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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of Holocaust Literature. The Jewish Holocaust, as is the case with events in which the human spirit has been engaged in a fight for survival, produced great works of literature. Elie Wiesel's Night and Primo Levi's Survival in Essay Auschwitz are perhaps the evidence based practice in nursing best known examples of this literary tradition. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in the 1980s, represents a new kind of literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the story of the terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of his people by the Nazi regime in Essay the Second World War. And Description Management. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in Disability Rights the novel: the methods in which second (and third) generations of Holocaust survivors struggle to based practice important in nursing come to terms with the events of the Holocaust, the unusual form of the book, and Rights the brutal nature of the printing press, humanity, ever-threatening to obliterate the human race. Disability Essay. Links to the different sections can be accessed below. Techniques of Remembering the pros and cons Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. Disability Rights Essay. As a result of not having experienced the horrors of the Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and appreciation towards their elders. Indebted to the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in which this generation pays homage are quite diverse.

Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to all the pretty the memories of Rights, their ancestors. Hunting Pros. Others are fully dedicated to the organization of Disability, campaigns in order to about Arthur The Crucible procure justice in the name of Disability Essay, Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and black allan stored in Swiss banks. Rights Essay. Click here for based practice important in nursing an example. Rights Essay. Yet another way, non-electronic, is how did the printing, writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. MAUS is a splendid graphic novel, drawn and Disability Essay written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Holocaust. The Printing Press Change The World. His memories come to life in the pages of the book, although they are intertwined with another account. This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by presenting a portrayal of the life and Essay struggles of a second generation of An Emotionally Essay, Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence.

This trait separates MAUS from other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only Rights Essay, offer one side of the Analysis of Yield Management Essay story, one view of the Disability event, one version of the rapunzel story pain. Rights Essay. Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for Essay Arthur posterity is met with some opposition by Disability Rights his father, especially in the opening sequence. Analysis And Description Essay. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to Disability Rights understand what the other is feeling due to their inability to relate. Art wonders why his father is so hesitant to allow his life to be the Rockefeller: Intelligent subject of Rights Essay, a novel; he is unable to put himself in cat edgar allan Vladek's position. He is Essay, often frustrated due to pretty horses this limitation, and Disability Essay often presses his father for answers he is unable to provide. About Arthur Miller's. At times he shares this frustration, which is Rights Essay, sometimes met by how did press the world sympathy from his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by Spiegelman in the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by this particular morsel of Disability, his father's narratives.

He attempts to use logic to understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. How Did The Printing The World. His father's final commentary on the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is not only for the second generation, but also for Disability Rights the survivors themselves, to understand the events that transpired in original the Holocaust. The evil of the Holocaust is Rights Essay, unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Auschwitz to experience the horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Committing his thoughts and emotions to a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the best course of rapunzel, action for him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of MAUS. The graphic novel genre is Essay, one of the most fascinating in all the horses summary literature. While some critics censure the form citing a lack of Rights, printed text and all the summary the presence of comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the topic is as difficult as the Essay Holocaust. MAUS shines due to Essay about Arthur Miller's its impressive ability to speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is worth a thousand words, to perfection. Disability Rights. The most important distinction between humans and the rest of the animal kingdom is hunting, man's ability to understand, reason, and think. Conscience and intelligence are perhaps the human race's greatest gifts.

Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to Disability Essay understand the how did the printing change Holocaust without having been there. (This point as illustrated in Disability Essay the previous section, which you may access by clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to pretty deal with his own inability to Disability comprehend the events of the Essay Arthur Miller's The Crucible Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of Rights, humans. The most important two, Germans and pros and cons Jews, are represented by Essay cats and mice, respectively. Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and hunting pros conscience. As a result, the Disability Rights Essay Nazi cats find no fault in the systematic killing of Jewish mice. The image is also based on Arthur, historical quotes, since Jews were called the vermin of Essay, society by the Nazis. How Did The Printing Change. Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Rights, Julius Streitcher's actions. The graphical novel format, in conjunction with the depiction of Nazis as cat and horses summary Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to force the reader to Disability Rights Essay abandon any preconceived notions of hunting, human nature. Such an effect would have been quite hard to create if he had written a standard text, attesting to the incredible value of the Disability Essay novel's format. The Holocaust as a Demonstration of Man's Brutal Nature. The history of mankind is rapunzel original story, replete with episodes of Essay, mass destruction and killing.

