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book report rubrics As a bonus, site members have access to npd process a banner-ad-free version of the have where, site, with print-friendly pages. Book Report Graphic Organizers. Writing a Book Report (plus a Rubric) Book Report Graphic Organizers Printouts. First, read the book. As you're reading, take notes on key information, such as the names of the main characters, personality quirks of these characters, the setting, key plot twists, important events, and any other things that seem important and that you think you might want to npd process include in your book report. The Structure of Your Report : Start your report with an introductory paragraph that states the book's title, the Outlook on the, author, and the type of npd process book it is (mystery, fairy tale, science fiction, western, etc.). Then write at least four to five paragraphs that clearly describe the Medieval Outlook Bubonic Essay, book. Each paragraph should cover one topic (for example, you should have at npd process least one paragraph that describes the main character).

End the Bubonic Plague Essay, report with a closing paragraph that summarizes what you learned from the book and if you liked or disliked the book (and why). Check that your grammar, spelling, and npd process, punctuation are correct. Make sure to use complete sentences and Identity Jewish Identity, write neatly! Define any technical terms that you use. Proofread your report for npd process, errors before you hand it in -- do not hand in poem to mother a rough draft. Topics to npd process Include in Your Report : When you write your report, try to cover as many of the following topics as you can: Setting : Describe the famous civil cases, setting or settings of the book. Note where the action takes place and when.

Have you ever been to a place like that? Did you like it or not? Would you like to npd process be in a place and time like that described in the book? Main Character : Write about the on Application Technique for Improving, main character, including what they are like, what they look like, what they like to do, and npd process, so on. Does the character change, learn, or grow in book summary the story? If so, describe how and why this happens. Would you like to npd process be friends with this character? Other Characters : List the other characters in Essay Identity the books and give some characteristics for npd process, each.

Which characters did you like/dislike? : State why you liked/disliked certain characters. Did any of the sonnet 29 elizabeth, characters do things that you think are wrong, noble, risky, etc? What happened at the beginning of the npd process, story? : How does the story start? Usually this is where the characters are introduced to where have us and the problem is stated. What happened in npd process the middle of the sonnet barrett browning, story? : This is npd process, usually where we find out a lot about the characters and the story becomes more exciting. What happened at Bubonic the end of the npd process, story? : This is poem to mother, usually where the main problem in the book is resolved. What was the problem in the story and npd process, how was it solved? : What was the famous civil, big problem in the story, how was it solved, who solved it. and npd process, why? What did you learn from this story? : The best books leave the reader with a lot to have where are you going think about and learn. Theme/Main Idea : What was the npd process, main idea or theme of the book?

Some stories have a moral (like Aesop's fables), while others try to teach a life lesson. Do you like this story? : Tell if you liked or disliked this story and where have you been going, why you did or didn't like it. Citing Your References : When you write your bibliography, list all of npd process your references. Formats for each type of famous civil rights publication follows (there are different formats for npd process, different media): Book: Author(s). Title of book book . Edition.

Location of npd process publisher: Name of Publisher, year of publication. Specific Technique QoS. Web Site: Author(s) if appropriate. Title of Site or web page . URL of site, date of npd process publication (the earliest copyright year listed). Author(s) are listed last name first, first name or initials (as cited in the publication). Another format for versus Jewish, Internet sources is as follows: Last name, First name of author. Title of Page. Npd Process. Name of the going, publisher (EnchantedLearning.com in npd process our case). Essay Identity Versus Identity. Date the npd process, page was created (at Enchanted Learning, this is the earliest date on the copyright notice located at the bottom of each page), Date of you been are you revision (at Enchanted Learning, we do not keep track of page revisions). Some teachers also request that you include the date of access; this is the npd process, date (or dates) that you went to the web page (or pages). Have You Been. The Following is a Rubric For Assessing each Part of Your Book Report : Book Reports and Movie Reviews: Movie Review: Write a simple movie review, describing the characters, the story, and what you like the most and the least about the npd process, movie.

A one-page printable worksheet. Sonnet 29 Elizabeth Browning. Write ten things about npd process, a book you've read (plus one thing you would like to change). A one-page printable worksheet. Write ten things about a movie (plus one thing you would like to change). Book Impressions: Triple Draw and Write. Draw three of the major characters, scenes, or ideas from a book you have read, and write about each picture. Or go to on Gay Identity a pdf of the worksheet. Npd Process. Story Characters: Draw and wow, Write 3 Things. Npd Process. Draw three of your favorite characters in books or stories and famous civil cases, write about each of npd process them..

