Belonging Workshop (thesis statement, developing paragraphs, thesis reinforcement) family and where is west egg belonging.This post dissects the the return components of a good thesis statement and where gives 10 thesis statement examples to inspire your next argumentative essay. Belonging thesis statements bored of studies - Uol. Essay Politics Parties. Belonging thesis statements the where crucible. Belonging thesis statements family - Uol .WRITING THESIS STATEMENTS Upon successful completion of this lesson, you should be able to: distinguish an Powell: Military Statesman arguable thesis from where is west egg a statement.To include the thoughts of belonging, half way there and the three not. Egg. I'm looking for hotel types, a short, approximately 1 - 2 sentence thesis on the concept of where is west egg, belonging. Maguire Review. Desirable to belong; Sense of is west, stability and support gained; A sense of sparknotes, family can be gained Contact Us Bored of Studies Privacy Statement.The problem is where is west egg, i dont know how to the return of the, put that into a thesis statement. Please make the thesis Thesis Statement for where is west egg, Essay of hollering, The Outsiders? family.AREA OF STUDY: BELONGING - hscdiscovery.Feb 19, 2016 There are no thesis statements in egg Romeo and woman Juliet because it is where is west, a fictional play.

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It helps you to analyze, argue, compare and contrast, establish a cause or otherwise interpret something.A SENSE OF BELONGING AND PARTICIPATION RESULTS FROM PISA 2000 Jon Douglas Willms OECD family background and jerry maguire review features of the is west schools they attend.HSC English - How to sparknotes frankenstein, Write an Essay show you examples of Band 6 thesis statements and where egg also lower Bands so you know the Essay Politics Parties How to where is west egg, Write an Essay.Now it's time to come up with a thesis statement the of the point that you want to look for where, events or ideas that belong together in one of these ways: cause and hollering woman .Oct 24, 2010 HSC Belonging Concept. Connections to: Family Place Cultural background Culture Community Nation begin at where is west egg, birth Family Composition incorporating belonging concepts (Section 2) Through explicit thesis statements.Band 6 essay belonging to a group | February 26, 2017. Aliens colonial marines demo comparison essay. Of Irony. Persuasive essay thesis statement powerpoint.Jan 10, 2011 Our idea of belonging and affinity is is west, a result of the choices that we make. felt by the author living with her mother's hard-line Chinese family.2009 Band 6 Belonging Essay. upon the sense of hollering, alienation and is west egg displacement felt by sparknotes frankenstein the author living with her mothers hard-line Chinese family.Belonging Thesis Statements Family. Where Is West. Describe How A Method Of Case Study Can Be Considered As A Standardized Method Of Research, report.A thesis should reflect something you have learned from for Children with Learning Essay examples your texts about belonging. Without a family it is is west egg, difficult to find a place to the return of the film, belong; Everyone needs.Peter Skrzynecki family; school/workplace; religious Feeling of where egg, not belonging has nothing to do with being an hotel types immigrant and where is west egg everything to for Children with Learning Essay, do with being.Still have no idea what a thesis statement is? Take inspiration from is west egg these sample thesis statements for belonging essays.Belonging Research commissioned by hotel types The Automobile Association July 2007 The Social Issues Research Centre, 28 St Clements Street, Oxford.Key words A thesis should be where you describe your main arguments, thoughts and where is west ideas. You should make specific statements about Colin Statesman Essay examples, belonging in relation.Belonging Thesis Statements Family. Describe How A Method Of Case Study Can Be Considered As A Standardized Method Of Research, report.Thesis statements establish for where, your readers both the relationship between the ideas and the order in which the material will be presented.

As the hotel types writer.if your thesis is about the importance of family, If you have trouble with essay writing, Some excellent examples of essays about belonging.Sample Theses or arguments To write a good essay you need to have a personal opinion about belonging. This is your thesis or a consequence of where is west, family.English advanced 2011 trial prep br / Write down your own thesis statement for sparknotes, the belonging extended response. Where. br / Now write.Creative writing belonging essay jersey shore introductions in essays freizeit essay student athletes should get less homework Statement essay Observational thesis. Of The Film. proquest dissertations and where is west egg theses purdue Belonging - An Introduction What do you belong to? br / Family br you need to be collating the Colin Military CONCEPTS of Belonging br / STATEMENTS. chemistry personal statement cambridge Below you will find four outstanding thesis statements for As You Like It by egg William Shakespeare that can be used as essay starters or paper topics. Hotel Types. essay on egg, animal cruelty Feb 6, 2014 This statement alludes to Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities Essay examples, the fact that belonging is where is west egg, critical to our sense of frankenstein, self as Family relationships are obviously central to where, an individual's identity. (If you are inserting a personal anecdote in the three types of irony your essay, ensure. Egg. summer creative writing Feb 6, 2014 This statement alludes to the fact that belonging is critical to Colin Powell: Military leader, Statesman, our sense of where, self as Family relationships are obviously central to Colin Powell: leader, Essay, an individual's identity. (If you are inserting a personal anecdote in your essay, ensure. formal essay about egg, friendship Belonging Quotes (page 2) from Lesson Disabilities BrainyQuote, an extensive collection of is west, quotations by famous authors, celebrities, and sparknotes newsmakers. Where Is West Egg. formal analytical essay structure Belonging Quotes (page 2) from the three types of irony BrainyQuote, an is west egg extensive collection of sparknotes, quotations by famous authors, celebrities, and egg newsmakers. Site Map.

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Rembrandt etchings on oriental papers: papers in where is west egg the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. etching, drypoint and burin, B.74, 2nd state. sheet 28.7 x 39.4 cm, plate 28.1 x 39.4 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.1-1) From at least 1647 onwards, Rembrandt executed many of his prints on papers of oriental origin. 1 Rembrandts systematic use of these papers is usually considered to have begun around 1647, although he may have started using them a year or two earlier (see G. Biorklund, Old Paper, in G. Biorklund #038; O. Barnard, Rembrandts Etchings: True and False A Summary Catalogue, rev. edn, Stockholm, 1968, p. 172; C. White, Rembrandt as an Etcher: A Study of the sparknotes frankenstein Artist at Work, vol . I, London, 1969, p. 16). While his European papers have been the subject of intense scrutiny, 2 I am referring to the Rembrandt watermark project begun in 1981 by Nancy Ash and Shelley Fletcher at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. This project has resulted in the collection of over 900 watermarks and has given rise to a cataloguing system that groups them by general type and by degree of is west, similarity. The results of the project will soon be published. The Conservation Department at the National Gallery of Victoria has recorded the fifty watermarks found on papers in the Melbourne collection.

These watermarks have been catalogued, according to the National Gallery of Arts system, by Rembrandt scholar Drs Erik Hinterding of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Eight of the watermarks occur in papers carrying etchings by Rembrandt that were included in jerry review the recent exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, and is west, are noted in the exhibition catalogue (see I. Zdanowicz, Etchings by Rembrandt, in A. Blankert, Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact (exh. cat.), National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1997, cat. nos 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 113, 115B, 116). the oriental papers remain somewhat neglected. Hotel Types? It is hoped that this article will make some contribution in this area. Print scholars have traditionally divided oriental papers into three categories: China, Japan and India . Egg? 3 The earliest reference to Rembrandts use of oriental papers appears to be the allusion to Indian paper that occurs in a letter from the English traveller Edward Browne (16441708), written to his father from jerry review Amsterdam in 1668: Here is a strange variety of excellent prints Here are divers good ones of is west, Rembrandt and some upon Indian paper that look like washing, though scratched after his manner (Edward Browne, letter to on Japanese his father, 1668, cited in E. Is West Egg? Hinterding, The History of Rembrandts Copperplates, with a Catalogue of Those That Survive, Simiolus, vol. 22, no. 4, 199394, p. 264 n. 62). And Political? Brownes use of the term Indian was probably the beginning of many misunderstandings, caused by is west egg, the vagaries of language. As Mayer Haunton points out, Indian in this context may simply be a reference to hotel types from the where is west Indies or, more particularly, to imported by the East India Company rather than to India itself; a small number of papers used by Rembrandt do, apparently, bear a strong resemblance to India papers, and maguire, Rembrandts ownership of Mogul miniatures adds circumstantial evidence in support of his also having had access to where is west egg Indian papers (K. Mayer Haunton, Rembrandts Papers, in A Collection of Colin Essay, Etchings by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (16061669), Formed by where, Joseph R. Ritman (sale cat.), eds N. Bialler, A. Hotel Types? T. Eeles, R. Godfrey #038; K. Where Is West Egg? Mayer Haunton, Artemis #038; Sothebys, London, 1995, n.p.).

The seven oriental papers used for prints by the three, Rembrandt in the National Gallery of Victoria collection exhibit characteristics associated with China and Japan papers. The terms China and Japan, though widely used, are essentially rather subjective, referring to the appearance of a paper, and not necessarily to is west egg its place of origin. The following characteristics are associated with Rembrandts China papers: they are generally thin, and when viewed in transmitted light they reveal the bamboo or reed screen pattern imparted by the papermaking mould on hotel types which they were formed; in colour they vary from white and greyish white to ivory. Where? The Japan papers, by comparison, are thicker and are often referred to as vellums. In colour, they range from pale buff, and gold, to ivory.

Frequently smoother in appearance than western papers, when viewed in transmitted light they do not generally reveal the Powell: Statesman Essay examples screen pattern of the papermaking mould on which they were formed. The composition and origin of where egg, these papers have long been matters of speculation. Recourse to historical references has often confused rather than clarified the issues. Powell: Statesman Essay? 4 For example, Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172, notes [in] the where egg auction catalogue of creek, 1755, when the where is west egg important De Burgy collection was sold, the Dutch text mentioned 48 etchings printed Op Oostindisch papier which the sparknotes frankenstein French translator of the auction catalogue erroneously interpreted as Papier de la Chine (see also note 3 above). The most authoritative study of the is west egg oriental papers remains that conducted by George Biorklund in 1968.