This century produced perhaps the about Miller's greatest example of such atrocities, the Second World War. Essay. It was during this period of change, unexplainable brutality that both the Jewish Holocaust and Rights the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. These awful events, discussed and regarded in a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to ponder on its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the United States' last actions during the the printing change the world Second World War. Although enacted on Essay, Japan instead of Germany, it symbolized much of the anger and all the pretty desire to finish a long, bloody war. The initial joy that followed the devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in time with the public's realization of the grave mistake that had been committed. Disability Rights Essay. Not only did millions of people perish during the Holocaust and immediately after the allan Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of physical deterioration, mental illness created by the tragic events, and depression brought upon by memories of the Essay horrors. Anja Spiegelman is one such case. She found her demise twenty years after surviving the horses death camps, a victim of Rights Essay, their memories. Rapunzel Original. In a sense, she did not survive.

The estimate of six million Jews is Essay, ever-increasing, so the memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by opposite sides of the war, are linked by more than an inmeasurable amount of deaths. Many of the people alive during this time period are in possession of Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent, vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the brutalities occurred. Essay. Some of the Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at all the the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the Jewish ones can be read in Disability Rights Essay reviews of Analysis and Description Management Essay, Holocaust literature. While the Disability Rights Essay Holocaust is pros, one of the most horrible episodes of history, it is not one that could or should be forgotten. Its literary offspring is widely acclaimed, especially the Disability Rights Essay subject of evidence important in nursing, this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . Not only Rights Essay, does the evidence based in nursing book narrate the horrors of the Rights Essay concentration camps located in black allan Poland, it also displays the Rights enormous difficulties of second generation Holocaust survivors to find a way to come to terms with the black cat edgar allan horrendous plight of Disability Essay, their ancestors. Cat Edgar Allan Poe. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in making the Disability Rights Essay story come alive, as does the allan troubled relationship between Vladek and Art. In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is Rights, not merely a narrative of the Holocaust, but also a story of hunting, human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of Disability Essay, succeeding ones. Of Yield Management. Lest we forget is a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to the Holocaust.

Today's technology and Disability Rights the wonders of the Internet make it easier to Analysis and Description Essay maintain a vivid recollection of the Rights Holocaust thanks to its many sites. Original Story. Some can be accessed through the above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. While the web site pales in comparison to the amount of Disability, information and exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an excellent starting point for Holocaust reference, information, and hunting and cons narratives. The Cybrary of the Disability Rights Holocaust. Essay Arthur Miller's. One of the first sites devoted in its entirety to Essay the remembrance of the Holocaust, this site not only provides educational and press change historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to Holocaust sites. Disability Rights. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember. The title says its all.

Similar to the above link, this site is An Emotionally Intelligent, updated frequently with the latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust. This link lists every site with the Disability Rights word Holocaust in its title. This essay/web page project has been written and built by Antonio S. Oliver for Prof. Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class.

To contact the evidence based important author, click here. This site is currently under construction. My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for updates to this document. This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.

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love in essay I was as a gem concealed; Me my burning ray revealed. Every promise of the soul has innumerable fulfilments; each of its joys ripens into a new want. Nature, uncontainable, flowing, forelooking, in the first sentiment of kindness anticipates already a benevolence which shall lose all particular regards in its general light. The introduction to Disability Rights Essay this felicity is in a private and tender relation of one to one, which is the enchantment of human life; which, like a certain divine rage and enthusiasm, seizes on man at one period, and works a revolution in his mind and black poe, body; unites him to his race, pledges him to the domestic and civic relations, carries him with new sympathy into Disability, nature, enhances the power of the senses, opens the imagination, adds to his character heroic and sacred attributes, establishes marriage, and gives permanence to Essay about The Crucible human society.

The natural association of the sentiment of love with the Rights, heyday of the blood seems to require, that in order to portray it in vivid tints, which every youth and rapunzel original, maid should confess to be true to their throbbing experience, one must not be too old. The delicious fancies of youth reject the least savour of a mature philosophy, as chilling with age and Rights, pedantry their purple bloom. And, therefore, I know I incur the imputation of unnecessary hardness and stoicism from those who compose the Court and Parliament of Love. But from these formidable censors I shall appeal to my seniors. For it is to be considered that this passion of which we speak, though it begin with the young, yet forsakes not the and cons, old, or rather suffers no one who is truly its servant to grow old, but makes the aged participators of it, not less than the tender maiden, though in a different and nobler sort. For it is a fire that, kindling its first embers in the narrow nook of a private bosom, caught from a wandering spark out of another private heart, glows and enlarges until it warms and beams upon multitudes of men and women, upon the universal heart of all, and so lights up the whole world and all nature with its generous flames. It matters not, therefore, whether we attempt to describe the passion at twenty, at thirty, or at eighty years. He who paints it at the first period will lose some of its later, he who paints it at the last, some of its earlier traits. Only it is to Essay be hoped that, by patience and the Muses' aid, we may attain to that inward view of the all the pretty horses summary, law, which shall describe a truth ever young and beautiful, so central that it shall commend itself to the eye, at whatever angle beholden. And the first condition is, that we must leave a too close and Disability Rights Essay, lingering adherence to facts, and study the sentiment as it appeared in hope and not in history.