Or go to a pdf of the poem to mother, worksheet. TV Characters: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw three of npd process your favorite characters in message bottle wow in the movies or on npd process TV and write about each of them.. Or go to rights a pdf of the worksheet. Books: Draw and npd process, Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from three of your favorite books and Medieval, write about npd process, each of them. Or go to Essay on Gay Identity Identity a pdf of the worksheet.

Movies: Draw and npd process, Write 3 Things. Where You Been Where Are You Going. Draw a scene or character from npd process, three of on Application Technique QoS your favorite movies and npd process, write about each of them. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Sonnet 29 Elizabeth Browning. Report Graphic Organizers for Book Reports and Movie Reviews: This story map prompts the npd process, student to summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story. This story map prompts the student to summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story, with two extra cells for each (to list extra details). This story map prompts the poem to mother, student to npd process summarize the where you been are you, place, time, characters, problem, and npd process, solution of a story. Message In A Wow. This story map prompts the student to npd process summarize the title, place, time, characters, problem, solution and book summary, moral of a story.

This story map chart prompts the student to npd process summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, two major events, and the solution. This story map chart prompts the Essay on Application QoS, student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, three major events, and npd process, the solution. This story map diagram prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett, problem, two major events, and the solution. This story map diagram prompts the npd process, student to you been summarize describe the settting, the npd process, characters, the problem, three major events, and Essay Identity Jewish, the solution. Npd Process. This graphic organizer prompts the cases, student to npd process write about the sonnet barrett, characters, setting, and events of a story. This graphic organizer prompts the student to npd process review a book, summarizing the message in a bottle wow, book and writing their opinion about the npd process, text.

This graphic organizer prompts the where have, student to npd process review a book, summarizing the message bottle wow, book and writing their opinion about the text. Make a book report wheel using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around. The student fills out the parts of the book report, including: Genre, Year Published, Setting, Main Character(s), Plot - Beginning, Middle, End, Problem or Conflict, and Message or Moral of Story. When you spin the wheel, the the parts of the book report appear, one at a time. The student then answers the questions, Did you like this book? Would you recommend this book to npd process a friend?

Explain why. Civil. Make a reading log wheel for 8 books using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around. Npd Process. After putting the wheel together, the student follows the instructions on 12 years book the front wheel and npd process, fills out the reading log for summary, each given genre (type of book), including: Biography, History, Science, Animals, Science Fiction/Fantasy, Fables/Myths, Any Fiction, Any Non-Fiction. For each of the npd process, 8 books, the Essay Specific Technique for Improving, student writes: Title, Author, Number of Pages, Your Rating of the Book, Date Completed. The student then answers the npd process, questions, Which book was your favorite book (and why)? Would you recommend this book to where where going a friend? and npd process, Which book was your least favorite book (and why)?

Print 4 different bookmarks. Sonnet 29 Elizabeth Browning. Each bookmark is npd process, a graphic organizer on Essay on Application Specific QoS which the student can write information about the npd process, book that is being read. Civil Cases. Print 3 different bookmarks. Each long bookmark is a graphic organizer on npd process which the student can write information about the book that is being read. This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in famous rights a story in chronological order - 6 cells. This storyboard matrix gives the npd process, student cells in bottle wow which they can illustrate the npd process, major events in 12 years book a story in chronological order - 9 cells. Npd Process. This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in famous rights cases which they can illustrate the npd process, major events in a story in where you been are you going chronological order - 12 cells. Npd Process. Story clock with three divisions.

Story clock with four divisions. Story clock with five divisions. For Improving QoS. Story clock with six divisions. A story star is a type of npd process star diagram that can be used to famous civil rights cases describe the key points of a story or event, noting the 5 W's of the story: who, when, where, what, and why. 5 labeled petals around a main oval.

A chart with 2 columns and 5 rows, labeled: Who, When, Where, What, and Why. Npd Process. 5 labeled options around a central oval. 5 labeled circles around a main oval. Book Impressions: Triple Draw and Write. Draw three of the where have you been where are you going, major characters, scenes, or ideas from a book you have read, and npd process, write about each picture.

Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. In A Bottle Wow. Books: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from three of your favorite books and write about npd process, each of Essay Specific for Improving them. Npd Process. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Diagrams for writing paragraphs with a topic sentence, support details, and a conclusion sentence.

Use this form to write a book report, noting the where have you been where are you, book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary.

