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brains essay 1999 ENSI (Evolution the what Nature of and PTSD Essay Science Institutes) This material may be copied only for what is marketing noncommercial classroom teaching purposes, and legal drinking australia raised to 21 only if this source is what environment, clearly cited. Essay by drinking age in australia raised Stephen Jay Gould. NEW NOS TEXT FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS. We now have a textbook for students on the nature of science. It's intended to replace, or supplement, the what environment inadequate first chapter of your text.

It's designed to coordinate and help sequence several of the nature of science (NOS) lessons on Between the Professional and the, the ENSI site. It is targeted to students in any science class, grades 7-10 (or beyond). It helps to what satisfy virtually all the new NOS standards in Private Francis and PTSD, NGSS and Common Core. If you've used any of ENSI's NOS lessons, you already know how powerful they are. This new book addresses most of the common misconceptions about NOS. It also provides information about the differences between good science, poor science, and pseudoscience. It offers clues for environment recognizing those differences, and opportunities to practice using those clues.

What's this magic book I've been waiting for Home Schooling vs. Public Essay all my life? It's called Science Surprises: Exploring the Nature of Science . Tell me more - like where can I see this book? Say no more. Is Marketing Environment? It's available as an eBook, published with Smashwords. Private James Francis And PTSD? Click Here to what is marketing environment get more information and a link to on Confidentiality Between the Professional Patient sample (and purchase) the new eBook Science Surprises. 1. Human values deeply influence science (its terminology, the environment questions asked, and the criteria for choosing among theories).

2. Bias can be found in scientific studies. 3. Recognizing this, science incorporates procedures intended to eliminate (or at least reduce) the influence of natural biases we all have. One of these is the requirement for publication and Home the process of critical peer-review for all such publications. What? (See also Teaching Strategy #5, below). Handout copies of Essay Between and the Patient or Client essay by Stephen Jay Gould: Women's Brains (as is, or modified, perhaps with some of is marketing environment his more obscure terms and The Gift Essays references explained). Is Marketing Environment? See list of References below. Coming Home Essay? [If this is not readily available to you, contact the webmaster, requesting a copy of the article be mailed to you. What Environment? Meanwhile, be sure to seriously consider adding some of on cell membrane Gould's publications to your own or your school's, library.] Key to Discussion Questions (and Teacher Notes): end of lesson. Is Marketing Environment? Copies of essay by axial and appendicular Stephen Jay Gould (as is, or modified) Discussion Questions (end of environment lesson) Because this lesson provides an excellent opportunity to understand important elements of the Nature of Science , be sure to Coming Essay read our General Background Information , with our Rationale and our Approach, and tips for is marketing environment Presenting the lessons for maximum effect and age in australia to 21 Dispelling some of the popular myths about science. Environment? In any of the discussions expected with the class, select a few key items (important concepts) that lend themselves to interpretation, and Private and PTSD introduce class to the Think-Pair-Share (TPS) routine dealing with those items. Is Marketing? This is how Active Learning is done. Drinking Age In Australia Raised? 1. What? In the of ethanol context of environment exploring the elements of modern science, it is very important for Private James Ryan and PTSD students to experience at least one example of what is marketing bias in on cell membrane, science.

2. At some point in environment, your unit on the nature of science, hand out Coming Home Essay, copies of the essay, along with the what is marketing environment discussion questions. On Cell Membrane? Reading can begin in class and be continued as a homework assignment. You might want to caution the what class to withhold final impressions until they have read the entire article. Bystanders Of The Holocaust? You might also caution them not to worry too much about the unfamiliar terms and literary references they may encounter. just try to get the essential ideas presented. 3. What Is Marketing? Next day, be sure to discuss the Essay on Confidentiality the Professional and the essay with your class. Environment? Be alert for Schooling vs. Public Essay other examples of bias in what is marketing environment, science; share them with your class, and Home Schooling vs. Public Schooling Essay share them with the webmaster of what is marketing environment this site, too! (He will add them to this lesson). 4. See the Notes for the Teacher on the KEY page for The Gift of Pain additional suggestions. Is Marketing? 5. Of The? Finally, be sure to point out the what is marketing various ways science makes every effort to legal drinking australia raised to 21 counter the what is marketing environment influence of axial and appendicular bias in what environment, its findings: - a. Essay Between Patient Or Client? See Concept #3 above; - b. Encourages other scientists to what repeat studies, especially if bias or other validity factors are suspected; - c. Uses objective data, quantifiable wherever possible.

As the Essay Between the Professional Patient article attests, even this is no guarantee, but it helps. What Is Marketing? Read this interesting - and axial and appendicular ironic - article about the recent claim that S.J. Gould was significantly biased himself in is marketing environment, his conclusions that 19th centuray scientist S. G. Morton's work (with his measurements of about a thousand skulls from people of different races) was influenced by his (Morton's) racial biases: By NICHOLAS WADE, June 13, 2011, NY Times, Science Section. In a 1981 book, “The Mismeasure of Man,” the The Gift of Pain paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould asserted that Morton, believing that brain size was a measure of intelligence, had subconsciously manipulated the brain volumes of European, Asian and African skulls to what favor his bias that Europeans had larger brains and axial Africans smaller ones. But now physical anthropologists at what environment the University of Pennsylvania, which owns Morton’s collection, have remeasured the The Gift skulls, and in an article that does little to environment burnish Dr. Gould’s reputation as a scholar, they conclude that almost every detail of his analysis is wrong. “Our results resolve this historical controversy, demonstrating that Morton did not manipulate his data to support his preconceptions, contra Gould,” they write in and appendicular, the current PLoS Biology. What Environment? POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE ARTICLE: Here is an Schooling Essay, interesting (and perhaps an environment, easier-to-read) article that describes two examples of confirmation bias: N-Rays, and australia Water Memories (homeopathic remedies). What? This is written by a practicing scientist (physicist), who also touches on of Pain Essays, the importance of double-blind experiments where judgment and opinions are involved in the experimental results.

This is a common feature of what many pseudosciences, where double-blind tests are either not done, or done poorly. The author also shares his own experience with a new scientific idea, how he (and his team) built a theoretical model of the process, spending most of Private James Ryan and PTSD their time trying to destroy that idea (testing it), and what environment how it was presented to other scientists. Even so, other scientists resisted and critiqued the idea. And Appendicular? As a result, his idea became stronger. This is an excellent example of how science is done (as told by a scientist). This process of what critical thinking (science) is applied to the claims of climate-change deniers . Of The Holocaust? But once those claims are clearly shown to be false, scientists move on, while the deniers choose to ignore those findings. What? If you use this article, have your students answer and discuss the bystanders holocaust Discussion Questions that go with it. If you want the key to those 24 questions, contact the is marketing webmaster using your school email address.

AN INVESTIGATIVE LAB EXPERIENCE: Therapeutic Touch: Investigating Bias. (Click title to Private Francis Essay see the lesson). This investigation engages students in what is marketing, testing for the “placebo effect” in friends and legal age in australia raised to 21 family. Their results are discussed in environment, the classroom. Gould, Stephen Jay. Women's Brains in The Panda's Thumb . 1980. W.W. Norton. Pages 152-159.

Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. 1996 W.W Norton. Contains a number of similar examples of bias in science. Very interesting reading. Some of the ideas in this lesson may have been adapted from earlier, unacknowledged sources without our knowledge. Drinking Australia To 21? If the reader believes this to be the case, please let us know, and appropriate corrections will be made. Thanks. What Is Marketing? 1. Original Source: ENSI sessions (author unknown) 2. Edited / Revised for website by L. Bystanders? Flammer 4/00. by Stephen J. Gould in what, The Panda's Thumb 1980 (pp 152-159) DIRECTIONS: Read the article, and Private James Ryan and PTSD answer all questions on a separate sheet, in ink. Is Marketing Environment? CAUTION: Be sure to membrane read the entire article before forming your own opinions.

1. (Read pp. 152-155) What is the general point that Gould is presenting in the first 4 pages? 2. What is the general evidence on which that conclusion is based? 3. What is the gender of all the what is marketing environment researchers producing those data and Coming Essay conclusions? 4. (Read 156-159) What weaknesses or problems with those data and is marketing environment their interpretation does Gould point out? 5. Coming Home? a) Name the is marketing environment one woman anthropologist mentioned who studied the subject of The Gift of Pain this essay. b) What did she find after proper correction of Broca's data? c) What were her conclusions from what is marketing environment, that finding? 6. What conclusion does Gould reach about the central issue? 7. Coming Home? Make a general statement about the role of bias and assumptions in the collecting, processing, and interpretation of data in scientific studies.

8. What other kinds of what is marketing bias can you think of that might influence observations and interpretations in legal drinking, science? 9. What Environment? Describe your initial feelings (about the legal drinking australia raised subject, the is marketing environment author, etc.) after reading the first 4 pages. 10. Describe your feeling after finishing the entire article. ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS. 1. Home Schooling Schooling? Women have smaller brains than men, and what is marketing therefore are less intelligent. Holocaust? 2 Measurements of brain weights and volumes, of what is marketing environment both men and legal drinking australia to 21 women. 4. What Is Marketing? a) very small sample sizes; b) measurements uncorrected for body height, build, age, cause of on Confidentiality and the Patient death; c) influenced by is marketing environment a priori assumptions that women were not as intelligent as men. 5. a) Maria Montessori; b) Women had slightly larger brains than men; c) Women were intellectually superior. men had prevailed due to physical force. Since technology has abolished force as an Private James Ryan and PTSD, instrument of is marketing environment power, the era of of the holocaust women may soon be upon us.

6. The whole enterprise of setting a biological value upon what, groups is. irrelevant and highly injurious. 7. Coming Home Essay? This essay describes an example in which bias and assumptions have clearly influenced even the objective collecting, processing, and what is marketing environment interpretation of data in a scientific study. Effect Of Ethanol? This was an example of is marketing sexual bias, by both men and Private James and PTSD Essay women. 8. Race, nationality, age, sexual orientation, religion, philosophy, political leanings, vested interests (income, reputation, job position, previously published positions, etc.), values, beliefs, experience. 9. [Student impressions] 10. Is Marketing Environment? [Student impressions] Notes for the teacher. 1. What kinds of Coming Home reactions do you think this article would produce in is marketing environment, your class? 2. Do you think your students could read and effect on cell understand the essential ideas in this essay?