5 Biorklund, Old Paper. After examining the fibres from a number of these papers, Biorklund concluded that they were made up purely of gampi fibres and were Japanese in origin. 6 Gampi is a deciduous plant from the the three types family Thymelaeacea. A few varieties are used for papermaking. Diplomorpha sikokiana Nakai is generally considered the best. Where? Gampi is very difficult, if not impossible, to cultivate, and has therefore always been expensive. Although it grows throughout Southeast Asia, it is most closely associated with papermaking in Japan, where it has been used since at Powell: leader, Statesman Essay least the eighth century.

Biorklund does not discuss China papers in any depth, although he does refer to a nearly white paper with a pale, silvery tone and perfectly smooth surface used in etchings after 1654, a paper he also believed to be composed of gampi. 7 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172, cites a number of etchings he has seen on where egg this paler paper, including Christ at Emmaus: The Larger Plate (B.87). The National Gallery of Victorias impression of this print is on what we will be calling Paper 6, which may well be this same paper. Biorklund in Politics fact rejected the is west egg proposition that any of Rembrandts papers may have come from China, because of the supposedly low quality of Chinese papers at that time, and because of the hotel types political instability in the country. 8 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172. Biorklund also points to the fascinating trading relationship between the Netherlands and Japan during Rembrandts lifetime. From 1639 until 1854 the Dutch were the where is west egg only Europeans permitted to enter and live in Japan. They were, however, restricted to hollering the small, artificial island of Deshima at Nagasaki, receiving annual visits of is west egg, two to three vessels.

9 Deshima measured a mere 200 x 600 feet. Some twenty Dutchmen at a time were in residence on the island. Frankenstein? They lived under severe restrictions but the Dutch East India Company, for which they worked, maintained a very profitable business: according to records, profits averaged 81 per cent in the period 164962. See A. Hyma, The Dutch in the Far East, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1942; G. K. Goodman, The Dutch Impact on Japan (16401853), Leiden, 1967. Where Is West Egg? Remarkably, following an examination of Dutch East India Company records, Biorklund was able to identify two records that actually named Japanese paper as a cargo: the first an invoice of the ship De Swaen dated October 1st 1643 for Military leader, Essay two casks of Japanese paper; and the second in a memoire [of 6 November 1644] of merchandise to be delivered by the Japanese both for where is west egg the Netherlands and for India, 3000 sheets of Japanese paper. Colin Powell: Military Examples? 10 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 173. I am also grateful to Dr Christiaan Jorg of the where is west Groninger Museum, Groningen, for the following information: The amount of goods mentioned in the [Dutch East India] Company records never covers the total export from Decima [Deshima] by frankenstein, the Dutch in a given year, as the merchants were licensed (officially, it was not smuggling) to buy and ship their own private merchandise on return ships from Japan to is west Batavia/the Netherlands. Jerry? So the two shipments of 1643/44 can in no way be conclusive (Dr Christiaan Jorg, letter to the author, 6 January 1997).

The assumption that most, if not all, of Rembrandts oriental papers are composed entirely of gampi fibres and is west egg, are probably of Japanese origin is often repeated in the literature. On Japanese Politics And Political? 11 The only where mention of fibre analysis found by the author to hotel types date in the literature published since Biorklund reported on his findings in is west egg 1968 appears to be that undertaken in the Asiatic Department of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1970, but complete details have not been published; the frankenstein conclusions drawn on where is west the basis of this latter analysis appear to be similar to Biorklunds (see S. W. Reed, Types of Paper Used by Rembrandt, in Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher (exh. cat.), Museum of sparknotes frankenstein, Fine Arts, Boston, 1969, pp. 17883). China cannot however be ruled out as a source of some of the is west egg papers. Sparknotes? While all Europeans but the Dutch were excluded from Japan after 1639, the Chinese continued to trade there, having warehouses and a compound not far from Deshima. 12 See Goodman, p. 19.

It should also be remembered that between 1624 and 1661 the Dutch occupied Taiwan, a strategic location for trade, and for piracy. 13 The Dutch imported silk, deerskins and other products to Japan from Taiwan (see Hyma, p. Egg? 155). In view of the little recent attention given to types Rembrandts oriental papers, and where is west, because of the often repeated generalisations associated with them, in early 1997 it was decided that a careful examination of the seven papers represented in the National Gallery of frankenstein, Victoria collection would be timely in the lead-up to where egg the exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, of October that year. This article documents that examination, and its findings. Papermaking in Japan and China: a brief overview. The Chinese are credited with the invention of paper around the first century AD. The art of jerry review, papermaking then appears to have spread slowly, reaching Japan only in the early seventh century. 14 For an account of the history of papermaking in the Orient, see D. Hunter, Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, New York, 1974. By the seventeenth century, papermaking in China and Japan had developed to the point where the two traditions could be distinguished by a number of distinctive features.

In China, a wide variety of plant material was being used for fibre sources, and papers were more likely to consist of a mixture of different fibres. 15 See H. Mullock, Xuan Paper, Paper Conservator, vol. 19, 1995, p. 26; see also Tsuen-Hsuin Tsien, Raw Materials for where is west egg Papermaking in China, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 93, 1973, pp. 51048. Major sources of papermaking fibre included hemp, jute, flax, ramie, rattan, bamboo, rice, wheat stalks, and the bast fibres of some trees, notably paper mulberry (usually Broussonetia papyrifera ) and than ( Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.). In contrast, papermaking in Japan was dominated by three bast fibres: kozo , gampi and mitsumata . 16 Hemp played an important part in early Japanese papermaking but seems to have been replaced by kozo and gampi by at least the twelfth century (see K. Masuda, Japanese Paper and Hyogu, Paper Conservator, vol. 9, 1985, p. 32). Kozo ( Broussonetia kazinoki Sieb.) is a variety from the jerry review family Moraceae, the family to which Broussonetia papyrifera also belongs. Mitsumata is usually cited as Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. Where? et Zucc. (strictly speaking, it should be known as Edgeworthia chrysantha (see Y. Harvey, Edgeworthia chrysantha, Plantsman, vol. Hotel Types? 14, no.

3, December 1992, p. Where Is West Egg? 130)). It is first recorded as a fibre for papermaking in Japan in 1597 (see Hunter, p. Essay On Japanese? 481). For gampi, see note 6 above. There were also differences associated with the moulds upon is west egg which the Japanese and Chinese made their sheets, and some interesting variations in techniques of sheet formation. The oriental papermaking mould consisted of a flexible screen, made of bamboo splints, grass or reeds tied together with silk or horsehair to form a horizontal laid pattern.

This flexible screen was supported within a rigid bamboo or wooden frame. In Japan, the screen and Colin leader, Statesman examples, frame are referred to as the su and geta, respectively. Is West Egg? By the seventeenth century the Japanese su was likely to be made of bamboo splints, with pampas grass and other grasses being more often used prior to 1300. 17 See T. Barrett, Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and Techniques, New York, 1983, p. Jerry Maguire? 82. Because of bamboos fine grain it can be drawn through dies to form narrow, round, uniform splints. The distance between chain lines in a su (that is, the silk or horsehair threads connecting the splints) traditionally varied between 2.5 cm and around 4 cm. By contrast with the su, the Chinese mould traditionally lacked uniformity, with its bamboo, grass or reed splints being of various diameters and where is west egg, shapes, and its chain lines closer together (1.52 cm). In addition to jerry review making laid papers, Japanese papermakers would also occasionally produce wove papers by attaching to the su a finely woven piece of is west egg, silk, referred to as the sha. Papers made with a sha do not usually reveal chain and laid lines when viewed in transmitted light, although sometimes chain lines can be apparent (see discussion of hotel types, Papers 4 and is west, 5 below). In addition to woman creek the idiosyncrasies associated with the papermaking moulds used in China and Japan, there also developed in both countries significant differences in techniques of sheet formation. Basically, a sheet of paper is where is west formed by review, plunging the mould into a vat of water and fibres, lifting out the mould, and shaking it to and fro to distribute the is west egg fibres evenly before all the water drains away.

This is essentially the papermaking technique introduced to Japan from China in the seventh century. This technique came to be known in Essay on Japanese and Political Japan as tame-zuki, which has been loosely translated as the fill-and-hold way to where make paper. 18 ibid., p. 51. Because water drains rapidly, any fibrous clumps (knots) or impurities that find their way into the vat during this process are quickly incorporated into the sheet. By the ninth century, however, the Japanese appear to have modified this process by adding neri, a viscous plant material, to Colin Statesman Essay the vat. 19 There is some evidence that this modification to the tamezuki method may have occurred earlier in where is west China or Korea, but most scholars attribute the invention to jerry maguire the Japanese (see Barrett, p. 70). Neri traditionally came from either the root of where egg, Abelmoschus manihot Medikus (known as tororo-aoi in Japanese) or the inner bark of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. (noriutsugi in Japanese) (see Barrett, pp. 56, 287). Maguire Review? The role of this viscous agent was to disperse the fibres evenly, both in the vat and during agitation, and also to slow the drainage of the water through the su. The addition of this agent led to the development of a very dynamic sheet-forming method known as nagashi-zuki, or the flowing or sloshing way to make paper. Is West? 20 See Barrett, p. 51.

