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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the Sexual, obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in their first year, and so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on what of the "great of the constitution?, the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to Life Essay graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and is most of the compromise" of the I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolfs novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. Sexual Objectification In My Essay? I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunninghams novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and finding an angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for Truman Capote's Questionable Murder Novel, Blood, me to Sexual Objectification Essay study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Line? Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and telling me again and again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is in My Life, 2002. It is movie passchendaele, 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of in My Life Essay time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolfs novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunninghams novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunninghams novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunninghams The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her readers guide to The Hours : The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolfs life, her novel, and her theories (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is what characteristic compromise" of the, time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of Sexual in My experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. Homegrown Terrorism? (qtd. in Sexual Objectification Life Essay Hasler 147) The time told by is most "great compromise" of the the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the Sexual Essay, philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunninghams The Hours , as he has used Woolfs novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in movie passchendaele the novel itself and in criticism. He has described his novel as an improvisation on in My Life, Woolfs [ Mrs Dalloway ] ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and Truman Murder Novel, In Cold turns into a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolfs techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is Essay, typical of Woolfs novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of movie Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and Essay its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and maginot line her work. Objectification Essay? It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunninghams novel in "great an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of Objectification in My a computer, staring at dairy queen uk a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to Objectification pass in a couple of days. Dairy Queen Uk? It does not always matter what time it is according to the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and Objectification Life Essay hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the french line, temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in Objectification flux and can be compressed or extended. French Maginot Line? A period that is Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to Essay about Homegrown Terrorism as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of Sexual psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the Alternative in Fish, human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to Objectification Essay internalize the french, question of time (Sherover 10). It is Sexual Objectification Life, important to note that internalised time is always related to french maginot externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. Sexual Life Essay? The invention of the clock did of dairy queen uk course not happen overnight and was subject to Sexual in My Essay many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to Oil Sources in Fish Diets Essay the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the Sexual Objectification Essay, mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to characteristic compromise" of the measure space in terms of time, which created the Sexual in My Essay, possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the passchendaele, Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. [2] The ideas of Objectification in My Essay Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the assembly line in characteristic "great compromise" factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and Sexual Objectification art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by passchendaele the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is reflected in Sexual Objectification in My the work of early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of art shifted from the external to the internal, and Truman Capote's Questionable Novel, displayed a strong tendency toward the in My, exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in line Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. Sexual Objectification In My Life? It is a concept that arose out of the tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. Dairy Queen Uk? The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in Essay the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the french maginot, twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the Sexual in My Essay, workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of movie time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freuds theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term psychological time to refer to this experience of time. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to Objectification Essay chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to Truman Questionable Involvement and His In Cold pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. Objectification In My? He uses the Essay about, distinction created by Henri Bergson to Sexual Objectification in My Essay distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the duration of the dairy queen uk, reading, the amount of Objectification Life time the narrator takes to relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be distended to Essay about Homegrown Terrorism last a sensory hour, while an hour can be compressed into a minute in our mind. Objectification In My Essay? Secondly, psychological time presents itself in Murder and His Novel, In Cold a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an Life Essay, elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestones definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of a novels formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestones main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the Alternative Oil Sources Diets Essay, scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the Sexual, elusive quality of experience and psychological time in Essay Homegrown Terrorism art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. Sexual Objectification Life Essay? John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the layered, allusive and discontinuous nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by Essay Homegrown Terrorism his theories on psychological time and borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: [Henri Bergsons] work changed the way many Modernists represented time in fiction (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of Sexual Objectification Life time can differ from Alternative Oil Sources individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of Objectification in My Essay events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: It wasnt necessary for writers to have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freuds work. (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he (re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of in Fish Diets Essay consciousness (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the Sexual in My Life, concept of Essay about psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the in My Life, depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and Oil Sources Essay explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in Essay sequence with an Alternative Oil Sources in Fish Diets, occasional deliberate retrospect (this reminded him of, she recalled that), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the Objectification in My, individual, with the Capote's Murder, already continuously merging into the not yet and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the Objectification in My Essay, past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and what is most characteristic "great compromise" constitution? future in the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the notion of the flux of time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of flow and the interest in Objectification in My Essay the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. What Is Most Of The Constitution?? William James supposedly coined the Sexual Objectification in My, term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to movie passchendaele literature. The debates surrounding stream of Sexual Objectification Life consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on Capote's Involvement and His In Cold, two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is Life, especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a characters mind at a given point in space and time, in order to french maginot line suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of Objectification Life consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of Alternative Oil Sources in Fish Essay consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in Sexual Life an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in Alternative Oil Sources Essay literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of Sexual Essay how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodges article Consciousness and the Novel . Is that the clock striking twelve? Cinderella exclaimed. Dear me, I shall be late. This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrators description. Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the individuality of the characters voice is suppressed by the narrators. Dairy Queen Uk? Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late is free indirect speech. Cinderellas concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. Objectification In My? The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderellas consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Movie? Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a characters train of thought, such as Lily Briscoes thoughts in To The Lighthouse . For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the Sexual in My Life, salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. Dairy Queen Uk? She was saved from that illusion. Sexual Objectification In My Life? She would move the tree rather more to the middle (154). Lily is Truman Questionable Murder and His Blood, simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrators voice to present the reader with Lilys private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is Sexual Objectification in My Essay, not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Murder Involvement Novel, In Cold? Another technique, which gives very direct access to the characters mind, is the Sexual Objectification in My Essay, use of the first person. As the example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a characters thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and Essay about Homegrown intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the Sexual Objectification Essay, mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The characters memory is represented in the narrative when the author feels the and His Novel,, recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in Objectification in My Life Essay the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called free association. In Modernism this technique is applied to Capote's Questionable Involvement Blood a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at Objectification in My Life Essay times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from James Joyces Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. Im thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Deaths number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasnt in the chapel, that Ill swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in is most "great constitution? that suit. Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to change three suits in the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Objectification in My Life Mesias. Hello. Characteristic Of The "great? Its dyed. His wife I forgot hes not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. (90)

This is an example of interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolfs To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrators mediation at all and Mr Blooms thoughts are difficult to Sexual in My interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to Alternative Oil Sources Diets Essay a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service Twelve. Im thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen, which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lamberts suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: when we lived in Lombard street west. Hello might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of Sexual Objectification his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a characters thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to Questionable Involvement and His Novel, In Cold represent the Objectification, multiplicity of the about, consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Fragmentation is used to Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the is most characteristic "great compromise" of the constitution?, forces, external and Sexual Objectification in My Life internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the characters mind and the multiple forces or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. What Characteristic Constitution?? The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and Sexual in My Life Essay end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence as the introduction to Modernism in Oil Sources in Fish Diets Essay The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is Objectification Essay, common for Modernist texts to what "great begin in medias res ; the novel opens in in My Essay the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. Maginot Line? As a result the reader is Objectification in My Life Essay, disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the narrative, but also on the level of language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by Alternative Oil Sources Diets openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and Sexual more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to movie dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to dislocating language than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the in My Life, same: to create a language that will allow the author to express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the what is most of the "great compromise", great variety and complexity, Modernism also showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and Objectification Life fragmentary reality (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the dairy queen uk, search for Sexual Objectification in My Essay, coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is Truman Capote's Questionable Novel, In Cold Blood, a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. Life? It seems as if there is french line, little or no control over Life the human consciousness and its experience of line time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. Life? In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at movie great lengths. Woolf and in My Life Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Essay about Homegrown Terrorism Virginia Woolfs work. According to Jrg Hasler, a mere glance at Objectification in My Essay [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time (145). Hasler mentions Woolfs novels Night and Truman Questionable Murder and His Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and Life Essay her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only dairy queen uk, autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolfs bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.

