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bios resume pci This section describes how to view and/or modify the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) settings on frankenstein, the Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers. The BIOS Setup utility reports system information and and south, can be used to felix frankenstein, configure the server BIOS settings. Essay. BIOS has a Setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory. The configured data is felix, provided with context-sensitive Help and water in the, is stored in felix the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. Water In The. If the felix configuration stored in the CMOS RAM is invalid, the BIOS settings default to the original state specified at slavery north and south the factory. The following topics are covered: You can access BIOS Setup utility screens from the following interfaces: Use a USB keyboard, mouse, and VGA monitor connected directly to the server. Frankenstein. Use a terminal (or terminal emulator connected to the gettysburg important, a computer) through the frankenstein serial port on catherine, the back panel of the server.

Connect to the server using the Sun ILOM Remote Console. To access BIOS configuration screens and to felix frankenstein, change the why was address important system’s parameters, complete the following steps: 1. Power on or power cycle the felix frankenstein server. 2. Kidney. To enter the BIOS Setup utility, press the F2 key while the frankenstein system is the gettysburg address, performing the power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1). Felix Frankenstein. FIGURE E-1 Press F2 to Run Setup Prompt. When BIOS is started, the main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears (FIGURE E-2). Why Was The Gettysburg Address Important. This screen provides seven menu options across the top of the frankenstein screen. FIGURE E-2 BIOS Setup Utility - Main Screen. Motivates You?. 3. Use the frankenstein left and right arrow keys to erik erikson, select the different menu options. As you select each menu option, the frankenstein top-level screen for how did catherine the great, that menu option appears. 4. Felix Frankenstein. To select an music way, option on a top-level screen, use the up and down arrow keys to felix frankenstein, scroll up and down the options presented.

Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the erikson up and down arrow keys. If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions for modifying the option appear in the right column of the felix screen. If a field is a link to a sub-screen, instructions to erik theory, press the Enter key to access the frankenstein sub screen appear in the right column. 5. Orientation. Modify the frankenstein setup field and press the Esc key to save the marketing orientation examples changes and exit the screen. Frankenstein. Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted changes to be retracted. 6. On sub-screens that only provide configuration information and cannot be modified, press the Esc key to exit the screen. 7. To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Water Kidney. Otherwise, go to Step 8. 8. Press and release the felix frankenstein right arrow key until the Exit menu screen appears. 9. Follow the instructions on the gettysburg important, the Exit menu screen to frankenstein, save or discard your changes and theory development, exit the BIOS Setup utility. TABLE E-1 contains summary descriptions of the top-level BIOS setup screens. Felix Frankenstein. See This Section.

General product information, including BIOS type, processor, memory, and time/date. Configuration information for The Origins Animation, the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other information. Configure the server to felix frankenstein, clear NVRAM during system boot. Configure the how did boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). Set or change the felix frankenstein user and supervisor passwords. View the configuration of erik erikson development server chipsets. Save changes and frankenstein, exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal or fail-safe defaults. See BIOS Setup Utility Menu Screens for examples of each of music way these screens. The following figures show sample Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers BIOS Setup utility screens. Felix. All settings are set to marketing orientation, the optimal defaults at frankenstein startup. Music Way. The following topics are covered: The BIOS Main screens provide general product information, including BIOS, processor, system memory, and system time/date.

The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Main screens. FIGURE E-3 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - System Overview. FIGURE E-4 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - Serial Number Information. The BIOS Advanced screens provide detailed configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and felix frankenstein, other system information. Slavery In The North And South. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and frankenstein, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Advanced screens. FIGURE E-5 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced Settings. Marketing. FIGURE E-6 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Advanced CPU Settings. FIGURE E-7 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - On-board SATA Configuration.

FIGURE E-8 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - AHCI Port 0 Configuration. Frankenstein. FIGURE E-9 BIOS Setup Utility: Advance - ACPI Settings. FIGURE E-10 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced ACPI Configuration. And Methods Essay Example. FIGURE E-11 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Event Logging Details. Felix. FIGURE E-12 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - View Event Log. The Origins And Methods Essay. FIGURE E-13 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - IPMI Configuration.

FIGURE E-14 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - LAN Configuration. Felix. FIGURE E-15 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Total Number of how did catherine the great die Entries. FIGURE E-16 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Intel VT-d Configuration. Felix. FIGURE E-17 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - MPS Configuration. FIGURE E-18 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Remote Access Type and erikson child, Parameters. FIGURE E-19 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Trusted Computing Configuration. FIGURE E-20 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Configuration. FIGURE E-21 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Mass Storage Device Configuration. The BIOS PCI screen enables you to configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS PCI screen.

FIGURE E-22 BIOS Setup Utility: PCI - Advanced PCI Settings. The BIOS Boot screens enable you to felix, configure the what you? boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and frankenstein, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Boot screens. And Methods Of Stop-Frame Animation Essay. FIGURE E-23 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings. Felix Frankenstein. FIGURE E-24 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings Configuration. FIGURE E-25 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Device Priority.

FIGURE E-26 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Option ROM Configuration. FIGURE E-27 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Wake On LAN Configuration. Erik Child. The BIOS Security screens enable you to frankenstein, set or change the slavery and south supervisor and user passwords. Felix. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and erik erikson child development, X4275 Servers have one BIOS Security screen. FIGURE E-28 BIOS Setup Utility: Security - Security Settings. Felix. The BIOS Chipset screens enable you to slavery in the north and south, set the chipset parameters. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and felix frankenstein, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Chipset screens. Music Way. FIGURE E-29 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - Advanced Chipset Settings. FIGURE E-30 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - CPU Bridge Chipset Configuration. Felix. FIGURE E-31 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - North Bridge Chipset Configuration.

FIGURE E-32 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - South Bridge Chipset Configuration. The Origins Of Stop-Frame Animation Essay. The BIOS Exit options enable you to save changes and exit, discard changes and felix frankenstein, exit, discard changes, or load optimal defaults (FIGURE E-33). To select and the gettysburg important, execute an frankenstein, option, follow these steps: 1. Use the water in the kidney up and down arrow keys to felix, scroll up and down the BIOS Exit options. In The Kidney. 2. Press Enter to felix, select the water in the kidney option. A confirmation dialog box appears (see FIGURE E-34) that enables you to save or cancel the changes and felix, exit the Setup utility.

FIGURE E-33 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Exit Options - Save Changes and kidney, Exit. FIGURE E-34 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Save Configuration Changes and Exit Confirmation. Felix Frankenstein. At system startup, the water in the BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the felix hardware on orientation, your server to ensure that all components are present and felix, functioning properly. TABLE E-2 identifies the events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the host from The Origins and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation example, powering-on. Felix Frankenstein. Boot continues on slavery in the, host?

User password violation. Attempt to felix, enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Attempt to enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. In The. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. Felix Frankenstein. No physical memory detected in the great die the system. No usable system memory. All installed memory has experienced an felix, unrecoverable failure.

Hard disk controller failure. Why Was Address. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized. Frankenstein. Boot media failure. No removable boot media is found. Music Way. No video device. No video controller is felix, found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. Slavery And South. BIOS checksum fails and the boot block is not corrupted.

System boot initiated. Initiated by felix frankenstein, hard reset. Boot process started by hard reset. Memory sizing is occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. In The. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by felix frankenstein, warm reset.

Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management. You?. Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. Frankenstein. System firmware progress. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard.

Option ROM initialization. What. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Felix. Option ROM space exhausted. BIOS cannot copy an you?, option to the memory. User initiated system set up. End user initiated access to BIOS Set Up Utility. System firmware progress.

User initiated boot to OS. System boot initiated. System firmware progress. No bootable media. Felix Frankenstein. Nothing to boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state.

Soft-off power applied. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to pinpoint faults in music way a specific hardware component. Felix. If the erik development POST diagnostics discloses an F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the felix frankenstein following information about the error: When or where the in the error occurred. TABLE E-4 lists some of the felix F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for how to die, possibly resolve the felix frankenstein error reported. The server supports four 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports on the rear of the chassis. For port locations, see FIGURE 1-2. Slavery. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems. See TABLE E-3 for felix frankenstein, the physical (BIOS) and logical (operating system) naming conventions used for orientation examples, each interface. Solaris 10 10/09. Felix. Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL) 5.4 (64-bit) SLES 10 SP3 (64-bit) and.

VMware ESX 4.0 and ESXi 4.0. In The. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to frankenstein, continue. In The. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Felix. Check the the gettysburg important fault management function and felix, the SP event log in ILOM for and south, more details. Felix Frankenstein. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for how did catherine, QPI Link 0 or 1 for frankenstein, QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on how did the great die, Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and frankenstein, the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Marketing Orientation. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on IOH. Uncorrectable Error Detected on felix frankenstein, Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for address, more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the frankenstein fault management function and the SP event log in music way ILOM for more details. Felix. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error(Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Erik Erikson Child Development. Check the frankenstein fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on the great die, Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for felix frankenstein, more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the SP event log for music way, more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on frankenstein, Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Marketing Orientation Examples. Check the felix frankenstein fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. The Origins And Methods Essay Example. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for felix, more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the how did die SP event log in ILOM for felix, more details. Water In The Kidney. BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the SP/BIOS communication an felix frankenstein, internal error occurs. This error might require you to music way, restart the felix frankenstein SP. The Origins Of Stop-Frame Animation. Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Primary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - These type of frankenstein error messages display when the BIOS is why was the gettysburg important, attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. Frankenstein. 8254 timer error. Press F1 to music way, continue. Felix Frankenstein. Check the SP event log in water in the kidney ILOM for frankenstein, more details. The Origins Of Stop-Frame. Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of felix channel 2 of the 8254 timer.

This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. In The Kidney. Memory test failure. Felix. Press F1 to water in the, continue. Felix Frankenstein. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the why was the gettysburg address important RAM read/write test failed. Frankenstein. KBC BAT Test failed.

Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. Press F1 to orientation, continue. Check the felix SP event log in ILOM for water in the kidney, more details. Felix Frankenstein. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. And Methods Animation Example. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed. Video display error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in felix ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. CMOS battery error. Press F2 to water in the kidney, enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Frankenstein. Check the SP event log in slavery and south ILOM for more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. Felix. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to erik theory child, load system defaults. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Password check failed. Felix Frankenstein. Password check error. Press F1 to kidney, continue. Check the SP event log in felix ILOM for the gettysburg address important, more details. Note - This type of felix frankenstein error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for both Supervisor and User password verification. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the catherine the great die Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware.

S.M.A.R.T error on frankenstein, the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in address ILOM for more details. Frankenstein. Note - S.M.A.R.T. The Origins Of Stop-Frame Essay. failure messages might indicate the frankenstein need to examples, replace the storage device.

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Network Management System: Best Practices White Paper. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network management model defines five functional areas of network management. This document covers all functional areas. The overall purpose of this document is to frankenstein provide practical recommendations on each functional area to increase the overall effectiveness of current management tools and practices. It also provides design guidelines for future implementation of network management tools and and south, technologies. The ISO network management model's five functional areas are listed below. Fault Management—Detect, isolate, notify, and frankenstein, correct faults encountered in the network. Configuration Management—Configuration aspects of slavery in the and south network devices such as configuration file management, inventory management, and software management. Performance Management—Monitor and measure various aspects of performance so that overall performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.

Security Management—Provide access to network devices and corporate resources to authorized individuals. Accounting Management—Usage information of network resources. The following diagram shows a reference architecture that Cisco Systems believes should be the minimal solution for managing a data network. This architecture includes a Cisco CallManager server for frankenstein, those who plan to manage Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): The diagram shows how you would integrate the marketing, CallManager server into the NMS topology. The network management architecture includes the following: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) platform for fault management. Performance monitoring platform for long term performance management and trending. CiscoWorks2000 server for configuration management, syslog collection, and hardware and software inventory management.

Some SNMP platforms can directly share data with the CiscoWorks2000 server using Common Information Model/eXtensible Markup Language (CIM/XML) methods. Felix Frankenstein? CIM is a common data model of an The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation example, implementation-neutral schema for describing overall management information in a network/enterprise environment. CIM is comprised of a specification and a schema. Felix? The specification defines the important, details for integration with other management models such as SNMP MIBs or Desktop Management Task Force Management Information Files (DMTF MIFs), while the schema provides the actual model descriptions. XML is a markup language used for representing structured data in textual form. Felix? A specific goal of XML was to keep most of the descriptive power of SGML whilst removing as much of the complexity as possible. XML is similar in concept to HTML, but whereas HTML is and Methods Essay, used to convey graphical information about frankenstein a document, XML is used to address represent structured data in a document. Cisco's advanced services customers would also include Cisco's NATkit server for frankenstein, additional proactive monitoring and troubleshooting. Of Stop-Frame Animation Example? The NATkit server would either have a remote disk mount (rmount) or file transfer protocol (FTP) access to the data residing on the CiscoWorks2000 server.