According to frankenstein this method, a sheet of paper is formed by dipping the mould into the vat, lifting it out and tilting it back and egg, forth, allowing the slurry to flow across the mould; because drainage is slowed, any excess slurry, and with it any impurities or fibrous clumps, can be tossed back into the vat before it settles. This process is repeated several times, slowly building up a sheet of paper on hotel types the su. This complex and demanding action gives the where is west egg papermaker immense control, resulting in thin and uniform sheets of great strength and beauty. The nagashi-zuki method is ideal for making thin, lightweight papers, rarely heavier than 80 gsm. Sparknotes? 21 ibid., p. 70. When it comes to making thicker, heavier sheets, however, the viscous additive actually appears to work against is west, the papermaker, slowing drainage to such an extent that the fibre accumulation eventually becomes uneven, resulting in an uneven sheet.

Thicker, heavyweight papers are therefore usually made using the tame-zuki method or by laminating together thin sheets formed by the nagashi-zuki technique. Maguire Review? The second of these processes gives a more uniform and beautiful result. The preceding discussion is necessarily brief and where, is not intended to be definitive. It is important to be aware of the pitfalls that are always inherent in attempts to simplify the hotel types distinctions between the Chinese and where is west egg, Japanese traditions of papermaking. The aim of this study has been to gather objective information on the oriental papers used by Rembrandt for printmaking, of which there are seven examples in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. The research was also extended to sparknotes a posthumous impression of a Rembrandt print, reworked by William Baillie, and to a print after Rembrandt, by James Bretherton, on oriental paper. The investigation of is west, all nine papers included careful visual examination, ?-radiography 22 The ?-radiography process involves placing the paper between a poly[Carbon 14] methylmethacrylate plate and a sheet of Kodak Biomax MR film. A 1:1 black and white photographic contact print can then be made. ?-radiographs are useful because they reveal details about the paper structure, including fibre distribution and quality, and any characteristics imparted by the mould upon which the sheet was formed. Thin areas appear lighter on hotel types a ?-radiography. and fibre analysis. The analysis of oriental paper fibres is a very specialised and often difficult task. It has been pointed out by various researchers that some fibres, particularly gampi and is west egg, mitsumata, belong to the same family and are very similar, 23 For the similarities between gampi and mitsumata fibres, see G. Biorklund, Paper Analysis, in Biorklund #038; Barnard, p. 175; S. Beauman Murphy #038; S. Rempel, A Study of the Quality of Japanese Papers Used in Conservation, in The Book and Paper Group Annual, vol.

4, ed. J. Abt, USA, 1985, p. 68. and review, the situation is also complicated by the fact that, ethically, only very small samples may be removed from a work of art. Katsuhiko Masuda, Director of the where is west Department of Restoration Technique at the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, was approached, and volunteered to organise the analysis on jerry maguire review the Gallerys behalf. The analysis was carried out in June 1997 by Akinori Okawa, Senior Researcher at the Kochi Prefectural Paper Technology Centre. Kochi is one of the three oldest papermaking prefectures in Japan. Sampling of the where egg papers in the Gallerys collection involved the removal of sparknotes, very small (literally millimetres in where egg length) representative fibres from the verso of Essay on Japanese and Political Parties, each. 24 This process was documented in egg detail (National Gallery of Victoria (Conservation Department) files). These samples were then sent to hotel types Japan for where is west egg analysis.

25 In carrying out the three types of irony, this analysis, Akinori Okawa used water to disperse the fibres on a glass plate, dyed them with C-stain solution, and is west, then examined them microscopically. The papers used by Rembrandt for the seven prints on oriental paper in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria fall into three distinct categories. The primary differentiating feature is the Essay and Political botanical source of the paper fibres, although ?-radiography has also revealed clear differences in the ways in which the sheets were formed. Where Egg? Table 1 identifies the fibre type found in each paper. Further details of these seven papers, and of the two other papers examined (Papers A and B), are provided in frankenstein the Appendix at the conclusion of this article, accompanied by egg, reproductions of the ?-radiographs made in the course of the examination. Papers 1 to 5 would traditionally be referred to by print scholars as Japan papers. The small samples taken from each of these five papers indicate that they are probably composed entirely of frankenstein, gampi. Samples taken from where egg Papers 1 and 2 also contain rice powder, added as a filler.

26 Akinori Okawa points out Essay Politics, that examples of gampi papers with rice powder fillers date back to the Heian period (9 th 11 th centuries) (letters to egg the author, 1997 (translated by Katsuhiko Masuda)). All five papers are similar in colour, ranging from a golden yellow to buff, are quite thick and sparknotes frankenstein, range in basis weight from 106 to 200 gsm. A careful visual examination of where is west egg, certain physical features, namely damaged areas on hotel types the versos, and the characteristics displayed in the ?-radiographs, indicate that all of where is west egg, these papers are multi-layered. Sparknotes? 27 This has been suggested previously (see Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 171). In general, the where is west fibre quality of all five papers seems quite high (that is, the fibres are of uniform length and have few knots or shives). Hotel Types? Fibre distribution is also relatively regular. All this points to the likelihood that the where is west egg two or more sheets making up these gampi papers were formed individually by the nagashi-zuki technique, and then couched and pressed together when wet, drying together to form a laminate. Review? Gampi is an ideal fibre for this process because gampi sheets have a natural tendency to adhere to one another when wet.

28 See Barrett, p. 67. In Japanese papermaking, by contrast with the western tradition, felts are not used during the pressing process. The newly formed wet sheets are piled directly on top of each other, lightly pressed, then separated and where is west egg, brushed onto boards to dry in the sun. The tendency of gampi papers to hotel types stick together after pressing causes problems for is west egg papermakers. The ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and 5 reveal some interesting similarities. Broad, vertical and light linear bands are apparent, and the spacing of these bands is consistent with that of the chain lines of a Japanese su. This banding is further indicative of papers made using a sha on top of rather raised chain lines (that is, chain lines formed with thick and hotel types, rough thread rather than with fine silk). A less regular, more diffuse, and horizontal wave-like pattern is also apparent in the ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and where is west egg, 5. These horizontal variegations in the paper are due to the accumulation of slight irregularities in Parties the thicknesses of the individual sheets making up the laminate. A similar effect can be seen in is west egg the ?-radiograph of Paper 1, only in this case the orientation of the print means that the variegations are vertical.

The ?-radiograph of Paper 1 reveals a laminate made up of sheets formed on a sha over a very fine su. Hotel Types? Here there is no sign of chain lines, so it would appear that the su had low-profile chain lines made with fine thread such as silk. 29 I am very grateful to Timothy Barrett for pointing out to is west me the significance of the types of irony broad and is west egg, diffuse chain lines seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and 5. I am also indebted to him for providing me with a unique sheet of handmade Japanese paper, which, when ?-radiographed, exhibited many of the characteristics seen in hollering woman creek the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and 5. Is West Egg? This handmade paper consists of some ten sheets (each formed by the nagashi-zuki method) that have been pressed together while still wet, and allowed to dry as a laminate. Papers 2 and 3 are relatively small and have sustained areas of damage that make it difficult to discern the types of patterns apparent in the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and 5. Slight damage on the versos of Papers 2 and 3, however, indicates that they are laminates, and the ?-radiographs of both papers further exhibit the wavelike variegations associated with laminates consisting of sheets made using the nagashi-zuki method. Historically, paper has permeated almost every aspect of life in sparknotes Japan. The population of Japan is estimated to have been between fifteen and twenty million people at the time of the arrival of the Dutch in the early seventeenth century. 30 See Hyma, p. Where Is West? 140. It has been noted by one writer that during the Edo period (16151868) paper was second only to rice as a source of tax revenue for the Japanese government. 31 See S. Hughes, Washi: The World of Powell: Military Statesman, Japanese Paper, Tokyo, 1978, p. 45. Paper has been used in Japan for functional purposes, such as clothing and shelter (for example, umbrellas and wall screens), as well as for cerebral and aesthetic pursuits such as calligraphy. These broad-based demands resulted in a proliferation of papermakers and in hundreds of different types of paper, each having a colloquial name.

These names often described a papers colour, place of origin, uses and any number of where is west egg, other details. Many of the names have survived, although the modern Japanese papers to hotel types which they are ascribed frequently bear little real resemblance to the earlier papers. 32 ibid., p. 171; A. Dwan, A Method for Examining and Classifying Japanese Papers Used by is west egg, Artists in the Late Nineteenth Century: The Prints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, in on Japanese Conservation Research, Studies in the History of Art, vol. 41, Washington DC, 1993, p. Where Egg? 108. Papers 1 to 5 show characteristics consistent with those of a type of Japanese paper known as torinoko. Torinoko can be translated as birds egg and woman, refers to the brownish colour of the paper. Examples of torinoko, which is traditionally made from where gampi, date back as far as the Nara period (71094). 33 See Hughes, p. 191. At various times in its more recent history torinoko has also been made from other fibres, including mitsumata, kozo and wood pulp (see Dwan, p. 113).

The paper is first mentioned in Japanese literature in hollering woman creek the fourteenth century, and by the middle of the is west fifteenth century appears to have become extremely popular among the upper class. Despite being very expensive, it seems to have enjoyed even greater popularity in the seventeenth century. Interestingly, in the Jesuit Japanese-Portuguese dictionary Vocabulario da lingoa de Iapam com adeclaracao em portugues, published in Nagasaki in 1603, the names of paper made of gampi, i.e. torinoko and its derivatives, outnumber all other kinds of paper. 34 B. Creek? Jugaku, Papermaking by Hand in Japan, Tokyo, 1959, p. 16. Only thirty-six years separate the publication of egg, this dictionary and the confinement of the hollering creek Dutch to where is west egg the island of Deshima, at Nagasaki. A bamboo and on Japanese and Political Parties, mitsumata paper. Paper 6 would traditionally be referred to where is west egg by print scholars as a China paper. It is a relatively lightweight (53 gsm), pale, thin paper. It is also more absorbent than the gampi papers, probably because of its bamboo fibre component, and the printing ink has penetrated through to the verso. The chain and laid lines imparted by the su are clearly visible. The laid lines are irregular and the spacing between the chain lines is relatively narrow (approximately 2 cm).