In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to Sexual what extent Bergsons theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson (21). Nevertheless, the Alternative Diets, influence of Sexual Objectification Life modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is Questionable Murder Novel, In Cold, evident in her work. As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of Objectification in My man works with strangeness upon the body of time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an in Fish Essay, hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, the clock and time in the mind is dairy queen uk, less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. Sexual Life Essay? (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of psychological time is what characteristic of the of the constitution?, viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolfs Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. [He, Tindall,] had known, of Sexual Life Essay course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of Essay about Homegrown Terrorism time, outer or clock time and Bergsons inner time. As Big Bens leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of experience (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the in Fish Diets Essay, narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is Sexual in My Life Essay, a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of what "great compromise" constitution? events. Objectification? Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the Alternative, characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the Objectification Essay, narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into what characteristic of the compromise" of the constitution?, pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the Objectification in My Life Essay, novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway Super Connected. In A Room of Ones Own , Woolf argues that fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible (2). The comparison of fiction to a spiders web does not only imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of french related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. Sexual Life? When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. Essay Homegrown Terrorism? It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spiders web can also be applied to Woolfs fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at Sexual Life finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to about Homegrown find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and in My Essay fragmentary reality, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for dairy queen uk, Mrs Dalloway . Sexual In My Life Essay? She places the characters on the edges of the web and Essay about slowly they spiral towards the Sexual in My, centre.

The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in Essay Homegrown Terrorism this way is Peter Walsh: Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, Musing among the Objectification, vegetables was that it? He must have said it at Homegrown breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace Peter Walsh [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in this section. Sexual In My Life? Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissas daughter. Clarissa thinks: but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is Alternative in Fish Essay, or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissas life. As the Sexual Objectification Life, novel progresses the reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloways party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and dairy queen uk Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an Sexual Objectification, abundance of different techniques to convey the characters connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is Oil Sources in Fish Essay, what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Sexual Objectification Life? Yet another important method that adds to what characteristic compromise" the novels cohesion is repetition. Several images and Objectification Life Essay sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it. [8] One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of dairy queen uk Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in their work. Sexual Objectification In My Life Essay? Stream of consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolfs ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyces practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyces Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in about Homegrown The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an Objectification Life Essay, example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Truman Capote's In Cold Joyces use of stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writers mind, we might say simply and have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in Sexual in My Life a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and Essay about Homegrown set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyces work is Objectification Essay, confined and movie shut in, because the Sexual Objectification in My Essay, stream of consciousness of Joyces novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the Questionable and His Novel, In Cold, reader is granted access to the mind of Sexual Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the movie passchendaele, reader being fully aware of Objectification Life it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and what is most characteristic "great connects her characters.

The stream of Objectification Life Essay consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the french, individuals into Objectification Life, a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolfs particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolfs stream of consciousness is Alternative Essay, largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. In My Essay? The presence of the french maginot line, narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as she thought and she wondered. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walshs thoughts as he walks through Regents Park: And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene the poor girl looked absolutely desperate in the middle of the morning. Sexual Objectification Essay? But what was it about, he wondered ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the dairy queen uk, different streams of Objectification in My consciousness present in Essay Homegrown the narrative. Sexual Life Essay? As a result of is most of the constitution? this, Woolfs style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of Sexual in My Life Essay connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the what is most constitution?, possibility of moving from one characters consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. An example of a switch of Objectification in My Life Essay consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and roses and nodding tufts of what is most of the "great compromise" constitution? lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. In My Life Essay? ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissas represented thought. In Fish? In the sentence very kind, but she looked older, this year, the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Sexual in My Life Clarissa at turning her head from side to Capote's Questionable Involvement Blood side ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pyms thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in a sense of coherence and the stream of Objectification Life consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolfs fiction is what she herself refers to as her tunnelling process. Questionable Murder And His Blood? In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment ( Writers Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her tunnelling process, by Sexual in My Life Essay which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolfs first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into the past of Essay Terrorism her characters and lets the Sexual in My Life, tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of movie thoughts. Virginia Woolfs tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to in My Life Essay forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to movie passchendaele turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. It [gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and Objectification silence: a form patterned like waves in movie a pond rather that a railway line (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is in My, very similar to the image of a spiders web, Woolfs image for literary fiction.

In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway the events are related as they apply to Essay about the present (Benjamin 215). Later in Objectification Essay her article Benjamin suggests that the revelation [of events] is movie passchendaele, not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is that events surface in the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolfs tunnelling technique. Objectification In My Essay? As Peter Childs puts it: By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters pasts in order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and Essay present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are (166). Sexual Objectification Life? Woolfs characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winters evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is natures folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of french line one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and Objectification Life Essay desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in about Homegrown Terrorism June. She is walking down the Objectification Life Essay, Strand and she is also on a balcony in Essay about Terrorism June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the Life Essay, image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: [I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves? (11).

The issue is [the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time, or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by dairy queen uk describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in Sexual in My Life this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the french line, characters in Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and Objectification Life present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of Terrorism thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the Sexual Objectification in My Essay, door to movie passchendaele go out and in My Life Essay buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by movie a memory of Bourton, triggered by a squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now ( MD 3). Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Sexual Essay Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberrys flower shop. About Homegrown? The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. Sexual In My? The scene begins with Clarissa standing in what is most of the Mulberrys when she is Objectification Life Essay, startled by a sound from outside. Truman Involvement And His In Cold? - oh! a pistol shot in the street outside! ( MD 14). Sexual Objectification In My? The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberrys. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to Truman Capote's Questionable and His Novel, Blood the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberrys shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to Sexual Objectification Essay see a face of the very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery Septimus Warren Smith found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissas point of what of the "great compromise" of the view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the Sexual Objectification Essay, perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only maginot, creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended (92). Sexual? By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of movie coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and Life Essay it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from event to what is most characteristic compromise" event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: Fear no more the heat o the sun ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of Sexual in My Essay a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of dairy queen uk one of the Sexual Objectification Life Essay, characters in Shakespeares play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and dairy queen uk transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolfs novel. Sexual Objectification In My? Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: Fear no more the heat o the dairy queen uk, sun, nor the furious winters rages ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the Objectification in My Life Essay, phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the characteristic of the "great constitution?, same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the Sexual Life Essay, phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by saying Still, the sun was hot. Still one got over is most of the of the constitution? things ( MD 71). Woolfs use of Life repetition is subtle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: Nowhere in the novel does a narrators voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into Truman Questionable Involvement and His Novel, Blood, the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance (50). Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolfs novel. As James Naramore points out: [T]he minds of the in My, characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of mind (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of Essay about Homegrown disruption within the novel. One of the Objectification Essay, most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the novel into temporal units: It was precisely twelve oclock ( MD 103) is the opening of what characteristic constitution? a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. Objectification In My? The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in what is most characteristic "great compromise" constitution? relation to which the characters inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a characters thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to the characters awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the characters mind it may be nearer to several minutes. Objectification Life? (171) The striking of the clock evidently represents clock time, which Childs refers to as public time. The thoughts of the character take place in psychological time. Childs example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in Truman Questionable Murder Involvement Novel, In Cold this discussion. Sexual Objectification Life Essay? The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.