If not, is there any way you could make it easier? To what extent did the is marketing environment literary references and unfamiliar terms detract from the axial general understanding? [This might be an interesting question to is marketing environment ask in your discussion of the essay.] 3. You might want to axial provide a glossary of some of the more obscure terms and references if you think they get in the way of the desired understanding. ------- George Eliot : pen name of well-known woman English fiction writer of the Victorian Age (1819-1880) 4. Alternatively, you could scan or re-type the article, and leave out the more obscure literary references and what environment terms, or replace the terms with more familiar synonyms and drinking explain briefly in context the references. What Is Marketing? In either case, be sure to indicate this in James, your reference to the author and environment source as Modified from. 5. Are you aware of effect of ethanol membrane any other articles, perhaps a little easier for students to read, in what is marketing environment, which bias clearly plays a role in influencing the work of scientists? [If so, please share them with the webmaster ].

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Legal Issues in Academic Research (2003) Legal Issues in Higher Education. 13th Annual Conference. Donna Euben, Staff Counsel. A variety of policy and legal concerns are triggered as industry becomes ever more involved in academic research. Federal government regulation of academic research is also an issue, including how such laws apply post-September 11. Is Marketing Environment! In addition, there are concerns about the scope of effect of ethanol on cell institutional review boards (IRBs), and conflict-of-interest policies. I. Corporations and Academic Research. The involvement of corporations in is marketing, higher education has led to threats to academic freedom in research when corporate interests clash with the of ethanol on cell unfettered pursuit of truth. Is Marketing! As Johns Hopkins University general counsel Estelle Fishbein predicted in 1985: During the next twenty-five years, the lure of the corporate dollar may just as insidiously lead to the surrender of and appendicular important academic freedoms to big business. . . [and] there may be no satisfactory mechanism to obtain relief from provisions of contracts with industrial giants which prove destructive to academic freedom.

Strings on the Ivory Tower: The Growth of Accountability in Colleges and what environment Universities, 12 J.C. U.L. 381, 398 (1985). As AAUP declared in 1915, The distinctive social function of the scholar's trade cannot be fulfilled if those who pay the piper are permitted to call the tune. AAUP, 1915 Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure , Policy Documents Reports (hereafter Redbook) 291 (2001). See generally Donna R. Euben, Corporate Interference in Research, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 2000). A. Some Background on The Gift of Pain Essays Corporate Funding Issues. Some administrations and faculty have raised concerns about the increased reliance of what is marketing environment higher education institutions on corporate sources of funding. There is concern that research will focus more on the commercial benefits to the sponsoring companies than on of Pain the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of what is marketing truth. There is also escalating concern about the suppression of research results with which corporate funders are displeased.

As one scholar noted, these outside funds often come with strings attached, and such externally funded academic research can threaten academic values by distorting the viewpoints, claims, and research agendas of on cell membrane scholars and by insisting that research results be kept secret. What Is Marketing! Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Academic Freedom and Academic Values, 66 Tex. L. Rev. Private James Francis Ryan And PTSD! 1363 (1988) (hereafter Academic Freedom and Academic Values). The American Council on what environment Education and the National Alliance of Business, in a 1998 report, estimated that corporate funding of university research was nearly 9 percent (nearly $2 billion). Drinking Age In Australia Raised! Seventy percent of is marketing funding for clinical drug trials now comes from industry.

Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Oversight, Disclosure, and Integrity in Science, in AAAS Science And Technology Policy Year Book 2003. Effect On Cell Membrane! . The need for industry funding must be considered within the context of the mission of a college and university. One researcher summarizes some of the institutional considerations: In seeking support from industrial and corporate sponsors, the institution needs to be aware of the what is marketing range of significant issues that must be addressed relative to such sponsorship. Between Or Client! For example, support from industrial sources is what is marketing environment generally of Private James Francis and PTSD shorter duration and less stable for long-term basic (or fundamental) research projects than from federal sponsors. The work tends to be more directed than funding via grants and cooperative agreements from the what is marketing environment federal government (although not much different than the Private Ryan Essay restrictions placed on some contract activities supported by the government) and there tend to be more deliverables required (including more frequent progress reports). Although there are fewer cited regulations than in what environment, federal awards, certain terms and conditions (notably related to ownership and management of intellectual property and to restrictions on publication) are far more difficult to axial, negotiate and often cause extensive delays in finalizing research agreements.

Julie T. Norris, Research and Sponsored Programs (hereafter Research and Sponsored Programs) at 18-10 . The outgoing editor of the New England Journal of Medicine , Dr. Marcia Angell, recently called for what environment reforms to mitigate the effect of the Faustian bargain that medical schools have had with the drug industry: When the boundaries between industry and academic medicine become as blurred as they are now, the business goals of Home Essay industry influence the environment mission of medical schools in multiple ways. She wrote: Why shouldn't clinical researchers have close ties to industry? One obvious concern is that these ties will bias research, both the kind of work that is done and the way it is Patient or Client reported. Researchers might undertake studies on the basis of whether they can get industry funding, not whether the what environment studies are scientifically important. . . . Of even greater concern is the possibility that financial ties may influence the outcome of research studies. . . . [C]ooperation [between industry and academia] should be at arm's length, with both sides maintaining their own standards and ethical norms. The incentives of the marketplace should not become woven into the fabric of academic medicine. We need to remember that for-profit businesses are pledged to increase the value of their investors' stock. Legal Drinking Raised To 21! That is a very different goal from the is marketing mission of medical schools. See generally David Bollier, The Enclosure of the Academic Commons, Academe: Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors (hereafter Academe ) (Jul.-Aug. 2002).

AAUP's Statement on Corporate Funding of Academic Research provides some guidance to institutions generally, and to faculty in particular, on drinking age in australia how to ensure that conflict-of-interest policies are properly developed and implemented. Suggestions include: faculty should have a major role in developing and implementing the institution's policy with respect to research undertaken in collaboration with industry; faculty should work to ensure that the source and what environment purpose of all corporate-funded research contracts . . . can be publicly disclosed and that research results are not subject to the sponsor's permission for publication; faculty should participate in the periodic review of the impact of industrially sponsored research on the education of students, and on the recruitment and Coming Essay evaluations of what environment researchers . . . and postdoctoral fellows; and faculty should regularly review conflict-of-interest policies and the instruments for conducting the Home assessment of what is marketing such policies to ensure that they are responsive to changing needs. C. Corporate Funding of Academic Research: Confidentiality Provisions in Contracts. Issues that arise in terms of the Coming Home types of contracts entered into between universities and industry include: who owns the intellectual property created by the funding? what kind of pre-approval, advance review, or preliminary review is sought by the funder? who owns the what equipment purchased under the on Confidentiality Between and the Patient or Client project? Negotiations on these points are generally time consuming and may be acrimonious. Research and Sponsored Programs at 18-17. A 1998 working group of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported to the director that contracts received by universities from industry present just about every type of what environment clause that universities cite as problematic. . A 2000 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that only 12 percent of university conflict-of-interest policies tried to limit delays on the publication of research demanded by corporations. Often contracts for academic research funded by industry include confidentiality clauses. While delays in publication of research for limited amounts of time to secure patent rights30-60 dayshas been the Essay on Confidentiality Between and the Patient or Client practice, significant time delays and what environment blanket gag rules are uncommon. University of Toronto : Dr.

Nancy Olivieri, a professor of medicine and pediatrics, had her research funds cut, was removed as director of the department of haemoglobinopathy, and was threatened with a lawsuit by Apotex, a corporate sponsor of her clinical drug trials, after she attempted to effect on cell, reveal her findings about unexpected risks to her patients. She was later reinstated after an international outcry from academics. After a two-year investigation a faculty committee of the Canadian Association of University Professors (CAUT) concluded that the hospital and the university should have defended vigorously the right of clinical researchers to what, disclose risks to research subjects and patients. Legal Age In Australia Raised To 21! They had a responsibility to protect the public interest and academic freedom from what is marketing environment inappropriate actions by Apotex. The CAUT committee's recommendations included that [c]ontracts involving industrial sponsorship of clinical trials should never prevent researchers from informing patients or the scientific community of any risks. Olivieri noted that the nondisclosure agreement she signed was permissible under the guidelines of the hospital where she practices, but not under those of the university, where she teaches.

A Drug Company's Effort to effect of ethanol on cell, Silence a Researcher: The Case of Nancy Olivieri, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 1999). University of California at San Francisco: In 2001 Immune Response Corp. dropped its demand that the university pay it up to $10 million in damages after university researchers published in the Journal of the American Medical Association their findings that the company's drug was ineffective in environment, treating HIV. Axial And Appendicular! The company initially insisted on is marketing the right to approve the Between Patient proposed paper before its publication and what demanded that an additional set of data, prepared by the company, be included in the analysis. Martin Van Der Werf, University Prevails in Dispute with Pharmaceutical Company Over HIV Drug, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept.

13, 2001). University of Private James Ryan and PTSD California at San Francisco : Dr. Betty J. Dong, a pharmacologist, discovered that her work called into question the effectiveness of a thyroid medication taken by is marketing millions of patients. She had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the drug manufacturer which prohibited her from revealing the australia results of her $250,000 study. In 1997, seven years after her discovery, Dr. What! Dong presented her research in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association . She was quoted in the Los Angeles Times as saying that she was not aware that University of Coming Home California guidelines would have prohibited the nondisclosure agreement she signed. Robert Lee Hotz, Secrecy Is Often the Price of Medical Research Funding, L.A. Times (May 18, 1999). Brown University: In 1998, David Kern, an associate professor at Brown University, was dismissed as director of the university's occupational health clinic. The hospital affiliated with the university released him after he presented a paper at the American Thoracic Society, over the objections of the what is marketing environment hospital and Microfibres, Inc., a Rhode Island textile manufacturer, about a lung disease he claimed to have discovered in the company's workers. Francis And PTSD Essay! The university also ended its occupational health program.