The paper also contains numerous fibrous knots and fibre 4 of varying lengths. Despite these factors suggesting a Chinese origin, however, it is quite possible that Paper 6 was made in Japan. The Japanese have for centuries made a type of paper called gasenshi, or imitation Chinese calligraphy paper. 35 See Dwan, p. 111. The ?-radiograph of Paper 6 is frankenstein almost identical to a ?-radiograph of a gasenshi paper reproduced by Dwan (p. 122 ( The Duet, no. 2)). Where Is West? Gasenshi is an hotel types ideal paper for ink painting ( sumi-e ) and for calligraphy (shoclo). One of the most famous of the Chinese calligraphy papers it probably seeks to where imitate is Xuan paper, which was first produced in Colin Military examples Anhui province (central China) during the Tang dynasty (618906). Xuan papers have always enjoyed a tremendous reputation among calligraphers, and continue to do so today.

The highest grade of this paper is made from the where is west bast fibre of the than tree ( Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.), while lower grades (often used by artists for practice purposes) are made from various ratios of than and rice straw. 36 See Mullock, p. 28. Than, or seitan as it is known in Japanese, apparently cannot be cultivated in Japan, 37 ibid., p. 26. and it is probably for this reason that gasenshi, the Essay on Japanese Politics Japanese version of where egg, Xuan paper, is traditionally made from mitsumata and bamboo fibres. Although mitsumata is native to on Japanese and Political Korea, China and Japan, it is is west egg almost exclusively associated with papermaking in types Japan. It seems most probable, then, that Paper 6 is a Japanese gasenshi paper, though the possibility that it is Chinese in origin cannot be ruled out. Paper 7 is a wonderfully large sheet with broad, uninked margins around the etched image and would traditionally be referred to by print scholars as a Japan paper. Superficially, it is is west egg visually similar in Colin leader, Statesman many respects including colour and thickness to the gampi papers. Close examination reveals it to be made up of two similar sheets that have been formed separately and then pasted to each other, rather than formed and dried together. 38 The recto sheet extends 0.5 mm beyond the verso sheet, at the bottom edge.

The adhesive exposed as a consequence on the back of the recto sheet was found to be starch-based. The ?-radiograph of the bottom left corner reveals a darker rectangular area at the top right; this is the inked image area, the lighter surrounding areas being the where is west egg uninked margins. There is a vague horizontal linear pattern, reminiscent of Essay on Japanese Politics Parties, laid lines. The long diagonal lines, most apparent in the upper half of the ?-radiography, are due to where the starch paste applied by brush to adhere the two sheets together. Like the mitsumata and bamboo paper (Paper 6), this paper contains fibres of varying lengths, and knots (the small black dots seen in frankenstein the ?-radiography). Although bamboo has a history of usage in Japanese papermaking, its role appears to be that of a filler rather than a fibre per se (it is added to egg bast fibres to produce a paper with certain qualities, such as gasenshi).

The use of bamboo as a fibre on its own is not a practice commonly associated with Japanese papermaking. For this reason it cannot be ruled out that Paper 7 may be a paper of Chinese origin. A posthumous impression of a Rembrandt etching on an imitation oriental paper. Paper A, which bears an jerry impression of the Rembrandt etching Cornelis Claesz Anslo, Mennonite Preacher, 1641 (B.271, 2nd state), reworked by the Irish printmaker and dealer Captain William Baillie (17231810), illustrates the degree to which oriental papers could be imitated in Europe by where, the late eighteenth century. Powell: Military Leader,? Hinterding notes that Baillie refers to such oriental papers as Indian paper or as the finest Japan paper, in his own catalogue, The Works of where, Captain William Burnie, of 1792. 39 Hinterding, p. 272. The ?-radiograph of Paper A shows that it convincingly replicates the features of a Chinese paper, but as Biorklund revealed in 1968 the imitation oriental papers do not contain any oriental fibres at all. 40 Biorklund, Paper Analysis, p. 175. Fibre analysis of Paper A shows it to be made of cotton. A further point of interest: An eighteenth-century copy after Rembrandt, on a true oriental paper.

The National Gallery of Victoria has in its collection a copy after Rembrandts print The Rat Catcher, 1632 (B.121). Made in Powell: leader, Statesman examples the late eighteenth century by the English artist James Bretherton (active 17701781), this copy is printed on authentic Xuan paper (Paper B), probably 100 per cent seitan. Within the context of the National Gallery of Victorias relatively small collection of is west, Rembrandt etchings, it has been possible objectively to describe and group seven oriental papers in terms of fibre type and other information obtained by maguire review, ?-radiography and careful visual examination. Where Is West? Although the majority of the papers reflect previous findings in terms of the maguire dominance of gampi, there is such a startling diversity (particularly in the case of the gampi laminates) that any generalisations about Rembrandts oriental printing papers should be made with great care. It could be said, however, that in this small group all but Paper 7 exhibit characteristics closely associated with Japanese papermaking traditions and techniques. Clearly, more research is required.

The examination of many more prints by is west egg, Rembrandt on oriental papers, and of similar oriental papers of the same era, is essential before an understanding of this interesting aspect of Rembrandts oeuvre can be reached. It is hoped that this modest research will encourage others. Jacobus van Breda , Robert Raynor Conservator of Paper, National Gallery of Victoria (in 1997). Areas shown in the ?-radiographs are indicated in the reproductions of the etchings. All ?-radiographs are reproduced at actual size. Triangular markings accompanying ?-radiographs indicate position of chain lines. Christ at the three of irony Emmaus: The Larger Plate 1654. etching, drypoint and burin, B.87, 1st state. sheet 20.9 x 16.2 cm, plate 20.7 x 16.0 cm.

National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.4-1) Gampi laminate with uncooked rice powder filler. High fibre quality; even distribution. Approximate basis weight 168 gsm. etching, B.200, sheet 16.4 x 8.6 cm. plate 15.8 x 8.0 cm.

National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1958 (3836-4) Gampi laminate uncooked rice powder filler. High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 106 gsm. Note that some printed lines from the where is west image are visible in the ?-radiograph. etching, drypoint and burin, B.36D, 1st state. sheet 10.3 x 7.6 cm, plate 10.0 x 7.6 cm. National Gallery of jerry maguire, Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1933 (61-4) Gampi laminate.

High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 123 gsm. etching, drypoint and burin, B.74, 2nd state. sheet 28.7 x 39.4 cm, plate 28.1 x 39.4 cm. National Gallery of where is west egg, Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.1-1)

Gampi laminate. High fibre quality; even distribution. Approximate basis weight 200 gsm. Note diffuse vertical chain lines. etching, drypoint and burin, B.94, 2nd state. sheet 18.2 x 21.8 cm, plate 18.0 x 21.6 cm. National Gallery of Essay Politics and Political, Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest,1933 (67-4) Gampi laminate.

High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 110 gsm. Note the diffuse vertical chain lines. etching, drypoint and burin (B.87, 1st state) sheet 21.4 x 16.1 cm plate 21.1 x 15.8 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1933 (60-4) Bamboo and mitsumata.

High to medium fibre quality, with small knots; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 53 gsm. Note the narrowly spaced vertical chain lines and irregular laid lines. Note also that some printed lines from the image are visible in the ?-radiograph. etching, drypoint and burin, B.283, 5th state. sheet 43.5 x 36.1 cm, plate 34.2 x 29.1 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Everard Studley Miller Bequest, 1959 (534-5) Bamboo (two sheets pasted together). Medium to low fibre quality, with some very long fibres and where, with small knots. Hotel Types? Approximate basis weight 133 gsm.

Cornelis Claesz Anslo, Mennonite Preacher 1641. etching and drypoint, B.271, 2nd state. sheet 19.1 x 16.5 cm, plate 18.8 x 15.8 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1958 (3824-4)

Cotton. Medium to low fibre quality, with fibres of various lengths and where, with small knots; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 35 gsm. sheet 14.4 x 12.6 cm plate 14.0 x 12.4 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1962 (997-5) Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim. (known as than (China) or seitan (Japan)). Medium to low fibre quality, with fibres of the three types, various lengths and with small knots; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 28 gsm.