In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an characteristic "great compromise", experience of in My psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Several pages of in Fish Essay reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and Sexual in My is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and Truman Involvement Novel, Blood other clocks and the distances covered by the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to cover the same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay her article on the representation of London in Mrs Dalloway , there are discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to Capote's them (19). The striking of the clock breaks up the novel into hours and sections (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and Sexual in My Essay the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of french maginot line certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from Objectification Life Essay one character to what characteristic of the "great of the another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by Objectification in My Essay time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolfs stating of clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the what is most characteristic "great compromise" of the constitution?, reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of Objectification Life consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on movie, a level of psychological time. She also applied her tunnelling technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for Objectification Life, Woolf to Truman Questionable and His Novel, Blood integrate the past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. Sexual Essay? These tunnels also form an important part of the what is most "great constitution?, web that interconnects all characters in the novel. Sexual In My Essay? The interconnectedness and is most characteristic "great of the cohesion is Objectification in My, further enhanced by Woolfs subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of passchendaele cohesion and Objectification in My Life Essay further interlink the characters. What Is Most Characteristic Of The Compromise"? The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in Objectification Life Essay the fragmented reality of the movie passchendaele, early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the Sexual in My Life Essay, novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . Essay About Terrorism? It was critically acclaimed and won the Pulitzer Price for Objectification Essay, Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Terrorism Woolfs novel, and in My Essay many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as an improvisation of Terrorism sorts on Woolfs great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the title for Sexual in My Essay, his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: In sharing Woolfs working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolfs novel. What Is Most Characteristic Of The "great Of The? It is difficult to pin down how the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is constructed. According to Young, Cunningham has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and Sexual Objectification Essay character within it, and embodied her theories of french maginot line characterization in modern fiction (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . Essay? He discovered through teaching Woolfs Mrs Dalloway and Cunninghams The Hours to various classes undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunninghams improvisation on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolfs novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolfs general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolfs original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolfs opinions on Questionable and His Novel,, fiction and Sexual Objectification facts from her personal life. Line? He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and Objectification in My Essay using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and movie passchendaele the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Sexual In My? Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolfs novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolfs eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. This description can be applied to Alternative Essay both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the narrative is the Life, author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by introducing an french maginot line, authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunninghams novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in Richards novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the in My Life, character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on characteristic of the "great compromise", the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Browns in 1949 in in My Life Essay Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloways at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of dairy queen uk Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and Sexual in My Essay eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from maginot Woolf is the Sexual in My, single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life) (363). Cunningham is fascinated by dairy queen uk this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that any day in anyones life contains most of what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on Objectification, every strand of its DNA ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the line, single-day structure.

Joyces Ulysses also explores the Sexual Objectification, lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the french maginot line, author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of Objectification in My Life consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is Essay about Terrorism, considered one of the main representatives of Sexual Life stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of french maginot line consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. Sexual Life Essay? The thoughts of the characters are easy to follow and maginot there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolfs style. Cunningham separates the characters individual stream of consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolfs stream of consciousness in Objectification in My Life Essay the prologue to Truman Questionable Murder Involvement Blood his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolfs body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in in My Mrs Dalloway : It is Essay about, as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the Sexual Objectification Essay, mind, and Essay about Homegrown then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into Objectification in My Essay, the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolfs body floating down the river invoke the concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolfs body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is is most characteristic compromise" of the, written as if it is Sexual Objectification in My Life, Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the about Terrorism, reflections on the surface and Sexual Life Essay the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunninghams novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she plunged into the June morning at Bourton. Alternative In Fish Essay? She continues by describing that particular morning as being like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is Sexual Objectification in My Life, standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the maginot, protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunninghams imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolfs. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richards apartment for the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the in My, hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp through the Capote's Questionable and His In Cold, looking glass, as it were; as if the lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richards apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of changing from one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to Life the image Cunningham uses to describe Richards apartment. The other, watery realm is "great, a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is located on Sexual Objectification Life, the plane of psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of about Terrorism connecting the streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied tunnelling. Objectification Essay? Tunnelling is a term that refers to movie passchendaele the authors ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of a character merge, at the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to Objectification in My Life the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is dairy queen uk, frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolfs characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolfs style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissas thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the Sexual Objectification in My Essay, novel. Cunninghams characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. French? They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunninghams characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay the present.

The similarities between the movie, consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and in My Life gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ghost self standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the Capote's Questionable Murder and His Blood, light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is Life, foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in the prologue. The ghost self Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Truman Capote's Questionable Involvement and His Novel, Blood Mrs Woolf. Also Richards suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Browns thoughts of taking her own life. Sexual Life? The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on Diets, the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. Sexual In My Life? These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in Alternative in Fish clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Sexual Objectification Essay? Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an Oil Sources in Fish, indicator of clock time. In The Hours objects are symptomatic of clock time (Young 48). Sexual Objectification In My Essay? On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of what characteristic of the "great compromise" of the constitution? a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and is an important connector in Sexual Life her novel. In The Hours the characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by it. The title of Cunninghams novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is Murder Involvement, measured.

The hours are the moments of which the characters lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the movie, characters looks at Objectification in My Life a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the french maginot, fact that the Sexual Objectification in My, three strands of maginot narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to Sexual in My have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the Truman Novel, In Cold Blood, characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. (92) The objects in Clarissas kitchen trigger her into Sexual Life, desiring a parallel world, in Truman Murder Involvement and His Novel, which she is still full of hope, still capable of doing anything (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Sexual In My Life Essay? Leonard Woolf is dairy queen uk, convinced of the eternal quality of Virginias work and believes that [h]er books may be read for centuries ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of Sexual Life Essay literature or art. There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the movie passchendaele, greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richards work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: Its possible that the Sexual in My Essay, citizens of the movie passchendaele, future, people not yet born, will want to read Richards elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and fury, but its far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. Objectification In My? ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams novel comments on the issue of arts eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolfs novel is an example of fiction that might continue into Alternative Diets, the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunninghams use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in in My the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to is most compromise" constitution? enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. Sexual In My Life? His Clarissa opens the Truman Capote's Questionable Involvement, door and is about to walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto Objectification Essay, a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at Truman Murder Involvement and His Novel, In Cold Blood the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the in My Life, liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. As if standing at Alternative Diets Essay the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of chill, the Life Essay, plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is established between Woolfs Clarissa Dalloway and Cunninghams Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled Mrs Dalloway, which is her nickname in the novel. Of The Compromise"? The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in in My Life the 1990s in dairy queen uk New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that in adopting Woolfs narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience (41). Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunninghams novel as well. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of all three women in Cunninghams novel is similar. The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the novel to in My Life indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloways walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to french maginot believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Under the cement and grass of the Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop Clarissa chooses peonies and Alternative Oil Sources in Fish Diets Essay stargazer lilies, cream colored roses (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. Up ahead, on Objectification in My Essay, a circle of Capote's Novel, In Cold Blood newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolfs dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in Objectification the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the what is most characteristic "great compromise", characters it diminishes their separation in time and in My space and Alternative Essay creates the Objectification in My, possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissas childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and Alternative Diets Essay Mrs Woolf. Sexual Objectification Life? The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. First of Questionable Involvement and His In Cold Blood all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: I dont think two people could have been happier than weve been ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolfs suicide note. Woolf writes: I cant go on spoiling you life any longer. I dont think two people could have been happier than we have been ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Objectification Essay? Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of a novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richards novel can be seen as another version of Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . Richards novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Truman Capote's Questionable Murder Blood Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams novel implies yet another version of in My Life Woolfs novel. Mrs Woolfs parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of time in which the past does not exist. His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and stands the test of time.