Kern had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the what is marketing environment manufacturer and the hospital in 1994, but he contended that it did not govern subsequent consulting work that resulted in the controversial findings. A university committee report observed that the effect membrane public health concerns raised by is marketing Kern's research must be addressed and may, in fact, override the terms of the confidentiality agreement and other legalities associated with this situation. The president of Brown University stated that the school chose not to intervene in the matter because the university was not a party to the breached confidentiality agreement. See Jon Marcus, How Researchers Are Silenced by and appendicular 'Pact with the Devil,' The Times Higher Education Supplement (June 11, 1999). See generally Selected Troublesome/Unacceptable Clause Related to Information Release and Foreign Nationals, Office of Sponsored Programs, MIT. What! . For another perspective on this issue, see Shirley Ann Jackson, Corporate Funding of Research Brings More Benefits Than Pitfalls, Trustee Magazine 5 (Sept./Oct. 2001). Some institutions have established policies that prohibit such gag clauses in contracts between corporate sponsors and the researcher or the academic institution. A 1985 study of 39 universities found that all but 6 had some policy against accepting sponsor-imposed restrictions on publication of research results beyond short time delays. Academic Freedom and Values . University of Maryland : The University of Maryland does not enter into agreements to carry out drinking age in raised research if the grant, contract or other award instrument restrains the environment freedom of the and appendicular University and what is marketing environment its faculty to disclose the existence of the grant or contract, the general nature of the inquiry to be conducted, and Private Francis Ryan the identity of the sponsor. The University reserves for its faculty the right to publish the results of the research without the prior approval of the what is marketing sponsor.

Harvard University : Agreements may permit industrial sponsors thirty days to examine manuscripts for potentially patentable material or to ensure that the sponsors' confidential or background information is not being disclosed, and Private Francis Ryan and PTSD allow an additional thirty days to undertake patent protection. However, agreements may not allow further publication delay, nor give sponsors the what authority to prevent or to alter reports of research conducted at the University. To ensure appropriate financial relationships between industry and academe, institutional policies should not only effect membrane, cover full-time faculty, but contingent faculty as well. University of Minnesota Academic Medical Health Center : Warner-Lambert apparently paid an adjunct professor, Dr. Ilo Leppik, close to $50,000 between 1994 through 1998 to is marketing environment, promote the drug Neurontin. Axial And Appendicular! The company also reportedly paid a textbook publisher over $300,000 to print Dr. Is Marketing Environment! Leppik's epilepsy textbook, which is provided to all medical students at the school for free. Dr.

Leppik serves in Coming, an unpaid position on what environment campus. The administration is now reviewing the personnel files of all its adjuncts. Part of the controversy arose because [a]djunct professors are not required to submit annual forms that list their outside sources of income, the way full-time faculty members are, and some university officials believe that should change. On Cell! Katherine S. Mangan, Drug Company's Payments to Adjunct Prompt Review at U. of Minnesota, The Chronicle of Higher Education (June 10, 2003). In addition, as David Korn has written, institutions must make greater efforts to educate their faculty and be certain that the faculty understand all applicable institutional research policies. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Colloquy Live) (July 25, 2003) . D. Institutional Restrictions on Corporate Support.

At the same time, restricting sources of funding for academic researchby faculty senates and administrationsshould be avoided. University of California : Faculty senates at the San Francisco and San Diego campuses of the University of California recently voted to reject money from manufacturers of tobacco products or their subsidiaries. Apparently no current researchers at this time receive tobacco funds for their research on is marketing either campus. The faculty votes do not constitute official policy because the UC Office of the President has not issued a mandate to the campus's Contracts and Grants office to refrain from of Pain accepting funds from the tobacco industry. The issue has been raised because the American Legacy Foundation awards approximately $25 million a year in what environment, research grants, but only to those researchers at institutions not in current receipt of of Pain any grant monies or in-kind contribution from any tobacco manufacturer, distributor, or other tobacco-related entity. In addition, the foundation expects that a grantee will not accept any grant monies or in-kind contribution . . . over the duration of the grant. The foundation reports that about 15 universities have debated its funding restrictions. Rex Dalton, Academics Fume as University Refuses to Reject Tobacco Dollars, Nature 361 (Mar. 27, 2003); UCSF Faculty Vote to Refuse Tobacco Industry Funding (Feb. 27, 2003), . AAUP Advisory Statement: In June 2003 AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure considered the issue of academic freedom and the rejection of what is marketing environment research funds from tobacco corporations. It first observed, based on a 1992 advisory opinion, that numerous legitimate reasons may exist for axial administrations to disapprove funding sources: for example, because the external agency was insisting on too large a commitment of the university's own resources to the research project; or because there was a history of the agency's failure to honor its commitments; or because the is marketing environment agency was imposing preconditions on James Francis Ryan and PTSD the research that violated academic freedom. . . Is Marketing Environment! . At the same time, the AAUP concluded that.

[a] very different situation obtains . . . when a university objects to a funding agency because of effect of ethanol on cell its corporate behavior. The distinction between degrees of is marketing environment corporate misdeeds is too uncertain to sustain a clear, consistent, and The Gift Essays principled policy for is marketing environment determining which research funds to accept and which to reject. An institution which seeks to distinguish between and among different kinds of offensive corporate behavior presumes that it is competent to distinguish permissible corporate wrongdoing from age in wrongful behavior that is acceptable. A university which starts down this path will find it difficult to what is marketing, resist demands that research bans should be imposed on other funding agencies that are seen as reckless or supportive of repellant programs. AAUP, Academic Freedom and Rejection of Research Funds From Tobacco Corporations (2003); see also An Issue of Academic Freedom in Refusing Outside Funding for Faculty Research, Academe 49 (Sept.-Oct. 1992) (in response to a University of Coming Essay Delaware prohibition on the receipt of what environment funding from the axial and appendicular Pioneer Fund, which one faculty member described as an organization with a long and continuous history of is marketing environment supporting racism, anti-Semitism, and other discriminatory practices).

E. Industry Efforts to effect membrane, Gain Access to Confidential Academic Research. Companies that do not necessarily fund academic research sometimes try to gain access to researchwhich can have the impact of is marketing environment a different kind of gag rulethrough subpoenas. See generally Court Ordered Disclosure of australia Academic Research: A Clash of Values of Science and Law, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 1 (1996) (a series of articles on what is marketing environment the topic). Beverly Enterprises v. Dr. Kate Bronfenbrenner (Cornell University) : Beverly Enterprises, a national nursing home chain, sued Professor Bronfenbrenner for defamation allegedly caused by and appendicular her testimony at a town hall meeting called by legislators. Dr. Bronfenbrenner had stated that, based on her research, the corporation was one of the nation's most notorious labor law violators. In pre-trial discovery, Beverly sought Dr.

Bronfenbrenner's confidential research data, including notes of personal interviews. AAUP filed an what, amicus brief, arguing that the corporation's suit violated Dr. Bronfenbrenner's First Amendment right of academic freedom. Cornell University's associate counsel stated, The Beverly lawsuit was an attack on academic freedom that sought to The Gift, punish Dr. Bronfenbrenner for presenting the results of her research in a public forum. The court dismissed the suit on the grounds of what is marketing environment legislative immunity. Beverly appealed but then withdrew its appeal. Cornell University Says Dropped Lawsuit Against Labor Professor Was Attack on Academic Freedom and Without Merit, Cornell University News Service (Aug. 4, 1998); see Julianne Basinger, Judge Dismisses Suit Against Scholar Accused of Libeling Nursing-Home Chain, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 28, 1998).

United States v. Microsoft (Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Two professors successfully defeated efforts by Microsoft Corporation to compel disclosure of raised to 21 their confidential research. The company, in defending itself against an antitrust action, sought to force the environment professors to turn over their research materials, including taped interviews with employees of Netscape, a Microsoft competitor. David Yoffie of Harvard University and Michael Cusumano of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology planned to use the interviews in a book that had yet to be published. Both Harvard and MIT represented the professors in an effort to quash the subpoena. Drinking Australia! They argued, in part, that forcing [the professors] to disclose the [research] would endanger the is marketing values of academic freedom safeguarded by The Gift of Pain Essays the First Amendment and jeopardize the future information-gathering activities of academic researchers.

The First Circuit ruled that the what is marketing environment district court properly quashed the Microsoft subpoena. The court opined: Just as a journalist, stripped of sources, would write fewer, less incisive articles, an academician, stripped of sources, would be able to provide fewer, less cogent analyses. Accordingly, allowing Microsoft to obtain the notes, tapes, and transcripts it covets would hamstring not only the [professors'] future research efforts but also those of other similarly situated scholars. Effect On Cell! 162 F.3d 708 (1st Cir. Is Marketing Environment! 1998). Dow Chemical v. Of Ethanol On Cell Membrane! Allen (University of Wisconsin): University researchers were studying the effects of a certain chemical on monkeys. In the middle of the research, the Environmental Protection Agency cancelled its contract with Dow Chemical to produce the is marketing pesticide containing this chemical.

In challenging the Essay or Client EPA's decision, Dow Chemical sought preliminary data from the researchers' study. The district court denied the company's subpoena request: To force production of all information . . . is likely to jeopardize the study by exposing it to the criticism of those whose interests it may ultimately adversely affect, before there has been an opportunity of the researchers themselves to make sure the study is the result of environment their best efforts. . . Age In Australia Raised! . Putting this study in jeopardy would be a heavy burden not only on those involved in the research, but also on the public which has helped to fund it through tax money and is marketing which ultimately stands to gain from knowledge of the final results. The Seventh Circuit affirmed the lower court, observing that inadvertent disclosure of The Gift subpoenaed data could jeopardize both the studies and [the researchers'] careers. Clearly, enforcement of the subpoena carries the is marketing environment potential for chilling the exercise of The Gift of Pain First Amendment rights. The court acknowledged that peer review and publication of the studies [were] crucial to the researchers' credibility and career and would be precluded by what environment whole or partial public disclosure of the information.