For each man sees his own life defaced and disfigured, as the life of man is not, to his imagination. Each man sees over his own experience a certain stain of error, whilst that of other men looks fair and ideal. Let any man go back to those delicious relations which make the beauty of rapunzel original story, his life, which have given him sincerest instruction and nourishment, he will shrink and moan. Alas! I know not why, but infinite compunctions embitter in mature life the remembrances of budding joy, and cover every beloved name. Every thing is beautiful seen from the point of the intellect, or as truth. But all is sour, if seen as experience.

Details are melancholy; the plan is seemly and noble. In the actual world--the painful kingdom of time and place--dwell care, and Disability Essay, canker, and fear. With thought, with the ideal, is rapunzel original immortal hilarity, the rose of joy. Round it all the Rights Essay, Muses sing. But grief cleaves to Leader Essay names, and persons, and the partial interests of to-day and Disability Rights Essay, yesterday. The strong bent of nature is seen in the proportion which this topic of personal relations usurps in the conversation of society. What do we wish to know of all the summary, any worthy person so much, as how he has sped in the history of this sentiment? What books in the circulating libraries circulate?

How we glow over these novels of Essay, passion, when the story is told with any spark of truth and nature! And what fastens attention, in the intercourse of life, like any passage betraying affection between two parties? Perhaps we never saw them before, and never shall meet them again. But we see them exchange a glance, or betray a deep emotion, and we are no longer strangers. We understand them, and take the warmest interest in the development of the romance.

All mankind love a lover. The earliest demonstrations of complacency and cat edgar allan, kindness are nature's most winning pictures. It is the dawn of civility and grace in Essay the coarse and how did the world, rustic. The rude village boy teases the girls about the school-house door;--but to-day he comes running into the entry, and meets one fair child disposing her satchel; he holds her books to help her, and instantly it seems to him as if she removed herself from Disability Rights him infinitely, and was a sacred precinct. Among the throng of girls he runs rudely enough, but one alone distances him; and these two little neighbours, that were so close just now, have learned to respect each other's personality.

Or who can avert his eyes from the Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent Essay, engaging, half-artful, half-artless ways of school-girls who go into the country shops to Disability Rights buy a skein of the printing change, silk or a sheet of Rights, paper, and talk half an hour about pros, nothing with the broad-faced, good-natured shop-boy. In the village they are on a perfect equality, which love delights in, and without any coquetry the happy, affectionate nature of woman flows out in this pretty gossip. The girls may have little beauty, yet plainly do they establish between them and the good boy the Disability Rights, most agreeable, confiding relations, what with their fun and poe, their earnest, about Disability Rights Essay, Edgar, and Jonas, and Almira, and who was invited to the party, and who danced at the dancing-school, and when the singing-school would begin, and other nothings concerning which the parties cooed. By and by that boy wants a wife, and very truly and heartily will he know where to find a sincere and sweet mate, without any risk such as Milton deplores as incident to scholars and great men. I have been told, that in some public discourses of mine my reverence for the intellect has made me unjustly cold to Rockefeller: the personal relations. But now I almost shrink at Essay the remembrance of such disparaging words. For persons are love's world, and the coldest philosopher cannot recount the An Emotionally Intelligent Leader, debt of the young soul wandering here in nature to the power of love, without being tempted to unsay, as treasonable to Disability Essay nature, aught derogatory to the social instincts.

For, though the celestial rapture falling out of heaven seizes only upon those of tender age, and although a beauty overpowering all analysis or comparison, and putting us quite beside ourselves, we can seldom see after thirty years, yet the remembrance of these visions outlasts all other remembrances, and is a wreath of flowers on the oldest brows. But here is a strange fact; it may seem to many men, in revising their experience, that they have no fairer page in their life's book than the delicious memory of some passages wherein affection contrived to give a witchcraft surpassing the deep attraction of its own truth to black cat edgar allan a parcel of accidental and trivial circumstances. In looking backward, they may find that several things which were not the charm have more reality to this groping memory than the charm itself which embalmed them. Disability Rights Essay. But be our experience in particulars what it may, no man ever forgot the visitations of that power to his heart and brain, which created all things new; which was the dawn in him of story, music, poetry, and art; which made the face of nature radiant with purple light, the morning and the night varied enchantments; when a single tone of one voice could make the heart bound, and Disability Rights Essay, the most trivial circumstance associated with one form is put in cat edgar the amber of memory; when he became all eye when one was present, and Disability Essay, all memory when one was gone; when the youth becomes a watcher of windows, and studious of a glove, a veil, a ribbon, or the wheels of a carriage; when no place is too solitary, and none too silent, for him who has richer company and sweeter conversation in his new thoughts, than any old friends, though best and purest, can give him; for black cat edgar, the figures, the motions, the Disability Rights, words of the beloved object are not like other images written in water, but, as Plutarch said, enamelled in fire, and make the study of midnight. Thou art not gone being gone, where'er thou art, Thou leav'st in him thy watchful eyes, in him thy loving heart. [John Donne] In the noon and the afternoon of life we still throb at the recollection of days when happiness was not happy enough, but must be drugged with the relish of pain and change the world, fear; for he touched the secret of the matter, who said of love,-- All other pleasures are not worth its pains; and when the day was not long enough, but the night, too, must be consumed in keen recollections; when the head boiled all night on Disability Rights Essay, the pillow with the generous deed it resolved on; when the moonlight was a pleasing fever, and Essay Arthur Miller's, the stars were letters, and Rights Essay, the flowers ciphers, and the air was coined into Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent, song; when all business seemed an impertinence, and all the men and women running to and fro in the streets, mere pictures. The passion rebuilds the world for the youth.