The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to Essay remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and Sexual Objectification Essay the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to dairy queen uk have fallen out of time (62). Richards notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Objectification Essay Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: You kissed me beside a pond. Ten thousand years ago. In reality. Its happening in Truman Capote's Murder Involvement and His Novel, In Cold Blood that present. This is happening in this present. (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: Were middle-aged and what is most characteristic "great compromise" of the were young lovers standing beside a pond. In My Life? Were everything, all at once. (67) He believes the movie, human consciousness to exist on Sexual Objectification Essay, several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is movie, no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that (197). Tory Young argues that Richards fear of the hours is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to Sexual Objectification Essay defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future (49). Richards timepiece of the mind has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is Truman Capote's Murder and His In Cold, running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is Sexual, clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the dairy queen uk, psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of Sexual Objectification in My Life escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is maginot line, not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Sexual Essay Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunninghams retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolfs novel than Cunninghams The Hours . Because the film returns to movie Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glasss musical score that accompanies the film. On the website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glasss addition to the film and french maginot calls it evocative of the relentlessness of time (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the clock throughout the film. In My? These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to the effect of movie passchendaele Big Ben in Objectification Life Essay Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of reality. The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Essay Terrorism Cunninghams version of the story. Besides the ticking of the Objectification in My, clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the films use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the opening of the Oil Sources in Fish Diets, film the viewer is in My Life Essay, confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the in Fish Diets Essay, roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldrys film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunninghams novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Sexual in My Nicole Kidman. Dairy Queen Uk? The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunninghams novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that there are no new stories, just endless retellings (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is Sexual Objectification Life Essay, no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to Alternative Oil Sources in Fish Essay The Hours . Hughes claims that a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in a chain (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams The Hours , Daldrys The Hours and other retellings of either of Objectification in My Life these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. About Homegrown Terrorism? The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and Objectification Life establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolfs novel or Cunninghams.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the concept of hauntology. Jacques Derrida coined the term hauntology [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derridas notion of hauntology Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. However, the dairy queen uk, ghost cannot be properly said to in My belong to Essay Homegrown Terrorism the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is in My Essay, clearly not the Alternative Oil Sources in Fish, same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is subject is Life Essay, therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gyes explanation refers only to the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of dairy queen uk Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . Sexual Objectification Life? Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the passchendaele, past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of Sexual Objectification in My spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of explicit engagement of Cunninghams novel with Woolfs and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and what characteristic of the constitution? not vice versa. (44) Similar to Essay the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. French? The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to Sexual Objectification in My connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derridas concept of is most "great compromise" constitution? hauntology confuse time and history. Objectification? As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for what is most characteristic of the "great of the, the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunninghams novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. Sexual Objectification In My Life Essay? He has stretched Woolfs connectedness to last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that fiction is like a spiders web ( A Room of Ones Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spiders web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolfs fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of movie passchendaele life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the Sexual in My, coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of french maginot time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to Sexual Objectification in My form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. French? Woolf uses the Sexual Essay, event to switch from one character to about another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and Sexual Objectification in My Essay the addition of Truman Novel, In Cold new elements, and that is Objectification in My Essay, exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolfs techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolfs ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. Maginot? The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in Sexual Objectification in My the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of how any day in anyones life contains most of what we need to know about all of life (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in anyones life can be applied to anybodys life. He shows that the days of passchendaele Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolfs important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is Cunninghams use of repetition. Sexual Objectification Essay? Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the technique on a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of is most compromise" of the its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolfs novel. The Hours is a novel based on Objectification in My Life, a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the Capote's Questionable and His Novel, In Cold Blood, basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. Life Essay? New York and dairy queen uk London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 Anderson, Margaret C. The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 200104. 23 May 2005. Asbee, Sue.

Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway. Wisconsin Studies in Sexual Objectification Life Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. Dairy Queen Uk? 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Life, Film . Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. Dairy Queen Uk? The years: as this months hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing lifes moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why. Interview . Gale Group: 2003. ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. Objectification? Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben. English Studies. A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. Michael Cunninghams The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and Film . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Questionable Murder Involvement And His Novel, Blood? Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . Mepham, John. Interior Monologue Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. Mrs. Dalloway (1925) Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 Naremore, James. Objectification In My? The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergsons Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 Schiff, James. Rewriting Woolfs Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. The Concept of Time in Western Thougth. Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. Dairy Queen Uk? 3- 21. Stream of Consciousness. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Sexual Life? New York: Columbia University Press, 200104. 11 May 2005. Tindall, William York. Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge. College English vol. 10 no. Alternative Oil Sources Diets? 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. Wood, Andelys. Walking the Web in the Lost London of Sexual Life Mrs. Dalloway. Mosaic . vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writers Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of Ones Own . [email protected], 2004. --- Modern Fiction . [email protected], 2004. --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . [email protected], 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunninghams The Hours : A Readers Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and dairy queen uk Charles M. Sherovers book Are We in Time? [2] Based on Sexual in My, the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Fords car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylors principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and Truman Capote's Questionable Involvement and His Novel, job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture (Selden, xi), and in My that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the Essay, same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an Objectification Life Essay, article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the movie passchendaele, term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose. (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Prousts work. His term for this kind of memory is Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, mmorie involontaire, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . Dairy Queen Uk? (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the in My, stream of consciousness is already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the Capote's Involvement and His, most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an Sexual Objectification Essay, author, editor and characteristic "great compromise" of the publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyces Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolfs Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in the Lost London of Objectification in My Life Essay Mrs Dalloway by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to Truman Capote's and His Novel, In Cold the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence (Richter, 1).

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ananlysis essay Youve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to Sexual choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprinta foolproof way to get your essay structured. Characteristic Of The "great Compromise"? Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay IsAnd What It Isnt. Sexual Life? Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isnt before getting to what it is . Of The "great Of The Constitution?? An analytical essay isnt a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, its more difficult in practice.

If you read your essay and Sexual Objectification in My Essay it sounds a lot like a book report, its probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to french line figure out if youre summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at in My your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, its writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on passchendaele, how the book or poem was writtenfor example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of Sexual Objectification Life essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a promptand the example Im going to use for the rest of this postcould be something like: Analyze the maginot theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on Sexual Life, reading the books has done so alreadyor at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. Homegrown Terrorism? There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to in My Life write it, your essay should always have three main parts: Ill get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline.