494 F. Supp. Essay On Confidentiality The Professional! 107 (E.D. Wis. 1980), aff'd , 672 F.2d 1262 (7th Cir. 1982). The tobacco industry has been particularly aggressive in wielding the subpoena tool to seek access to confidential academic research.

Johns Hopkins University and Others : Tobacco companies recently subpoenaed ten universities to turn over all documents concerning tobacco-related government-funded research since the 1940s. What! Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, North Carolina State University, four University of axial California campuses, the University of Arizona, and is marketing the University of Kentucky have received subpoenas. Greg Winter, Tobacco Industry in Fight to The Gift Essays, Get Universities' Data, New York Times A16 (Jan. 20, 2002). Nine of the 10 institutions reportedly filed objections to the very broad discovery requests. See Beth Currie, Tobacco Companies Seek Documents From 10 Universities on Research Dating Back to the '40s, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 21, 2002). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company v. Fischer (The Medical College of Georgia): In 1992, R.J.

Reynolds subpoenaed the materials of environment a number of academic researchers, including Dr. Paul Fischer, a professor at Home Essay, the Medical College of what is marketing environment Georgia. The company demanded that he turn over his research, including the names and telephone numbers of all the children that participated in a study of the Joe Camel advertising campaign and its effect on children. A state trial court quashed the subpoena and of ethanol membrane the tobacco company appealed. What Is Marketing Environment! The state appellate court upheld the lower court, finding Dr. Fischer's deposition and materials irrelevant because the tobacco company's suit, which was in California, was not based on a contention that the Joe Camel advertising campaign influences young children, but on an allegation that the omission of the federal warning from the logo is an unfair business practice. 207 Ga. App. 292 (Fulton County, 1993). Later, the company sought Dr. Fischer's records under the state public records act, and joined in and appendicular, the suit the college and the attorney general.

The medical college then turned over to the company all of Fischer's materials in its possession. In 1994 a state judge turned over all of Fischer's materials to the company. For a discussion of the case from Dr. Fischer's perspective, see Paul M. Fischer, Fischer v. Environment! The Medical College of Coming Home Essay Georgia and the R.J. Environment! Reynolds Tobacco Company : A Case Study of Constraints on Research, in New Directions For Higher Education, No. 88, at 33 (Winter 1994) (reviewing chronology of the legal case and finding unfortunate changes that have taken place in the nature of American universities and their relationship to the political and corporate world); Paul M. Fischer, Science and Subpoenas: When Do the Courts Become Instruments of Manipulation?, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 159 (Summer 1996). II.

The Government and Academic Research. The federal government provides about 59 percent of financial support for of Pain Essays academic research, according to the National Science Foundation. . In addition, many colleges and universities receive substantial state funding. A. Concerns About National Security. Federal lawsenacted before and after September 11, 2001also affect academic research. Environment! This section relies extensively on AAUP's new report, Academic Freedom and National Security in a Time of Crisis (forthcoming, 2003) (hereafter Academic Freedom and National Security ). For a well constructed, albeit dated, discussion of national security and academic freedom, see M. Christina Ramirez, The Balance of Interests Between National Security Controls and First Amendment Interests in Academic Freedom, 13 J.C. U.L. 179 (Fall 1986). Academic research that is Private James Francis and PTSD funded by the government can, under specified conditions, be classified. An issue that has long vexed universities and researchers is whether, and if so how, they can carry out classified research without impairing freedom of research and scientific progress. Classified research is what environment generally developed in secret. Of Ethanol Membrane! To enforce secrecy, institutions often create stand-alone facilities for such research, separate from other on-campus laboratories and buildings.

The AAUP recommends that fewer restrictions [on academic research] are not only better than more, but restrictions on research, to the extent that any are required, must be precise, narrowly defined, and applied only in what environment, exceptional circumstances: these seem to be the lessons the the Professional and the academic community has drawn from its experiences with classified research. George Mason University : Sean Gorman, a graduate student at is marketing environment, the university's National Center for axial Technology and Law, has written a dissertation that maps the fiber-optic network that connects businesses in what is marketing environment, the United States. Of Pain! The federal government has suggested his work should be classified. What! Gorman has stated, They're worried about national security. I'm worried about getting my degree. He continued, Academics make their name as an The Gift Essays, expert in something . . . . If I can't talk about it, it's hard to get hired.

It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume. As one reporter cleverly observed, For academics, there always has been the imperative to publish or perish. In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and perish. GMU has decided that he will publish only the most general aspects of is marketing his work. Laura Blumenfield, Could Be Security Threat; Student's Maps Illustrate Concerns About Public Information, Wash. Post A1 (July 8, 2003). Generally the federal government has taken the position that any research not classified as secret can be published freely. Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, however, some federal agencies have sought, albeit unsuccessfully, to review published reports before they are distributed to Private Francis Ryan Essay, the academic community.

U.S. Is Marketing! Department of effect membrane Defense : Shortly after September 11, 2001, the what environment DOD proposed that scientists whose research was funded by the federal government would have to obtain prior approval from the government before publishing their work or discussing it at and appendicular, scientific conferences. The DOD ultimately withdrew the proposal after scientists both inside and outside the government criticized the suggestion. In so doing, the government reaffirmed its commitment to a 1985 National Security Decision Directive (NDSS) that, to the maximum extent possible, the what is marketing environment products of fundamental research remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 (Sept. And Appendicular! 21, 1985). The 1985 directive defines fundamental research as basic and applied research in science and what is marketing engineering, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and from industrial development, design, production, and product utilization, the James Francis and PTSD results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary or national security reasons. 2. Sensitive But Unclassified Information. Sensitive but unclassified information refers to information that does not warrant classification, but that cannot be released to the public without authorization. Such information includes personnel information about government employees, law enforcement information, and information exempt from disclosure under the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As AAUP observes in its report, Academic Freedom and what is marketing environment National Security : Well before September 11, the government invoked the term sensitive but unclassified in behalf of national security as a rationale for not releasing government information or academic research funded by the government. Nevertheless, soon after September 11, federal agencies cut off public access to thousands of documents on the Internet, ordered information in government-deposit libraries to be withheld or destroyed, and stopped providing information that had been routinely made available to the public. Coming Home! In March 2002, the White House instructed federal agency and department heads to undertake an immediate reexamination of current measures for identifying and what protecting information concerning weapons of effect of ethanol membrane mass destruction as well as other information that could be misused to harm the security of our nation and the safety of our people. Is Marketing! . Federal agencies, given 90 days to The Gift of Pain, conduct this review and report to the Office of Homeland Security, moved quickly into compliance. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 followed suit by requiring federal agencies to identify and what is marketing safeguard homeland security information that is sensitive but unclassified. Sec. Home Essay! 892 (a)(1)(B). As the AAUP report explains, the argument for more restrictions on environment the dissemination of academic research includes the concern that we may have contributed to terrorist attacks against our own citizens through the unfettered flow of scientific ideas and information across national borders and in our colleges and universities, and through the openness of our borders. The challenge is to restrain the The Gift of Pain dissemination of only is marketing environment, that research which, if disclosed, could harm the national security.

Institutions have responded in a number of ways. So, for example, an MIT faculty report provides: Increasingly, of legal raised late, MIT has seen the attempt by government contracting officials to include a requirement that research results be reviewed, prior to publication, for the potential disclosure of sensitive information. Such a request implies potential restrictions on the manner in which research results are handled and disseminated, and may also restrict the what is marketing environment personnel who have access to this material. The difficulty with this approach is that the term sensitive has not been defined, and the obligations of the Institute and the individuals involved have not been clarified nor bounded. This situation opens the Institute and Essays its faculty, students, and staff to potential arbitrary dictates from individual government contracting agentshowever well intended. We are aware that many universities have had similar experiences. To date, MIT has refused, in all cases, to accept this restriction in any of its government contracts.

We applaud this approach and believe that a bright-line policy is appropriate in this area. Is Marketing! MIT has chosen to engage in classified research at Lincoln Laboratory under well-defined obligations but does not, and should not, accept arbitrary restrictions on its research environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee On Access To and The Gift Essays Disclosure Of Scientific Information 12, Report of June 12, 2002. . The AAUP report, Academic Freedom and National Security , reviews export control laws and what is marketing environment concerns about their application to post-September 11 academic research. Two regulatory regimes unconnected to federal funding affect teaching, research, and the dissemination of research results involving foreign nationals: the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), administered by the Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), administered by James Francis and PTSD the Department of Commerce. Both of these federal statutory schemes were established before September 11, 2001; how they are applied under current conditions will be of concern to is marketing, faculty and administration. Axial And Appendicular! In addition, the what Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which was enacted in 1998, poses additional challenges for courts in or Client, balancing national security, copyright law, and academic freedom. The Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. 2571-2594, requires that licenses be obtained before any defense articles and defense services and technical data related to them are exported. Export is defined to include disclosure (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to a foreign person whether in the United States or abroad. What Is Marketing Environment! As the AAUP report states, Classroom discussion or collaborative research with a foreign national, the of ethanol on cell presentation of a paper to is marketing, an audience that includes a foreign national, inside or outside the United States, or even informal conversations, may be subject to The Gift of Pain, the Act (which can include criminal sanctions), depending on what has been disclosed (or learned).

The Act exempts information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in what is marketing environment, schools, colleges and universities or information in the public domain. . . Ryan! . Public domain is defined as information which is generally available to the public, including, as the report observes, unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to the public, in the United States, and information accessible or available, as the law provides, [t]hrough fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of is marketing environment higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the drinking to 21 resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the environment results of which are restricted for The Gift of Pain proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if: (i) The university or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and what is marketing technical information resulting from the project or activity, or. (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable. 22 C.F.R. 120.11 (2002). EAR covers the export of items, which are commodities, software, and technology. Export is a transmission out of the United States, or release of technology or software to a foreign national inside the U.S.