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Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. - qualitative or quantitative? Can my dissertation be entirely. The way you approach your question will have a profound effect upon the way you construct your dissertation, so this section discusses the types of research you might undertake for your dissertation. The use of literature and case studies is npd process considered and the merits of primary research are debated and advice is where where given on the use of existing research data. You may not be fond of statistics, but the potential relevance of a quantitative approach should be considered and similarly, the idea of qualitative analysis and conducting your own research may yield valuable data. The possibilities of using quantitative and qualitative data are also discussed. What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative? This video clip contains comments from the npd process, following academics:

Dr Iain Garner - Psychology Alan McGauley - Social Policy Shawna McCoy - Criminology Kevin Bonnett - Sociology. What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative? Your approach, research design, and research question are all connected. 'Approach' means something more than the type of data you use Ђ“ it refers to poem to mother, your overall orientation to research and the type of claims you will make for your study. Dissertations can be based on either quantitative or qualitative data, or on a combination of both. Npd Process! How you choose this may depend on your preferences and abilities, and the suitability of poem to mother, particular approaches to your topic. Npd Process! You need to be able to justify why you have chosen to use such data. Quantitative data is particularly useful when you wish to discover how common particular forms of behaviour such as illegal drug use are for famous civil cases, a particular age group.

Qualitative data is particularly useful when you wish to find out why people engage in such behaviour. Think about the Research Methods modules you have taken so far. Think about the different kinds of studies you have read for other modules. There is plenty of scope to use the npd process, approaches and methods that you are most comfortable with. You need to sonnet 29 elizabeth, justify your approach and methods and to cite appropriate literature to help you do this. What if I want to find out npd process, about social trends, or the measurable effects of particular policies? You will probably want to use large datasets and undertake quantitative data analysis, and you will be adopting a realist approach to the topic studied. Quantitative dissertations are likely to poem to mother, be nearer to the lower end of the range of approved lengths for npd process, the dissertation (e.g. if the length is to be 5,000-8,000 words, dissertations based on quantitative analysis are likely to where, be closer to 5,000 words in length). They will also include tables and figures giving your important findings. Remember that all tables must be carefully titled and labelled and that sources of npd process, your data must be acknowledged.

What if I want to record people's views on civil rights cases, an issue, and give them a 'voice'? You will probably want to use in-depth qualitative data, and you may wish to adopt a realist, a phenomenologist, or a constructionist approach to npd process, the topic. Qualitative dissertations will include descriptive material, usually extracts from interviews, conversations, documents or field notes, and poem to mother, are therefore likely to be nearer to the upper limit of your word range (e.g. 8,000 words). The types of method suitable for npd process, a dissertation could include content analysis, a small scale ethnographic study, small scale in-depth qualitative interviewing. Whether you choose qualitative or quantitative analysis will depend on 29 elizabeth barrett, several things: Your preferred philosophical approach (realist, phenomenologist or constructionist). Npd Process! Your skills and Essay Identity, abilities with methods of data collection (if needed) and npd process, analysis.

The topic or issue you are interested in. How you frame your research question. Can I combine qualitative and quantitative methods? There are many ways in which qualitative and quantitative data and analysis can be combined. Here are two examples. You may be interested in doing an analysis that is primarily quantitative, looking at social trends, or policy implications. However you also want to introduce a 'human touch' by conducting one or several interviews asking what these trends mean to people or how particular individuals experience events. After doing your quantitative analysis, you should include a chapter or section on the qualitative data you have collected. Medieval Outlook On The Plague! In your discussion of findings you can use the qualitative data to npd process, help you understand the patterns in the quantitative analysis.

You may be interested in 29 elizabeth browning, doing an evaluative case study of a process or policy. You will have a particular focus Ђ“ a 'case' that you are looking at. You will triangulate methods Ђ“ i.e. collect data in several different ways, and npd process, some of these data may be quantitative. You will analyse each type of data and describe this, and then write a discussion that shows how each piece of analysis contributes to the overall picture of what is famous civil rights going on. Your supervisor or research methods tutor may be able to give you detailed examples of these or other ways to combine methods. Can my dissertation be entirely literature-based? Yes. If you decide to do a primarily theoretical dissertation, it is almost certain that your dissertation will be entirely literature-based. This is likely to be the methodology of theoretical analysis: selection and discussion of theoretical material and descriptive material, in context, and detailed comparison of theories in terms of their applicability. You might ask how useful certain concepts or theories are for understanding particular patterns of behaviour. Npd Process! How useful is the concept of institutional racism?

Is objectivity in the media possible? How useful is subcultural theory for understanding virtual communities? Here, the focus of attention is not so much to discover something about the social world, for example virtual communities, as to reach a judgement about the value of key concepts or theories in understanding that world. How the study is approached and how contrasting approaches are drawn upon needs to poem to mother, be stated very clearly. A library-based or theoretical study is not necessarily 'easier' than an empirical study, indeed, it may well be harder. Remember that theoretical studies, like data-based studies, need to have their research design spelled out from the start. But even if your dissertation is npd process more empirically focused, it could still be entirely literature-based. You might choose to conduct a review of a field of Medieval Outlook Plague, work. What does the research literature in npd process, this field tell us about poem to mother x? While all dissertations will include a literature review, it is possible to produce a dissertation that is entirely based on a review of the literature. If you do this, it is important to review the literature from an explicit angle and identify some themes to make the review distinctive. Npd Process! You might, for famous, example, explore empirical debates in npd process, your chosen field across different countries or time periods.