You can see that Ive added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horseswere getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three thingsa hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to dairy queen uk prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook em from the start. The first part of Sexual Objectification Life your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement thats unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft.

However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itselfthat of sacrifice. Okay, so thats two sentences. But its got a little bit of controversy and relates to Essay Terrorism what the Objectification in My rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Questionable Murder Involvement Blood? Get to the good stuffwrite a killer thesis statement. In My Essay? Okay, so now that youve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. Questionable Murder And His Novel,? This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for Sexual in My Life an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise. 3. Dairy Queen Uk? Its time to back up your thesis. Let the Objectification in My Essay reader know how youre going to prove your claim.

For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harrys death, Voldemorts sacrifice of his soul in exchange for passchendaele immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in Sexual in My Life order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the french line building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is Sexual Essay where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. Diets Essay? In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But thats because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. Life? But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you wantas long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. Alternative Oil Sources In Fish Essay? For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Objectification Life? Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But lets get into it, shall we?

1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of dairy queen uk your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, Harry Potter is Sexual Objectification willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrificethat of dairy queen uk his lifein order to save the rest of the wizarding world. 2. Make your claim. Sexual In My? The claim should dive into a smaller part of the french maginot line overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claimsthat Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to in My Life Essay die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You cant just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to french maginot line add evidence. Sexual In My? For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the maginot line instance in Sexual Objectification in My the hall of prophecies with the quote, and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives. 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. Alternative? You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence.

If you dont, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the Essay reader that Harry and Murder Novel, In Cold Blood his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it couldve been referring to Neville, but well leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to Objectification Life Essay do that. Theyre not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After youve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, youre ready to wrap it all up. Essay Terrorism? The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, There are many motivations behind sacrificeto help others, to Sexual Essay help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved oneand J.K.

Rowling explores several of them through the line characters in the Harry Potter book series. This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. In My? Easy, right? I know youre pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for dairy queen uk you to download.

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Religion/ Witchcraft term paper 16651. What is Sexual Objectification Life Essay Witchcraft? This question is gaining importance to people as we approach the 20th century. To catch up with a constantly changing environment, people should be more aware and open-minded to things, especially to those that are rejected by passchendaele, our old traditional sets of Sexual in My, values. We should get to know why does the Old World reject some beliefs by studying the dairy queen uk original meanings behind those myths. The more we keep ourselves open to ideas, the more chances we have to explore ourselves and to advance our lives and our society. Each of us is a different individual. Not everybody feels right about the existing socially-accepted sets of in My Essay, values.

Getting to know more about other alternatives simply gives us more possibilities to choose. Due to centuries of movie, bad press, general impression of Witchcraft is all about Objectification in My Life Essay, evils, Magick, and spells. In fact, it may just be a religion that believes in Gods and the harmonic relationship between humans and the natural environment. Maginot. This research paper is to redefine, in more accurate words, the truth of one of the oldest religion in the world. In this research paper, I have used information from the Internet such as some homepages built by some Coven and believers. In My Essay. I also used books that are mainly about the general structure of the Craft and its religion Wicca. I have also had an characteristic of the constitution? interview with one of the Witch, Robb Boyle, on the 14th of November 1998.

I asked him general ideas and some specific details about the Craft and Objectification Life, the religion. 3.1 Brief historical background of the Witchcraft in the world. Scholars like anthropologists, archaeologists and what characteristic of the "great compromise", historians believe that the practice of Witchcraft has been existed for the around 20,000 to 40,000 years (Johnson). In every society, practitioners' vocations vary, like midwives or herbalists (DiLorenzo). However, fine distinctions of Witches were not made. People who believe in nature deities, and possessed fortune-telling or supernatural powers have all been considered as Witches. Objectification Life. Witchcraft can be found in different kind of culture all over Homegrown the world, like the Celtic, Greek, African, Egyptian and Asian (Moorey 18-20). The most well known one is the Celtic tradition of the craft. It is Objectification in My Life because during the dairy queen uk classical time, the Witches' religion and the Celtic religion have inter-influenced each other greatly (Johnson).

The ancient history of the craft mainly consists of a large part of persecution and discrimination against Essay, the pagans by the public. This was due to maginot line, the fact when Christianity grew stronger and expanded its political power; it set laws to suppress its rival. One of its opposition was Witchcraft. The old Gods now becomes the evil of the Objectification Life Essay new religion (Johnson and Our History). In 1755 . . . in a 'Dictionary of the English Language,' defined a witch as 'a woman given to unlawful arts.' . . . The book 'Errores', written in 1450, declared, 'Witches . . . often make verbal pacts and promises with the Devil . . . '. During the 'Burning Times' (circa 1400-1700), those accused of witchcraft were hung, drowned or burnt whether they confessed or not . . .by 1700, at least 200,000 women and girls had been killed (DiLorenzo). Other similar cases of persecution were Pope Innocent VIII who produced the Bulls against dairy queen uk, the Witches in 1484 and two infamous German monks created their anti-Witchery plan, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches Hammer), two years later. The Archbishop of Treves was convinced that the local Witches had caused a severe winter and Objectification in My, therefore 120 men and women who were thought to be the troublemakers were burned to death in 1586. Witches were the french maginot line most convenient scapegoats for every aspect of life. Besides religious reasons, Witches studied a lot and had a broad knowledge of botany, meteorology, anatomy, veterinary science, psychology, astronomy, and primitive physics. What we called science now was considered as magic in the superstitious population of that time (DiLorenzo).

Thus, many Witches were persecuted throughout history. Lists of Witchcraft craze happenings in England, Scotland, and France in the medieval time are attached with the paper (see appendix 1). In the late 19th century, as the society was getting more open to ideas, Witches had started to in My Life Essay, come forward to french maginot line, speak of the truth of their religion. The religion was legalized in the 50's. Finally, Witches began to enjoy the freedom of religion, which had been existed for quite a long time, as others (Johnson). It was around this very moment, in the 40s, when the Sexual Objectification Life Craft was revived and the term Wicca has officially become the name of the religion of Witches (Moorey 17). 3.2 Background of the craft in United States. The old religion was slowly pushed back by dairy queen uk, Christian churches in Europe. Christianity claims Witches were evil and the Satan worshipped. The concepts of Satan and evil were actually constructed under the Christians' point of view (Vogel and Our History). The most well known event in the American history of Witchcraft persecution was the Salem Trial.

In the town of Objectification Life Essay, Salem, Massachusetts, 19 people were executed in 1962. Around twenty people in the town who had suffered from hallucinations, spasm or whose cattle had died blamed those Witches for cursing them and putting them in trouble (DiLorenzo). At that time, claiming others as Witches was the easiest way to get rid of an undesired enemy. Those accused were typically vulnerable members of the Puritan community- quarrelsome, gossipy old women or some non-puritan. Truman Capote's Questionable Murder In Cold Blood. The Massachusetts legislature resolved that those hang due to the accusation of Witchcraft may have been illegally tried, convicted and sentenced in 1957 (Glover). Sexual Essay. That recognition has come 300 years late. Only after that trial, witch-hunting ended in Alternative Oil Sources in Fish America. Although large-scale hunting stopped, but discrimination and misconception persists. Recent examples are when KGUN-TV and a local church devastate the Desert Henge Coven and accused coven's members were performing Satanic Rituals in Objectification Life 1990 and Geoffrey Dickins ask the Parliament to . . .wipe Witches off the Terrorism face of the earth in 1988 (Johnson).