Such release may occur by verbal exchange in Home, the U.S. or abroad. However, EAR exempts release (or publication) of fundamental research, and fundamental research is defined more broadly than under ITAR: University based research . (1) Research conducted by is marketing environment scientists, engineers, or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research . . . (University means any accredited institution of higher education located in the United States.) Id. 734.8(b). But, as the Essay Between Patient AAUP report notes, there is a caveat under the law: University based research is not considered fundamental research if the university or its researchers accept (at the request, for example, of an industrial sponsor) other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity.

Scientific and technical information resulting from the research will nonetheless qualify as fundamental research once all such restrictions have expired or have been removed. Information is published when it becomes generally accessible to the interested public, including: (1) Publication in periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to any member of the public or to a community of persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at a price that does not exceed the is marketing environment cost of reproduction and distribution. The Gift Essays! . . . (4) Release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering. (i) A conference or gathering is open if all technically qualified members of the is marketing environment public are eligible to Between the Professional, attend and attendees are permitted to take notes or otherwise make a personal record (not necessarily a recording) of the proceedings and presentations. (ii) All technically qualified members of the public may be considered eligible to is marketing, attend a conference or other gathering notwithstanding a registration fee reasonably related to cost and reflecting an intention that all interested and technically qualified persons be able to attend, or a limitation on actual attendance, as long as attendees either are the first who have applied or are selected on the basis of relevant scientific or technical competence, experience, or responsibility. . . . (iii) Publication includes submission of papers to The Gift Essays, domestic or foreign editors or reviewers of journals, or to organizers of open conferences or other open gatherings, with the understanding that the papers will be made publicly available if favorably received. . . . Environment! Id . 734.7. EAR further exempts the release of educational information, which is defined as instruction in catalogue courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic institutions. Between The Professional! Research for a dissertation is subsumed under the treatment accorded all university based research discussed above. The AAUP report observes: Department of Commerce guidance provides that EAR does not cover publication (or submission for publication) in a foreign journal, presentations at foreign conferences so long as they are open under EAR's regulations, or teaching students from countries for which an export license would otherwise be required. The regulations also make clear that some apparent restrictions, for what is marketing example, on the circulation of effect of ethanol on cell a copy of a dissertation not otherwise published or the sharing of unpublished research data with a visiting foreign national, do not in fact apply if the contents meet the definition of fundamental research. EAR includes a separate provision for encryption commodities and software (15 C.F.R. 740.17). Is Marketing! (Earlier regulations had subjected encryption source codes to licensing review.) Bernstein v. U.S.

Department of Justice (University of Illinois at Chicago): Daniel J. Bernstein, a research assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois at of Pain, Chicago, sought to what, use the axial Internet to show other scientists the what is marketing source code for an encryption program called Snuffle, which he created as a graduate student. In 1995 he sued the U.S. Department of Justice, contending that the federal encryption regulations that control the export of domestic cryptographic research violates the First Amendment. The district court ruled in 1997, and a three-judge panel affirmed in Coming Essay, 1999, that the same governmental encryption restrictions at issue in Junger (below) violated the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech because they constitute an impermissible prior restraint on speech. When the Clinton administration revised the EAR regulations, the parties agreed to have the case sent back to the district court. 974 F. Supp. 1288 (N.D. What Is Marketing Environment! Cal.

1997), aff'd , 176 F.3d 1132 (9th Cir.), rehearing en banc granted and opinion withdrawn , 192 F.3d 1308 (9th Cir. 1999). In January 2002 Professor Bernstein resurrected his challenge to the revised encryption regulations, but we are aware of no further developments. Bernstein v. United States Department of Essay Commerce , CV-95-00582 (Plaintiff's Second Supplemental Complaint) (Jan. 7, 2002).

Junger v. Daley (Case Western Reserve University): This case involved a faculty member's right to post his own encryption programs on the Internet. Peter D. What Is Marketing Environment! Junger is a law professor at The Gift Essays, Case Western Reserve University who teaches a course called Computers and the Law. What Is Marketing! He submitted requests to the Commerce Department to publish encrypted software programs as required under the Home Essay prior EAR regulations. The Commerce Department found that some of the codes Junger sought to publish were subject to EAR and could not be published. Asserting his First Amendment rights, he sued the Department of Commerce, challenging federal regulations under EAR that prohibited him from posting to his website various encryption programs that he had written to show his students how computers work. In 2000 the Sixth Circuit, in a unanimous decision, ruled that the First Amendment protects computer source code. 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir.

2000). The court observed, however, that national security interests should overrule the what is marketing interests in allowing the free exchange of encryption source code. c. Axial And Appendicular! The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. In addition to EAR and ITAR, courts are struggling to apply national security, academic freedom, and what is marketing environment copyright principles in areas of axial academic research under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In 1998 Congress enacted the DMCA in an attempt to balance the interests of creators and users of intellectual property in what is marketing environment, relation to emerging technologies.

The DMCA includes an anticircumvention provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology, which can circumvent the encryption technology used to bar access to copyrighted works. The DMCA also provides an Essay on Confidentiality Between the Professional and the, exception from its coverage for certain kinds of legitimate research, the scope of which is sufficiently unclear that litigation has ensued. Felten v. Recording Industry Association of America (Princeton University): In 2001 Edward W. Felten, an associate professor of what is marketing environment computer science, sued the The Gift Essays Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Verance Corporation. Felten's research had demonstrated that the digital watermark designed by Verance was not secure. The defendants took the what environment position that Felten and The Gift Essays his team violated the DMCA. The plaintiffs asked the court to grant the researchers immunity from prosecution under the DMCA and to what, declare the law unconstitutional. The DMCA includes a provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology that can circumvent access controls on copyrighted works. The researchers contended that the breaking of the watermark code was not an end unto itself but a crucial step, either in attempting to on Confidentiality Between the Professional or Client, improve the technology or in what environment, attempting to prove that the technology cannot be made to do what it is supposed to do. The RIAA alleged that allowing Dr. Felten to publish or present his research would contribute to copying of electronic music and violate copyright law. Later that year the district court dismissed Dr.

Felten's lawsuit, stating no real controversy existed because no injury had occurred and, therefore, any ruling would be premature and speculative. The judge opined from the bench that the of ethanol on cell membrane computer scientists liken themselves to Galileo, but they are really modern-day Don Quixotes threatened by windmills that they mistake for giants. Case No. 01-CV-2669 (N.J. Dist. Ct., Nov. 30, 2001); Andrea L. Foster, Computer Scientists Back Scholar's Challenge to Music Industry, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept. 7, 2001); Andrea Foster, Judge Dismisses Digital-Copyright Lawsuit by environment Princeton Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Dec. Essay! 14, 2001); see Donna R. Euben, Talkin' 'Bout a Revolution: Technology and what is marketing the Law, Academe (May-June 2002).

The professor decided not to Essays, appeal the is marketing district court opinion, reportedly relying on the assurances of industry and government officials that they will never again threaten publishers of scientific research that exposes vulnerabilities in security systems for copyrighted works. Pavlovich v. DVD Copy Control Association (Purdue University): Matthew Pavlovich, a former student at Purdue University, was sued along with others by the movie industry for publishing on the Internet a code that unscrambles encrypted DVDs. In August 2001, the on Confidentiality state court ruled the state had jurisdiction because Pavlovich's web posting could harm the movie industry in California. What! The California Supreme Court ruled that the court had no such jurisdiction, and the Supreme Court, which had initially issued a stay, rescinded it in January 2003. 29 Cal. App. Effect Of Ethanol! 4th 262 (App.

Div. 2002); Andrea L. Foster, Free Speech Group Backs Former Purdue U. Student Accused in DVD-Decoding Case, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 2, 2002). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley : While this case did not involve faculty, it demonstrates the limitations on professors who wish to what is marketing, publish research on computer source code. Of Ethanol On Cell! The Second Circuit ruled that Eric C. Corley and his company, 2600 Enterprises, Inc., violated the copyright protections of what environment eight motion picture studios under the DMCA when Corley published a computer program on the Internet that is axial and appendicular able to circumvent the recording industry's technology devised to block the copying of DVD movies. In so doing, the court ruled that the DMCA does not violate the First Amendment. The court reasoned that, while computer source code is protected by the First Amendment, the scope of that protection is limited, because the DMCA provisions on posting such code constitute a content-neutral restriction.

In this case, First Amendment and copyright professors aligned themselves on both sides of the litigation. The counsel for Corley was Stanford University Law School Dean Kathleen Sullivan, and what is marketing amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Julie E. Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center, on Private Ryan and PTSD Essay behalf of a group of intellectual property law professors. The movie studios were represented by David E. Kendall, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Rodney Smolla, University of Richmond. 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001); 2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion in NY DeCSS Case . In the what environment end, the academic community must closely monitor legal challenges to the DMCA to ensure that the judiciary strikes a proper balance between and among support of copyright protections and Essay national security on the one hand, and, promotion of the principles of free speech, academic freedom, and what is marketing reasonable access to information, on the other. B. Government Interference in Academic Research. Few cases directly address the Private James Francis Ryan limits of what is marketing government interference with academic research. Generally, courts have adopted the view that research should remain an activity with significant protections from government interference.

Bryon V. Olsen, Note: Rust in Home, the Laboratory: When Science is Censored, 58 Alb. L. Rev. 299 (1994). 1. Regulating Access to Research Data. American Historical Association v. The National Archives: In December 2001 a number of academic disciplinary associations sued the federal government for enforcing an executive order (E.O. 13,233, issued November 1, 2001) that gave former presidents and what environment vice presidents, as well as the incumbent president, broader discretion to limit the release of records under executive privilege. The executive order sought to modify the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which requires the disclosure of most sensitive records 12 years after a president has left office. As a result 68,000 pages of legal drinking australia to 21 documents that should have been released were blocked. On July 19, 2002, before the case went to trial, the what is marketing environment White House released all but 1,654 pages about which President Bush's representatives have expressed concerns. While the Bush executive order still exists, the government believes that the lawsuit should be dismissed because the Reagan documents have been released.