The Network Management Basics chapter of the Internetworking Technology Overview provides a more detailed overview regarding network management basics. The goal of fault management is to detect, log, notify users of, and (to the extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Because faults can cause downtime or unacceptable network degradation, fault management is felix frankenstein, perhaps the most widely implemented of the ISO network management elements. A network management platform deployed in slavery and south, the enterprise manages an infrastructure that consists of multivendor network elements. The platform receives and processes events from network elements in the network. Events from servers and other critical resources can also be forwarded to felix frankenstein a management platform. The following commonly available functions are included in a standard management platform: Topology mapping of network elements.

Performance data collector and grapher. Management data browser. Network management platforms can be viewed as the north, main console for network operations in detecting faults in the infrastructure. The ability to detect problems quickly in frankenstein, any network is critical. Network operations personnel can rely on a graphical network map to display the operational states of critical network elements such as routers and erik, switches. Network management platforms such HP OpenView, Computer Associates Unicenter, and SUN Solstice can perform a discovery of felix frankenstein network devices. Each network device is represented by a graphical element on the management platform's console.

Different colors on the graphical elements represent the marketing examples, current operational status of frankenstein network devices. Network devices can be configured to send notifications, called SNMP traps, to network management platforms. Upon receiving the notifications, the graphical element representing the network device changes to a different color depending on in the, the severity of the notification received. The notification, usually called an event, is placed in a log file. It is particularly important that the most current Cisco Management Information Base (MIB) files be loaded on felix, the SNMP platform to ensure that the various alerts from Cisco devices are interpreted correctly. Cisco publishes the MIB files for why was important, managing various network devices.

The Cisco MIB files are located on the website, and include the following information: MIB files published in SNMPv1 format. MIB files published in SNMPv2 format. Supported SNMP traps on Cisco devices. OIDs for Cisco current SNMP MIB objects. A number of network management platforms are capable of managing multiple geographically distributed sites. This is accomplished by exchanging management data between management consoles at felix remote sites with a management station at the main site. The main advantage of erikson a distributed architecture is felix, that it reduces management traffic, thus, providing a more effective usage of bandwidth.

A distributed architecture also allows personnel to locally manage their networks from remote sites with systems. A recent enhancement to erik erikson theory development management platforms is the ability to remotely management network elements using a web interface. This enhancement eliminates the need for special client software on individual user stations to access a management platform. A typical enterprise is comprised of different network elements. However, each device normally requires vendor-specific element management systems in order to effectively manage the network elements. Therefore, duplicate management stations may be polling network elements for the same information. The data collected by different systems is stored in separate databases, creating administration overhead for users. Felix Frankenstein? This limitation has prompted networking and the gettysburg address important, software vendors to adopt standards such as Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) to facilitate the exchange of management data between management platforms and felix, element management systems. With vendors adopting standards in management system development, users can expect interoperability and cost savings in deploying and managing the infrastructure. CORBA specifies a system that provides interoperability between objects in erikson theory child, a heterogeneous, distributed environment and in a manner that is felix frankenstein, transparent to the programmer.

Its design is water in the, based on the Object Management Group (OMG) object model. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and system log (syslog) servers are crucial components of a troubleshooting infrastructure in network operations. Frankenstein? The TFTP server is used primarily for storing configuration files and software images for network devices. Routers and switches are capable of sending system log messages to a syslog server. The messages facilitate the troubleshooting function when problems are encountered. Slavery? Occasionally, Cisco support personnel need the syslog messages to perform root cause analysis.

The CiscoWorks2000 Resource Management Essentials (Essentials) distributed syslog collection function allows for frankenstein, the deployment of several UNIX or NT collection stations at remote sites to perform message collection and filtering. North And South? The filters can specify which syslog messages will be forwarded to the main Essentials server. Felix Frankenstein? A major benefit of implementing distributed collection is the reduction of messages forwarded to the main syslog servers. The purpose of fault management is to detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in the network. Network devices are capable of alerting management stations when a fault occurs on the systems. An effective fault management system consists of several subsystems. How Did The Great Die? Fault detection is accomplished when the felix frankenstein, devices send SNMP trap messages, SNMP polling, remote monitoring (RMON) thresholds, and how did catherine die, syslog messages. A management system alerts the end user when a fault is reported and corrective actions can be taken. Traps should be enabled consistently on network devices. Additional traps are supported with new Cisco IOS software releases for routers and switches.

It is important to check and update the configuration file to ensure the proper decoding of traps. A periodic review of configured traps with the Cisco Assured Network Services (ANS) team will ensure effective fault detection in the network. The following table lists the CISCO-STACK-MIB traps that are supported by, and can be used to monitor fault conditions on, Cisco Catalyst local area network (LAN) switches. Environmental monitor (envmon) traps are defined in frankenstein, CISCO-ENVMON-MIB trap. The envmon trap sends Cisco enterprise-specific environmental monitor notifications when an environmental threshold is in the north, exceeded. When envmon is used, a specific environmental trap type can be enabled, or all trap types from the environmental monitor system can be accepted. If no option is frankenstein, specified, all environmental types are enabled.

It can be one or more of the following values: voltage—A ciscoEnvMonVoltageNotification is how did, sent if the voltage measured at frankenstein a given test point is outside the orientation examples, normal range for the test point (such as is at the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). shutdown—A ciscoEnvMonShutdownNotification is sent if the environmental monitor detects that a test point is frankenstein, reaching a critical state and is about to initiate a shutdown. supply—A ciscoEnvMonRedundantSupplyNotification is sent if the redundant power supply (where extant) fails. fan—A ciscoEnvMonFanNotification is sent if any one of the fans in how did catherine die, the fan array (where extant) fails. temperature—A ciscoEnvMonTemperatureNotification is sent if the temperature measured at a given test point is outside the normal range for the test point (such as is at the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). Fault detection and monitoring of network elements can be expanded from the device level to the protocol and interface levels. For a network environment, fault monitoring can include Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), fault indications on physical interfaces, and so forth. Protocol-level fault management implementation is available using an frankenstein, element management system such as the CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager. And Methods Animation Example? The TrafficDirector application in felix frankenstein, Campus Manager focuses on switch management utilizing mini-RMON support on Catalyst switches. With an increasing number of the gettysburg address network elements and frankenstein, complexity of network issues, an event management system that is north, capable of correlating different network events (syslog, trap, log files) may be considered.

This architecture behind an event management system is comparable to a Manager of Managers (MOM) system. A well-designed event management system allows personnel in the network operations center (NOC) to be proactive and felix frankenstein, effective in detecting and diagnosing network issues. In The? Event prioritization and felix, suppression allow network operation personnel to focus on critical network events, investigate several event management systems including the Cisco Info Center, and conduct a feasibility analysis to why was the gettysburg address fully explore the felix frankenstein, capabilities of such systems. To obtain more information, go to the Cisco Info Center. Proactive Fault Monitoring and Notification. RMON alarm and event are two groups defined in the RMON specification.

Normally, a management station performs polling on network devices to determine the status or value of certain variables. For example, a management station polls a router to find out the central processing unit (CPU) utilization and generate an event when the value hits reaches a configured threshold. This method wastes network bandwidth and how did catherine the great die, can also miss the actual threshold depending on the polling interval. With RMON alarm and felix, events, a network device is configured to monitor itself for rising and how did catherine, falling thresholds. At a predefined time interval, the frankenstein, network device will takes a sample of a variable and compares it against the thresholds. An SNMP trap can be sent to a management station if the and south, actual value exceeds or falls below the configured thresholds. RMON alarm and event groups provide a proactive method of frankenstein managing critical network devices. Cisco Systems recommends implementing RMON alarm and event on critical network devices. Monitored variables can include CPU utilization, buffer failures, input/output drops, or any variables of Integer types.

Starting with Cisco IOS Software Release 11.1(1), all router images support RMON alarm and event groups. For detailed information about RMON alarm and event implementation, refer to the RMON Alarm and orientation, Event Implementation section. RMON memory usage is constant across all switch platforms relating to statistics, histories, alarms, and frankenstein, events. RMON uses what is erik erikson child development, called a bucket to store histories and statistics on the RMON agent (which is the switch in felix, this case). The bucket size is catherine the great, defined on the RMON probe (SwitchProbe device) or RMON application (TrafficDirector tool), then sent to the switch to be set. Approximately 450 K of code space is needed to support mini-RMON (for example, four RMON groups: statistics, history, alarms, and events).

The dynamic memory requirement for RMON varies because it depends on felix, the runtime configuration. The following table defines the runtime RMON memory usage information for each mini-RMON group. *RMON uses what is called a bucket to store histories and statistics on the RMON agent (such as a switch). RMON Alarm and Event Implementation. By incorporating RMON as part of orientation a fault management solution, a user can proactively monitor the network before a potential problem occurs. Frankenstein? For example, if the number of broadcast packets received increases significantly, it can cause an increase in CPU utilization. By implementing RMON alarm and event, a user can set up a threshold to monitor the number of broadcast packets received and alert the SNMP platform by means of an SNMP trap if the configured threshold is reached.

RMON alarms and events eliminate the excessive polling normally performed by the SNMP platform for erik erikson development, accomplishing the frankenstein, same goal. Two methods are available from which to configure RMON alarm and erikson theory child, event: Command-line interface (CLI) The following sample procedures show how to set a threshold to felix monitor the number of broadcast packets received on why was the gettysburg, an interface. The same counter is used in these procedures as is shown in the show interface command example at the end of this section. To implement RMON alarm and event using the CLI interface, perform the following steps: Find the interface index associated with Ethernet 0 by walking the felix, ifTable MIB. Obtain the OID associated with the CLI field to be monitored. For this example, the OID for 'broadcasts' is The Cisco OIDs for slavery in the, specific MIB variables are available from the website. Determine the following parameters for setting up thresholds and events.

rising and falling thresholds. sampling type (absolute or delta) action when threshold is reached. For the frankenstein, purpose of slavery in the north and south this example, a threshold is being set up to monitor the felix, number of broadcast packets received on why was the gettysburg, Ethernet 0. A trap will be generated if the number of broadcast packets received is greater than 500 between 60-second samples. The threshold will be reactivated when the number of input broadcasts does not increase between samples taken. Note: For detailed about these command parameters, check the Cisco Connection Online (CCO) documentation for RMON alarm and event commands for your particular Cisco IOS version. Specify the trap sent (RMON event) when the frankenstein, threshold is reached using the The Origins and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation example, following CLI commands (The Cisco IOS commands are displayed in bold): rmon event 1 trap gateway description High Broadcast on felix frankenstein, Ethernet 0 owner cisco.

rmon event 2 log description normal broadcast received on ethernet 0 owner cisco. Specify the thresholds and slavery, relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following CLI commands: rmon alarm 1 ifEntry.12.1 60 delta rising-threshold 500 1. falling-threshold 0 2 owner cisco. Use SNMP to poll these tables to verify that the frankenstein, eventTable entries were made on the device. Use SNMP to poll these tables to verify that the alarmTable entries were set. In order to implement RMON alarm and event with the of Stop-Frame example, SNMP SET operation, complete these steps: Specify the trap sent (RMON event) when the frankenstein, threshold is reached using the following SNMP SET operations:

Specify the thresholds and relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following SNMP SET operations: Poll these tables to verify that the north and south, eventTable entries were made on felix frankenstein, the device. Poll these tables to verify that the alarmTable entries were set. This example is a result of the slavery north and south, show interface command. gateway show interface ethernet 0. The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and system configuration information so that the frankenstein, effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. With an increasing number of in the network devices deployed, it is frankenstein, critical to be able to accurately identify the location of a network device.

This location information should provide a detailed description meaningful to erik erikson theory those tasked with dispatching resources when a network problem occurs. To expedite a resolution if a network problem occurs, make certain to have available contact information of the person or department responsible for the devices. Contact information should include telephone number and the name of the frankenstein, person or department. Naming conventions for network devices, starting from device name to in the individual interface, should be planned and implemented as part of the configuration standard. A well defined naming convention provides personnel with the ability to frankenstein provide accurate information when troubleshooting network problems. The naming convention for devices can use geographical location, building name, floor, and so forth. The Gettysburg Important? For the interface naming convention, it can include the segment to which a port is connected, name of connecting hub, and so forth.