3.3 Definition and Terminology. Witchcraft means Craft of the Wise Ones(Vogel). It is Life a Pagan Magickal-religious belief based on the natural deities and rituals (Wiccan Definiton). While Witch is a term derived from an Anglo-Saxon word Wicca (masculine) or Wicce (feminine), these two words mean twister. It was pronounced as wee-cha. Dairy Queen Uk. It refers to someone who possesses super-natural power to perform Magick or physic powers. It also applied to those members and followers of the Witches' religion. Modern Witches claim themselves either as a follower of the Old Religion Witchcraft or Wicca (pronounced as wik-ka); further distinction between the two will be discussed in later section. Male Witch is in My Life sometimes mistakenly called as warlock.

This is movie actually a Scottish word means traitor and it is an insult to Witches. A male witch is still called as a Witch (Johnson). Wicca is a much more positive vocabulary rose in the 40s, which stands for the revive version of the Old Religion, Witchcraft. The word Wicca is Sexual Life originated from Indo-European of the Wic and Weik which means to blend or turn. In addition, a Wiccan is french maginot line a follower of the Wicca religion (Wiccan Definiton).

The Book of Shadows is a Witches' book of Life Essay, Rituals, spells, and Magickal lore. It is Alternative Oil Sources Diets Essay a journal that allows Witches to note down all his/her rituals and spells (Thompson 67-68). A Coven is an organization of Objectification Life Essay, Witches, like the Involvement Novel, Blood churches in Christianity while referring to a Solitary, means a Witch that worships on his/her own without joining any Coven. Further details about coven will be mentioned in Objectification in My Essay later section. Charge is a Magickal act, which saturates a certain object with personal power (Wiccan Definiton).

The method that Witches would use to worship the Goddess and the Horned God is called Ritual. They request and wish through Magick while they perform Rituals. Although each tradition works on various Rituals differently, the Circle (or Sacred Space) and a Ritual meal afterwards are the basics. They use Rituals to celebrate the close relationship between themselves, the Gods, and the nature (Johnson). The word Maigick is used to distinguish between those magic which is performed for entertainment purposes and Oil Sources, the soul power of Witches (Alaya). Initiation is the ceremonial recognition of Objectification in My Life Essay, prospects that becomes Witches. It is the most important Ritual for Oil Sources in Fish Diets Essay, a Witch. While a Novice is an officially accepted student in Sexual in My the Coven, the prospect is the one who wants to join the fellowship but has not initiated as yet. Binding is a pre-initiation stage when a Novice promises to be loyal to the Coven for the coming year.

Novices often wear green cords (Johnson). 3.4 The facts about the Craft. 3.4.1 Their ideas and the Nature of the Belief. Witchcraft is a natural religion (Vogel). It believes in the harmonic relationship between human beings, the natural environment, and what is most characteristic of the, Gods. In fact, Witches believe in the co-existence of a God and a Goddess (Alaya). The Goddess is the Mother of Earth and Nature and rivers are her blood (Boyle). She is the source of everything that exists according to the religion. Essay. The moon represents her (The Grimoire). Capote's Blood. She embodies the fertility of the plant, animal, and human kingdoms.

She has the greatest power from May to October, a period that is being called as the fertile half of the year (Vogel). She symbolizes changeless and eternity (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 12) The God represented by woodlands, the Sun, grain, and the hunt. Objectification Life. It was because most prehistoric prey had horns, the God is; therefore, often being called as the Horned One. On the Truman Capote's Questionable Murder Novel, Blood contrary, his power is at peak in the dark half of the year, from October to May (Vogel). As the religion believes that fertility and balance on both body and soul, they think that the perfect blend of two genders is important for the whole system to Sexual Objectification in My, work (Johnson). In the eyes of Oil Sources Essay, Witches, Gods and Goddess are equally important, although some emphasized on Sexual Objectification Essay worshipping the dairy queen uk Goddess (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 11). The common myth that Witches believe in evil is not true.

Instead, they believe in Essay the Wiccan Rede (see appendix 2). It is a basic moral code of the religion (Vogel). It states that: An it harms none, do what thou wilt (If it harms nobody, do whatever you want). Witches are left to choose what they would do. There is no such thing like forgiveness in Christianity.

The Threefold law states that either good or evil, it comes back to them three times over (Johnson). Truman Capote's Novel, Blood. Through this law, Witches learn to be responsible for their own action. They do not worship Satan either, which is a relatively new concept from Christianity. In addition, they do not do any kind of Life Essay, human or animal sacrifice at all (Vogel and Friedberg). According to dairy queen uk, my interviewee, the whole purpose of practicing the craft is to reach out to the innermost of believers and to achieve a perfectly harmonious relationship with the environment. The Old Religion carries few aspects that are very different from other religions; one of these is Reincarnation. Witches think that everything will be reborn into the physical world after its' death. Their life follows a cycle of birth, death and reborn just like the endless the cycle of the moon. This is a very important and interesting concept in the Witches' faith (Reincarnation: The Cycle of Sexual Objectification Essay, Rebirth). There is no exact method of how this cycle works; therefore, Witches are given freedom to explore how things work for Truman Questionable Murder and His In Cold Blood, them.

Generally, Witches believe that if they are faithful enough, they will be reborn among people whom they love and get a chance to learn about and love those person again. Some believe that they can choose their parents, to learn from them and then to achieve the goal to be a better person in through different lives (Johnson). They also believe that their Gods are reborn in every cycle (Boyle). The symbol of the religion, the Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay pentagram, fully illustrates this idea. It is a five-pointed star in an upright, one-point-up position. The top point symbolizes the spirit and the Creator being the almighty above. Other elements of life- air, fire, water, and earth, are the four power points around the star. This never-ending circle symbolizes the cyclically reborn deity.

The circle has also encompassed a star within it, and Terrorism, that is actually a symbol of an out-stretched human body, reaching all connection (Vogel). As Satanic use the upside downed pentagram to in My Essay, illustrate their philosophies on willpower, passion, prosperity and earthly-good; it is what characteristic of the compromise" constitution? very often mistaken that Witchcraft's pentagram symbolizes the Satan evil spirit (Friedberg) or Witchcraft is the same as Satanic. Life. Another special belief is Truman and His Novel, In Cold Karma. It is Sexual Life a reaction to a prior situation. In each reaction, Witches observe their instinct and responses. Gaining knowledge about what is most of the of the, themselves and their relations to the universe through each Karma, Witches learn to be a better person (Johnson). Witches see psychic as an ability that is born in everybody. Life Essay. The force, which we usually call as Magick can be easily obtained through practicing psychics with Rituals. Under such practices, people's hidden ability will be explored, thus, be able to perform Magick. Some Witches think that the Magickal power is a gift from the Goddess to her children in Alternative in Fish Diets Essay order to make better lives. After all, it is an Life effort to assist people but not to replace material strength (Johnson).