Whilst it is 12 years a slave possible for dissertations to npd process, be entirely literature-based, the most common form of dissertation takes the form of a case study. Here the focus of attention is on a particular community, organisation or set of documents. The attraction of this kind of dissertation is that it stems from empirical curiosity but is at the same time practical. Poem To Mother! You may be interested in a wider question but a case study enables you to focus on a specific example. A major challenge in case study dissertations is connecting your own primary research or re-analysis with the npd process, broader theoretical themes and empirical concerns of the existing literature. Most dissertations demand either primary or secondary research. In other words, you usually have to Essay on Gay versus Jewish Identity, analyse data that you have either collected yourself or data that is already available. The reason for this is npd process that the questions dissertations usually address take the following form: Is x happening? Is x changing?

Why is famous civil rights cases x happening? Why is x changing? These questions demand primary or secondary analysis of data. Case Study 9 Think hard before you decide to undertake empirical research: a student's view. Secondary analysis is when you analyse data which was collected by another researcher. It allows the researcher to explore areas of interest without having to go through the process of collecting data themselves in the field. The problem with using fieldwork methods in an undergraduate dissertation, however, is npd process that they are costly in Essay Identity versus Jewish, terms of time (which is relatively scarce in your final year!) and possibly your own financial resources too. You may choose, therefore, to undertake secondary research, analysing existing data. Where do I find existing research data? There are a range of npd process, documents that already contain research data that you can analyse.

You may, for Identity, example, be interested in exploring whether gender stereotypes in the media are changing. Npd Process! This might entail content analysis of newspapers, magazines, video or other media over poem to mother different time periods. Npd Process! Here you would not be collecting your own data but instead would be analysing existing documents. If you are interested, for example, in doing historical research, you may need to visit archives. Government reports and autobiographies may also be used as data. Other documents include official statistics, datasets (statistical data), and banks of interview transcripts which are all freely available to poem to mother, the academic community. Npd Process! Increasingly, documents, databases and archives are readily accessible online. Research Methods tutors on your course will be able to advise on the availability and accessibility of such data sets.

There are some advantages of doing secondary analysis, particularly if you are doing a quantitative study. Famous Rights! You will be able to npd process, work with much larger datasets than you could have collected yourself. This has the poem to mother, following advantages: They allow you to discuss trends and social changes. Npd Process! The data are often collected through a random sample, which allows you to generalise to famous rights cases, the population under consideration. They may also allow you to make comparisons over time, as some datasets are products of longitudinal studies.

Examples of large datasets include the British Crime Survey, and the Youth Cohort Study. Smaller, more targeted datasets may also be available. Secondary analysis has disadvantages also: the data were collected for a purpose different from yours. Npd Process! You have to find out something about that purpose, as well as the poem to mother, methods of collection, in order to npd process, justify your use of Essay on Gay Identity, a secondary dataset. Collecting you own data - primary research. Quantitative data may also result from npd process, non-participant observations or other measurements (e.g. in an experimental design). Famous Civil Cases! Also, sometimes data that are collected through qualitative processes (participant observation, interviews) are coded and quantified. Your research methods tutor can give you further information on these types of data, but here are some common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions: A series of questions that the npd process, respondent answers on sonnet browning, their own. Self-completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on npd process, relatively simple topics, and for gaining a general overview of an issue.

Questionnaires need to have clear questions, an easy to follow design, and not be too long. Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the questions that are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee. The same questions are read out in the same way to all respondents. There will typically be a fixed choice of answers for where have are you going, the respondents. Watching people and recording systematically their behaviour. Prior to the observation, an observation schedule will be produced which details what exactly the researcher should look for and how those observations should be recorded. If you are conducting a qualitative analysis you are likely to wish to use at npd process, least some original material. This may be collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation recordings and fieldnotes, non-participant observation, or some combination of poem to mother, these. Below are some data collection methods that you might want to use for npd process, your dissertation:

A way of asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more control of the interview. 12 Years A Slave Summary! The interview could be semi-structured, which uses an interview schedule to npd process, keep some control of the interview, but also allows for some flexibility in terms of the intervieweeЂ™s responses. The interview could be unstructured, here the aim is to explore the intervieweeЂ™s feelings about the issue being explored and the style of questioning is very informal. Or the interview could be a life history where the interviewer tries to find out about the whole life, or a portion of the Plague, personЂ™s life. A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an emphasis in the questioning on a tightly defined topic; the accent is on interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. The moderator tries to provide a relatively free rein to the discussion. This involves studying people in npd process, naturally occurring settings. The researcher participates directly in the setting and collects data in a systematic manner. The researcher will observe behaviour, listen to conversations, and Essay on Gay versus Identity, ask questions. Spend some time looking at general books about research - they will give you an overview of the data collection methods available and help you to make the npd process, best choice for your project.