On serial interfaces, it should include actual bandwidth, local data link connection identifier (DLCI) number (if Frame Relay), destination, and the circuit ID or information provided by the carrier. When you add new configuration commands on existing network devices needs, you must verify the felix frankenstein, commands for integrity before actual implementation takes place. An improperly configured network device can have a disastrous effect on network connectivity and how did, performance. Felix Frankenstein? Configuration command parameters must be checked to avoid mismatches or incompatibility issues. It is advisable to schedule a thorough review of configurations with Cisco engineers on The Origins Animation, a regular basis. A fully functional CiscoWorks2000 Essentials allows for backing up configuration files on routers and Cisco Catalyst switches automatically. The security feature of Essentials can be used to felix frankenstein perform authentication on the gettysburg, configuration changes. A change audit log is frankenstein, available to track changes and the user name of individuals issuing changes. For configuration changes on multiple devices, two options are available: the web-based NetConfig in the current version of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials or the cwconfig script. Configuration files can be downloaded and uploaded using CiscoWorks2000 Essentials utilizing the predefined or user-defined templates.

These functions can be accomplished with the configuration management tools in marketing examples, CiscoWorks2000 Essentials: Push configuration files from the Essentials configuration archive to a device or multiple devices. Pull the configuration from the felix frankenstein, device to the Essentials archive. Extract the why was the gettysburg important, latest configuration from the archive and write it to a file. Import configuration from a file and push the configuration to devices. Compare the last two configurations in the Essentials archive. Delete configurations older than a specified date or version from the archive. Copy the startup configuration to the running configuration. The discovery function of most network management platforms is intended to provide a dynamic listing of devices found in the network.

Discovery engines such as those implemented in network management platforms should be utilized. An inventory database provides detailed configuration information on network devices. Common information includes models of hardware, installed modules, software images, microcode levels, and so on. All these pieces of information are crucial in completing tasks such as software and felix, hardware maintenance. Catherine? The up-to-date listing of network devices collected by felix frankenstein, the discovery process can be used as a master list to collect inventory information using SNMP or scripting. Erik Theory? A device list may be imported from CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager into the inventory database of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials to obtain an up-to-date inventory of Cisco Catalyst switches. A successful upgrade of Cisco IOS images on felix, network devices requires a detailed analysis of the requirements such as memory, boot ROM, microcode level, and water, so on. The requirements are normally documented and available on Cisco's web site in the form of release notes and installation guides. The process of upgrading a network device running Cisco IOS includes downloading a correct image from CCO, backing up the current image, making sure all hardware requirements are met, and then loading the new image into the device.

The upgrade window to complete device maintenance is fairly limited for some organizations. In a large network environment with limited resources, it might be necessary to schedule and automate software upgrades after business hours. The procedure can be completed either using scripting language such as Expect or an application written specifically to perform such a task. Changes to software in network devices such as Cisco IOS images and microcode versions should be tracked to frankenstein assist in the analysis phase when another software maintenance is required. With a modification history report readily available, the person performing the upgrade can minimize the risk of loading incompatible images or microcode into network devices. A service level agreement (SLA) is a written agreement between a service provider and their customers on slavery in the north and south, the expected performance level of network services. The SLA consists of metrics agreed upon between the provider and its customers.

The values set for the metrics must be realistic, meaningful, and measurable for both parties. Various interface statistics can be collected from network devices to measure the felix, performance level. The Great Die? These statistics can be included as metrics in the SLA. Statistics such as input queue drops, output queue drops, and felix, ignored packets are useful for diagnosing performance-related problems. At the device level, performance metrics can include CPU utilization, buffer allocation (big buffer, medium buffer, misses, hit ratio), and memory allocation.

The performance of certain network protocols is erik erikson theory development, directly related to buffer availability in network devices. Measuring device-level performance statistics are critical in optimizing the felix frankenstein, performance of higher-level protocols. Network devices such as routers support various higher-layer protocols such as Data Link Switching Workgroup (DLSW), Remote Source Route Bridging (RSRB), AppleTalk, and so forth. Performance statistics of wide-area network (WAN) technologies including Frame Relay, ATM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and others can be monitored and collected. Performance Monitoring, Measurement, and Reporting.

Different performance metrics at marketing the interface, device, and frankenstein, protocol levels should be collected on a regular basis using SNMP. The polling engine in a network management system can be utilized for data collection purposes. Most network management systems are capable of collecting, storing, and slavery in the and south, presenting polled data. Various solutions are available in the marketplace to address the needs of performance management for enterprise environments. These systems are capable of felix frankenstein collecting, storing, and presenting data from orientation, network devices and servers. The web-based interface on felix frankenstein, most products makes the performance data accessible from anywhere in in the kidney, the enterprise. Some of the frankenstein, commonly deployed performance management solutions include: An evaluation of the above products will determine if they meet the requirements of different users.

Some vendors support integration with network management and in the north and south, system management platforms. Frankenstein? For example, InfoVista supports the BMC Patrol Agent to provide key performance statistics from application servers. Each product has a different pricing model and capabilities with the base offering. Support for catherine the great die, performance management features for frankenstein, Cisco's devices such as NetFlow, RMON, and Cisco IOS Service Assurance Agent/Response Time Reporter (RTR/SAA CSAA/RTR) is available on some solutions. How Did Catherine Die? Concord has recently added support for Cisco's WAN switches that can be used to collect and view performance data. The CSAA/RTR Service Assurance Agent (SAA)/Response Time Reporter (RTR) feature in Cisco IOS can be utilized for measuring the response time between IP devices.

A source router configured with CSAA configured is capable of felix frankenstein measuring the response time to a destination IP device that can be a router or an IP device. Marketing Orientation Examples? The response time can be measured between the source and the destination or for felix, each hop along the path. SNMP traps can be configured to alert management consoles if the response time exceeds the catherine the great, predefined thresholds. Recent enhancements to Cisco IOS extends the capabilities of CSAA to measure the following: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) service performance. Domain name system (DNS) lookup. Transmission control protocol (TCP) connect. HTTP transaction time. Interpacket delay variance (jitter) of Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic. Response time between end points for a specific quality of service (QoS) IP type of service (ToS) bits.

Packet loss using CSAA generated packets. Configuring the CSAA feature on routers can be accomplished using the Cisco Internetwork Performance Monitor (IPM) application. The CSAA/RTR is imbedded in many but not all feature sets of the Cisco IOS software. A release of the Cisco IOS software release that supports CSAA/RTR must be installed on the device that IPM uses to collect performance statistics. For a summary of frankenstein Cisco IOS versions that support CSAA/RTR/IPM, refer to why was the IPM Frequently Asked Questions website. Additional information regarding IPM includes: User traffic has increased significantly and has placed a higher demand on network resources. Network managers typically have a limited view on the types of traffic running in the network. User and application traffic profiling provides a detailed view of the traffic in felix, the network. And Methods Of Stop-Frame Example? Two technologies, RMON probes and NetFlow, provide the felix, ability to collect traffic profiles. The RMON standards are designed to be deployed in a distributed architecture where agents (either embedded or in standalone probes) communicate with a central station (the management console) via SNMP.

The RFC 1757 RMON standard organizes monitoring functions into nine groups to support Ethernet topologies, and slavery in the north, adds a tenth group in RFC 1513 for felix, Token Ring-unique parameters. Fast Ethernet link monitoring is provided in why was the gettysburg, the framework of the RFC 1757 standard, and Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) ring monitoring is provided in the framework of both RFC 1757 and RFC 1513. The emerging RFC 2021 RMON specification drives remote monitoring standards beyond the Media Access Control (MAC) layer to the network and application layers. This setup enables administrators to analyze and troubleshoot networked applications such as Web traffic, NetWare, Notes, e-mail, database access, Network File System (NFS), and others. RMON alarms, statistics, history, and felix frankenstein, host/conversation groups can now be used to catherine die proactively monitor and maintain network availability based on application-layer traffic-the most critical traffic in the network. RMON2 enables network administrators to continue their deployment of standards-based monitoring solutions to support mission-critical, server-based applications.

The following tables list the functions of the RMON groups. The Cisco NetFlow feature allows detailed statistics of felix traffic flows to be collected for how did catherine the great, capacity planning, billing, and troubleshooting functions. NetFlow can be configured on individual interfaces, providing information on felix, traffic passing through those interfaces. The following types of information are part of the detailed traffic statistics: Source and destination IP addresses. Input and output interface numbers. TCP/UDP source port and destination ports. Number of bytes and packets in the flow. Source and destination autonomous system numbers. IP type of service (ToS)

NetFlow data gathered on network devices is exported to kidney a collector machine. The collector performs functions such as reducing the frankenstein, volume of data (filtering and aggregation), hierarchical data storage, and how did catherine die, file system management. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from routers and Cisco Catalyst switches. There are also shareware tools such as cflowd that can collect Cisco NetFlow user datagram protocol (UDP) records. NetFlow data is frankenstein, transported using UDP packets in and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay example, three different formats: Version 1—The original format supported in the initial NetFlow releases. Version 5—A later enhancement that added Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) autonomous system information and flow sequence numbers.

Version 7—A still later enhancement that added NetFlow switching support for frankenstein, Cisco Catalyst 5000 series switches equipped with a NetFlow feature card (NFFC). Versions 2 through 4 and Version 6 were either not released or are not supported by FlowCollector. In all three versions, the datagram consists of a header and one or more flow records. For more information, refer to the NetFlow Services Solutions Guide white paper. The following table outlines supported Cisco IOS versions for gathering NetFlow data from routers and Catalyst switches.

* Support for NetFlow Export V1, V5, and V8 on Cisco 1600 and 2500 platforms is marketing orientation examples, targeted for Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(T). NetFlow support for these platforms is not available in the Cisco IOS 12.0 mainline release. ** Support for NetFlow V1, V5, and V8 on felix, the AS5300 platform is targeted for Cisco IOS Software Release 12.06(T). *** MLS and NetFlow data export is supported in catherine, Catalyst 5000 series supervisor engine software release 4.1(1) or later. The goal of security management is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally). A security management subsystem, for example, can monitor users logging on felix, to a network resource, refusing access to those who enter inappropriate access codes. Security management is a very broad subject; therefore this area of the document only covers security as related to SNMP and basic device access security. Detailed information on advanced security include: A good security management implementation starts with sound security policies and procedures in place. It is important to create a platform-specific minimum configuration standard for all routers and switches that follow industry best practices for water in the, security and performance. There are various methods of controlling access on Cisco routers and catalyst switches.

Some of these methods include: Access Control Lists (ACL) User IDs and passwords local to the device. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) TACACS is an frankenstein, Internet Engineering Task Force (RFC 1492) standard security protocol that runs between client devices on a network and against a TACACS server. TACACS is an authentication mechanism that is The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation Essay, used to authenticate the identity of a device seeking remote access to a privileged database. Variations of TACACS include TACACS+, the felix frankenstein, AAA architecture that separates authentication, authorization, and accounting functions. TACACS+ is used by Cisco to allow a finer control over the gettysburg address who can access the Cisco device in frankenstein, non-privileged and privileged mode.

Multiple TACACS+ servers can be configured for fault tolerance. With TACACS+ enabled, the router and switch prompts the user for a user name and password. Authentication can be configured for login control or to authenticate individual commands. Authentication is the process of identifying users, including login and password dialog, challenge and The Origins Essay example, response, and messaging support. Authentication is the way a user is identified prior to being allowed access to the router or switch.

There is a fundamental relationship between authentication and authorization. The more authorization privileges a user receives, the stronger the authentication should be. Authorization provides remote access control, including one-time authorization and authorization for each service that is requested by the user. On a Cisco router, the felix, authorization level range for users is erikson theory development, 0 to 15 with 0 being the lowest level and 15 the highest. Accounting allows for the collecting and sending of security information used for billing, auditing, and reporting, such as user identities, start and stop times, and executed commands. Accounting enables network managers to felix track the services that users are accessing as well as the amount of network resources they are consuming.

The following table lists basic sample commands for using TACACS+, authentication, authorization, and accounting on in the and south, a Cisco router and a Catalyst switch. Refer to the Authentication, Authorization, and frankenstein, Accounting Commands document for more in-depth commands. For more information on The Origins and Methods Animation Essay, how to configure AAA to felix frankenstein monitor and control access to the command-line interface on the Catalyst enterprise LAN switches, refer to the Controlling Access to the Switch Using Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting document. The SNMP protocol can be used to make configuration changes on routers and Catalyst switches similar to those issued from the CLI. Proper security measures should be configured on orientation, network devices to felix prevent unauthorized access and change via SNMP. Why Was The Gettysburg? Community strings should follow the standard password guidelines for length, characters, and difficulty of guessing. It is important to change the felix, community strings from their public and private defaults. All SNMP management host(s) should have a static IP address and be explicitly granted SNMP communication rights with the network device by that predefined by IP address and Access Control List (ACL).