It makes all things alive and significant. Nature grows conscious. Every bird on the boughs of the tree sings now to his heart and soul. The notes are almost articulate. The clouds have faces as he looks on them. The trees of the forest, the Disability Rights Essay, waving grass, and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent; and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite.

Yet nature soothes and sympathizes. In the green solitude he finds a dearer home than with men. Original. Fountain-heads and pathless groves, Places which pale passion loves, Moonlight walks, when all the fowls. Are safely housed, save bats and owls, A midnight bell, a passing groan,--

These are the sounds we feed upon. [Fletcher] Behold there in the wood the fine madman! He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights; he dilates; he is twice a man; he walks with arms akimbo; he soliloquizes; he accosts the grass and Disability Rights, the trees; he feels the blood of the violet, the clover, and the lily in his veins; and he talks with the the printing press the world, brook that wets his foot. The heats that have opened his perceptions of natural beauty have made him love music and verse. It is Disability a fact often observed, that men have written good verses under the inspiration of passion, who cannot write well under any other circumstances. The like force has the how did press, passion over all his nature. It expands the sentiment; it makes the clown gentle, and gives the coward heart. Into the most pitiful and abject it will infuse a heart and courage to defy the world, so only it have the countenance of the beloved object. In giving him to another, it still more gives him to himself. He is a new man, with new perceptions, new and Disability Essay, keener purposes, and a religious solemnity of character and cat edgar poe, aims.

He does not longer appertain to his family and society; _he_ is somewhat; he is a person; he is Disability a soul. And here let us examine a little nearer the An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Essay, nature of that influence which is thus potent over the human youth. Beauty, whose revelation to man we now celebrate, welcome as the sun wherever it pleases to shine, which pleases everybody with it and with themselves, seems sufficient to itself. The lover cannot paint his maiden to his fancy poor and solitary. Like a tree in flower, so much soft, budding, informing love-liness is society for itself, and she teaches his eye why Beauty was pictured with Loves and Graces attending her steps. Her existence makes the world rich.

Though she extrudes all other persons from his attention as cheap and unworthy, she indemnifies him by carrying out Disability Rights Essay, her own being into somewhat impersonal, large, mundane, so that the maiden stands to him for a representative of all select things and virtues. For that reason, the lover never sees personal resemblances in his mistress to her kindred or to others. His friends find in her a likeness to her mother, or her sisters, or to persons not of her blood. The lover sees no resemblance except to summer evenings and diamond mornings, to rainbows and the song of birds. The ancients called beauty the flowering of virtue. Who can analyze the nameless charm which glances from one and another face and form? We are touched with emotions of Essay Arthur Miller's The Crucible, tenderness and complacency, but we cannot find whereat this dainty emotion, this wandering gleam, points.

It is destroyed for the imagination by any attempt to Disability Rights refer it to organization. Nor does it point to any relations of friendship or love known and described in society, but, as it seems to me, to a quite other and unattainable sphere, to relations of transcendent delicacy and sweetness, to black cat edgar allan poe what roses and violets hint and fore-show. Disability Essay. We cannot approach beauty. Hunting Pros And Cons. Its nature is like opaline doves'-neck lustres, hovering and evanescent. Herein it resembles the most excellent things, which all have this rainbow character, defying all attempts at appropriation and Disability Rights Essay, use. What else did Jean Paul Richter signify, when he said to music, Away! away! thou speakest to me of Rockefeller: Intelligent Leader Essay, things which in all my endless life I have not found, and shall not find.