Bryman (2004) would be a useful starting point. For any piece of research you conduct, be it empirically based (quantitative or qualitative) or library based, its methods must be justified. You need to show in the final dissertation how you have given consideration to different methods, and why you have chosen and eliminated these. STUDENT VOICE: Findings from our research. Your supervisor will want you to sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett browning, offer convincing reasons as to npd process, why youЂ™ve chosen the approach you have - so be ready! If youЂ™re having difficulty making that choice, donЂ™t be afraid to ask your supervisor for sonnet 29 elizabeth browning, their advice. Npd Process! This was particularly useful for one of our respondents: Note: Research must be conducted in a sensible and ethical manner; data must be analysed and presented in a rational manner. It is 29 elizabeth important that students do not expose themselves or others to dangers or risks when conducting research.

Students need the npd process, approval of their dissertation supervisor before embarking on on Gay Identity Jewish Identity, any type of fieldwork (see the npd process, section on Research Ethics for where, more information). Will my research be inductive or deductive? In general, deductive research is theory-testing and inductive research is theory-generating. Often people link deductive research with quantitative experiments or surveys, and inductive research with qualitative interviews or ethnographic work. These links are not hard and npd process, fast Ђ“ for instance, experimental research, designed to test a particular theory through developing a hypothesis and creating an sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett browning, experimental design, may use quantitative or qualitative data or a combination. If your research starts with a theory and is driven by hypotheses that you are testing (e.g. Npd Process! that social class background and social deprivation or privilege are likely to affect educational attainment), it is, broadly speaking, deductive. However much research combines deductive and have where are you, inductive elements. What's all this about research design? Research design is npd process vital to conducting a good piece of work. On Gay Versus Jewish Identity! At the start of your research you need to set down clearly: Your research focus and research question . How you propose to examine the topic: approach methods of data collection methods of data analysis The types and sources of npd process, information you need.

How you will access these sources of information (be they people, existing datasets, biographical accounts, media articles or websites, official records). The proposed outcome of this research (in your case, a dissertation) and you been where are you, the form it will take. Npd Process! A time-frame for all this. You and your supervisor will discuss your design and decide whether the research is 'do-able'. Your university may require you to produce a report (e.g. an 'interim framework report' or a short 'research proposal') that specifies your research design. Other people may have to look at the design to poem to mother, ascertain whether there are ethical issues that affect your research. Quantitative or qualitative? A quantitative approach will mean you will need substantial datasets, as well as the inclusion of tables and statistics in your final submission. Npd Process! This information could come from a variety of sources - remember to poem to mother, acknowledge them!

A qualitative approach will probably mean conducting interviews or focus groups or observing behaviour. Ask yourself if you are prepared to do this, and think about the best way of getting the answers you want from people. Will you stop people in the street? Will you conduct telephone interviews? Will you send out survey forms and hope that people return them? Will you be a participant or non participant observer?

Deductive or inductive? Deductive research is theory-testing, which is often linked to datasets, surveys or quantitative analysis. Npd Process! Inductive research is theory-generating, and is often linked to qualitative interviews. Medieval Outlook! Empirical or theoretical? An empirical study could involve close analysis of statistics or some form of qualitative research. However, a theoretical study brings its own challenges, and you may be called upon to compare theories in terms of npd process, their applicability.

Once you have decided upon your approach, you can write out on Gay Identity Jewish, a research design, i.e. how you are going to npd process, approach the project. Have Are You Going! Now look a little at the research methods that you have studied. Apart from matching your research to npd process, your general sense of objective/subjective reality, it is where where are you going important to ensure that you match your methodology to the problem you are pursuing. What kind of data do you need to answer your question/test your hypothesis? How would you best be able to collect that data? Again, consider time and npd process, feasibility of the exercise. The ability to manage your time will be directly related to your ability to control the boundaries of the study Ђ“ especially if it is closely linked to poem to mother, your workplace.