Cisco IOS and the great, Cisco Catalyst software provides security features that ensure that only authorized management stations are allowed to perform changes on network devices. SNMP Privilege Level. This feature limits the types of operations that a management station can have on a router. Frankenstein? There are two types of privilege level on routers: Read-Only (RO) and marketing orientation examples, Read-Write (RW). The RO level only frankenstein, allows a management station to query the router data. It does not allow for configuration commands such as rebooting a router and shutting down interfaces to be performed. Only the RW privilege level can be used to perform such operations.

SNMP Access Control List (ACL) The SNMP ACL feature can be used in conjunction with the SNMP privilege feature to water in the kidney limit specific management stations from frankenstein, requesting management information from routers. This feature limits specific information that can be retrieved from routers by management stations. It can be used with the SNMP privilege level and ACL features to enforce restricted access of data by management consoles. For configuration samples of SNMP View, go to snmp-server view. SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) provides secure exchanges of management data between network devices and management stations. The encryption and authentication features in SNMPv3 ensure high security in transporting packets to a management console. SNMPv3 is supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(3)T and later. And South? For a technical overview of SNMPv3, go to SNMPv3 documentation. Access Control List (ACL) on Interfaces. The ACL feature provides security measures in preventing attacks such as IP spoofing.

The ACL can be applied on incoming or outgoing interfaces on routers. Catalyst LAN Switch Security Feature. The IP Permit List feature restricts inbound Telnet and SNMP access to the switch from unauthorized source IP addresses. Felix Frankenstein? Syslog messages and SNMP traps are supported to notify a management system when a violation or unauthorized access occurs. A combination of the Cisco IOS security features can be used to manage routers and Catalyst switches. A security policy needs to be established that limits the number of management stations capable of accessing the switches and routers.

For more information on how to how did catherine the great increase security on frankenstein, IP networks, go to Increasing Security on IP Networks. Accounting management is the process used to Essay example measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group users on felix frankenstein, the network can be regulated appropriately for the purposes of accounting or chargeback. Address Important? Similar to felix frankenstein performance management, the first step toward appropriate accounting management is to measure the how did the great die, utilization of all important network resources. Network resource utilization can be measured using the Cisco NetFlow and Cisco IP Accounting features. Analysis of the data gathered through these methods provides insight into felix current usage patterns. A usage-based accounting and why was important, billing system is an frankenstein, essential part of any service level agreement (SLA). It provides both a practical way of defining obligations under an SLA and in the kidney, clear consequences for behavior outside the terms of the SLA. The data can be collected via probes or Cisco NetFlow. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from felix frankenstein, routers and Catalyst switches. In The Kidney? Shareware applications such as cflowd are also used to gather NetFlow data. An ongoing measurement of resource use can yield billing information, as well as information assess continued fair and optimal resources.

Some commonly deployed accounting management solutions include: NetFlow Activation and Data Collection Strategy. NetFlow (network flow) is an input side-measurement technology that allows for capturing the felix, data required for network planning, monitoring, and accounting applications. NetFlow should be deployed on edge/aggregation router interfaces for service providers or WAN access router interfaces for Enterprise customers. Cisco Systems recommends a carefully planned NetFlow deployment with NetFlow services activated on these strategically located routers. NetFlow can be deployed incrementally (interface by interface) and strategically (on well chosen routers), rather than deploying NetFlow on and south, every router on the network.

Cisco personnel will work with customers to determine on frankenstein, which key routers and key interfaces NetFlow should be activated based on the customer's traffic flow patterns, network topology, and architecture. Key deployment considerations include: NetFlow services should be utilized as an edge metering and access list performance acceleration tool and why was, should not be activated on hot core/backbone routers or routers running at very high CPU utilization rates. Understand application-driven data collection requirements. Accounting applications may only require originating and terminating router flow information whereas monitoring applications may require a more comprehensive (data intensive) end-to-end view. Understand the impact of frankenstein network topology and routing policy on flow collection strategy. For example, avoid collecting duplicate flows by activating NetFlow on slavery in the north, key aggregation routers where traffic originates or terminates and not on backbone routers or intermediate routers which would provide duplicate views of the same flow information. Service providers in the transit carrier business (carrying traffic neither originating nor terminating on their network) may utilize NetFlow Export data for measuring transit traffic usage of network resources for frankenstein, accounting and in the kidney, billing purposes.

Cisco IP accounting support provides basic IP accounting functions. By enabling IP accounting, users can see the number of bytes and packets switched through the Cisco IOS software on a source and destination IP address basis. Only transit IP traffic is felix frankenstein, measured and only on an outbound basis. Traffic generated by the software or terminating in catherine, the software is not included in the accounting statistics. To maintain accurate accounting totals, the software maintains two accounting databases: an active and a check-pointed database. Cisco IP accounting support also provides information that identifies IP traffic that fails IP access lists. Felix? Identifying IP source addresses that violate IP access lists signals possible attempts to breach security. The data also indicates that IP access list configurations should be verified.

To make this feature available to slavery in the and south users, enable IP accounting of access list violations using the ip accounting access-violations command. Users can then display the number of bytes and packets from a single source that attempted to breach security against the access list for the source destination pair. By default, IP accounting displays the felix, number of packets that have passed access lists and were routed. To enable IP accounting, use one of the following commands for each interface in interface configuration mode: To configure other IP accounting functions, use one or more of the following commands in global configuration mode: Was this document helpful? Yes No. Thank you for your feedback.

Related Cisco Support Community Discussions. The Cisco Support Community is a forum for you to ask and answer questions, share suggestions, and collaborate with your peers. Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for information on conventions used in this document.

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The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for felix frankenstein you. Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and body content that supports your original thesis. The Great Die? The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and felix frankenstein narrow down the specific argument you want to make. Of Stop-Frame Essay Example? Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and reference credible sources appropriately using the felix frankenstein, right citation style. Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and must recap the main essay points that you presented previously. Adherence to Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style. For example, APA style has strict guidelines for cover pages and running heads while Chicago and Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes.

Knowing how to catherine the great die cite properly and format things accordingly can be worth upwards of twenty percent of your entire grade. Following the felix, formatting rules is an north easy win, but you have to felix take the time to do it right. Also, always remember to credit another author’s work and don’t call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online. While writing good essays is time consuming and water kidney tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and being diligent. Our writers follow a clear methodology that is both practical and efficient for felix getting the best possible outcome. First, make sure to why was the gettysburg address select a good topic that you can write easily about and make sure you can find scholarly materials about it. Next, take some time to plan and make an outline based around a clear thesis statement. Proceed to write the body while adhering to strict rules for paragraphs and inclusion of felix frankenstein, references. Finally, complete your references page and review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an why was the gettysburg essay model from us. Essay Topic Selection and Research.

Strong topic selection is an important first step. If possible, pick a topic that has lots of available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in other classes. Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of available research materials. Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality. When doing academic research, only frankenstein trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Lastly, collect the sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly.

Now that you have picked a topic and collected some credible sources, it’s time to make a plan. Start by identifying common assumptions about the topic and find common themes. For example, if exploring the causes of poverty, you will inevitably find out that governments are the ones that control lots of food production and allocation to the people. How Did Catherine Die? Once you have enough evidence to support a general theme, construct a thesis statement and make an outline of the core items that support that assertion. If you don't think this step is felix frankenstein, necessary, just remember that our writers are trained to follow this process on all purchased sample essay orders. You are ready to start writing. Slavery And South? Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from felix a broad issue to a specific time and in the north and south place. Provide background details as necessary. Then, conclude the felix frankenstein, introduction with your thesis statement. Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and start with a topic sentence.

Always introduce your quotes and avoid “dropping them” without context. Erik Erikson Theory Development? Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and frankenstein make sure not to introduce any new information. Essay References and Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide. Depending on the format, you may also need a title page. Slavery In The North And South? Review your final essay by reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to felix quickly build citations in almost any format. Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an essay). References and Considerations Before Buying an the gettysburg address important Essay.

While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for a more thorough look at each section. It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids. You can also learn about and see examples of essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Whether you choose to use Ultius for buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to finding essay help. Not what you're looking for felix or not convinced? The links below may help.

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Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Frankenstein? Recruiters spend an water kidney average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on felix, candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation Essay, TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it.

While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the felix frankenstein one below offers a helpful guide for marketing orientation, entry- and felix mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Erik Erikson Child Development? Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for felix frankenstein, someone else. Examples? If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and frankenstein online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine.

For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on why was the gettysburg important, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Felix Frankenstein? Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the water in the kidney voicemail message and frankenstein who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement.

There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. Why Was The Gettysburg Address Important? It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Frankenstein? Instead, it includes an kidney executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to felix, five sentences, explain what youЂ™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. Erikson Theory Child? 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to felix, see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only theory child time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates.

You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in felix the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on erikson development, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of frankenstein, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says.

You can go to the company's About Us section and and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay example rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the felix frankenstein company size is helpful information, including the how did catherine die company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an felix frankenstein accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. Slavery North And South? If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size Ђ” assuming it's similar to your goals Ђ” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job.

Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teamЂ™s projects and initiatives. Felix Frankenstein? As you build up your experience, save the examples bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. Felix Frankenstein? This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.

A good rule is to use the important result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by frankenstein, employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. And Methods Of Stop-Frame Animation Essay Example? White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text.

The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Frankenstein? It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and how did the great white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service).

Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. Felix Frankenstein? It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Why Was The Gettysburg? Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and felix frankenstein jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers.

It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about development your high-school years. 19.

It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on frankenstein, your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Erikson Child Development? 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an felix frankenstein average of six seconds.

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Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and Isolation. Marion Hersh; Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and Isolation, The Journal of felix frankenstein, Deaf Studies and examples Deaf Education , Volume 18, Issue 4, 1 October 2013, Pages 446–463, Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of 28 deafblind people in 6 different countries, obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of felix, a larger research project on travel issues. In The North! However, the similarities in experiences between countries were stronger than the felix, differences. In particular, barriers to communication and inadequate support, with resulting problems of isolation and marketing examples depression, were found in all the countries. Equally, deafblind people in all the countries were interested in felix, being involved in and contributing to society and supporting other people, particularly through organizations of blind and deafblind people. This runs counter to the tendency to present deafblind and other disabled people purely as recipients of support rather than also as active participants in society.

However, there were some differences in the gettysburg important, the support available in the different countries. This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of 28 deafblind people in six different countries, with the felix frankenstein, term deafblind used here for people with some degree of combined hearing and visual impairment. Data were obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues for deafblind, blind, and The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation visually impaired people. The results reported in this paper are based on felix interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of orientation, a deafblind autistic woman. This paper is frankenstein, one of a series of three discussing the experiences of deafblind people reported in these interviews. The other two papers consider stigma and erik erikson theory child development the use of assistive devices and travel issues, respectively.

The themes of communication, independence, and felix isolation were chosen as they emerged as important high-level themes from the coding discussed in the Coding and Analysis of the Interviews section. In addition, communication is likely to be a particularly important issue for deafblind people, due to the significance of both hearing and vision for communication by non-disabled people, leading to possible barriers, exclusion, and orientation examples isolation. The fact that many deafblind people need support with communication, access to felix information, and mobility (Bodsworth, Clare, Simblett, Deafblind UK, 2011; Sense and erikson Deafblind UK, 1999) gives rise to frankenstein the risk that other people may with the best of intentions act as gatekeepers and reduce the control deafblind people have over their own lives, making independence an important issue for them. The paper is The Origins of Stop-Frame, organized into four main sections and felix laid out as follows. It is introduced by an overview of the literature on deafblind people with particular reference to communication and isolation, depression, and independence, support and overprotection in subsections of this section. The next section presents the methodology, and the section following it presents the main results and slavery in the discusses interviewees’ communication strategies and experiences, oral communication, isolation, and support and independence. Conclusions are given in final section. Communication can be considered a process of interaction involving the use of signals that are observed and interpreted by the recipient to frankenstein transfer meaning (Bjerkan, 1996). Kidney! Intentional communication requires the felix frankenstein, desire to communicate, having something to the gettysburg address important say and someone to say it to, and an understanding that communication is meaningful (Hathazi, 2005). The following features of communication are considered important (Bruce, 2010; Miles Riggio, 1999): the type of receptive and expressive modes of communication, for example, speech or sign language; the perceived intent of the message; the message; and the context, including the physical environment and the characteristics of the communication partners. Deafblind people are both very varied in their communication requirements due to differences in the extent, type, and history of their sensory impairments; personal characteristics and felix the skills they have (been encouraged to) develop(ed); and as varied as the general population on in the north and south a wide range of characteristics, including interests.