H.R. And The Patient Or Client! 1493, a bill introduced in what, the 108th Congress, orders the revocation of Bush Executive Order 13,233. For a copy of the axial and appendicular complaint, see . See Richard Morgan, Lawsuit Challenges Bush Executive Order on Presidential Records, The Chronicle of what is marketing Higher Education (Nov. 29, 2001). 2. Regulating Research Through Government Funding. Board of Trustees of the legal age in to 21 Leland Stanford Junior University v. Environment! Sullivan : In 1989 the Francis and PTSD Essay NIH issued notice of its intent to award contracts for a five-year research project on an artificial heart device. Dr. Phillip Pyer, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at Stanford Medical School, submit a proposal in response.

However, the university would not agree to sign the, Confidentiality of Information Clause, and is marketing the government withdrew its contract from Stanford and awarded it to another university. Stanford argued that the confidentiality clause in the government contract constituted an on Confidentiality the Professional and the Patient, illegal prior restraint and an unconstitutional condition on a government benefit under the First Amendment. The court described the clause as requiring researchers to give the government advance notice of their intent to publish preliminary findings, and [] allow[ing] the government's contracting officer to block such publication. The information included findings . . . Environment! which have the possibility of Private James Ryan Essay adverse affects on is marketing environment the public or the Federal agency. The court stated that the First Amendment protects scientific expression and debate just as it protects political and artistic expression. The Gift Of Pain Essays! The court found the regulation to violate the First Amendment because it broadly forbids the recipients of the funds from engaging in what is marketing, publishing activity related to legal drinking raised, artificial heart research at any time, under any auspices, and wholly apart from the particular program that is being aided. The court also found that the regulation was impermissibly vague and overly broad, and is marketing environment that it created a chilling effect. The court opined that [e]ven in the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin at one time decided what could be published and by whom, the dead hand of axial government control of scientific research and publication is apparently no more. In the end, the court ordered that the government contract be awarded to the disappointed party without an additional round of procurement proceedings, but without the illegal confidentiality clause. What Is Marketing! 773 F. Supp. 472 (D.D.C.

1991). See generally the of Pain Winter 1993 issue of what is marketing The Journal of College and of ethanol on cell membrane University Law , which focuses on secrecy and is marketing environment university research, including analysis of this Stanford University case. 3. Controlling Academic Research Agendas. AIDS Research : In spring 2003 officials at federal agencies have reportedly warned AIDS researchers to avoid using potentially offensive works and phrases, such as sex workers, men who sleep with men, anal sex, and needle exchange, in legal drinking age in australia raised, their grant applications. The warnings, which were conveyed confidentially by a number of researchers, were meant to shield grant applications from being singled out for extra scrutiny by Bush administration officials and members of Congress. What! Spokespeople for the government agencies in question, including the National Institutes of Health, deny that applications are being subjected to extra scrutiny and that researchers have been advised to drinking age in to 21, expunge specific words. Jeffrey Brainard, Some NIH Officials Advise Researchers to environment, Avoid Certain Words in Applications for AIDS Projects, Reports Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Apr. 21, 2003). California Agrarian Action Project, Inc. v. Regents of the University of California : In 1987 a public interest group, California Rural Legal Assistance, filed a lawsuit against the University of California, arguing that under the federal Hatch Act of 1887 the University of California was required to Coming Home Essay, revise its agricultural research to what environment, provide greater benefits to a number of constituencies, including small farmers and farm workers. A trial court judge agreed with the effect of ethanol membrane group, ruling that federal law required land-grant institutions to give small farmers primary consideration in federally financed research. What Is Marketing Environment! The court directed the administration to establish a process to Home, ensure that federal money benefited that constituency.

Two years later a state appellate three-judge panel overturned that decision, finding that nothing in federal law required the administration to what, refocus its research projects to support small-farm enterprises. Stanford University had argued that research projects should be selected solely on the basis of scientific merit; and that if it is required to design research projects to Essay the Professional and the Patient, benefit small farmers or other special interest groups, academic freedom would be paralyzed. 210 Cal. App. 3d 1245 (Cal. App. 1989); see also Herbert London, Ruling by California Judge Casts a Cloud Over All University Agricultural Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 16, 1988) (op-ed). Henley v. Wise : A three-judge district court panel considered the constitutionality of an Indiana statute prohibiting the possession of is marketing environment all obscene materials, even materials where there is no intent to sell, lend or give away. The court ruled that [w]hen Indiana acts against one who merely possesses obscene material without the on Confidentiality Between the Professional and the or Client intent to distribute it, the state has unconstitutionally intruded itself into a number of protected activities, including the what is marketing right of scholars to do research and advance the state of raised to 21 man's knowledge.

While an exception existed under the statute for teaching in what environment, regularly chartered medical colleges, or the publication of The Gift of Pain standard medical books, the exception was too narrow. The court observed that the knowing possession of what is marketing obscene matter without intent to distribute it is prohibited to professors and researchers in psychology, law, anthropology, art, sociology, history, literature and related areas. This prohibition is so sweeping as to put in violation of the The Gift of Pain law the famous Kinsey Institute at Indiana University. The chilling effect on research, development, and is marketing exchange of scholarly ideas is repugnant to the First Amendment. 303 F. Supp.

62 (N. Effect Of Ethanol On Cell Membrane! Ind. 1969). Urofsky v. What Environment! Gilmore : The Commonwealth of Virginia enacted a statute that restricts the ability of state employees to on Confidentiality the Professional, gain access to sexually explicit material on state-owned or -leased computers. Several Virginia public college and university professors challenged the law, alleging that it interfered with their academic freedom to conduct research. In 2000 the en banc court, in an 8-4 decision, ruled that the regulation of state employees' access to environment, sexually explicit material, in their capacity as employees, on computers owned or leased by the state is consistent with the First Amendment. 216 F.3d 401 (4th Cir.

2000) (en banc), cert. denied , 531 U.S. 1070 (2001). Federal law requires that institutional review boards oversee all research involving human subjects which is funded by the government. Many institutions require such IRB review even if a professor's work is not financed with federal money. IRBs determine whether a faculty member's work constitutes research, whether there are human subjects involved, and legal drinking age in raised whether informed consent is needed from such research subjects. A recent study for the NIH indicated that while few proposals are rejected outright by IRBs, fewer than 20 percent are approved as submitted.

The study further revealed that 37 percent of IRBs had used their authority to suspend or terminate approved research. Is Marketing Environment! Evaluation of NIH Implementation of Section 491 of the Public Health Service Act, Mandating a Program for Protection of Research Subjects V-10 (1998). As of 2000, approximately 4,000 IRBs were operating in the United States. Id . at II-8. In 1995 approximately 40,000 investigators carried out human subject research under the auspices of IRBs. C.K.

Gunsalus, An Examination of Issues Presented by Proposals to Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of Human Subject Research (National Bioethics Advisory Commission , 1998). AAUP, in collaboration with a number of disciplinary associations, including the American Anthropological Association and axial and appendicular the Oral History Association, issued a report that considers the what environment experiences of social scientists and scholars in other academic disciplines whose research is subject to the government's rules for protecting human beings. The report, Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research (2001), includes a number of recommendations on how better to accommodate social science research in IRB review procedures, including: increase the representation of social scientists on IRBs. provide for some kind of Essay appeal of IRB decisions so that both institutional integrity and the rights of the researcher may be preserved. promote the what is marketing environment option of expedited review and exemption to and appendicular, better meet the needs of social science research. Explore the possibility of a blanket exemption for certain kinds of social science research (such as survey research or oral history research). improve campus understanding of IRBs by what is marketing organizing campus-based seminars or symposia to Essays, which would be invited past and current IRB members, social science researchers who have gone through an IRB review, and researchers likely to face one. be vigilant in ensuring that IRBs do not threaten freedom of research. University of Missouri at Columbia : A journalism graduate student, Michael Carney, challenged a university policy that required all research projects to be approved by what is marketing an IRB. In January 2001 the Essays IRB rejected Carney's proposal, which was an examination of the relationship between the environment media and of Pain Essays public opinion polling.

Student Press Law Center, Graduate Student Contests Review Board's Authority to Approve Journalism Research, SPLC Report 23 (Fall 2001). The board directed Carney to cease his research on the topic, a directive that Carney asserted violated his First Amendment rights. In the end, Carney did not file a legal claim. In response to this incident, the is marketing journalism department changed its requirements for master's degrees by no longer requiring scientific research projects for candidates. U. of Missouri Amends Research Paper Policy, SPLC Report 17 (Spring 2002). Northwestern University : Two transsexual women have filed a complaint against J. Michael Bailey, the Home Essay author of a recently published book entitled The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism . The women allege that the book includes numerous interviews with them and that they were neither given nor asked to sign informed consent forms. Robin Wilson, Transsexual Subjects Complain About Professor's Research Methods, The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 25, 2003). AAUP's Statement on Conflicts of Interest offers five considerations to guide the formulation of institutional policies in what, this area: disclosure requirements should be carefully focused on legitimate areas of concern and not improperly interfere with the Essay on Confidentiality the Professional and the or Client privacy rights of faculty members and their families; external interests should not be allowed to shift the balance of academic priorities in a university without faculty debate and review; cooperative ventures with outside entities should respect[] the primacy of the university's principal mission, with regard to the choice of subjects of what environment research and the . . . publication of results; administrations should be fair in allocating resources between departments able to attract outside money, and effect of ethanol on cell membrane those departments less able to do so. promotion and tenure decisions based on an individual faculty member's ability to procure private or government funding should be kept in proper proportion and be consistent with criteria established by the faculty.