3.4.2 Some Practices and Essay Homegrown, Ceremonies. Unlike some major religions, the in My Life Witches' religion does not have luxurious or gigantic temples. It is due to covens never collect money from movie believers. In fact, they do not need one. To Witches, all nature is their temple. They usually lay out a nine-foot circle wherever they wish and delineate the place as a sacred temple (Johnson).

This circle is either used for celebration or to practice magic (General Practices). Sexual Life. Built by imagination and power from within, it encompasses the energy of the surrounding area. (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 57). After Ritual is over, the french line Circle is either wiped away or saved for next occasions. Witches have some special practices, like the Skyclad. People go naked when they worship the moon for example. It is because they think that a physical object like clothes will keep them from growing in Magickal power and getting closer to the Creator (Thompson 27).

They also meditated in order to Sexual in My Essay, get into a trance stage. They think they can communicate with their Gods best in this psychological condition (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 81). Trance is a state of being semi-conscious that lead to a personal revelation and a visionary journey (Moorey 51-52). Believers worship through daily life, simple things that all modern people do nowadays, like, being environmentally friendly. It is because they think that if the nature suffer, the suffering will be cycled back to human being soon or later (Boyle, Alaya and Friedberg). This concept makes Witches oppose animal experimentation and french, any destruction of the nature. They started behaving so centuries ago while to the mass, being environmental friendly is rather a new trend.

They cast spell when they worship. It is a Magickal ritual but there is nothing mysterious about it (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 203). It is just the equivalent of prayer in Christianity (Alaya). In My Life Essay. According to the religion, spells concentrate energy from the passchendaele nature and combined it with the psychic power from within (Magick). Witches convert this kind of power into Objectification Essay, a message back to the exterior. Through these kind of self-designated Rituals, Witches purify themselves and the environment in order to dedicate themselves to the Deity. Practicing Rituals make Witches powerful enough to ask or wish for something from the nature (Boyle and Friedberg).

However, they are supposed to use it according to the Rede, not to harm anybody including him or herself (Alaya). What Of The "great Of The Constitution?. As it is such a self-involved religion, different people may have different experiences. Normally, Witches keep a record of their personal experiences, feelings and some spells that they have composed in a journal called The Book of Shadows (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 196). This book usually passes from generation to generation. Witches use different kinds of tools when they worship, like the Sexual in My Essay athame is a dagger used to direct energy from the nature. Dairy Queen Uk. It usually has a black handle, as black is believed to be able to absorb power. It probably will not be for any physical cutting. The athame symbolizes masculinity, air, or fire.

The wand is an instrument for Sexual Life Essay, invocation; it can be made of any material. If it is cut from a tree, Witches will explained to the tree why they are doing so and may give the tree something like, a stone as offerings. This action illustrate the environmental friendly nature and the cycle belief of the religion. The wand symbolizes air or fire. Broom is a tool used to sweep negative power out of the sacred Circle used for worshipping. It symbolizes intellect, cleansing, and air. The chalice is for holding wine or water on the altar. It symbolizes femininity and what is most characteristic of the constitution?, water while the pentacle is a pentagram inscribed in metal plate used for Sexual Objectification in My Life, evoking and movie, protection purposes and it symbolizes the five elements and earth (The Grimoire). 3.4.3 Rituals and Festivals. As mentioned above, Witches believe in in My Life nature, never ending cycle of life and the Deity (both God Goddess). Their festive celebrations are based on the changes of the environment and the rebirth of Diets, their god.

The Esbats, the Lunar Rites, are dedicated to Objectification Life Essay, the Goddess. These are Rituals when Witches do complex training on Magick. Truman Capote's Questionable Murder. The Sabbats, Solar Rites, are dedicated to the Horned God and the Cycle of the year, which celebrate their relationship with nature and in My Life, the Gods. Then come the Passage Rites, these festivals celebrate Wiccanings (birth). What Characteristic Of The "great Of The. There are also Puberty Rites, Handfasting Rites (weddings), and Passing Rites (funerals) (Johnson).

As mentioned that Christianity and Witchcraft had so much influence over each other, many Sabbats listed below are now celebrated as different festivals in Sexual Objectification Life Christianity; like Samhain is celebrated as Halloween and Yule is celebrated as Christmas. Yule is the Winter Solstice (December 21st). It is the shortest day of the year and dairy queen uk, it is a solar festival that is celebrated by the element fire and the use of Life, Yule log. French. Colors of the season are red and green. Traditions of decorating Yule trees and exchanging gifts are inherited from pagans. Food is specially prepared for Yule celebration. Trees will be lightened up and Objectification in My Essay, logs are burned.

A piece of the log will be saved to light up the tree in next year. That leftover piece is kept all year long in Terrorism the house as a sign of Objectification, protection to the house. Candles are also burnt as a sign of ensuring wealth and happiness. Truman Murder And His In Cold. Then it comes the Candlemas (February 2nd). Objectification Life Essay. This is the first one of the three spring festivals. Lavender and dairy queen uk, white candles are burned. It celebrates the coming of the Sexual Objectification Life Essay spring, fertility, and new life.

On March 5th is the Ostatra which is also called the spring equinox. Night and day are of equal length on that day. This is a celebration of the balance between winter and spring. People bless seeds for future planting on that day and painted eggs are placed on the altar as magickal protection. Easter how Christianity call this festival. Holiday colors are light green, lemon, and pale pink. Beltane (May 5th) is the last one of the trinity spring festivals. All living things will prepare themselves for the coming of warmth on Truman Capote's Murder and His Novel, that day. People will decorate trees with colorful ribbons. The summer solstice has the longest daytime of the year. Sexual Objectification In My Life. It represents the Truman Questionable Blood glorious Sun King and Life Essay, celebrate passion and success.

Sunflowers and flowers in red and maize yellow color are used to decorate the altar. In this, Midsummer Night's Eve, it is a great chance to commune with the fields and forest faeries. Lammas in on the August 2nd. Movie. It is the first of the three harvest festivals in Sexual Life Essay the fall. Bread is traditionally baked for celebration. In addition, herbs for Magickal used should be harvested on this day, as it is the beginning of the harvest cycle.

Fall Equinox is on September 23rd. It also has equal length of dairy queen uk, daytime and Objectification in My Life, nighttime same as the about Homegrown Terrorism spring equinox. It starts winter. Moreover, the male and the female force stand in balance on that day. Sexual Objectification Life Essay. Blackberry-blue colored candles is what characteristic compromise" of the constitution? used during celebration (Sabbats). Samhain (October 31st) is known by Christianity to be Halloween. The day is dedicated to the eternal life. People will have connection to loved ones who have died. It is Objectification in My because the veil that separates the world of forms and Alternative Oil Sources, the invisible world gets to its thinnest on that night. Samhain is pronounced as sow-wen.

To Witches, this is the most important day of the year as it is as well as the New Year's Eve (Sabbats of the year and Watanabe). As the belief has been existed for such a long time, there are many traditions passed from the past. Each tradition has its own emphasis. It is because communication nowadays are so advanced and the religion is so open for choices, modern Witches usually follow whatever practice they wish to (like the Eclectic). That may be a combination of different tradition from various origins and even some family traditions passed down from generations (Boyle). These make it impossible to tell a specific kind of tradition that all Witches are following nowadays. Witches are allowed to have their own ways of practice as soon as they think it suits them. Sexual In My Essay. There are few traditions that are particularly popular though. For example, the Celtic tradition is a down-to-earth tradition which focuses on french maginot the nature, elements, faeries, plants, etc. Green Witches tend to follow this path. The Ceremonial Witchcraft uses ceremonial Magick to Objectification Life, enhance their connection with the mighty, explore their abilities, and dairy queen uk, recognize their higher purposes.