The interpersonal communication languages and approaches used by felix deafblind people include the following: Tactile sign languages: The deafblind person holds the other person’s wrists and feels their movements as they sign. Deafblind manual alphabets: spelling using signs to represent the alphabet. There are two main approaches: The speaker signs the letter onto the listener’s flat palm; the listener puts their hand over the speaker’s vertical hand and feels the movements of their fingers. Both approaches are quicker than Spartan. Tadoma: The deafblind person puts one hand on erikson child development the other person’s chin, lips, or throat to felix feel their movements as they speak. The deafblind block alphabet (Spartan): drawing block capital letters onto the palm. Finger Braille: typing onto marketing orientation, six fingers as a Braille keyboard. Sign language and speech give about the same speed of communication, whereas finger Braille, deafblind manual alphabets, and Spartan are considerably slower, with finger Braille the fastest and Spartan the slowest. However, Spartan is the simplest for hearing and felix frankenstein sighted people to the great die use and requires only frankenstein, basic literacy, but no special training. The Origins And Methods Animation Essay! Sign language, deafblind manual alphabets, and frankenstein finger Braille are more efficient than Spartan, but can only be used with a much smaller group of people, such as family, close friends, interpreters, and members of the relatively small tactile signing community.

Inaccessible environments and the various factors that restrict the marketing orientation, activities of deafblind people may also reduce the felix frankenstein, range of topics they are able to communicate about. There is a relative limited literature on communication issues (and isolation) of deafblind people, but the focus has frequently been on erikson child development the (limitations of) the deafblind person’s communication strategies rather than the communication being considered a two-way process with equal importance given to frankenstein the ability of their communication partner(s) to pay attention to and understand the deafblind person (Hart, 2010), as well as the need to overcome attitudinal, infrastructural, and how did die other accessibility barriers. The nature of these barriers and the extent of the isolation that can occur as a result are indicated by a blog by a deafblind woman (Hill, 2010), which talks of felix frankenstein, “ostracism” of people who are “different”: people with a hearing impairment feeling “segregated, separated, left out and ostracized” and hearing people “not want[ing] to take the slavery in the, perceived extra effort to communicate with them.” The fear of ostracism, in felix, this case by friends, was also expressed by older deafblind people participating in focus groups (Lejeune, 2010). A further illustration is provided by the first person account of an 87-year-old deafblind woman (Gribs, Dougherty, du Pre, 1995). Marketing Orientation! Other than her niece’s husband who had deaf parents, her family did not know sign language and the people in her building who had learnt sign language had forgotten it. The details of the barriers experienced may depend on the deafblind person’s communication strategies and available sensory modalities. For instance, deafblind people who use touch to communicate will require close proximity to both communicate and obtain information about the world and the context and the interactions of other people, and information about the world beyond their finger tips to be interpreted for them (Miles Riggio, 1999). If this contextual information is not provided, they will find it difficult to engage in meaningful communication even if spoken communications are interpreted for frankenstein them. Congenitally deafblind people who use tactile communication may require assistance from support workers to interact with each other, as they otherwise may not perceive or be able to interpret some communications (van der Heijden, 2009). In The! Deafblind people who use spoken language may not follow shifts in conversation unless the new subject is felix frankenstein, explicitly introduced, as understanding is generally facilitated by knowing what is being talked about.

Otherwise, they may withdraw to Animation example avoid saying something inappropriate (Miles Riggio, 1999). Frankenstein! Misunderstandings of the communication needs of deafblind people can lead to marketing orientation examples them being erroneously labelled as cognitively impaired (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen, Horowitz, Su, 2005). People who become deafblind in adult life may experience particular difficulties due to a combination of reluctance to admit their hearing impairment and a lack of knowledge and experience of felix frankenstein, how to communicate effectively as a deafened person. The communication barriers experienced by erikson theory child older deafened people may be misattributed to depression or dementia. Several studies have shown that older deafblind people frequently experience communication breakdowns and find it particularly difficult to engage in conversation in noisy surroundings or groups (Heine Browning, 2003). Communication barriers may lead to felix family and friends becoming frustrated and the deafened person feeling vulnerable and isolated, not knowing what is happening and withdrawing from social activity (du Feu Fergusson, 2003) or engaging in aggressive or self-harming behaviors (Janssen, 2003). A U.S. study of deafblind young people found indications that half of them did not use symbol-based communication, such as tactile alphabets, sign, and spoken language (Petroff, 1999), whether due to lack of access, lack of teaching, or additional impairments (Goethelf Brown, 1996). Deaf signers who become deafblind are likely to adopt tactile signing.

There are several areas, including the examples, Cajun Triangle of Louisiana, Seattle, and felix frankenstein Boston, in the USA with relatively high concentrations of deafblind people who use tactile signing and regular opportunities for them to interact with each other and how did die other tactile signers (Petronino Dively, 2006). However, outside such communities, the experience of transition to tactile signing may be less positive and there may only be limited opportunities to communicate using tactile signing. This gives rise to questions about the felix frankenstein, necessary conditions to support a tactile signing community with regard to factors such as available resources, organizational structures, and numbers or population density of The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation example, tactile signers. Barriers to communication, information, and mobility can have serious emotional and social consequences, restrict informed decision making, and reduce functional independence and the ability to perform daily living tasks (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005; DoH, 1997). Barriers to felix interacting with their environments, particularly for why was the gettysburg important deafblind people who communicate through touch, may lead to high levels of stress and/or difficulties in remaining focused. In a study of deafblind young people, a third of their parents believed they would benefit from a personalized activity plan to felix frankenstein provide sensory input (Petroff, 2010). There is a need for the development of more assistive devices to The Origins and Methods Essay example support communication, additional guide-communicators, and training for hearing and sighted people in communicating with deafblind people. However, factors such as high costs, lack of available training, and lack of knowledge of felix, what is available can restrict access to assistive devices.

For instance, it took 3 years for one of Schneider’s (2006) respondents to erik theory child development obtain 5 one-to-one computer lessons. Several studies have shown that deafblind people have (signifcantly) higher rates of depressive symptoms and depression than people without sensory impairments or with a single sensory impairment (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Saunders Echt, 2007) and that both single and dual sensory impairments are strongly associated with depression in felix, people over 50 (Capella-McDonnall, 2005; Chou, 2008). However, other studies have found that visual impairment, but not deafblindness, is associated with depression (Bazargan, Baker, Bazargan, 2001; Chou Chi, 2004). Communication difficulties and the lack of social support have been identified as the main risk factors for depression in elderly deafblind people. Other factors include social isolation, the feelings of slavery north and south, reduced self-confidence and security frequently experienced by people with sensory impairments (Mind, 2004), loss of independence, and other people’s negative attitudes (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005). Studies have shown that activity, including physical activity, reduces depression and frankenstein that a reduction in activities can lead to an increase in depressive symptoms, with a reduction in activity believed to be one of the ways in which sensory impairment leads to depression (McDonnall, 2009). However, older adults who become sensory impaired frequently experience disruption of social activities and a change in their type and frequency (Heine Browning, 2002). In The And South! Reduced participation of about 10% in social and felix frankenstein community activities has been reported in deafblind people over 70 (Saunders Echt, 2007). It has also been suggested that it may be the quality rather than the quantity of activities that is reduced (Clark, Bond, Sanchez, 1999), though this can be just as or even more serious than a reduction in quantity. (Deaf)blind children and die young people are likely to felix have limited opportunities for and Methods Essay example involvement in physical activities and education at school due to overprotection by parents and teachers, limited expectations of their abilities, and concerns about risks to themselves and others (Lieberman Houston-Wilson, 1999).

This can impact on their independence and ability to frankenstein take part in sports and other leisure activities later. A lack of self-acceptance and in the north and south acceptance by frankenstein family can also contribute to low self-esteem and depression. Focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over 70 are unwilling to let other people know or possibly even accept themselves that they have a second sensory impairment, as well as wanting to protect their families from erik erikson child, this knowledge. For instance, one long-term visually impaired man had a hearing aid for 12 years before using it due to reluctance to accept his additional hearing impairment. Independence, Support, and Overprotection. The Deafblind Persons’ Charter (quoted in DoH, 1997) notes that deafblind people are members of the community with the right to participate fully in society, have many skills and felix frankenstein abilities that should be developed, and need services to avoid isolation. Equation of independence to orientation the ability to carry out basic tasks may lead to many deafblind people unnecessarily being labelled and treated as dependent. Other approaches to frankenstein independence link it to autonomy and self-determination. Self-determination is about having agency in how did catherine the great die, one’s life and being able to take action to felix frankenstein maintain or improve its quality (Wehmeyer, 2005) and involves making choices and how did decisions, setting and attaining goals, solving problems, and self-awareness, advocacy and felix frankenstein efficacy (Wood, Fowler, Uphold, Test, 2005). Independence can be defined as “control of their life and choosing how that life is led …. (and) the amount of control they have over water kidney their everyday routine” (Brisenden, 1986).

The barriers to self-determination have been categorized into attitudes, limited choices, and felix frankenstein lack of experience (Adams, 1993), to which I would add poorly designed and inaccessible infrastructures, resources, and facilities. It has further been suggested that interdependence is a more appropriate concept because we are all dependent on how did catherine die each other (Reindal, 1999), that independence and interdependence represent two ends of a continuum and that interdependence allows disabled people to become “vital contributors to their communities” (White, Simpson, Gonda, Ravensloot, Coble, 2010). This then leads to felix the idea that disabled people are made dependent when they are prevented by social, attitudinal, infrastructural, and other barriers from contributing to society or this contribution is not valued. The negative and sometimes patronizing attitudes that impede independence of marketing, deafblind people are illustrated by the experiences of the 87-year-old deafblind woman mentioned above, who left a day center where “the clients were treated like babies” to learn outdoor mobility, cooking, and sewing (Gribs et al., 1995). Deafblind people frequently require support to overcome the barriers to independence and active participation in felix, society, including from in the kidney, other people’s attitudes, lack of experience, and inaccessible or only partially accessible environments (Adams, 1993; Wehmeyer, 2005). Family members and professionals can support self-determination by felix behaving in ways that show they know that deafblind adults can make decisions about their own lives. However, informed decision making also requires access to information and resources and water in the kidney good communication conditions (Parker, Bruce, Spiers, Ressa, Davidson, 2010). Deafblind people may require “webs of felix, support,” preferably involving people who are able to communicate with them and sustain this communication, but also try to do as much as possible without support in order to be independent of other people (Schneider, 2006). Large-scale studies of deafblind people (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Sense and Deafblind UK, 1999) have found that the slavery north and south, majority of them required one-to-one support with communication, accessing information, and/or mobility, and were receiving some sort of felix, support. However, informal support from family members was more frequent than formal support from professionals or volunteers, and there was a demand for more formal support.

Of the respondents in the Sense and Deafblind UK (1999) study, 42% felt that they were “prisoners in their own homes” and lacked help and support even from their own families. Slavery In The And South! However, support from families can lead recipients to frankenstein feel they are a burden, thereby increasing anxiety and address depression and frankenstein reducing self-esteem (Bodsworth et al., 2011), and changing the nature of relationships to one of example, dependency rather than equality. Deafblind young people rarely receive the support necessary for success as adults. Felix Frankenstein! For instance, U.S. Catherine The Great! studies (Petroff, 1999, 2010) found that young deafblind school-leavers were unlikely to felix frankenstein live independently or participate in further or higher education and had limited experience of community life and few close relationships outside the and south, family and paid workers, though there had been some positive changes between the frankenstein, two studies. The Origins And Methods Animation! This reduced their chances of developing a social support network and accessing community facilities (Gee, 1994). The majority of the parents wanted their deafblind children to felix frankenstein continue living with them, and and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay example 24% of them did not expect them to work. Deafblind older people also lack support. For instance, focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over 70 felt abandoned by service delivery programs and that people with a long-term hearing or visual impairment who developed a second sensory impairment later in life had little knowledge of appropriate services. Felix! Many older deafblind people felt that professionals did not understand their needs, and fear and anxiety prevented them investigating potentially useful resources.

A number of older respondents felt that the second impairment had resulted in job loss, due to a combination of employer attitudes, including expectations they would retire, lack of the gettysburg, support to adjust to being deafblind, and problems with hearing aids. Deafblind children and young people risk overprotection from their parents, whereas older deafblind people may be overprotected by their children. Several researchers have noted (e.g., Janssen, Riksen-Walraven, Van Dijk, 2002) that deafblind children are at risk of felix frankenstein, overdependence and learned helplessness. They also have an increased likelihood of depression and problems of erik erikson development, self-regulation due to more problematical interactions with caregivers. Many older deafblind people are concerned about felix, pressures from in the kidney, adult children and other family members to reduce their independence and move to more structured or protected living situations. The mismatch between their desires for continued independence and felix the perceived attempts of family to reorganize their lives may lead to family discord (Lejeune, 2010). Although the literature focuses on the needs of deafblind people for support, there are also some examples of them providing support to other people, though this area is under-researched. In The Kidney! This includes deafblind people acting as carers for relatives (Schneider, 2006). The results reported here were obtained from semistructured interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of a deafblind autistic woman, which were carried out frankenstein as part of a larger research project on travel issues for blind, partially sighted, and deafblind people. Why Was Address Important! Methodologies for surveying deafblind and other groups of felix frankenstein, disabled people are incomplete and an accepted best procedure has not yet been developed. This is more complicated than surveying the general population, due to the smaller numbers and the fact that readily accessible public lists very rightly do not indicate disability status.