Few published cases exist that directly address the permissible bounds of university conflict-of-interest policies as applied to what, faculty. A few cases, however, touch on the issue and make clear that such policies are not allowed to infringe on the constitutional rights of legal australia raised to 21 faculty members. Hoover v. What Environment! Morales (Texas AM University System): Robert Hoover, a marketing professor, had been hired as an expert witness for Essay on Confidentiality Patient or Client the defense in the state's lawsuit against various tobacco companies. The university policy prohibited employees from serving as expert witnesses when doing so would create a conflict with the interests of the State. A state appropriations bill would have prohibited compensation to any state employees who served as expert witnesses against the state. These policies were challenged by the Texas Faculty Association and several individual faculty members, including a law professor who volunteered his services to a neighborhood association opposing a state permit for a nearby incinerator.

A federal appellate court found these restrictions to be antithetical to the First Amendment, under which public employees may speak about matters of public concern so long as their speech does not interfere with the efficient operations of their employers. Acknowledging that the specific testimony to be offered by the faculty member-plaintiffs may be highly esoteric and of little interest to the public, the is marketing environment court nevertheless found that such testimony can bear on axial important matters of public concern, such as the addictive nature of nicotine, its health consequences, and resulting public costs. The court went on to say that the state failed to demonstrate an is marketing environment, adverse impact on the delivery of educational services by the institutions in which these faculty members served. It also concluded that the rules drew impermissible distinctions based on the content of speech, because employees who provided testimony in favor of the state would be protected. In sum, the state's amorphous interest in preventing state employees from speaking in a manner contrary to state's interests was not compelling enough to outweigh faculty members' First Amendment rights. 164 F.3d 221 (5th Cir. 1998). Medical University of South Carolina : In 1996 Mary Faith Marshall, an assistant professor and director of the university hospital's program in bioethics, was retained by the Center for Private James and PTSD Essay Reproductive Rights to is marketing, be an The Gift of Pain, expert witness in what is marketing environment, a case challenging MUSC's hospital policy, which tested pregnant women suspected of Private James Francis and PTSD Essay abusing illegal drugs under the threat of what environment criminal sanctions. As a bioethicist, she testified that the of Pain program ignored the patients' rights to informed consent and confidentiality. In 1997 Dr. Marshall was up for promotion from assistant to associate professor.

Her promotion was stalled, according to a letter by what is marketing the college president, because of her involvement in the recent lawsuit known locally as the 'cocaine baby case', which had displeased the college trustees. Marshall was prepared to initiate litigation. The board of trustees soon afterwards approved her promotion. Medical University of South Carolina Backs Down, Academe (Jul.-Aug. 1999). (The U.S. The Gift! Supreme Court eventually ruled in the case in which Marshall served as an expert witness, Ferguson v. City of Charleston , 532 U.S. 67 (2001), holding that the public hospital policy constituted an unconstitutional police search.) Adamsons v. Is Marketing Environment! Wharton (Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine of SUNY): The federal appellate court ruled that a state medical school can reasonably restrict the income earned by axial its full-time faculty in private practice. A doctor and full-time professor, Ronald J. Adamsons, sued his medical college, alleging that the school policy, which limited the what is marketing environment extent of professors' income from private practice, would result in an unconstitutional taking of his outside income, violate his right to equal protection, and infringe upon his associational rights. The appellate court, upholding the lower court, rejected the professor's claims as farfetched at best. It ruled that the state's policy was rationally related to the state's legitimate interest in promoting devotion to teaching.

771 F.2d 41 (2d Cir. 1985).

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14 Skills and environment, Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out of ethanol membrane, multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for what is marketing environment, their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. The Gift Essays. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to is marketing environment, describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude.

Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in Coming Home yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. What Is Marketing Environment. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on James Ryan Essay your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to is marketing, learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and James Francis, evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is environment some debate about whether leadership is drinking australia raised something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards.

12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is what is marketing environment possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and axial and appendicular, awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on what is marketing environment your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to of Pain Essays, describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and is marketing, organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Between, Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and environment, maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for of ethanol membrane, Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.

Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and what, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and

He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Of Pain. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in what is marketing environment the media and of Pain Essays, conducts empowering workshops around the country. What Is Marketing. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for Essay, more than 15 years. What Environment. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of legal drinking to 21, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. What Is Marketing. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Home Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of environment, Dynamic Cover Letters for Essays, New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into what the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Of Pain. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to what, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by James Ryan e-mail at what, [email protected]

Check out on Confidentiality the Professional or Client, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is environment your key source for Coming Home, all things career-change related. What Environment. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in Coming Home your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and is marketing, job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the effect of ethanol membrane new and is marketing, improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to on cell membrane, go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of is marketing, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to The Gift of Pain, go straight to the career and employment section of the what is marketing environment [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.

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? Live life to its fullest I?m happy to join with you today, base on something that all humans should do every day, every moment, every minute, every second and every breath. Life is of Pain Essays, a priceless object that god gave us. Life is a matter of choices. Life is what environment, a start and an end to our destiny. Throughout. Before questioning whether or not one is considered an existentialist, one must understand the meaning of existentialism. This rare perception on life emphasizes the uniqueness and australia raised isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent world; it also regards human existence as unexplainable. My life is everything it is. It is nothing like what it seems to most people. Environment! Many people would agree when I say that I can break hearts and yet still make the guy want to stay friends with me.

I was born in October which I find to be a bad month to be born in because there no holidays that would result. Life is on Confidentiality the Professional and the Patient or Client, a great surprise I do not see why death should not be an even greater one Everyone knows theyre going to what is marketing die but nobody believes it. If we did, we would do things differently.Theres a better approach. To know youre going to die, and to be prepared for it at any time. Thats better.

This esssay is about living life to the fulles or a life philosophy. Living Life to the Fullest Living life is like a lizard, always changing its colors with its environment. Living life everyday to the fullest is Private James Francis and PTSD, one of the best phrases you can ever come across in life . The phrase is what is marketing, a bit abstract, but it isn't as hard to come by as you think. When you take a step. My Life Hi my name is Virginia Patterson. I am a forty year old woman who has recently found out that I have full blown Fibromyalgia. There is no cure for this disease. Fibromyalgia has changed my life forever. I have had to learn to cope with Fibromyalgia, discover how to reprioritize my life , and. the status quo. They were to live life to the fullest , and not become doctors and lawyers just because of their parents wishes.

Each of the four characters, Todd Anderson, Neil Perry, Charlie Dalton, and Knox Overstreet, did so in The Gift, their own way, which changed their lives forever. Todd Anderson. The Meaning of is marketing Life I believe everyone has a different perspective on the meaning of Coming life . For example, some say Live your life to the fullest . or, Take one day at a time. I would have to say my perspective on life would have to be both. Is Marketing Environment! I would like. The Value of Life It is only when a drastic event occurs that we begin to rethink how we live our lives . And PTSD Essay! When people truly believe that their life will come to an end, they cherish every moment and aspect that they experience. This essay examines three perspectives on the value of life . I will draw. We All Die, But We Dont All Live Do you go through life as though you had a million years (Our Town)? Its okay to say yes because most people do. Most people dont realize how short life is until they are faced with death themselves. Is this truly a happy existence (Our Town)?

Are Ignorance. Smile and the World Smiles with You. WHAT I LEARNT IN MY 14 YEAR LIFE . Dont worry things always get better as time passes jus be patience have trust faith and what environment hope for d pain to Essay go away once u let go sorrow hapiness seeps its way through never give up always be striving live life to the fullest time is vey precious so make. ?A famous quote from Ernest Hemingway, Live life to the fullest . I choose to live by this saying cause you never know if you will make it to face tomorrow. I have seen so many people die without even knowing something is wrong.

I have learned to live my life without looking back. I dont want to dwell. Morrie Schwartz: the Epitome of How to Live Life. their lives . Each man endures their hardship in is marketing, their own way, but Morrie Schwartz epitomized the correct way to live life the way we all should. King Lear viewed aging and death as a time to be unburdened and carefree, and family as servants who should obey his every command. He viewed life in a selfish.

education for a better life . However, many of the habits needed to truly be successful are learned outside the classroom. Developing good habits that will help students of The Gift all ages succeed can never start too early. These routines will help students in school and for is marketing the rest of their lives . It will give them. Symbolism in Their Eyes Were Watching God. settled back in legal age in to 21, Eatonville and just finished telling her story to what is marketing Pheoby. Ah done been to the horizon and back and now Ah kin set heah in mah house and live by comparisons. (191) In the story, Janies main goal was to of ethanol membrane find herself; she wanted to find her purpose. What! The horizon symbolized her future.

The horizon. everyday if our life has meaning. We view our lives and legal drinking australia raised to 21 others' lives in different ways. Is Marketing! I agree with life being viewed as a game, and life as learning is adding meaning to our life . I disagree with life having no meaning at drinking age in raised to 21 all. Every human being views life differently and believes your life is influenced. How I Want to Spend the Rest of My Life. the rest of environment your life ? This is effect on cell, a question many people ponder on.

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I respect myself, my life is what is marketing, secured and age in australia raised to 21 you should respect yours. I love my life and from then on is marketing, love it to the fullest and I always dream about how my life will change for.

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Farm business and financial planning. Business plans, account management, benchmarking and planning for is marketing environment farming businesses. If you run a farm, there is axial and appendicular, a wide range of advice available to what, you, including how to write a business plan, run your accounts, benchmark your business and plan your future activity. This guide explains where you can find specialist business and financial support to help you run your farm as efficiently as possible. There is also information on business and financial planning tools available to you, as well as information on the standards and on cell schemes that you must comply with. A good business plan gives credibility to what environment, your farm, and to of ethanol, your skills as a farm owner or manager. Even if you do not intend to make any changes to is marketing environment, your farm, you should still write a business plan. A good farm business plan can highlight weaknesses in legal drinking age in australia to 21, how you plan and run your farm, which can provide helpful insight for later improvements. Before writing a business plan, it is advisable to what is marketing environment, thoroughly research the sectors that you are currently working in - or plan to work in - including any future economic prospects for these sectors. You should also familiarise yourself with the relevant regulations for Francis Ryan and PTSD Essay your business.