Rituals of this tradition are often derived from Egyptian magick. Dianic is Sexual in My Life Essay another tradition which feminist oriented. Some followers therefore only focus on worshipping the french line Goddess. According to my interviewee, many feminists Witches choose to follow this path to obtain a balance from the traditional portray of the Objectification Life Divine as a male, like Jesus in maginot line Christianity. The hereditary Witches are those who learn through family member and/or have traces of the Craft in their family history.

The British tradition is a strictly structured tradition comparing to others. Sexual Objectification Life Essay. Its Rituals consist of both Celtic and Gardnerian traditions. Eclectic Witches are the free-runner in the Craft. They blend the ideas of what is most of the "great constitution?, many different traditions. It is rather flexible, so generally, Rituals are free-style and covens are loosely structured (The Grimoire). Sexual Objectification In My Life Essay. Kitchen is a practical down-to-earth tradition according to my interviewee.

Eclectic Witches whose Magick focus on hearth and home are classified under this category (The Grimoire). There is also an Essay about Terrorism Italian tradition name Stratic (Boyle). There are no accurate statistics about how many traditions actually exist because the religion is keep on evolving. There are some contemporarily set up traditions that will be introduced in the section Significant Personality and Cliques in in My Life Modern Witchcraft though. 3.5 Organizations and cliques.

Covens are the equivalent of churches in Christianity in the Craft. According to Johnson, it consisted from 3 unrelated members to 13 people. Members of what is most constitution?, fellowship meet regularly for Rituals or other important matters. It is runs by the High Priest and High Priestess. In the Sexual Life Essay traditional religion, the Coven is divided into the Inner court and the Outer court.

The Outer court is mainly a training group. Those who wish to join the Coven like Prospects and Novices were taught how to behave in the coven. The Inner court is the actual place where Witches worship and learn. High Priest and High Priestess run both courts (Johnson). The most common system works in coven is the Three Degree System. The first degree is the student/Witch. Truman Capote's Questionable Involvement In Cold. The second degree is the practitioner/Priest/ess and the third degree is the teacher/ High Priest/ess.

Other traditions may have somewhat up to Objectification in My Essay, thirteen degrees. That depends on how they separate their coven, but almost all traditions will have initiation ceremony which Witches are formally accepted into the coven. Maginot. As Gods exist in a male-female balance, Witches attempt a balance in their lives. Thus, Witches try to be sexually equality. Rules may be set in certain covens that some Rituals must be performed by a High Priestess though most have a High Priest as well. Some find that they can worship better with only a female leader (Johnson and Hugli). 3.5.2 Significant Personality and Cliques in Life Modern Witchcraft. Gerald Gardner . . .was (once) the single voice speaking for the Craft (Our History). He is the french maginot line first one to admit that he is fascinated by the Craft to the public. He wrote about the truth about of religion through books like High Magic's Aid and Witchcraft Today.

His publicity helps to revitalize the religion. He also founded the Gardnerian Tradition based on his lifetime studies and a Celtic tradition which he originally belonged in the 1950's in England. This tradition means a lot to modern Witches. Many ways of working Rituals and Magick nowadays are evolved from this tradition. His follower Doreen Valiente rewrote some fragments of his Rituals. Raymond Buckland was the Life Essay first recognized Witch in contemporary America.

He had brought and popularized the movie Craft into this society. Sexual Essay. Initiated in Scotland, Buckland came all the way to America, a place where there were no covens at all, to Alternative Essay, promote the in My Essay truths about the belief. Almost every Witch's traditions in America nowadays are Buckland's interpretation of the Gardnerian (Our History and Johnson). Alexander Sanders is Essay Homegrown Terrorism another important personality. Objectification Essay. He combines the Gardnerian Witchcraft with the Ceremonial tradition and forms a popular tradition, the Alexandrian, around 1960 in England. About. He drew much attention from the in My media and is being called as The King of Witches (Johnson and The Grimoire). In Fish Essay. Silver Ravenwolf and Essay, Scott Cunningham is what characteristic compromise" of the both American who had achieved a lot in promoting the Craft in the American society through writing books and promoting it through the media (Boyle).

3.6 Definition of Wicca. It is said to Objectification in My Life Essay, be the religion of Witches. According to my interviewee, it is a term rose in dairy queen uk the 40s when the Craft was revived. Asking some Witches through the Internet, some found that there are no differences between Witchcraft and Wicca at all (like my interviewee) while some Witches react strongly claiming that they are Witches but not Wiccan. According to Alaya, Wicca is a tradition under Witchcraft.

Just like Catholic is under Christianity. People who follow the religion of Sexual Objectification, Witchcraft are witches. The people who follow Wicca are Wiccans. All Wiccans are witches but not all witches are Wiccan. There are many tradition witches can follow. Wicca is only one of them . . Maginot. . there . . . are Wiccan that do not consider themselves as witches. But usually all Wiccans are witches. Generally, through the Sexual Objectification in My Internet sources I have researched through, Wicca is dairy queen uk interpreted, as the religion of Witches and Wiccan is its believer. Objectification. Few people can really tell the differences between the two. Some sources simply mix up the two with Witches has the exact same meanings as Wiccan. 3.7 Evolutions of the Craft.

Throughout all these years, the Craft have many evolutions. Some of it substances have grew to get even more attention than the craft itself. These are like herbalism and aromatherapy. According to the book Magical Herbalism by Scott Cunningham, herbalism is a knowledge that passes from generation to generation along with Witchcraft (xii). Its main practical purposes are to protect and heal while in movie passchendaele Witchcraft, it is part of the Magick used for evoking and soothing purposes. Aromatherapy is a rather new theory comparatively to herbalism. Objectification In My Essay. It uses scents to achieve certain practical human healing or soothing purposes. Scents may be from the natural environment or from essence oil. 3.8 Future Trend. Witches are getting more actively involved in telling the truth about their religion publicly nowadays. There are also more positive and true portrays of the Craft in Hollywood, like TV show Charmed and movie The Practical Magic (Watanabe).

Although there are still many religious superstitious accusations against the craft in this scientific era, the religion is likely to get attention that is more positive in the future and may there be more believers of it. Boyle, Robb. Movie Passchendaele. Personal interview. I4 November 1998. Cunningham, Scott. Magickal Herbalism. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1986.

-----. Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1988. Moorey, Teresa. Witchcraft: a beginner's guide. London: Hooder Stoughton, 1996. Thompson, Janet. Of Witches: celebrating the Goddess as a solitary pagan. Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1993.

DiLorenzo, Kris. That old black magic keeps witches in popular culture. Star Tribune. 29 October 1995. Online. Sexual Objectification Life Essay. Internet. Available WWW: http:// . . [email protected]_gdtype=0 0dinst= Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is what characteristic "great constitution? no plagiarism of any kind.

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