Contacts for interviews were obtained through organizations and other researchers. The experience of each deafblind person is unique, but the experiences described here are illustrative of those of deafblind people in general. Language Use and Interview Locations. I carried out all the interviews as sole researcher and was able to use my fluency in how did catherine die, French, Italian, Polish, Spanish (and English) to carry out interviews in these languages directly with the frankenstein, deafblind person without an interpreter. The direct contact with the participants reduced the likelihood of misinterpretation and The Origins Animation distortion and may have helped to build rapport with them. In the case of felix, participants using tactile or visual sign language or tactile alphabets, sign language interpreters were used. This included interpretation from Polish tactile and visual sign language to Polish, and from Czech sign language to English. One interview in sign language and one in the great die, tactile sign language were interpreted by family members, and three other interviews with tactile communicators had two stages of interpretation, to sign language and from sign language to tactile alphabets informal tactile signs, with the second stage carried out by family members.

Although I always addressed my questions to the deafblind person, rather than the felix frankenstein, family member (or interpreter), family members generally answered in the third person. In some cases, it was difficult to elucidate whether the family member was providing their own opinions or those of the deafblind person. In a few cases, a friend or relative of the participant was present and, when necessary, repeated what I said to account for difficulties in orientation examples, understanding due to my voice being both unfamiliar (which is generally difficult for deaf people) and having a strong accent. Frankenstein! The languages and interpretation used are summarized in Table 1. Languages used in the interviews. Other than four interviews in England, three of which were carried out by marketing telephone and one using computer-based textphone software, I travelled to felix frankenstein the participants’ locations in child development, their countries for face-to-face interviews. Felix Frankenstein! These interviews took place in Animation, the office of an frankenstein organization or another convenient location for in the the participant. The interviews varied in length from 30min to frankenstein three-and-a-half hours, depending on the issues that arose and the amount of time the participant had available.

Interviews: Structure, Themes, Flow, and Recording. The interviews were semistructured, as they were based on why was a list of topics or themes, but the details of which questions were posed, how they were formulated, and the sequence in which they were posed were dependent on factors related to the participants, and the response format was open (Boeije, 2010). Frankenstein! This type of semistructured approach was chosen as it provided both enough structure to ensure that all relevant topics were covered and sufficient flexibility to enable issues raised by the participants to be explored and the balance of in the and south, time spent on different topics to be varied. Felix Frankenstein! It also increased the die, likelihood of participants discussing their own experiences, opinions, and preferences rather than reflecting back mine, and presenting the felix, world from their perspective (Boeije, 2010). I originally wrote the list of erikson theory child development, topics in French, as France was the first country in which I carried out interviews.

I then translated these topics into Polish, English, Italian, and Spanish. Because the topics were intended to provide a framework for the interviews (and act as a memory aid to ensure I did not miss anything) rather than provide a detailed list of questions, I considered it sufficient to obtain equivalent meanings in the different languages and did not consider it necessary to carry out detailed procedures to ensure that the different translations were linguistically equivalent. In line with practice in qualitative interviewing (Boeije, 2010), the list of topics was modified and additional topics and/or subtopics added as the research progressed to enable me to frankenstein explore issues in slavery north, more detail or as additional issues arose. The aim of the interviews was to obtain rich data and to explore issues relating to felix frankenstein the themes. The interview strategy was designed to encourage participants to talk, including by trying to ensure that the interview conversation flowed easily. This meant that, other than the first question, there was no particular fixed order to north and south the questions. Although the wording varied, the first question was on the lines of “Could you start by introducing yourself, saying a bit about yourself, what you do, your interests and the sort of travelling and getting about you do.” This had two aims: to encourage the participant to start talking and to obtain information on felix frankenstein which to base follow-up questions. In a few cases, participants did not like this open-ended approach and asked for clarification which I provided. However, in most cases it was successful. Some participants talked extensively about themselves, whereas others provided brief answers. In the first case, after they had provided enough information to slavery in the north and south provide the basis for several follow-up questions and talked for a sufficient length to feel comfortable with talking and answering questions, I used a pause in the conversation to frankenstein ask a follow-up question, for instance, about the types of places they travelled to, details of their visual and erik erikson theory child development hearing impairments, or additional information and felix frankenstein clarification of one of the topics they had referred to in the first answer.

In the second case, I encouraged the participant to provide additional information about themselves before asking a follow-up question. In many cases, participants raised a number of topics of interest to me in their answers, and I had to make decisions about which topic to ask about orientation, first and which ones to felix return to later. In deciding on water kidney subsequent questions, I aimed to give the interview a natural conversational flow. Therefore, these questions asked for additional details or clarification of the previous answer, raised a related topic or referred to issues raised earlier in the conversation by the participant, and asked for further information about them. The topics covered in the interviews were interesting and important to the participants, and I am an attentive and very focused listener.

These factors encouraged participants to talk freely and share their experiences (Boeije, 2010). Frankenstein! Before ending each interview, I checked the list of topics to ensure that I had covered all of those that were relevant to the gettysburg the particular participant. All the interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and felix transcribed by slavery and south a native speaker of the relevant language without translation. The Czech interviews were transcribed by felix a person who was very fluent in both English and Czech, and both languages were transcribed to allow me to compare the translations with the original. Essay! The analysis was based on frankenstein the original language transcripts of the recordings.

Other than noting the eagerness of the participants who used tactile communication methods or sign language to communicate with me directly after the interviews despite my very poor tactile communication and signing skills, I did not note participants’ non-verbal behaviors. Coding and Analysis of the Interviews. Software was not used in how did catherine die, the analysis and frankenstein coding for a number of address, reasons, including the multilingual nature of the material. As already indicated, the frankenstein, interviews were based on a list of topics, including communication in the case of deafblind, but not blind people. Why Was The Gettysburg Address Important! Thus, these topics were an obvious first choice as potential themes on which to base the analysis and discussion. While carrying out the interviews, I became aware of a number of further potential themes, including isolation, overprotection, and stigma associated with cane use.

In the case of isolation, this awareness resulted from both participants’ comments in the interviews and the eagerness of participants who used tactile communication to communicate directly with me despite my lack of skill. Therefore, open coding 1 or the first stage of frankenstein, detailed exploration and and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation organization of the data (Boeije, 2010) involved identifying a number of themes for analysis from the felix, list of topics and those that I had become aware of during the interviews, and evaluating their significance in the interviews. This involved reading all the in the north, transcripts and paying attention to frankenstein the frequency with which the themes occurred with regard to both the orientation examples, number of interviews and within interviews and the types of felix frankenstein, comments made about them. In addition, I investigated the treatment of these themes in the literature. This process resulted in the identification of a number of high-level themes, as well as a few lower-level themes. Axial coding or data reorganization to obtain connections (Boeije, 2010) was carried out for why was the gettysburg the material related to felix frankenstein these themes, and theory child development I may subsequently return to the additional material for further analysis. Frankenstein! The sections of the transcript relating to the great the chosen themes were extracted and frankenstein organized into one document. It was also only at this stage that I translated the transcripts in marketing, other languages into English, trying to felix remain as faithful as possible to the style and spirit as well as the meaning of the original. In The! This meant that the felix frankenstein, orginal language transcripts were available for consultation if required. At this stage, coding involved grouping concepts and investigating the orientation, relationships between them and sometimes recategorizing concepts as a result.

This gradually led into frankenstein, the more analytical approach associated with selective coding (Boeije, 2010), though axial coding still continued in parallel. This phase also involved consultation with the literature and, where appropriate literature was available, relating issues to the literature. Part way through the selective coding phase, on advice from a colleague, I divided the the gettysburg important, material into three, giving what became this paper on communication, including changes in communication strategies, isolation, independence, and overprotection, and the two companion papers on stigma and the use of felix, assistive devices and how did catherine travel issues, respectively. I then worked on the three sets of material sequentially. In order to obtain a cohesive narrative for each set of material, I returned to axial coding and an investigation of the literature, leading to the identification of additional literature and felix the relationship of some further concepts to issues in the literature, though it was not always possible to find relevant literature due to the relative scarcity of the literature on deafblind people. This was followed by further analysis. The Origins Of Stop-Frame Animation Example! During this phase, I referred back several times to the original language transcripts to verify translations and the context of participants’ comments. I also compared the transcribed versions of the frankenstein, Czech participants’ responses with those of the translator and in marketing orientation, some cases modified the translations to be closer to felix the originals.

As shown in Tables 2–5 of participant data (with percentages to the nearest integer), the deafblind people interviewed were very varied, though, unfortunately, ethnic minority deafblind people were not represented. It should be noted that where the data do not add to in the north and south 100% this is due to a combination of felix, missing data and rounding. Gender, age, and country profile. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted.

Age of onset of north, hearing and vision impairments. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted. The section is divided into four parts, namely communication strategies and experiences; oral communication; isolation; and support and independence. To disguise participants’ identities, they are referred to felix by code names, which have no relationship to their real names. Communication Strategies and Experiences. The ability to communicate and interact with other people is very important, as, for instance, JG’s mother said about The Origins and Methods of Stop-Frame, her autistic deafblind daughter: “She is very sociable. Frankenstein! … She needs contact with other people not just her family.

Not too often, or it gets too much for her, but she needs it.” Deafblind people generally prefer to adapt their existing communication skills rather than learn totally new ones. Water In The! Successful communication strategies can be very individual and finding them can take an extended period. As LR indicated: “People who know me, know how to communicate with me. This is not worked out over one or two meetings, but a number of years.”

A deafblind person from a Deaf family is likely to have sign language as their main form of communication, whereas a person from a hearing family with the same degree of hearing impairment is more likely to felix be encouraged to use spoken language supported by and Methods Animation example hearing aids and lipreading. However, they may learn sign language if they have contact with Deaf people or fail to fully develop any method of interpersonal communication if they have very limited hearing and no opportunities to learn to sign. A deafblind signer is felix frankenstein, likely to move from visual to tactile sign language as their sight impairment increases over time, whereas an oral deafblind person is more likely to use a combination of the block alphabet for reception and spoken language for transmission or may learn a deafblind manual alphabet. For instance, AR and FS both changed from Polish sign language to tactile sign language as their vision decreased. Volunteers communicated with LR, who used speech to transmit information, by printing letters on child his palm. “If I knew Lorm 2 better, that would be possible, but it is faster on my palm and everyone can do this. However, people need to write clearly. In some cases this is not possible … However people can bring a laptop and write in large letters.” A deafblind person who is blind from birth or early childhood is felix, more likely to read Braille fluently than one who becomes blind later in life when learning Braille is more difficult. In Japan and some other countries, they may adopt finger Braille, which is water in the, generally faster than deafblind manual alphabets, as their hearing impairment increases over time, but the use of finger Braille is uncommon in most of Europe.

A worker in frankenstein, a deafblind organization present during some of the interviews noted the need for Braille information and devices with both Braille and audio and the unlikelihood of and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay example, older people learning new strategies. Frankenstein! “A young person who has been educated in it will know Braille and Lorm or other methods of communication. They’ve grown up with them and are familiar with them. North! It is difficult to teach a 70 year old Braille. …he would have had to start much earlier.” The wife of one of the older interviewees agreed: “NS cannot read Braille. At his age he is not going to learn it.” However, there are exceptions, including one of the interviewees who learnt Braille in her fifties. The following examples illustrate the diverse communication strategies used by deafblind people and how they change with time.

BN had “pretty decent speech,” but often wrote down important information to check whether or not he had been understood. Felix! Most people talked to him by writing letters on his palm or using his laptop, though the latter was not feasible when he was moving around. He could understand the U.K. deafblind manual alphabet if used slowly, but found that few people were familiar with it. He would like to receive more information in why was the gettysburg important, the form of felix, text messages. With sufficient magnification to read the orientation examples, text, he could get two or three letters across the screen and frankenstein had to scroll a lot to read the whole message. FP preferred sign language, though prior to learning to sign at in the north, the age of 16 he had used speech and writing. He communicated with hearing people by writing and lipreading, though a reduction in his vision was making this more difficult and he required the other person to be close by frankenstein with their mouth illuminated. To communicate with FS a shop assistant “speaks and writes on her hand.” Oral deaf people generally use a combination of visual and audio speech information, with the visual information obtained from catherine die, lipreading and the audio information frequently processed by hearing aids. Felix! Although only 30–40% of speech is visible and many letters and words have similar or identical lip patterns, the additional visual information from lipreading can be very important in aiding deaf people to understand spoken language (Summerfield, 1992). However, oral deafblind people who do not have sufficient visual acuity are unable to lipread, leading to a reduction in orientation examples, their ability to understand speech.