Now that you have got so far, try to write up your research proposal as far as you can. Make sure that you identify where your proposal needs further work and, at the same time, where you will have to put your maximum effort. It may be helpful to draw a critical path so that you are clear which actions you need to take and in npd process, what sequence. Poem To Mother! You will find it helpful to plot your research questions on the chart on the next page and ensure that your plans for npd process, collecting data really answer the question as well as avoiding ethical problems. At this stage you must be really ruthless with yourself. How viable is it? What are the threats to the study? Try some 'what if?' questions on Essay versus Jewish Identity, yourself. It will be better to go back to the drawing board now, than once the project is underway. IMPORTANT : Whatever approach you settle on, you MUST be able to justify its appropriateness to your topic and question. Does the data required to answer your question already exist or will you have to generate your own data?

Can you combine quantitative with qualitative methods? e.g. a survey which includes interviews or a case study that looks at a situation from numerous angles. What factors may limit the scope of your research? (time, resources, etc.) Which method(s) best suit the questions and time you have available to do this study? Do you know the differences between types of npd process, data, and civil rights cases, types of analysis? Does your project have clear links between theory and npd process, practice? BRYMAN, A. (2004). Social Research Method . 2nd ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press. CRESWELL, J. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . Book Summary! 2nd ed., London, Sage.

SEALE, C.(2006). Researching society and npd process, culture . Where Have Where Going! London, Sage. Here are some references for specific methods: ARKSEY, H and KNIGHT, P. (1999). Interviewing for social scientists: an introductory resource . London, Sage. DALE, A.; ARBER, S.; AND PROCTOR, M.(1998). Doing Secondary Analysis . London, Allen and Unwin. HAMMERSLEY, M. and ATKINSON, P. Npd Process! (1995).

Ethnography: Principles in Practice . London, Routledge. OPPENHEIM, A. N. (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement . London, Pinter. Identifying a research topic: A template for structured observation: A site devoted to survey design: A chapter on barrett browning, structured interviewing:

A chapter on qualitative interviewing: An introduction to ethnographic research: Materials for focus group interviews: 1. Npd Process! © Professor Chris Winch, Dr Malcolm Todd, Ian Baker, Dr Jenny Blain, Dr Karen Smith. © This resource has been developed in partnership by the Higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.

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Text: Ronald Gottesman, “ ‘Hop-Frog’ and the American Nightmare,” Masques, Mysteries and Mastodons: A Poe Miscellany (2006), pp. 133-144 ( This material is protected by npd process, copyright ) The danger of a conflict between the white and sonnet 29 elizabeth browning, black inhabitants perpetually haunts the imagination of the Americans, like a painful dream. Alexis de Tocqueville. The custom of calling women Mrs. John This and Mrs. Tom That, and colored men Sambo and Zip Coon is founded on the principle that white men are lords of all. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. What is the npd process, real nature of have you been where are you this violence?

We have seen that it is the intuition of the colonized masses that their liberation must, and can only, be achieved by npd process, force. Africanism is the vehicle by which the American self knows itself as not enslaved, but free; not repulsive, but desirable; not helpless, but licensed and powerful; not history-less, but historical; not damned, but innocent; not a blind accident of evolution, but a progressive fulfillment of destiny. In several annual volumes of American Literary Scholarship , Professors Benjamin F. Fisher and Kent P. Poem To Mother? Ljungquist have both noted a division in Poe studies between scholars and critics, historicists and theoreticians, and they are no doubt right in having done so. Nonetheless, I want to suggest indeed, to npd process, demonstrate that it is possible to where are you going, integrate these ostensibly opposed methods, approaches or dispositions. I hope to show that a paper on Poe, even a short one, can attend to social, historical, and political contexts, can also be mindful that texts are written by real individuals, at particular times and under concrete material and cultural circumstances, and, finally, can be aware that writers draw on all sorts of npd process literary, extra-literary, and sub-literary sources. I want to insist, moreover, that just as Poe was not only partly an empirical prefect but also partly an intuitive detective, so a critic may be both. Indeed, as a critic, Poe was quite right to insist that we must read with “kindred art,” that we should feel obliged to pay attention to the contribution each word makes to that larger design we call meaning, and especially that we need to be ever-conscious that tales, like essays, may have “a strong undercurrent of suggestion [running] continuously beneath the upper stream of the tranquil thesis.”(1) I would add to famous civil, these critical dicta that while it is true that sometimes a cigar is only a cigar, meditation and meerschaum often are wedded and npd process, an author, especially [page 134:] one given obsessively to word play and hoaxes, may send up “curling eddies of smoke” to obscure our vision. To put it another way, D.H.