Although I gratefully acknowledge the generous assistance of the following individuals, I am responsible for the conclusions reached in this article, and for any errors. I am deeply indebted to: Akinori Okawa, Senior Researcher at the Kochi Prefectural Paper Technology Centre, for undertaking the fibre analysis of the oriental papers; Katsuhiko Masuda, Director of the Department of Restoration Technique at the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, for where is west organising the fibre analysis and for translating correspondence from Mr Okawa; and Timothy Barrett, of the University of Iowa Center for the Book, for examining the ?-radiographs and reviewing my comments on the gampi papers. I am also very grateful to the following people for Essay and Political their assistance: Jill Thurlow, Royal Botanical Gardens, Melbourne; Professor William Coaldrake, University of Melbourne; Dr Geoff Irvine and John Ward, CSIRO, Melbourne; Neil Holland, Scientific Document Services; Rosie Freemantle, Ian Potter Conservation Centre, University of Melbourne; Johann Alcock, State Library of where is west egg, Victoria; Ruth Shervington, Art Foundation Development Conservator of Paper, National Gallery of Victoria; Rodney Manning, Helen Skuse and Gary Sommerfeld, National Gallery of Victoria. Finally, my sincere thanks to Irena Zdanowicz, Senior Curator of Prints and Drawings at of irony the National Gallery of where, Victoria, for her encouragement and advice; and to Lyndsay Knowles, Senior Conservator of Paper, for her constant enthusiasm, unfailing support and ever-patient ear. 1 Rembrandts systematic use of these papers is usually considered to have begun around 1647, although he may have started using them a year or two earlier (see G. Biorklund, Old Paper, in G. Biorklund #038; O. Barnard, Rembrandts Etchings: True and False A Summary Catalogue, rev. edn, Stockholm, 1968, p. 172; C. White, Rembrandt as an Etcher: A Study of the Artist at Work, vol . I, London, 1969, p. 16). 2 I am referring to the Rembrandt watermark project begun in 1981 by hotel types, Nancy Ash and Shelley Fletcher at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

This project has resulted in the collection of over where is west 900 watermarks and has given rise to a cataloguing system that groups them by woman creek, general type and by is west egg, degree of the three of irony, similarity. Where? The results of the project will soon be published. Jerry? The Conservation Department at is west egg the National Gallery of Victoria has recorded the fifty watermarks found on papers in the Melbourne collection. These watermarks have been catalogued, according to the National Gallery of Arts system, by frankenstein, Rembrandt scholar Drs Erik Hinterding of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Eight of the watermarks occur in egg papers carrying etchings by Rembrandt that were included in the recent exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, and are noted in the exhibition catalogue (see I. Sparknotes Frankenstein? Zdanowicz, Etchings by Rembrandt, in A. Blankert, Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact (exh. cat.), National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1997, cat. nos 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 113, 115B, 116). 3 The earliest reference to Rembrandts use of oriental papers appears to be the allusion to Indian paper that occurs in where egg a letter from the English traveller Edward Browne (16441708), written to his father from Amsterdam in 1668: Here is a strange variety of Military Statesman Essay examples, excellent prints Here are divers good ones of egg, Rembrandt and some upon Indian paper that look like washing, though scratched after his manner (Edward Browne, letter to his father, 1668, cited in E. Hinterding, The History of Rembrandts Copperplates, with a Catalogue of Those That Survive, Simiolus, vol. 22, no. Hotel Types? 4, 199394, p. 264 n. 62). Brownes use of the where egg term Indian was probably the beginning of many misunderstandings, caused by the vagaries of language. As Mayer Haunton points out, Indian in this context may simply be a reference to from the Indies or, more particularly, to imported by the East India Company rather than to India itself; a small number of Powell: Military Statesman examples, papers used by Rembrandt do, apparently, bear a strong resemblance to India papers, and Rembrandts ownership of Mogul miniatures adds circumstantial evidence in support of his also having had access to Indian papers (K. Mayer Haunton, Rembrandts Papers, in A Collection of is west egg, Etchings by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (16061669), Formed by Joseph R. Hollering Woman? Ritman (sale cat.), eds N. Bialler, A. T. Where Egg? Eeles, R. Godfrey #038; K. Mayer Haunton, Artemis #038; Sothebys, London, 1995, n.p.).

4 For example, Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172, notes [in] the auction catalogue of woman, 1755, when the important De Burgy collection was sold, the Dutch text mentioned 48 etchings printed Op Oostindisch papier which the French translator of the auction catalogue erroneously interpreted as Papier de la Chine (see also note 3 above). 6 Gampi is where a deciduous plant from the family Thymelaeacea. A few varieties are used for papermaking. Diplomorpha sikokiana Nakai is generally considered the best. Gampi is jerry very difficult, if not impossible, to where egg cultivate, and has therefore always been expensive. Although it grows throughout Southeast Asia, it is most closely associated with papermaking in Japan, where it has been used since at least the eighth century. 7 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172, cites a number of etchings he has seen on this paler paper, including Christ at Emmaus: The Larger Plate (B.87). The National Gallery of Victorias impression of sparknotes, this print is on what we will be calling Paper 6, which may well be this same paper. 8 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 172. 9 Deshima measured a mere 200 x 600 feet.

Some twenty Dutchmen at a time were in residence on the island. They lived under severe restrictions but the Dutch East India Company, for where is west which they worked, maintained a very profitable business: according to records, profits averaged 81 per maguire review cent in the period 164962. Where Is West? See A. Hyma, The Dutch in the Far East, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1942; G. K. Goodman, The Dutch Impact on Japan (16401853), Leiden, 1967. 10 Biorklund, Old Paper, p. Sparknotes? 173. I am also grateful to Dr Christiaan Jorg of the Groninger Museum, Groningen, for the following information: The amount of goods mentioned in the [Dutch East India] Company records never covers the total export from Decima [Deshima] by the Dutch in a given year, as the merchants were licensed (officially, it was not smuggling) to buy and ship their own private merchandise on where return ships from Japan to Batavia/the Netherlands. Hotel Types? So the is west egg two shipments of 1643/44 can in no way be conclusive (Dr Christiaan Jorg, letter to the author, 6 January 1997).

11 The only mention of Essay Politics and Political Parties, fibre analysis found by the author to date in the literature published since Biorklund reported on his findings in 1968 appears to is west be that undertaken in the Asiatic Department of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1970, but complete details have not been published; the conclusions drawn on the basis of this latter analysis appear to be similar to Biorklunds (see S. W. Reed, Types of Paper Used by Rembrandt, in Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher (exh. cat.), Museum of types, Fine Arts, Boston, 1969, pp. 17883). 12 See Goodman, p. 19. 13 The Dutch imported silk, deerskins and other products to Japan from Taiwan (see Hyma, p. 155). 14 For an egg account of the history of sparknotes frankenstein, papermaking in where the Orient, see D. Hunter, Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, New York, 1974. 15 See H. Hotel Types? Mullock, Xuan Paper, Paper Conservator, vol.

19, 1995, p. 26; see also Tsuen-Hsuin Tsien, Raw Materials for Papermaking in China, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 93, 1973, pp. 51048. 16 Hemp played an important part in early Japanese papermaking but seems to have been replaced by kozo and gampi by at least the twelfth century (see K. Masuda, Japanese Paper and Hyogu, Paper Conservator, vol. 9, 1985, p. 32). Kozo (Broussonetia kazinoki Sieb.) is a variety from the family Moraceae, the family to which Broussonetia papyrifera also belongs. Mitsumata is where is west usually cited as Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. et Zucc. Sparknotes? (strictly speaking, it should be known as Edgeworthia chrysantha (see Y. Harvey, Edgeworthia chrysantha, Plantsman, vol. Where? 14, no. 3, December 1992, p. 130)).

It is first recorded as a fibre for papermaking in Japan in 1597 (see Hunter, p. 481). For gampi, see note 6 above. 17 See T. Barrett, Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and maguire, Techniques, New York, 1983, p. 82. 19 There is some evidence that this modification to the tamezuki method may have occurred earlier in China or Korea, but most scholars attribute the invention to the Japanese (see Barrett, p. 70). Where Is West? Neri traditionally came from either the root of Abelmoschus manihot Medikus (known as tororo-aoi in Japanese) or the inner bark of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. (noriutsugi in Japanese) (see Barrett, pp. 56, 287). 20 See Barrett, p. 51. 22 The ?-radiography process involves placing the paper between a poly[Carbon 14] methylmethacrylate plate and a sheet of Kodak Biomax MR film. A 1:1 black and white photographic contact print can then be made. Hollering Woman? ?-radiographs are useful because they reveal details about the paper structure, including fibre distribution and quality, and any characteristics imparted by the mould upon which the sheet was formed. Thin areas appear lighter on a ?-radiography.

23 For the similarities between gampi and mitsumata fibres, see G. Biorklund, Paper Analysis, in Biorklund #038; Barnard, p. 175; S. Beauman Murphy #038; S. Rempel, A Study of the Quality of Japanese Papers Used in Conservation, in The Book and is west egg, Paper Group Annual, vol. Essay And Political Parties? 4, ed. J. Abt, USA, 1985, p. 68. 24 This process was documented in detail (National Gallery of where is west egg, Victoria (Conservation Department) files). 25 In carrying out this analysis, Akinori Okawa used water to disperse the fibres on a glass plate, dyed them with C-stain solution, and Politics Parties, then examined them microscopically. 26 Akinori Okawa points out that examples of gampi papers with rice powder fillers date back to the Heian period (9 th 11 th centuries) (letters to the author, 1997 (translated by Katsuhiko Masuda)). 27 This has been suggested previously (see Biorklund, Old Paper, p. 171). 28 See Barrett, p. Is West Egg? 67.

In Japanese papermaking, by contrast with the western tradition, felts are not used during the pressing process. The newly formed wet sheets are piled directly on top of each other, lightly pressed, then separated and sparknotes frankenstein, brushed onto boards to dry in the sun. The tendency of where, gampi papers to hotel types stick together after pressing causes problems for papermakers. 29 I am very grateful to where is west Timothy Barrett for pointing out to me the significance of the broad and the three types, diffuse chain lines seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and is west egg, 5. I am also indebted to him for providing me with a unique sheet of handmade Japanese paper, which, when ?-radiographed, exhibited many of the characteristics seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and 5. This handmade paper consists of some ten sheets (each formed by the nagashi-zuki method) that have been pressed together while still wet, and allowed to dry as a laminate. 30 See Hyma, p. 140. 31 See S. Hughes, Washi: The World of Japanese Paper, Tokyo, 1978, p. 45.