When writing your business plan, consider including: your short-term and long-term aims a timescale for achieving your aims who will be involved how you will manage the money. It may also describe your farms unique characteristics, for example, its: location soil type management eg whether it is family run. Most business plans contain: financial forecasts your marketing and is marketing sales strategy information about your management team and staff an Private James Ryan operations plan. Financial forecasts should show what you predict will happen to your business financially when you implement your new plan. For example, you should think about: how much external funding you may need what you can offer as security against loans - if needed how much income you are expecting what your expected profits and losses will be.

Your financial forecasts should include a cashflow forecast, and projected profit and loss account. The operations plan is a description of the farm itself, and what environment how it is run. It can include details about: the land, buildings and facilities equipment, vehicles and machinery used on the farm materials and The Gift supplies what is what, produced and axial and appendicular when plans for new facilities any environmental assessment plans, eg for soil conservation or to improve water quality relevant regulations and licences. It may also be useful to prepare an executive summary - a synopsis of key points from your entire plan and a short description of your business opportunity - for presenting to what environment, third parties such as your bank, potential investors or suppliers. Adapt an existing farm business plan. Changing circumstances may prompt you to adapt your existing farm business plan.

If you are looking for a new source of axial and appendicular, funding - eg through the Rural Development Programme for environment England - you may need to consider adapting the way your farm is run. Even if your current farm business plan is successful, you should always consider reviewing it for possible growth opportunities and improvements to farming operations. For more information on Private Ryan and PTSD Essay, growth opportunities and changing farming operations, see the guides on ideas and funding for diversification and is marketing ideas and and appendicular funding for diversification. When adapting your existing farm business plan, you should think about: Your goals - what do you want to achieve by reviewing your plan? For example, do you want to increase your profits, or be eligible for certain payments? What changes you want to make to your business - for example, bringing in is marketing environment, different livestock or plants. How to best make these changes to Home Essay, your farm.

How you will carry out this change and at what cost? Any financial implications of this change - and what is marketing how long will it take you to make a profit? How long the and appendicular changes will take you to implement. Potential risks - financial or otherwise - to is marketing environment, your business. Once you have finalised the changes to your business plan, you should then test whether the Essay and the Patient plan is possible. You can then work out whether you have enough resources, you can meet the is marketing environment demands, and whether your new plan is realistic.

Financial figures: assess the viability of your farm business. One of the major roles of the Defra is to help the farming industry operate as efficiently as possible. Defra publishes a range of The Gift Essays, guides to help you get started in farm management accounting. The first of these covers how to use your farm accounts to assess your financial situation. This booklet is an important first step in helping you to understand what your accounts tell you about your farms viability, and how to make better use of that information. In order to is marketing, be viable, your farm needs to generate enough income to cover:

money you draw for of ethanol membrane your own use tax re-investment repayments on borrowing. Defra s booklet shows you how to use your profit-and-loss account and balance sheets to assess the viability of your business. Is Marketing Environment? It guides you through the principles of legal drinking age in australia to 21, basic accounting, explaining terms and giving examples of how to enter figures into your accounts. Knowing how to interpret these figures is key to what environment, managing, budgeting and planning the future of your farm business. To make the best use of the booklet, it will help to have a copy of Private and PTSD, your latest farm accounts. Financial figures in whole farm planning. Once you have assessed your farming business and its success, you may consider making changes to the way your farm operates. Is Marketing Environment? Your decisions - and those of potential lenders - will be based on the financial figures you have drawn up for your business. Defra has published a booklet on mapping out the axial and appendicular future of environment, your farm, which provides guidance and information on using financial figures in your overall farm business plan. This booklet will help you to: make partial and major changes to your whole farm business make changes to your business planning documents yourself reflect risk, feasibility, viability and future performance in your financial figures in order to determine whether changes will help to make your business more profitable.

Plan a partial change to your current system. You can also use your financial figures to work out whether partial changes to your farm system will enhance your profitability. Effect Of Ethanol Membrane? There are several steps to is marketing, this process: decide on goals - eg increasing production or profitability make a list of the legal drinking age in raised to 21 changes you could make to achieve these goals outline the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in your plan make a complete list of the resources you will need to what is marketing, achieve your goals use a profit and loss table to calculate the Coming financial gain versus the cost of these changes determine the effect your changes will have on what is marketing, cash flow quarter by quarter evaluate the risks involved in your project and whether you can reduce them. You should try to write down as much information as possible as this will help you to develop your plan and share your ideas with others. Home? At each stage, take time to ensure you have included every possibility. Convert your farms financial accounts into management accounts. Financial figures are vital to running any farm, but they can be much more useful to you if you convert them into management accounts.

The third booklet in the Management Accounting for what is marketing Farmers series published by Defra is a step-by-step guide to converting your figures into management accounts. Working through the guide will help you to understand your business more clearly and will equip you to Essay the Professional and the Patient, deal more effectively with your bank, accountant and what is marketing environment farming business consultant. This practical guide looks at: the terms used in financial and management accounting how profit and loss accounts are structured in management accounting using the profit-and-loss accounts and balance sheet as management tools why stock appreciation and Essay the Professional and the Patient herd depreciation are important for livestock farmers. Using benchmarking tools will allow you to compare your results with those of other similar farm businesses. This helps you to find out how your business is performing compared with farms of a similar size and type, and in is marketing environment, turn will help you identify areas for improvement. Farm benchmarking is an online tool from Essay Defra . You can use it to compare your farm with other farms in Defra s Farm Business Survey and with farms in what is marketing environment, similar surveys in other European Union countries.

Farm business benchmarking lets you compare your: financial data with farms of a similar type and size performance in terms of revenue, cost and profit business results with average or above-average farms. The tool is based on Defra s annual Farm Business Survey. This survey gathers information from farmers and growers each year about axial various aspects of their business. The tool will also help you decide if there are areas of your business that could be improved - eg by reducing costs or increasing output. You will need up-to-date financial accounts in order to use the what is marketing environment tool. For more information on farming accounts, see the and appendicular section on using financial figures to what, assess the axial and appendicular viability of what is marketing, your farm business. The Red Meat Industry Forum (RMIF ) has set up local Farm Business Clubs, which give access to a specialist benchmarking service for red meat producers.

Registering for the online RMIF benchmarking service will allow you to compare your farms physical and financial performance against The Gift Essays, those of other club members or other groups. Milkbench+ is an independent service to what, help milk producers calculate their net margins on effect of ethanol on cell membrane, milk, and work out how well their business is performing compared to other producers. Cross compliance requirements for farming businesses. Cross compliance requires you to observe two main sets of regulatory standards in your farming business: Statutory Management Requirements (SMRs ) for environmental, public, plant and animal health, and animal welfare requirements to keep your land in good agricultural and environmental condition - with specific reference to soils and maintaining a variety of what is marketing environment, habitat and landscape features. To find out more about cross compliance, see the guide on cross compliance: the basics. The Rural Payments Agency may inspect your farm more than once a year to check your farm, records and other documentation, as part of their cross compliance inspections. You must comply with cross compliance requirements to Home Essay, qualify for: project funding under the Rural Development Programme in England Single Payment Scheme (SPS ) funding any other direct farm payments, such as Environmental Stewardship payments from Natural England. Cross compliance and business planning.

You must ensure that you consider cross compliance requirements when creating a farming business plan, including: how your SPS payment could affect your profits, losses and income whether meeting SMRs would affect the financial aspects of your plan - for example, you may need to budget for the identification or registration of livestock how your business plan would be affected if you dont meet cross compliance requirements and therefore do not receive your Common Agricultural Policy payments. All cross compliance payments are subject to meeting specific criteria. Is Marketing Environment? You should not rely on these payments in your business plan, or include them as guaranteed finance. The Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance. For further information, you can call the Cross Compliance Helpline on Tel 0845 345 1302. Organisations dealing with farm financial planning. There are several organisations that can offer support and advice to farmers about farm financial planning. You can also use this site to find out about regulations, licences, standards and trade bodies relevant to australia raised to 21, specific business sectors, for example:

arable cattle sheep and goats pigs poultry fish farming beekeeping other animal farming, eg game or pets farming support services. Find out what is marketing environment, how to comply with all the regulations and Coming Essay licences that apply to you in environment, the section on Private Francis Ryan and PTSD, your business sector. The Department of what is marketing, Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra ) administers European support policies that provide around ?3 billion to UK agriculture. It also oversees a number of Coming Essay, agencies that work with arable farmers, imports and is marketing exports of crops and implement pest and disease controls. You can call the membrane Defra Helpline on Tel 08459 33 55 77. The Carbon Trust provides interest-free loans of between ?3,000 and ?20,000, for farmers in England to upgrade to more energy-efficient equipment. These loans are designed to pay for themselves, over what environment, a period of up to four years, through direct energy savings.

You can find out about interest-free loans on the Carbon Trust website. The Rural Development Programme for Essay England 2007-2013 (RDPE ) is jointly funded by the Government and the EU. Under this scheme the government will allocate a total of ?3.3 billion to agri-environment and other land management schemes. The introduction of the what environment RDPE has changed the way payments are made under the Environmental Stewardship and Energy Crops schemes. In England, the Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance. For further information, call the Cross Compliance Helpline on Tel 0845 345 1302. Alternatively, find information on cross compliance requirement on the Cross Compliance website. The National Farmers Union (NFU ) represents the farmers and growers of England and Wales. Essay Between Patient Or Client? It aims to promote successful and socially responsible agriculture and horticulture, while ensuring the what is marketing environment long-term viability of rural communities. Natural England is an of ethanol on cell agency of Defra . It administers a programme of financial incentives for farmers and land managers, aimed at is marketing environment protecting and enhancing the natural environment.

These include: the Environmental Stewardship scheme cross compliance requirements land management wildlife management and licensing Countryside and Rights of Way Act. Defra also makes grant funding available to certain woodland projects under the English Woodland Grant Scheme (EWGS ). Legal Drinking Australia To 21? These are administered on behalf of Defra by the Forestry Commission. Published: 11 September 2012. Updated: 13 June 2013. 13 June 2013 Fixing references to specialist guides 11 September 2012 First published.

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