The same fluency may be observed in every work of the plastic arts. The statue is then beautiful when it begins to be incomprehensible, when it is passing out of criticism, and can no longer be defined by compass and measuring-wand, but demands an active imagination to Disability go with it, and to say what it is in the act of doing. The god or hero of the sculptor is always represented in a transition from that which is representable to the senses, to that which is not. Then first it ceases to be a stone. Black Cat Edgar Allan. The same remark holds of painting. And of poetry, the success is not attained when it lulls and satisfies, but when it astonishes and fires us with new endeavours after the unattainable. Concerning it, Landor inquires whether it is not to be referred to some purer state of sensation and existence. In like manner, personal beauty is then first charming and itself, when it dissatisfies us with any end; when it becomes a story without an end; when it suggests gleams and visions, and not earthly satisfactions; when it makes the beholder feel his unworthiness; when he cannot feel his right to it, though he were Caesar; he cannot feel more right to it than to the firmament and the splendors of a sunset. Hence arose the saying, If I love you, what is that to you?

We say so, because we feel that what we love is not in your will, but above it. It is not you, but your radiance. Disability Rights Essay. It is that which you know not in yourself, and black cat edgar allan poe, can never know. This agrees well with that high philosophy of Beauty which the Rights Essay, ancient writers delighted in; for they said that the soul of The Crucible, man, embodied here on earth, went roaming up and down in quest of that other world of its own, out of which it came into this, but was soon stupefied by the light of the natural sun, and unable to see any other objects than those of this world, which are but shadows of Disability Rights Essay, real things. Therefore, the Deity sends the glory of youth before the soul, that it may avail itself of and cons, beautiful bodies as aids to its recollection of the celestial good and fair; and the man beholding such a person in the female sex runs to her, and finds the highest joy in contemplating the form, movement, and intelligence of this person, because it suggests to him the Disability Essay, presence of that which indeed is within the beauty, and the cause of the beauty. If, however, from black cat edgar allan too much conversing with material objects, the soul was gross, and misplaced its satisfaction in the body, it reaped nothing but sorrow; body being unable to fulfil the promise which beauty holds out; but if, accepting the hint of Disability Rights, these visions and suggestions which beauty makes to his mind, the soul passes through the body, and falls to admire strokes of hunting and cons, character, and the lovers contemplate one another in Disability Rights Essay their discourses and their actions, then they pass to the true palace of An Emotionally Essay, beauty, more and more inflame their love of it, and by Rights, this love extinguishing the base affection, as the sun puts out the fire by shining on the hearth, they become pure and hallowed. By conversation with that which is in itself excellent, magnanimous, lowly, and just, the lover comes to a warmer love of these nobilities, and a quicker apprehension of them. Then he passes from loving them in one to loving them in all, and so is the one beautiful soul only the door through which he enters to the society of all true and pure souls. In the particular society of his mate, he attains a clearer sight of any spot, any taint, which her beauty has contracted from this world, and is able to point it out, and this with mutual joy that they are now able, without offence, to indicate blemishes and how did change the world, hindrances in each other, and Rights, give to each all help and comfort in curing the same.

And, beholding in Essay about many souls the traits of the divine beauty, and separating in each soul that which is divine from the taint which it has contracted in the world, the lover ascends to Disability Rights Essay the highest beauty, to the love and knowledge of the Divinity, by steps on this ladder of created souls. Somewhat like this have the truly wise told us of love in all ages. The doctrine is not old, nor is it new. If Plato, Plutarch, and all the pretty horses, Apuleius taught it, so have Petrarch, Angelo, and Milton. It awaits a truer unfolding in opposition and rebuke to that subterranean prudence which presides at Disability marriages with words that take hold of the upper world, whilst one eye is prowling in hunting pros the cellar, so that its gravest discourse has a savor of hams and Disability Rights, powdering-tubs.

Worst, when this sensualism intrudes into the education of all the pretty horses summary, young women, and withers the hope and affection of human nature, by teaching that marriage signifies nothing but a housewife's thrift, and that woman's life has no other aim. But this dream of love, though beautiful, is only one scene in our play. In the procession of the soul from within outward, it enlarges its circles ever, like the pebble thrown into the pond, or the light proceeding from an Disability orb. The rays of the soul alight first on things nearest, on every utensil and the printing change, toy, on nurses and Rights, domestics, on the house, and yard, and passengers, on the circle of household acquaintance, on politics, and geography, and history. But things are ever grouping themselves according to higher or more interior laws. Neighbourhood, size, numbers, habits, persons, lose by degrees their power over us. Cause and effect, real affinities, the longing for harmony between the soul and the circumstance, the progressive, idealizing instinct, predominate later, and the step backward from the higher to the lower relations is impossible. Thus even love, which is the deification of persons, must become more impersonal every day. Of this at first it gives no hint. Little think the youth and maiden who are glancing at each other across crowded rooms, with eyes so full of mutual intelligence, of the Rockefeller: Leader, precious fruit long hereafter to Rights proceed from this new, quite external stimulus. The work of vegetation begins first in hunting and cons the irritability of the bark and leaf-buds.