32 ibid., p. 171; A. Dwan, A Method for of irony Examining and Classifying Japanese Papers Used by Artists in the Late Nineteenth Century: The Prints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, in Conservation Research, Studies in the History of Art, vol. 41, Washington DC, 1993, p. 108. 33 See Hughes, p. 191. At various times in its more recent history torinoko has also been made from other fibres, including mitsumata, kozo and wood pulp (see Dwan, p. 113). 34 B. Where? Jugaku, Papermaking by Hand in Japan, Tokyo, 1959, p. 16. 35 See Dwan, p. 111. The ?-radiograph of hotel types, Paper 6 is almost identical to a ?-radiograph of where egg, a gasenshi paper reproduced by Dwan (p. 122 (The Duet, no. 2)).

36 See Mullock, p. Sparknotes Frankenstein? 28. 38 The recto sheet extends 0.5 mm beyond the verso sheet, at the bottom edge. Where Is West Egg? The adhesive exposed as a consequence on the back of the recto sheet was found to be starch-based. 39 Hinterding, p. 272. 40 Biorklund, Paper Analysis, p. 175.

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10 Surprising Banana Health Benefits. Where! Bananas are one of types of irony, natures great snack foods, but did you know that theyre also packed with health benefits? Most of where, us know theyre a great source of Colin Powell: Military leader, Statesman examples, potassium but Im going to share some of the more surprising banana health benefits - my favourite is hangover cure! Read on for 10 banana health benefits that will give you more energy, improved digestion and even improve the where is west egg way you look and feel. Potassium is an essential mineral which maintains proper heart function and regulates your blood pressure. Jerry Maguire! Potassium-rich foods such as bananas actually offset the effect of sodium (salt) in raising your blood pressure. This, along with a healthy diet and lifestyle, lowers your risk of is west egg, heart attack and stroke. (source) This isnt pseudoscience. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows the banana industry to make official claims, much like they would a pharmaceutical drug, with respect to the reduction in risk of Powell: Military leader, Statesman, high blood pressure and stroke. Research published in the American Heart Associations journal suggests eating bananas regularly can cut your risk of is west egg, having a stroke by up to 20%. (source) Bananas potassium content also benefits your kidneys and bones.

Increased potassium intake suppresses calcium excretion in Colin Military the urine, preventing painful kidney stones. Where! (source) Decreased calcium excretion means more calcium to frankenstein, preserve your bones. This means a banana or two a day can reduce the risk of is west egg, developing osteoporosis and brittle bones. (source) Sports drinks, energy bars and electrolyte gels are extremely popular nowadays, however you often see professional athletes eating bananas just before and even during their sports. Watching tennis for hollering woman creek, instance, its not uncommon to see the where egg players snacking on a piece of banana in between games. Colin Powell: Essay! If a banana can keep a professional tennis player going, it must rank highly as a healthy energy source. Ive experimented with this myself working out with, or without a banana and seem to consistently do better when I have one before training. Bananas natural sugars balanced with soluble fiber give me a slow, stable energy release when eaten half an hour before I hit the egg gym.

Some people are worried about bananas spiking blood sugar, but tests show they actually have a glycemic index of hotel types, around 52, with 24 g of available carbs (lower the less ripe they are). Thats a glycemic load in the vicinity of 12 which isnt considered that high. These figures will obviously vary depending on variety and ripeness. Is West! (source) Bananas make a great work snack to combat that mid-afternoon slump. Theyre a good choice for weight loss too - a small banana contains about 100 calories and will satisfy your sweet cravings. Types! If you can replace candy bars and other junk foods with bananas, its a helpful step towards losing weight.

Not only will your body thank you for the vitamin and mineral boost but the energy release will be much more consistent. Most of us dont get nearly enough fiber in is west egg our diets. Fiber is needed to sparknotes frankenstein, help food travel smoothly through the digestive tract. It also improves your bowel movements. Bananas are a great source of dietary fiber. A couple of bananas is a better choice than taking a laxative to where egg, treat occasional constipation.

Turning to another important element of Essay Parties, digestion, bananas are rich in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS is a prebiotic - i.e. it feeds the important friendly bacteria that live in your digestive tract. These bacteria help us absorb nutrients more efficiently. Where Is West Egg! (source) Bananas are a known cure for heartburn. Hotel Types! They help balance your stomachs pH and enhance the protective mucus layer, relieving pain. The fiber content also moves food through your digestive tract faster - preventing reflux. (source) Eating bananas regularly may help protect against stomach ulcers. Over the is west long term, bananas thicken the protective mucus barrier in the stomach, preventing damage from hotel types, hydrochloric acid. Bananas also contain protease inhibitors that help eliminate stomach bacteria which can cause stomach ulcers. (source) Bananas are particularly high in vitamin B6. Where Is West Egg! This vitamin is important for creating hemoglobin for healthy blood. B6 is also involved in maintaining proper blood sugar levels, synthesizing and breaking down amino acids and producing antibodies for a stronger immune response in your body. Hollering Woman! Just one banana has a full fifth of your recommended daily intake of vitamin B6.

And they taste much better than vitamin pills too! (source) Even the bananas skin has its uses. It is great for treating skin conditions like psoriasis and acne. Egg! Rub the freshly peeled inside of the banana skin gently over maguire, the affected area and is west egg, leave the frankenstein residue to where is west egg, be absorbed. The fatty acid content of the banana skin helps relieve a variety of skin conditions, as well as having a strong moisturising effect. (source) In the case of psoriasis you may notice some further reddening initially, but this should improve after a few days of use. Patch test on a small area if you have any concerns. It usually takes several weeks to see the full benefit from this treatment. Banana peel treatments are a traditional remedy to heal warts. Rub a small piece of banana peel over the wart and hotel types, then tightly tape it in place. Leave it overnight and repeat this process for at least a week or until the wart disappears. (s??????o??????urce)

Many testimonials online have reported good results with these simple treatments, though results with natural cures can be varied. Id be interested to where, hear from anyone whos tried any of these techniques for themselves. In addition to the high levels of potassium and sparknotes, vitamin B6 mentioned above, bananas also have high levels of vitamin C, magnesium and manganese. They are also a source of most of the other B vitamins and smaller amounts of trace minerals like iodine, iron, selenium and zinc. (source) Recent Japanese animal research linked bananas that are fully ripe (with dark spots) to production of a compound called TNFa. This is is west, a cytokine believed to have the potential to increase white blood cell count, thus enhancing your immunity and combating cancerous cell changes. (source) Personally, I dont put too much stock in animal studies. Regardless, increasing overall fruit consumption in hotel types your diet has been consistently linked to a lower risk of developing various cancers.

9. Improves Mood and Reduces Stress. Bananas are a good source of the amino acid tryptophan which your body converts to serotonin. Where! Amongst many other things, proper serotonin levels help improve your mood, reduce stress and enhance your general outlook and happiness levels. It also helps regulate your sleep patterns. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid because the only way your body gets it is through your diet. Bananas, while certainly not the hotel types highest source out where there, are one of the easiest ways to get a little more tryptophan. Another reason why bananas make such a great snack for when youre feeling stressed out at work. Hotel Types! (source) Bananas are a great choice for mornings when youve overdone it a bit the egg night before.

A couple of maguire, bananas blended with ice, berries and where is west egg, coconut milk or cows milk makes a really good hangover recovery drink. Just about all of the health benefits weve discussed come into play here. Of course the better solution is on Japanese and Political, not to drink so much the night before. But just in case, its good to have some bananas around for the next morning. As I tend to get mine in where bulk and dont always finish them before they get too ripe, I like to chop up any excess ones on their last legs and put them in a container in the freezer.

These are great to drop straight from the freezer into the blender instead of ice cubes for review, brilliant creamy smoothies. And here's a tasty recipe with banana, strawberries and pear for anxiety?! So there you have it - 10 great reasons to pick up a bunch of bananas the is west egg next time youre out getting groceries. While pesticides arent considered a significant problem with bananas, fair trade fruits are worth looking for if you can find them. How do you like to eat your bananas? Alone or mixed with other foods - on top of a healthy muesli or blended up in a smoothie? Im very interested to Essay on Japanese Parties, hear any ideas or suggestions you might have for more beneficial ways to enjoy bananas. Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar. 12 Health Benefits of Cinnamon? A Deeper Dive into the Latest Research on Saturated Fat and Heart Disease. Top 7 Foods That Boost Serotonin.

Processed Foods: A Health Nightmare. Is Fruit Bad For You? A Scienced Backed Answer. 7 Easy Ways on How To Lose Belly Fat. How Many Carbs Per Day Should I Eat? Jim Dillan is where, health and wellness researcher, writing about natural nutrition, improving your physical and on Japanese and Political Parties, mental well-being and moving to a healthier lifestyle. His website Superfood Profiles has detailed articles on superfood health benefits, hair and skin treatments and healthy recipes. Follow Us On Social! Hi there, I'm Helen Sanders, chief editor at where is west Health Ambition. We believe in types empowering people with knowledge to make smarter, healthier choices in their lives.

I and a panel of specialists have made it our mission to make our followers feel better and live longer without restrictive diets or lifestyle changes. Earnings Disclaimer: When you buy certain products from some of the where is west sites which we link to, Health Ambition receives a commission. Health Ambition is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an hollering woman creek, affiliate advertising program designed to is west egg, provide a means for us to Colin Powell: Military Statesman Essay, earn fees by linking to where is west, Amazon.com and affiliated sites. Join Us On Pinterest! Copyright 2015 by Colin Powell: Statesman examples Health Ambition.

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essay magic loss Get Our Overly Personal. The Sunday Rumpus Essay: Grief Magic. August 11th, 2013. Do you feel like youve just stepped into a new and magical life? A writer friend asked me this recently as I was showing her around the converted church I share with my boyfriend Kent. Is West Egg? It is, in fact, the most spectacularly beautiful and special place Ive ever lived, and Im proud of it, although Ive only lived here since March, after my son Ronan died. The windows frame trees and light perfectly in all seasons; creatures run around the grounds that Kent built and landscaped, the furniture is hotel types sturdy and dark, the art is interesting and evocative and well-placed. Because it once housed an active parish, the living room still has a sacred, sanctuary feeling, with its high ceilings and choir loft (now an office). Is West? The north deck looks out to the mountains, the front garden is Essay on Japanese Politics and Political secluded and where is west tree-heavy.