Some deafblind people find this particularly frustrating, whereas others are philosophical about the difficulties and more concerned about the reactions of other people. RB was now totally blind and felix frankenstein had recently started losing her hearing. Why Was! Although she wore two hearing aids, she found her hearing loss more difficult to deal with than her blindness. Felix! “I feel I’ve got my blindness under control, but my deafness floors me, because I can’t read people’s lips, which is really difficult for important me, but there is nothing I can do. I have to adapt and felix frankenstein above all my family and friends need to the gettysburg important adapt.” She noted the way “the two disabilities aggravate the situation,” since she cannot lipread whereas a friend who was “almost totally deaf, if I speak to her when I am right in front of her, she reads my lips and manages very well.” However, despite the fact that in discussion groups she was only able to felix frankenstein hear “possibly a quarter of how did the great, what goes on,” LB did not seem particularly upset that she was unable to lipread, as “I can’t see the frankenstein, lips clearly enough.” She was more concerned that “everybody else is comfortable.” SK had some vision and used speech but required good listening conditions to understand it. This is typical for hard-of-hearing people and is likely to be even more of slavery and south, a problem for deafblind people due to their limited information from lipreading. Using the telephone presented particular challenges, as is felix frankenstein, again typical of hard-of-hearing people. And Methods Of Stop-Frame Animation! “If there is a lot of noise I sometimes have problems, but I generally know what they are saying. If someone sends me an SMS and I’m not able to felix read it normally, I have a function for spelling letter by letter. … That makes it easier for me to understand. … It’s more difficult than normal [to use the phone on water a noisy street] … but it’s even worse when I’m on a tram and someone rings me. I answer the call, ask who is calling and … then say I am on frankenstein the tram and will ring off, as the tram is noisy and everything gets muddled up.” She used the loudspeaker mode, which meant that everyone could hear the person speaking to her. “Sometimes when I go with ES [her partner] I give him the phone and he speaks for development me.

He repeats what it is about, I answer and felix frankenstein he repeats what I have said on the phone.” Some concerns were also expressed about other people’s reactions and lack of patience, though “people do try” [CF]. It is frequently easier for hard-of-hearing people to understand people they know, as well as to ask them to repeat something, but communication difficulties can make other people impatient. Water Kidney! “If I already know someone a bit and I don’t understand it, I’ll ask them to repeat it, but I try to avoid this, as people don’t like repeating things. … People don’t have patience with poor hearing. Felix! I try to The Origins and Methods example avoid asking people to repeat things, but sometimes … I have to…. When I’m talking to felix people and I say my hearing’s bad, over the last 20 years no-one has gone away because they were bored talking to me. … People might show their impatience and irritation in their voices, but they stay and try to explain. I can’t complain that people do not try to help me, but I try to be as independent as possible” [CF].

CF “generally understand[s] people, except when people talk quietly because they do not know I’m deaf … Sometimes people are offended when I don’t answer questions. I have to orientation examples accept that. Sometimes I don’t understand, sometimes people are angry when I don’t answer. I remain confident, serious. … but I generally understand. Besides, I generally use the same transport. When I go to work, people often know me.” He did not always tell people he was deaf when he had problems understanding. “If I’m not able to frankenstein hear, then I don’t know who to tell that my hearing’s bad. If people say something, but I’m not sure whether they are talking to me, I don’t answer, as I don’t know who to slavery in the and south answer.”

KL had two digital hearing aids and felix had worn aids since she was three. She found it easier to understand people she knew. “When my classmates spoke at the start of north and south, last year I did not understand them. For instance, one of my classmates has a quiet voice and I did not understand her last year, but now I’m used to frankenstein her and understand her better, I also pay more attention. Water! … When someone I don’t know speaks I have to pay attention. … It depends on the voice.” Some of their experiences may have a humorous note and the participants may make light of them subsequently, but were very frustrating and/or distressing at felix, the time. In The! BN discussed an incident at the post office when he went to felix collect a missed delivery. “I … couldn’t even see which counter was open, they all looked the same. Someone pointed me at one so I went to that and slid the card under the why was the gettysburg, glass partition … no idea what they said probably wanted ID? I just showed blind reg[istration] card that has name address and states I’m reg[istered] blind … got the parcel but had to walk to the end of the counter where there’s a window that they can pass it through and I couldn’t find that window but we got there eventually.” Other incidents, for instance when travelling, have the potential to be more serious and even dangerous.

The fact that transport staff have not been trained to communicate with deafblind people further complicates the situation, though some of them recognize regular deafblind travellers and know their main destination(s). For instance, BN did not know what happened when everyone got off a delayed train he was on. “Then I noticed everyone getting off again, so I did the same but had no idea what was going on, apparently it was taken out of service. … I made my way to the assistance office and the guy on duty there took me to the next platform where another train was coming in to replace the first one. … I don’t really understand them [people in the assistance office] as they’re not too clued up on deafblind issues but they know which train I should be on to get to T [city].” Like other disabled people, deafblind people often need to felix find ingenuous solutions to overcome barriers. Recently when looking for a school he had not been to previously, BN realized that he was on the right road but had gone too far, as the area was becoming too built up for how did die the park he knew was opposite frankenstein it. He turned round and texted someone else going to how did the great the same meeting to watch out for felix frankenstein him and text him when he walked past the entrance. However, communication barriers do not end when deafblind people reach their destinations. As LR said, “It’s often not just a case of going somewhere, but doing something when you get there.” People with significant hearing impairments frequently need assistance to communicate with their doctors (Damen, Krabbe, Kilsby, Mylanus, 2005), raising the water in the, issue of the need for additional training for doctors in communicating with hearing impaired people. Frankenstein! This parallels the findings of recent research (Hersh, Ohene-Djan, Naqvi, 2010; Ohene-Djan, Hersh, Naqvi, 2010) on the need for training for the police, driving instructors, public transport drivers, and other personnel in communicating with deaf people.

Communication with, for instance, doctors and lawyers also raises privacy issues, which may make the use of volunteer or even professional guide-communicators an unsuitable option. Water In The Kidney! LR considered that he needed to visit doctors and officials with someone else, as “officials don’t respect deaf people, they don’t want to write everything down with large letters. … I need to felix frankenstein go to the doctor with my wife, you cannot do everything with a guide. … Few officials are willing to write things down or repeat their questions. They are impatient. And Methods Animation! … On my own there’s no point in going … only for a printed paper I can’t read.” He also experienced difficulties when shopping. “I come with my basket, the assistant says something, I indicate my ears, she shows me her screen, I indicate my eyes. … Generally I work out the cost myself. I do not buy things if I do not know the prices, as I cannot talk with the assistant. … It would be better if I knew what everything cost, but sometimes it’s not possible, as the prices change. … If there’s a price, I take out my magnifying glass and look at felix, it. If there’s no price, I don’t buy it.”

Isolation was a problem for some of the participants due to a combination of the difficulties other people experienced in communicating with them and the barriers to water kidney independent travel. FS was dependent on felix frankenstein volunteers to take her out and commented that if more volunteers were available she would like to “go for walks once or twice a week, just to get out of the water in the kidney, house, no matter where—cafe, airport, park, town centre, just to get out of the house.” She had joined a religious group whose members collected her and frankenstein took her to services, whereas her daughter said “it is very interesting, … the The Origins example, translation is frankenstein, good and she understands everything.” From her daughter’s perspective, “the meeting lasts two hours, so I get two hours off.” Though neither FS nor her daughter said anything to indicate this, it seems open to question whether the main attraction for FS was having people to in the tactile sign with rather than any religious belief, as well as whether this matters. Many countries have very small organizations of deafblind people. Felix! Although many participants reported very positive experiences with organizations of blind people, FP’s experiences were less satisfactory. At the Union of Deaf People he was asked “What are you doing here? Why don’t you go to the Union of Blind People? However, few people sign there. Deafblind people … are rejected by both deaf and in the blind people. Frankenstein! That’s very sad.” He lived with his mother who knew the Polish deafblind manual alphabet, but was only able to sign a few words. FP was used to lipreading her, but this was becoming more difficult for him.

Participants had also lost friends or been treated in a different way due to and Methods Animation Essay becoming (more obviously) disabled, though equally many of them had made many new friends and taken up new activities. RB, who was in her seventies, noted “When I first became blind … everyone kept their distance … and I realised that this distancing was due to … not knowing how to felix frankenstein behave, … they felt awkward and found it easier to erik child development avoid the felix frankenstein, problem. … my children were upset that … people did not ring me any more.” This parallels the experiences of older focus group participants who feared ostracism by friends if they found out why was about their hearing impairments (Lejeune, 2010). Support, Independence, and Overcoming Depression. Becoming deafblind in adulthood, whether gradually or suddenly, is very challenging, practically, emotionally, and psychologically. Support is generally required both to learn the new skills required for independence as a deafblind person and to accept and frankenstein integrate the new identity. Learning practical skills will generally require the involvement of professional trainers, whereas psychological support can come from a variety of sources, including family, friends, organizations of blind people, psychologists, and kidney other professionals. However, family, friends, and deafblind people themselves may have little factual information and accept and be influenced by frankenstein negative perceptions and stereotypes (Adams, 1993). For instance, VR “had never met a blind person before, so I couldn’t imagine it.

At first I thought that I would be left at home waiting for someone to visit me.” Therefore, involvement with organizations of deafblind, blind, or deaf people is water in the, needed to present more positive images, as well as to obtain information and support and facilitate involvement in a range of activities. Although there have been some improvements in frankenstein, a number of erikson, countries, this is by no means universal and felix many people are still just given a diagnosis without any further information. They are then left on and Methods Animation Essay example their own to find out felix about services and training and to erikson theory child development cope with the impact of knowing they are losing their sight and/or hearing and to come to terms with and intergrate this new self-image as a disabled person. Felix Frankenstein! As a result of this lack of support, depression is not an uncommon reaction. PV had a mini breakdown and a period of depression after having to give up driving. He recovered with the kidney, help of medication and counselling, but “had to fight very hard to get it on the NHS [National Health Service]. … They don’t discuss the mental and emotional psychological problems that arise. Felix Frankenstein! Yeah one friend of catherine the great, mine committed suicide just because he was going blind. … Counselling support would be a very important backup. … They need mobility support from the felix, local authorities and they need to level the playing field out because some areas of the country can’t get mobility officers.” However, he considered that things had improved with, for instance, the national organization for blind people now providing weekends away in an adapted hotel for supportive discussions. An initial period of slavery and south, depression followed the loss of GL’s sight, when she was not provided any information. Felix! “I used to read a lot. When I lost my sight, I became depressed.

I didn’t know what to The Origins of Stop-Frame Animation example do with myself. My dream in my old age was to be able to read anything I wanted whenever I wanted. I really loved handicrafts. I knew I would not be bored in my old age. There is very little information on felix where to seek help when you lose your sight.” A further cause of depression, particularly when combined with a lack of how did catherine die, information about available support, is no longer being able to ignore slowly progressing sensory impairments or the onset of a second sensory impairment (Lejeune, 2010). Sixty-three-year-old VR was born with a mild hearing impairment and started using hearing aids when she started losing her sight 18 years ago. About 5 years ago, she stopped going out in the evening due to the start of night blindness. Felix! “I just stopped seeing my surroundings properly, … and I wasn’t sure about my steps.” This continued with her trying to ignore what was happening. Why Was The Gettysburg Address Important! “Then I started losing the ability to recognise colour and details and then I realised it was getting serious. … So I didn’t want to go outside the felix frankenstein, door. Marketing Orientation Examples! … I was starting to have problems with everything, with cooking, … keeping the house and cleaning. … I was just crying and felix crying.” When she was diagnosed, the doctors just told her the diagnosis and give her treatment, but did not tell her about any organizations for deafblind or blind people. Some deafblind people resist looking for support, including for slavery in the depression (Lejeune, 2010) and/or feel that they either do not need support and should try to be as independent of other people as possible or that they are not entitled to support.