From exchanging glances, they advance to acts of Disability Rights, courtesy, of gallantry, then to fiery passion, to plighting troth, and marriage. Passion beholds its object as a perfect unit. The soul is wholly embodied, and the body is wholly ensouled. Her pure and eloquent blood. Spoke in her cheeks, and so distinctly wrought, That one might almost say her body thought. [John Donne] Romeo, if dead, should be cut up into little stars to An Emotionally make the heavens fine. Life, with this pair, has no other aim, asks no more, than Juliet,--than Romeo. Night, day, studies, talents, kingdoms, religion, are all contained in this form full of soul, in this soul which is all form.

The lovers delight in endearments, in avowals of love, in comparisons of their regards. When alone, they solace themselves with the remembered image of the other. Disability Essay. Does that other see the same star, the same melting cloud, read the same book, feel the same emotion, that now delight me? They try and weigh their affection, and, adding up costly advantages, friends, opportunities, properties, exult in discovering that willingly, joyfully, they would give all as a ransom for the beautiful, the beloved head, not one hair of which shall be harmed. But the story, lot of humanity is on these children. Danger, sorrow, and pain arrive to them, as to all.

Love prays. It makes covenants with Eternal Power in behalf of Rights Essay, this dear mate. The union which is hunting thus effected, and which adds a new value to every atom in nature, for it transmutes every thread throughout the whole web of relation into a golden ray, and bathes the soul in a new and sweeter element, is yet a temporary state. Not always can flowers, pearls, poetry, protestations, nor even home in another heart, content the awful soul that dwells in clay. It arouses itself at Essay last from these endearments, as toys, and puts on the harness, and aspires to vast and universal aims. The soul which is in the soul of each, craving a perfect beatitude, detects incongruities, defects, and disproportion in Essay Arthur Miller's the behaviour of the other. Hence arise surprise, expostulation, and pain. Yet that which drew them to each other was signs of loveliness, signs of virtue; and Disability Rights, these virtues are there, however eclipsed. They appear and how did press change, reappear, and continue to attract; but the Disability Rights Essay, regard changes, quits the sign, and attaches to the substance. This repairs the wounded affection.

Meantime, as life wears on, it proves a game of permutation and combination of all possible positions of the parties, to employ all the resources of each, and acquaint each with the original story, strength and weakness of the other. For it is the nature and Disability Essay, end of all the pretty horses, this relation, that they should represent the human race to Disability Rights Essay each other. All that is in poe the world, which is or ought to Disability be known, is how did the printing cunningly wrought into Disability Rights Essay, the texture of man, of rapunzel story, woman. Rights. The person love does to us fit, Like manna, has the taste of all in it. [Abraham Cowley] The world rolls; the circumstances vary every hour. The angels that inhabit this temple of the body appear at the windows, and black poe, the gnomes and vices also. By all the virtues they are united.

If there be virtue, all the vices are known as such; they confess and flee. Their once flaming regard is sobered by Disability, time in allan poe either breast, and, losing in violence what it gains in extent, it becomes a thorough good understanding. Disability Essay. They resign each other, without complaint, to the good offices which man and woman are severally appointed to discharge in time, and exchange the passion which once could not lose sight of its object, for a cheerful, disengaged furtherance, whether present or absent, of each other's designs. At last they discover that all which at first drew them together,? those once sacred features, that magical play of charms,--was deciduous, had a prospective end, like the scaffolding by which the hunting pros, house was built; and the purification of the intellect and the heart, from year to Rights year, is the real marriage, foreseen and original story, prepared from the first, and wholly above their consciousness. Rights. Looking at these aims with which two persons, a man and a woman, so variously and Essay about Arthur The Crucible, correlatively gifted, are shut up in one house to spend in Disability Rights Essay the nuptial society forty or fifty years, I do not wonder at Miller's The Crucible the emphasis with which the Disability, heart prophesies this crisis from early infancy, at about the profuse beauty with which the instincts deck the nuptial bower, and nature, and intellect, and art emulate each other in the gifts and the melody they bring to the epithalamium. Thus are we put in training for a love which knows not sex, nor person, nor partiality, but which seeks virtue and wisdom everywhere, to the end of increasing virtue and wisdom. We are by nature observers, and thereby learners.

That is our permanent state. But we are often made to feel that our affections are but tents of Essay, a night. Though slowly and with pain, the objects of the affections change, as the objects of about Arthur The Crucible, thought do. Disability. There are moments when the affections rule and absorb the rapunzel story, man, and make his happiness dependent on a person or persons. But in health the mind is presently seen again,--its overarching vault, bright with galaxies of immutable lights, and the warm loves and Disability Essay, fears that swept over us as clouds, must lose their finite character and blend with God, to allan attain their own perfection.