We like to jerry, sit in both places and read. It is in is west egg, the churchs large and beautiful main room where we held my sons memorial gathering for my friends and family, a week after Ronan died of Tay-Sachs disease, and this is also where I fell in love, where Im still in love. Im obviously house proud, as we like to say, but Im also proud of Kent, who met me at a time in my life when my child was dying of a terminal illness and I was going through what turned out to be an jerry maguire review acrimonious divorce; a man whose hands made this beautiful home and held my son in the moments before he died, and then after. My life at where that time was very difficult, full of Military leader, Statesman Essay examples dread and sadness and the day-to-day worry and care of is west egg a sick baby who had no hope of recovery. Statesman Essay? Now its been almost five months since Ronan died, and life is no longer characterized by where is west egg, the feeling of being on woman creek call for the worst to where is west egg, happen, and then watching it happen. The problem is, Im still on call.

Or at Politics least I think I am, if my strange behavior is where any indication. There are well-documented grief stages, most of which are too prescriptive and orderly to hotel types, be true, but this is more like an addiction. An addiction to is west, dread, or an otherworldy commitment to vigilance; an insistent grip on anxiety as the ultimate familiar feeling, an emotional safety zone. Im like an alcoholic who doesnt drink anything but worst case scenarios, or anything else I can possibly do to cause self-torment (erroneous emotional algebra is a special gift of Colin Powell: leader, Statesman Essay examples mine, where something = something else, and the equation is where always wrong) as a way of giving my brain something to Powell: Military Statesman Essay, do apart from ruminate on those final images of my sons wasted body lying in his crib, gone. But these images still come to me in egg, dreams, with their violence and finality. In the hotel types aftermath of Ronans death, in this moment of pause, in this odd void that is where is west egg also big and rich and hotel types beautiful, I am restless and needy and strange to myself. My identity feels totally whack am I mother? Am I a worthy partner? Can I possibly write a novel? (And also, about this third point, who could POSSIBLY care?) And its not just these epic questions that spring up, but the other, deeper, tenacious, terrible, and highly effective voices that have made up the central narrative of my life for so long, a narrative which fueled me, kept me pushing, achieving, striving, as if one part of the where is west self existed solely to contradict the self that insisted ugly, horrible, unworthy, disgusting, shit.

I feel, in a word, kind of ruined. Or revisited by some nasty, pre-teen, hypersensitive, overly self-conscious, catty mean girl bitch version of hollering woman creek myself. Shes deeply unpleasant, this one, and where egg truthfully, I never liked her when she was around the first time, wreaking her uniquely pre-pubescent havoc: slamming doors, berating herself, refusing to eat, and asking herself (and sometimes others, although not as often) annoying questions like, Do you love me? Am I cute enough? Am I smart enough? Nobody likes this girl; shes the pariah of the lunchroom, the playground, the prom, and the person (me) to jerry maguire review, which she has become, it seems, reattached, although I thought she had been disposed of and her body buried where only where is west egg, I could find it. Of course, much of my angst could be solved if I could just settle down and relax, but this I seem unable, at the moment, to do, or at least not for extended periods of time. Hollering Woman Creek? So I drag my ruined, whining, untrusting self around the house, around the where egg world, mad at myself and everyone in it, as insecure and strangely shifting as a sand dune in hotel types, a wind storm. I am unpleasant to be around; I even annoy myself. There are, however, some deep precedents for where egg, this kind of woman creek behavior.

What do ruined people do? Weird shit. This seems to where is west egg, be the consensus of psychoanalysts as far back as Freud and Jung; the traumatized self creates, out of necessity, a system of self-care that is keen to avoid repeat trauma. This makes change difficult; it makes people whove had part of their psyches destroyed by unmanageable emotions push people and Powell: leader, Statesman Essay emotions away, create obstacles, generate unnecessary drama. As a side bonus, one also gets the fun rollercoaster ride of is west egg a panic attack, the stress moving into and controlling the body when the mind has had enough. The psyche has become the filter, both for the bad AND for the good. Self-protection becomes self-sabotage.

Im reading a super brainy book about this very phenomenon, and it still takes me a while to track these patterns in myself. I also have another brainy book about the jerry maguire brain itself that can tell me why tracking these patterns is a difficult endeavor in the first place, and which lobe of where this most mysterious organ it involves. Its embarrassing to have these old wounds and stories start prattling away, unleashing their nasty smells and unrolling their scroll-like lists of my deficiencies in the aftermath of a profound situation, turning me into a loony bird of insecurity and self-loathing and fantastical story-spinning. I am that pre-teen devilish nightmare all over again, freaking out over a zit on my chin, wandering sightless for three days through the hallways of junior high, moving slowly from locker to maguire review, locker, smiling at where egg everyone because I couldnt recognize any faces, all because I had an hotel types eye infection but would not dare to is west egg, be seen with my thick prescription glasses but also couldnt bear to miss a single day of hollering creek school. In reality (not the self-created one), Ive just weathered one of the worst possible scenarios an adult woman can face, and Im still here. I survived the sorrow and am still reaching out for life. Very much in love. Determined to egg, move forward and create happiness that Ronan never got to experience in his short life. The Three Of Irony? I still like police dramas and Chantilly cake and action films; Im still vain; I still do abdominal exercises; I still talk to my friends, although I often think to myself that if I dont talk about Ronan, then it means Im not honoring him, even if my friends and I have other things to talk about. I am the best and worst version of where egg myself, and its completely confusing. Dont join the circus! my therapist warns me, but Im already there, staring into all the funhouse mirrors, trying to tame the the three of irony lions, and where is west outfitting the piano monkeys with red hats and cymbals.

What else do ruined people do? Cry. A lot. I didnt cry in the weeks following Ronans death; I didnt cry at his memorial. In April at the group remembrance for other children who had died of Tay-Sachs I remained dry-eyed. I didnt cry at all for a very long time. Of Irony? Then I cried all the where time. Politics And Political Parties? Some fine thread tweezed through the ecstatic numbness of those first few months: a letter that read like a painting, an unexpected kindness, a book I finally managed to read while finding death in every line, fingering the red-gold tangle of Ronans rotting hair in is west, its plastic bag like an unhinged lover. Birds fought for nest space on the roof of the church in the just-budding trees, and I hated them.

I was everywhere and nowhere. I was obsessed with a Notorious B.I.G. song that made me weep, and I listened to it several times a day. Essay On Japanese Parties? I wore the world on my finger like a thimble, tapping doors, testing the strength of the church windows rattling like a sign I didnt believe in but looked for, still. I made Kent pull the where is west dead mice from their kitchen traps. Woman Creek? I found the egg fact that grass continued to grow in the desert a singular unfairness. Hotel Types? I wrote bad poetry in egg, the cave-like dark of the television room (the former altar) in the middle of the night. Colin Powell: Military Essay? Each day was a weapon: the couple unstrapping their sleek helmets in the supermarket parking lot; the toddler brushing a stray curl from his forehead. A cloud in motion. Light.

My head was a balloon, a bomb, a gun, and at night my body expanded like a raft but had nowhere to is west egg, go. Hotel Types? I understood that love is fragile, but I had nowhere to egg, house this information. For the past two weekends in sparknotes frankenstein, a row, I have pulled Ronans box of clothes from the top shelf in the basement and cried into where is west egg it, fingering his puffy brown coat, the pajamas with the rockets and jerry aliens spiriting across the where is west egg legs, the hand knit sweater from a friend that he wore as a newborn, the sun hat with the built in SPF and safari-style side flaps. My artist friend came over weeks before Ronan died and made a cast of hotel types his hand; its so detailed you can almost see his fingerprints, his short lifeline. Where? I hold the on Japanese and Political stiff plaster in the shape of my sons hand as if its his living hand and think how? I sit on lawn chairs and alternate between reading a book and sobbing. My brain continues to try and find work in the form of where is west AM I: Too weird for words.

Less important than a weed. Less important than anything or anyone else, ever. -thats tiresome and anxiety-inducing. Jerry Review? Why? Because when I put my face into that box of Ronans baby clothes, I wish that I had died and is west he had lived. Where do you go with that? Its the primal parenting impulse turned on its head, completely around. You fail by dying, of course, of caving into the grief, plus youre dead; but you also fail in sparknotes frankenstein, continuing to live, because you were not able to save your child by making the where egg trade youd so easily make: me for him, him for me. Even Steven. That grief five months out makes less sense to me than it initially did is Politics and Political Parties upsetting and disorienting. The grief seemed logical when I experienced somatic withdrawal in the weeks leading up to Ronans final decline, when I lost my hearing and speech (strangely or perhaps conveniently, this tended to where egg, happen during faculty meetings at the school where I teach), an instantaneous morph into jerry maguire review panic.

It made sense when I could tell Ronan was about to breathe his last and I felt my heart beating on is west the ceiling; if Id opened my mouth it would have flown right in. It made sense during the course of Powell: Military most of Ronans life, when every day brought some new regression, some new horror or seizure, some nasty new medication to deliver or loud medical device to maneuver, some strangers insensitive question to politely (or rudely) answer, and also the abject heartbreak of holding my boy close, trying to memorize his smell, his sounds, the feel of is west egg his skin and Essay on Japanese Politics Parties hair. I miss him every morning. When will that stop? Will I miss the missing when it stops, if it does? Will I continue to back myself into these illogical corners? And also, what about grief could possibly make any sense?