RB “did not go to anyone for help, as I would have refused to felix frankenstein go to a psychologist, as I thought I had to manage on marketing examples my own. … in the end I gradually found reasons and frankenstein told myself that I did not really have depression, because I had children who were still around, … and I travelled with my husband. … I also had a lot of help from the slavery in the north, Union of felix, Blind People. … I had always refused the Union, … if I’d come here earlier I’d have probably suffered less. But I did not want to come. If you go to the blind Union, it means you are blind!” It was through contact with her national Union of Blind People that RB realized that “Blind people can do things!” Several other participants were also very appreciative of support from a national organization of blind people, but found out about it by chance. For instance, a chance encounter at how did catherine die, a hospital eye department led DH to the national organization of frankenstein, blind people and training in a rehabilitation centre. In The North! “In the hospital they gave me a cane and told me to use it, but did not tell me how.” At the frankenstein, rehabilitation centre, DH, who became blind a few years ago in her fifties, quickly learnt to use the cane and to read Braille, which she continued to enjoy. “I learnt for myself to have contact with the written word. … I was born for a second time.” Involvement with an organization of deafblind people enables newly deafblind or blind people to meet other (deaf)blind people who frequently act as role models, show them what is possible with regard to activities and lifestyles, and even teach them particular skills. For instance, DH was influenced by MP, who “is a very good man. … He is able to pass on his knowledge to other people. If he can work, manage a firm, his family, get around, then so can I. I have been in the local blind union for six years. I am now the president after the how did the great die, last elections.” Observing blind and deafblind people carrying out ordinary activities, enjoying life, and being happy can also be very important.

RB was influenced by felix frankenstein WK, who she met at the local organization of blind people “but then I came here … and met WK and realised that she was independent, that she got around, I heard her laugh, saw how happy she was. It was an illumination.” VR’s period of depression ended when TL, a worker from the organization of deafblind people, came to visit her. “She told me that blind people use a cane. … I used to water in the read a lot, but couldn’t read any more, so TL told me about Braille and frankenstein that I would be able to read again. TL also helped me with mobility, so I could manage in the house on my own and manage the cooking and everything. In The! … She told me about activities and holidays … And thanks to frankenstein joining these activities I realised I that I can still go swimming, go crosscountry skiing, do lots of things.” However, there are insufficient professionals (and volunteers). For instance, the and Methods Essay, guide-communicator service in the United Kingdom provides support with both travel and communication, but is limited. BN described the type of service he would like, with a guide-communicator available whenever and for whatever activities needed, but that was not currently available. “You should be free to just go when you want. let’s say you wake up on a Sunday morning and fancy some retail therapy but you’ll need a communicator guide who just doesn’t happen to be free right now.” On the one hand, support from family members can enable deafblind people to engage in a range of activities. Felix! On the other, it may lead to dependence, and the deafblind person may feel endebted, be concerned about what will happen if the relative dies, and in the feel that they have lost their privacy (Senseand Deafblind UK, 1999). Relatives have a limited amount of free time and relatives and professionals may try to frankenstein restrict the deafblind person’s activities to those they approve of and consider safe rather than recognizing that disabled people, including deafblind people, are entitled to make their own decisions about marketing, risks and have the same responsibility for felix frankenstein their own safety as everyone else (Tregaskis, 2004). The comments by AR and marketing orientation his wife, who interpreted into tactile sign language for him, illustrated some of these points.

AR thought he would be able to felix frankenstein travel further on his own, whereas his wife disagreed. Animation Essay! “He needs a guide. For instance, he goes to the shop and bumps into a shelf with goods and everything falls. If a child cannot see from when it is felix frankenstein, small, it has learnt. Erik Erikson Theory Child Development! The school has taught it. Felix! It is very difficult to teach an adult. Why Was The Gettysburg Important! He does not know what is happening.” It was difficult to get a reply from AR directly. However, he became very stressed when asked if better training with a cane would help him become more independent. “If my wife went and felix frankenstein left me on my own, I would commit suicide, because I would not know who would do the orientation examples, shopping and help me.” Both AR and his wife agreed on the communication difficulties, with AR noting “There are difficulties in felix, translation. I am with my wife every day, we are used to each other and we understand each other very well. When I have an interpreter … I don’t understand him, we don’t have contact.

It needs practice.” His wife stated that “It is difficult for in the north and south him to communicate. It is very hard for a deafblind person on felix frankenstein his own, because he gets bored, he is not able to contact people. He needs a wife. If he had good vision, he would be independent.” In some cases of overprotection, the solution is just to ignore the opinions and concerns of family and friends. For instance, RB “didn’t ask them, I just took the cane and went out.” However, this requires considerable self-confidence and may also put tension on family relationships.

Professionals may also both provide support and erik erikson child restrict the activities of deafblind people as a result of (over)protection. HK received some orientation and felix frankenstein mobility training, but was discouraged by his instructor from travelling on his own. “I had orientation and mobility training, but have not been able to travel on my own, my hearing loss could make it dangerous. … [When I had orientation and mobility training my hearing] was a bit better, but my instructor did not want me to travel on my own. He was afraid … If you could hear, at the end of the erik theory child, course you were able to felix frankenstein travel independently, to travel home on and Methods Animation your own. Felix! In my case it would have been too dangerous, so they did not want to water in the kidney give me permission. … I know a lot of techniques of using a cane, it’s just a question of my hearing. If you can’t hear you have to use a guide.” However, a number of deafblind people do travel independently and it seems that HK was not given sufficient information to evaluate the felix frankenstein, risks and make a decision for himself. This is an example of the way in which disabled people are made dependent by being prevented from taking risks or not given the information to water in the make informed choices about felix, activities involving a degree of orientation examples, risk (Perske, 1972; Tregaskis, 2004). Deafblind people are not just passive recipients of support. They are also able to provide support to other people and/or become active in community, campaigning, political, and charitable organizations. Felix Frankenstein! Four of the interviewees were on the executive committees of organizations of blind or deafblind people: SG and LB were the erik erikson, presidents of small national organizations for deafblind people, and DH and GT the presidents of the local branch of a national organization for blind and felix frankenstein deafblind people respectively. SG was involved with his organization and the support of a research institute in developing an “internet kiosk” to give blind and visually impaired people access to newspapers. Previously he had worked for many years for the national organization of blind people and been involved in developing rehabilitation programs.

GT was involved in water in the, a project evaluating internet services and once a week provided computer training for blind, partially sighted, and deafblind people. He also worked and felix was responsible for one of the regional departments of his firm. As he said “I do a lot. I am not a passive person.” The need to be involved in society and to help other people was expressed very clearly by north DH: “The worst thing is to shut yourself up in frankenstein, the house and do nothing. … To help even one person … to help them learn to live again would be a great success.” The need to do something of value and contribute to society is just as important for deafblind as for non-disabled people. This sentiment was very clearly expressed by die FP’s mother, who interpreted for felix frankenstein him. “We come here [Deafblind Centre] to help make flyers. We have a need to help. A while ago there was a sign language class, so he came along as a volunteer. He was eager to help. … It did not pay, but it was even more important to him from the psychological point of view to be needed.” This paper has discussed communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments, using data from semistructured interviews in six different countries with 27 deafblind people and the mother of an autistic deafblind woman.

Although the aim was to obtain rich data rather than a statistically representative sample, interviews were carried out water in the with deafblind people with a range of different characteristics, though there were no deafblind people from ethnic minority groups. The themes that emerged included the barriers to communication, the changes in communication strategies over time, the need for support, including in overcoming these barriers, the differences between support and overprotection, and the problems of isolation and depression, as well as the fact that deafblind people want to felix frankenstein make a contribution rather than just be passive and are, therefore, actively involved in organizations of how did the great, blind and deafblind people and in providing support to other people. The research participants used a variety of different communication strategies, determined largely by their available senses and communication skills. Felix! Many of them had changed communication method, for instance, from sign to tactile sign language or to printing letters on important the palm in addition to speech, as their hearing impairment increased. Several of the respondents used speech supported by hearing aids and lipreading. Felix! The combination of the two impairments and difficulties in how did catherine the great die, lipreading were both issues for these participants. They felt that other people “tried” and did not like to ask them to repeat things, as well as finding it easier to understand people they knew. Frankenstein! There is a need for better training in communicating with deafblind and deaf people for many groups of workers, particularly those who interact with the public. Although some of the communication difficulties experienced were purely frustrating, others had the potential to put the person at water in the kidney, risk. In the literature, there has been a tendency to consider communication problems to be purely a consequence of the deafblind person’s impairments rather than the attitudinal and infrastructural accessibility barriers and other people’s lack of knowledge about communicating with them.

In the frankenstein, interviews, deafblind people generally took responsibility for other people being able to understand them rather than seeing this as a social responsibility. Although this further illustrates the fact that deafblind people are responsible members of society who are eager to participate in and contribute to the gettysburg it, there is a need for greater social and felix communal responsibility for communicating with deafblind people, as well as recognition of the disadvantages to society as a whole from their exclusion. A combination of barriers to communication and independent travel had left a number of the participants very isolated. Participants who did not go out (beyond the local shops) on their own were dependent on The Origins and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay example family members, volunteers, and sometimes professional guide-communicators. There were generally too few volunteers available and even fewer professional guide-communicators, leading to both pressure on family members and isolation of deafblind people. One of the respondents expressed the resulting isolation and the need “just to get out of the felix frankenstein, house, no matter where” particularly clearly, whereas her daughter expressed the slavery and south, need for additional activities for deafblind people as well as the need for felix frankenstein support from professionals and volunteers to enable her to have “time off.” There is erik erikson, thus a need for a wide range of felix frankenstein, activities to examples be made accessible to deafblind people through communication (and travel) support and activities organized specifically for deafblind people that take account of their communication needs.

Discussions of independence and support in the literature often equate independence to the ability to carry out daily living activities, so that deafblind people are generally considered dependent and to frankenstein require support to overcome their functional limitations. Alternative approaches consider independence in terms of autonomy and decision making and interdependence with regard to contributing to and participating in the wider society and this contribution being valued. This then leads to consideration of the support and other measures required for deafblind people to participate in and contribute to society. The different approaches have significant practical as well as theoretical consequences, because the policy and support measures for in the deafblind people are generally determined by the dominant theories, and the resulting low expectations and negative attitudes are considered barriers to self-determination (Adams, 1993). Two participants eloquently expressed the need to be active, participate in society, and make a contribution. The engagement of deafblind people as active citizens and in providing support for other people was illustrated by frankenstein the fact that four of the participants were the erik theory, presidents of national or local branches of national organizations for blind or deafblind people and that a fifth participant volunteered at frankenstein, his local center for blind people. Although not represented amongst the interviewees, a number of theory child development, deafblind people act as carers or personal assistants to older or disabled relatives. Although changes are probably taking place, at least in some countries, most of the participants were given a diagnosis with little subsequent support or follow-up. For a number of the interviewees, this lack of frankenstein, support led to shorter or longer periods of depression. Several of them mentioned the role of their national organization of blind or deafblind people in providing support, engaging them in activities, and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life. They also mentioned specific individuals active in these organizations who acted as role models and The Origins and Methods Animation Essay showed that “[deaf]blind people can do things.” Although many of the felix, respondents were grateful to organizations of deafblind or blind people for their support and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life, one respondent had found that organizations of both blind people and deaf people were less than welcoming.

Some of the respondents initially resisted the Animation Essay example, idea of support or the idea of involvement with an organization of frankenstein, blind people, as that would involve accepting that they were indeed blind. There seemed to be greater similarities than differences in the experiences of participants in the different countries with regard to communication barriers, depression, and in the isolation. However, there were differences in the availability of support, including in felix, organized services of volunteers and the availability of professional guide-communicators. Where professional guide-communicators were provided, for instance, in the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic, there were too few of The Origins and Methods Essay example, them. Support was provided in all the felix, countries by organizations of deafblind, blind, and deaf people, though the resources of these organizations and the support they were able to The Origins and Methods of Stop-Frame Animation Essay provide differed.

This work was supported by a Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. No conflicts of interest were reported. I would like to thank the Leverhulme Trust for the award of frankenstein, a Research Fellowship, which supported this work; the slavery north and south, many blind, visually impaired, and deafblind people who participated in interviews and frankenstein gave of their time and expertise; and the colleagues and organizations who provided me with support. Although I cannot unfortunately mention everyone, particular thanks are due to Hanna Pasterny and CRIS, Monica Schmid and slavery in the and south l’Instituto Maugeri, Mario Barbuto and felix frankenstein l’Instituto Cavazza, la Federation des Associations des Chiens Guides, Rene Farcy, Mike Johnson, ONCE in Santander and La Rioja and erik erikson child Polski Zwiazek Niewidomych. I would also like to thank Jo Ferrie and the anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. Online ISSN 1465-7325 Print ISSN 1081-4159 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the felix, University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader.

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