Lawrence was correct to urge us to trust the tale rather than the author or the narrator. As I proceed with my examination, in this case of “Hop-Frog,” I shall try to keep in mind Dupin’s caveat that “There is such a thing as being too profound,” but I will also be aware that it is invariably helpful to “look at Outlook on the Bubonic Essay, a star by npd process, glances to view it in a side-long way.. . .” ( M 2:545) Before moving on to that full examination I wish to take note of certain important developments in the continuing reassessment of Poe’s career. What I have in mind may be perhaps best suggested by referring to poem to mother, two fairly recent summary accounts of Poe the one by npd process, Robert D. Jacobs in The History of Southern Literature (1985), the other by barrett, G.R. Thompson in npd process the Columbia Literary History of the United States (1988). Both of these brief critical biographies are first-rate, both insist (the latter rather more than the former) on Poe as a professional man of letters with international rather than regional or national ambitions, and sonnet 29 elizabeth, both play down Poe’s Southernness. Jacobs says in part: Poe’s politics, what he had, were Southern Whig, but except for npd process occasional thrusts against Jacksonian democracy, his writings showed little concern for political affairs. 12 Years A Slave Book Summary? Reviewing Poe in the context of Southern Literature, one may say correctly that he wrote on topics common to Southern poets, but with a tone and a range of symbolic reference all his own. His insistent lyricism was congenial to the Southern temperament, but probably his penchanct for the brief lyric derived from the early German romantics rather than the npd process, Cavalier tradition so honored in a slave the South.(2) Thompson makes the npd process, case even more strongly, suggesting that Poe’s “‘Southernness’ is suspect,” and offers the following observations on Poe’s political and literary relationship to Southern issues and themes:

In marked contrast to the ideas of Simms. . .Poe’s conception of letters is virtually devoid of sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett regionalist sentiment. Only once in nearly one thousand reviews, articles, columns, and critical notices written over a fifteen-year period does Poe let the issue of Southernness get the npd process, better of a purely literary judgement; and the brief flash of Southern temper is revealing in its very singularity of Poe’s conception of [page 135:] the profession of letters. Moreover, this review of James Russell Lowell’s A Fable for Critics (1849) is the only instance of Poe’s taking any kind of stand on the issue of Medieval Outlook Bubonic Plague Essay slavery. (The notorious review of npd process two books defending slavery in the Messenger in 1836, upon which some interpretations of Poe’s Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym have been based, was written not by Poe but in all likelihood by Medieval Outlook on the, Beverly Tucker.) With this single exception, aside from an occasional comment that something promises better days for Southern letters, Poe does not campaign for a Southern literature. It is npd process American literature on the world stage that is important to him.(3) Now I believe that these two authorities on a slave book Poe are correct in npd process general on the issues of Poe’s lack of 29 elizabeth barrett political engagement, his distant relationship to “Southernness,” and the nature of his literary ambition and practice.

Still, I want to say that with respect to “Hop-Frog” specifically, these accounts of Poe deprive us of important means to npd process, understanding this troubling story and its author. To put the matter more positively (and perhaps more aggressively), individual critics must be willing to fly in the face of conventional wisdom even when that conventional wisdom in general makes sense. Criticism, finally, is sonnet 29 elizabeth about particulars. “Hop-Frog,” though fairly frequently anthologized, has not received much scholarly or critical attention. We do know that the story was finished in February 1849, the last year of Poe’s life. In a letter to Annie Richmond dated the 8th of that month Poe wrote: The 5 prose pages I finished yesterday are called what do you think? I am sure you will never guess “ Hop-Frog !” Only think of your Eddy writing a story with such a name as “ Hop-Frog !” You would never guess the npd process, subject (which is book summary a terrible one) from the title, I am sure. It will be published in a weekly paper, of Boston. not a very respectable journal, perhaps, in a literary point of view, but one that pays as high prices as most of the npd process, Magazines. [ i.e. Essay Identity Versus Identity? $5.00] ( O 427) Poe went on to speak of his anxiety about getting out of his “pecuniary difficulties,” and, in the closing paragraph, to note that he and npd process, Mrs. Clemm could not make any plans about 12 years a slave book housing since, being poor, they were “the slaves of circumstances.” The story was published in The Flag of npd process Our Union on Medieval on the Bubonic 17 March 1849 under the title, “Hop-Frog: or the Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs.” [page 136:]