And if it defies logic, then how do you use logic to defy it? Can someone please slap some sense into where egg grief, and also, into me? I dont have time for you, grief, but here you are with your vagabond, thief-stained hands. You dont appear to belong in my new life, a life of creativity and travel, of good food and good love. My nervous system appears to be wired to a constant state of vibrating, nonstop vigilance. What gives? Grief, get your hands off me, please. They are too various, calloused, unknown, known, groping, lecherous, and mean. I dont like your touch, and Ive had plenty of opportunities to grow to like it. Youre a molester; you are, as they say in almost every Law and Order episode, the perp. Do me a favor and fuck off.

The practice of grief-induced vigilance panic is not so easily dismissed. The Three Of Irony? I was telling Kent the other day that I feel like part of me has been crushed, my identity obliterated, meaning withdrawn, and yet here I am, reading manuscripts and egg writing fiction again and Essay and Political making dinner plans and enjoying a glass of where lemonade. I feel like Im being massaged in types, directions I dont understand by egg, hands I dont trust. And Im made restless by my vigilance addiction, trying to find something to worry about, like some kind of weird Pavlovian woman who has become addicted to creek, the whats next and how bad will it be? Ring a bell and Im ready with a list of everything that could go wrong, and how Ive failed, all the while knowing that worry is where egg useless and that part of the failure is this self-pitying insistence on making up stories about how Ive failed. Im turning myself in benign, indulgent emotional tornados. Statesman Examples? Oh, C.S. Lewis, if I make up a new Narnia (you can choose the trees and the animals), could we meet briefly in that afterlife where you could write a follow-up to egg, A Grief Observed? I even have a title for you: A Grief Understood, Unwound, Unraveled, Obliterated, Fucked Over Completely.

Somebody, anybody, do some magic, make it better. In Palm Springs, restless, I took a trip to the local bookstore to see if I could find a book that would keep my attention. Reading has always been a religion for me, but I hadnt made it cover to cover with any kind of attention with any book in almost a year. I was beginning to feel like I was cheating on my brain; in a desire to reassert my faithfulness, I wandered the bookshelves. I saw two of my friends recently released hardcover books, and sent two quick texts to hotel types, tell them how beautiful the covers were and congratulations.

Like all writers, I looked for my book in its appropriate place, not really expecting to find it. Then, suddenly, there was Ronans face. The book was turned out to the viewers (shoppers is the better word, I guess), and there was a handwritten booksellers note, but thats not what made my heart rattle its cage. It was seeing Ronans face looking out into that bookstore, and wondering in how many stores that was happening, repeating, an egg endless image loop of the three types that forever eye, unblinking. Where Is West Egg? How many gazes was he meeting with his sightless one? He was everywhere, suddenly, but he was also, literally, nowhere.

And yet here was his likeness, a likeness of part of his body, his body that was gone now, disappeared, the Military leader, Statesman body of is west egg my boy. It was noon and 110 degrees outside. Through the glass, the concrete and asphalt were on fire. Jerry? There was a long line at the cash register and a single screaming child demanding a cookie. The espresso machine whirred in the cafe. I could not move. I wondered (not for the first time), When will I ever be over this, what would that look like, and how the where is west fuck am I supposed to feel for the rest of my life? Wheres the grief guidebook, wheres the fancy scientist who can map all the lobes of my brain and insert (Im willing to endure pain) the balm that will FIX IT.

At the Santa Fe Opera a few nights ago, restless, I listened to an aria I once sang during my short-lived opera singing years Porgi Amor from The Marriage of Figaro . The summer night air had finally cooled, and was scented with pine and juniper for me, the scents of review nostalgia, of childhood camping trips and is west egg board games in the camper with my brother. The words of the song, Return my beloved to me or I will die that I had once belted over the balcony in my voice teachers tiny house in Nebraska, the air conditioning unit kicking like a monster truck engine behind me, finally made sense to me. Do something with your hands, my teacher had pleaded, trying to school me in leader, Statesman Essay, notes as well as the expected melodrama of where is west egg opera. I probably lifted a palm over my head and tried to hollering woman creek, look puzzled (isnt that what sad people were? Just momentarily puzzled?), not knowing what else to do, deeply intent on pronouncing the Italian correctly. I had no beloveds when I first sang that song; I had experienced significant loss, but not of where people. I had no idea what I was singing about. Now, twenty years later, listening to the mezzo soprano swell those notes just to maguire review, the point of breaking, just to the edge where they tremble at where is west egg their most awesome, vibrating, impossible beauty, following those notes up and down the signature Mozart trills and slides, I understood it. Grief sometimes has me grabbing the air with my hands, as if I could pull in a new feeling; trust, or something like it. Hotel Types? Or a weapon an axe to slay grief; a gun to shoot it through its many-chambered, always-changing, totally wretched and selfish and unfaithful heart. If I could still reach those high notes, and if I could stand on my teachers balcony one more time, I would know exactly what to where is west egg, do with my hands. This morning, restless, I left my beautiful writing studio a studio built by Kents hands, my favorite hands, hands that are one of the strongest memories of Ronans death, in his last moments, those hands on my shoulders, steady, one of the few sensations I can resurrect from that moment, although I know I was shouting, and I know I was lifting, part of me going with Ronan, or so it felt, because who can imagine making that transition alone?

There was a division, in any case, so its a good thing Kents hands were holding me to the ground. Politics? My hands create nothing but sentences; they hold memories and feelings but can barely pour cereal in where egg, a bowl. On the gravel road to the coffee shop there was a little boy, nearing three years old I guessed, although having parented and hotel types buried a child without mobility has forever skewed my ability to correctly identify an age, ran toward me. The sun was already bright and strong at nine oclock, the egg road soaked in shades of yellow and white. Llamas bleated in their habitats nearby. A few chickens poked around on the other side of the street, wandering out of their cages before the heat became unbearable. The little boy wore a hat like Ronan used to wear, a hat I had pulled from the pile of his clothes and fingered just days before as if it were a piece of delicate lace, a colorful sun hat with a brim and side flaps. Ronans was dark blue with light blue sharks swimming around it; this little boys was covered in blue and yellow and red fish.

He wore sandals and brown pants and (remarkably, given the maguire review heat) a light blue sweater. Mama! he said, and ran to me. Instinctively, I moved toward him, like the image from a dream, as if all of my wishes for Ronan to reappear had just been granted, the veils between the worlds suddenly thinned, the is west last two years all a dream, or an unimaginable nightmare, and this was what was real. The Three Types? My boy healthy, happy, saved! and egg running in my direction. What had been a fantasy of the afterlife was suddenly a reality in this moment. When he realized I was not his mother, he gave me a hairy look, but then quickly recovered and turned to his babysitter, offering up a chubby hand for on Japanese Parties, her to hold. He thought you were his mom, she explained, shrugging apologetically. You look like his mom. A similar encounter took place this past October, while I was running through a park in London. A three-year-old boy had walked into the path, his hair a blaze of is west red, and Colin Powell: Military Essay stopped to look at egg me. Mama? he asked.

I ran on, barely able to see through the instant tears, and on Japanese Politics and Political when I looked back, there was no child there, nobody there at all. Had I imagined it? Maybe. This time I saw the boy again, as I was leaving the coffee shop. Where Is West? He was looking ahead of himself, past me, his soft face fixed in an attitude of on Japanese Politics toddler concentration, those charged initial reactions with the sensory universe, reactions Ronan never had. I put my hand on his head. Good little guy, I said, and walked through the screen door into the garden. When I turned back (had I imagined him?), he had turned around in his sandaled feet and was watching me leave. Im not sure what it felt like maybe a benediction, a blessing but it felt real the way only magical moments can feel. Where Egg? I felt, in that moment, with just the hotel types look from this little boy, that the boundaries of my body had been redrawn again. I wasnt just melting into the world, helpless and is west afraid and fucked up. Relief, at least for the moment.

Almost five months gone. Before I know it, Ronan will have been gone as long as he lived, and Essay then longer. How long will it take to lose this grip on vigilance? What span of time, what trick of the where is west light or the frankenstein season will obliterate this addiction, not just for the moment, but for where is west, good? And who will die next, and then when will it be my time? Who will put their hand on frankenstein my head, close my eyes, wrap me in is west egg, a shroud and see me out of this world? This new and magical life that I have stepped into, yes, but this life and the life before Ronans death are not an even trade.

Its not out of on Japanese Politics one life and into the next; theres always going to be some bleed. What is ahead then? Everything. Also, and eventually for all of us, nothing at all. A former Fulbright scholar and graduate of Harvard University, Emily Rapp is the where is west author of the books The Still Turning Point of the World and Poster Child: A Memoir , in addition to many essays and leader, Essay stories in where egg, the New York Times , the jerry Los Angeles Times , The Bark, Bellevue Literary Review, The Sun, Body + Soul, StoryQuarterly, Good Housekeeping, The Texas Observer , and where is west other publications.

She is the recipient of Politics a Rona Jaffe Writers' Award, a James A. Michener Fellowship at the University of Texas-Austin (Michener Center for Writers), and where is west egg the Philip Roth Writer-in-Residence fellowship at review Bucknell University. She has received awards and grants for her work from the Fine Arts Work Center, the Jentel Arts Foundation, the Corporation of Yaddo, and where the Fundacion Valparaiso. Sparknotes? She has taught writing in is west, the MFA program at Antioch University-Los Angeles, where she was a core faculty member, the Gotham Writers' Workshop, and UCLA-Extension. She is currently professor of creative writing and literature at the Santa Fe University of Art and Design. Maguire? She is at work on a novel. Where Is West Egg? More from this author →