But we need not fear that we can lose any thing by the progress of the soul. The soul may be trusted to Disability Essay the end. That which is Arthur Miller's so beautiful and attractive as these relations must be succeeded and supplanted only by Essay, what is more beautiful, and Essay about The Crucible, so on for ever.

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5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. Disability Essay? The new SAT will ask students to write a longer and very different essay (if they choose to write one at all). Earn a high score by using these 5 tips from test prep tutor and Noodle Expert Karen Berlin Ishii. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Intelligent Leader Essay? Test takers must respond to a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites and be ready to Disability Rights Essay, quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on original story top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to Disability, rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor.

If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at pros, least 10 out of 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the game changes. A lot. At 50 minutes, the time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Students will be expected to write more, and theyll be given three pages of paper to Essay, use in contrast to the current two. The Printing Press Change The World? Instead of being administered right at the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at Disability, the end of the 3-hour test. And for the first time, writing the essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the hunting pros, essay has changed dramatically, too, from Disability Rights persuasive to analytical. Reflecting this change, students will have to do a lot more reading before they begin to write.

The scoring system is also new. Instead of a 16 scale representing a holistic judgment, the black cat edgar allan poe, new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions Reading, Analysis, and Writing with scores of Rights, 14 for each of these sub-scores. Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from two readers) will be combined for a final total. Original Story? These scores will not be included in the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Disability Rights Writing and Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the same: Write an all the pretty horses essay in which you explain how the Rights, author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and style to support her point. The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for one's own opinion on all the horses the subject at hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and argument. The level of difficulty of these passages is much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on the SAT. Responding to this passage and Rights Essay prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and allan fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and questions, read the scored essay responses carefully.

Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for yourself why each essay got the three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing). Focus on the higher-scoring examples and look for qualities to Disability, emulate. 2. Understand the hunting pros, authors position. When you are ready to Rights, write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and the essence of the author's argument not just the topic and An Emotionally Leader your position on Disability it. Essay About Arthur The Crucible? Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the authors overall stance. Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about what the author is Disability trying to say. What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and Essay Arthur Miller's persuasive and laid out in Disability, a clear way?

Are there particularly strong or weak points in hunting pros, the author's argument? Does the passage leave out important information that might persuade you as a reader? Like fine carpentry, the construction of a great essay hinges on thoughtful and Disability thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the actual question and original not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at the beginning of the essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after youve finished drafting. Be sure to work in each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to support her claim. Discuss the ways in which the author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and argument. Address the author's use of style and rhetorical devices to engage readers and convince them of the Rights Essay, points in the passage. As in horses summary, days of yore, a long SAT essay is still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to filler. If your handwriting is too big, practice writing smaller.

You should work on Disability efficiently using all the room you have. Try not to leave any space in the margins except for indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Story? Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and quotations youve memorized as part of your test prep. Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as theyve worked to Disability, the advantage of the author of the passage youll be analyzing when you take the test. Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for the SAT from pros and cons Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii. Once you receive your scores, use the Noodle college search to see what schools fall within your range. Karen Berlin Ishii, a Brown University grad, has 25 years' experience as a teacher and Essay test prep tutor. After teaching for The Princeton Review, she created PSAT and SAT prep courses for The British School. Rapunzel Original Story? Now she teaches SAT, ACT, ISEE, SSAT, SHSAT and more in New York City and worldwide via Skype. Karen lectures on Disability Rights SAT and ACT prep for The Brown Club and [emailprotected], writes columns on test prep, and Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Essay edits SAT, PSAT, ISEE, SSAT and GRE textbooks for Barron's and the Dummies series.

A parent of two recent college grads, Karen relates well to families' concerns about school admissions and college testing and enjoys wonderful rapport with both students and parents.

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cause of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Disability Essay? Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by black cat edgar allan poe, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on Disability Essay, 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on original story, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to Disability Rights enter the war on the side of the world, France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Disability, Russia on 6 August. France and rapunzel story, Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Disability Rights? They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of rapunzel, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of Disability Rights, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. How Did The Printing? Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in Essay 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and how did change, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against Disability Rights the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the hunting pros Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and Rights, encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in how did the printing change the world August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon Disability, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Essay, Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to Disability Rights keep Germany in about Miller's The Crucible the war for Disability Rights Essay another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. How Did Change The World? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Rights, South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of rapunzel original, India helped bring the Rights Essay British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in hunting pros a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. Disability Rights? On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of Intelligent, attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and Disability Rights, field fortifications. Dense belts of all the, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of Rights Essay, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. All The Pretty? This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an Disability Rights Essay offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the An Emotionally strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the Disability Rights small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Change The World? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to Rights Essay evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and Essay Arthur, more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Essay, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at rapunzel great cost to Disability Rights themselves, but the German line held and no end to original story the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Rights Essay? This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Essay About Arthur The Crucible? The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and Rights Essay, returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on the printing change the world, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and Disability Essay, the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for how did the printing press change the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Rights, Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. An Emotionally Intelligent Leader? Austria had a disastrous war.

Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in Disability Essay the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. How Did? Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Disability, Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to An Emotionally the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Rights Essay? By 1918 Austria was weary of the hunting war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Rights, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the hunting pros and cons war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from Disability Essay, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to how did the printing change the world aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in Rights Essay the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in how did the printing press change the world the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Rights Essay Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in the printing change the world a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Rights Essay? Austrian retreat turned into original, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Disability Rights Essay Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the the printing press change the world highest proportion of Essay, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to hunting pros and cons Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the Disability Rights malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the world, the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. Essay? The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in black cat edgar allan the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of Rights, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and how did the printing press change, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of Disability, 1915. How Did Change The World? In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and Disability Rights Essay, the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Rockefeller: Leader Essay? Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Disability Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of hunting pros and cons, ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. Rights Essay? The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from Essay about Arthur Miller's The Crucible, April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to Essay control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of all the pretty horses, compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of Rights, power'. Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent Leader? Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of Rights Essay, international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for black cat edgar poe their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Rights Essay? Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the Essay lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in Essay the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and rapunzel, compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on Rights, the ability of the pros German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to Disability Rights its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to black cat edgar allan poe win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for Rights Essay knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an hunting pros army into Rights Essay, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the rapunzel first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of Disability Rights, war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Black Cat Edgar? It had the political power to command the Disability Rights Essay resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. Rapunzel? The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the Rights Essay sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Pros? 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the Disability Rights British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into black, 'leverage'. Disability? Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to all the summary German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Essay? They might even have chosen to do this. All The Pretty? They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the Disability Essay world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. How Did The Printing Press? London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to Disability world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to cat edgar allan poe confront the reality of Essay, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of pretty horses summary, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Disability, Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Poe? During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of Disability, men in the attempt to Intelligent Leader Essay evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in Essay kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the world the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Disability Rights Essay? The British fought the pros and cons war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the Disability Essay war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Rockefeller: An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Essay? Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Rights Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to allan the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to Disability Rights recognize that the war would be long and require the An Emotionally Leader Essay complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to Disability Rights Essay his call to rapunzel original story arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the Disability Rights Essay British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the poe long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the Disability Rights dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the Essay Miller's German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Essay doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to the printing press change some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to Rights the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the all the summary Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by Disability, the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and pros, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Rights Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and pros, December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on Disability Rights Essay, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on how did the printing, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Disability Essay? Only then was it replaced by story, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Essay? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of and cons, co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on Rights Essay, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of allan, economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from Disability Rights Essay, their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the press change numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and Disability Essay, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the printing change the world, the electric telegraph, the Essay telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and hunting and cons, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of Rights Essay, military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of the printing press the world, it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of Essay, iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the rapunzel original war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to Essay the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and hunting, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Disability? The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by original, the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of Disability, instruction was experience. How Did The Printing Change The World? Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Rights? As a result the coordination of infantry and pros, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to Disability Rights fall back on black cat edgar allan poe, their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and Disability Essay, paid a high price for Leader Essay its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on Essay, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by allan poe, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Disability? Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and pretty horses, direction, temperature, and humidity. Disability Rights? All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and hunting, reduced the Rights cratering of the Rockefeller: Essay battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of Disability Essay, 1917 artillery was used principally to The Crucible kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an Essay entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of pretty, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and Disability Rights Essay, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and hunting pros and cons, bayonet. In 1918 he went into Disability Rights, battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by cat edgar allan poe, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and Disability Essay, ground-attack aircraft, and rapunzel original, preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to Disability Rights deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Black Cat Edgar? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in Rights Essay shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and Essay about Arthur Miller's, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into Disability, the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon original story, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by Essay, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the how did change First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of Disability Rights, soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in original story turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and Disability, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the all the horses summary liberal democracies of Essay, France and Great Britain (and eventually the allan poe United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the Disability demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and Essay about Arthur, more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to Rights Essay the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of hunting pros and cons, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and Disability Rights, West Africa and rapunzel story, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in Disability 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an press the world hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Essay? Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and how did press the world, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Disability Rights Essay? All sides tried to summary explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to Rights the cause.

Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Rapunzel Original Story? One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to Rights maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in rapunzel story most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and Essay, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of all the horses summary, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Essay Romanov, the hunting pros and cons Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of Disability Rights, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by all the pretty summary, the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the Essay provinces of Alsace and Arthur The Crucible, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by Disability Rights Essay, fear and loathing of Essay, Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Disability Essay? The British maintained the rapunzel story integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the Disability Essay security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of Arthur The Crucible, British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in Disability Rights India were apparent as soon as the how did the printing press change war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the Disability Essay demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.