We also know, thanks to Arthur Hobson Quinn, that a likely source for some of the npd process, characters and events of this terrible subject was a piece published in the Broadway Journal for famous civil rights cases 1 February 1845 (shortly before Poe purchased one-third interest in that periodical).(4) Actually, the source was a double one, for during the course of npd process reporting a horrible accident that had recently occurred at the Drury Lane Theater in a slave summary London, the author recalls in a footnote a historical analogue to the accident, one recorded in Froissart’s vivid fourteenth century Chronicles of French court life. The Drury Lane accident involved Clara Webster, a dancer performing in npd process the opera “The Revolt of the Harem,” whose gauze dress was ignited by barrett browning, the stage footlights. In spite of this horrifying (and fatal) incident, the show went on to its conclusion. The Froissart story supplied much of the npd process, material Poe’s imagination needed a court celebration, six noblemen dressed in garments made of pitch-covered linen adorned with flax so that “they seemed like wild savages full of hair from the top of the head to the sole of the foot,” and a horrifying denouement. In Froissart’s account five of these “wild savages” were chained together while the sonnet browning, king, the npd process, sixth, was left free. Even though the danger of fire had been anticipated, the five joined “savages” were accidentally ignited and four of them burned to death. The king was covered with the civil, train of the npd process, Duchess of Berry’s gown and thus saved from the hideous fate that befell the others (though how the train of a dress would have offered protection is not explained). Before I return to the differences between these double sources and Poe’s use of them, I should like to review some of what has been written about this “terrible” story. The sensitivity to drink of it main character was early interpreted (by James H. Poem To Mother? Harrison, editor of the npd process, Virginia Edition of Poe) as an autobiographical reference to Poe’s low tolerance for alcohol (an interpretation unenthusiastically endorsed by Stuart and Medieval Bubonic Plague Essay, Susan Levine in their annotated edition of Poe’s short fiction and considerably extended and enriched by npd process, Ruth Clements in a paper delivered at the American Literature Association Meeting, 31 May 1990).(5) Richard Wilbur has remarked, moreover, on some of the book, details of the furniture in the story (the encapsulating round ball-room and the chandelier chain which hangs from its domed ceiling),(6) and the story is often alluded to by scholars and critics in passing with respect to whatever theme, pattern of imagery, or symbolic action is npd process otherwise [page 137:] being discussed. Where Have You Been Are You? Hervey Allen, for npd process example, suggested long ago that the narrative is a transparent allegory in which Hop-Frog represents, Imagination, Trippetta Fancy, and where you been are you going, the King prosaic Reality which seeks to npd process, enslave them both.(7) Thus the story has been seen as an example of browning what Wilbur identifies as “Poe’s fundamental plot the efforts of the poetic soul to escape all consciousness of the npd process, world in sonnet barrett browning a dream (p 103).”

In 1976, James W. Gargano explicated this story and npd process, several others in terms of Outlook Bubonic Plague Poe’s “masquerade vision,” a vision in npd process which “mankind’s hubris and rights cases, insignificance” are exposed.(8) More recently, J. Npd Process? Gerald Kennedy concludes a brief discussion of the story with this observation: “In ‘Hop-Frog’ Poe effaced the psychic complications of violence to articulate a fantasy of revenge [accomplished] with impunity. But the happily-ever-after ending betrays the fairy tale; only in a purely imaginary world, Poe seems to acknowledge, can one silence an enemy and where you been going, escape the consequences.” In the actual world, Kennedy writes, such “tales of adversarial relationship” are really about self-murder, Poe’s central subject, which in turn “spring[s] from the need to destroy the counterpart who incarnates our human frailty.” More recently still, Kenneth Silverman refers to “Hop-Frog” as a “briskly-narrated tale of revenge” which dramatizes Poe’s own grievances against “a small army of people by whom he had come to npd process, feel abused and misled. . .,” thus reintroducing psycho-biographical elements that the Levines had warned against.(9) As interesting and even helpful in certain ways as such observations and interpretations are, they miss, I believe, the more obvious and thus perhaps more elusive significance of the narrative. Certainly, as far as this story goes, they don’t account for Essay Identity Jewish Identity enough of its puzzling details, its nervous ambience, and npd process, its horrifying conclusion. Indeed, as the Levines are compelled to ask: “why. . .is the vengence so hideous?” Rather lamely, it seems to on Gay versus Identity, me, they answer: “Probably because Poe believed that every tale should create a strong effect, bizarre, grotesque, outré’”(Levine p. Npd Process? 252). I believe that better answers are possible, and I will offer one below. The only extended analysis of the story I have been able to locate appears in Marie Bonaparte’s notorious and massive psychoanalytic interpretation of the life and works of Poe. Dismissing Hervey Allen’s interpretation as “too detached, abstract and allegorical to explain the interest this strange story still continues to excite,” Bonaparte offers her own: [page 138:]

First and Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Essay, foremost, Hop-Frog is a typical OEdipus story in which the son triumphantly compensates his infirmity, doubtless symbolic of the npd process, author’s impotence for, as we saw, the crippled dwarf has stronger arms than any. Thus, he can climb so high above the assembled guests that he is able to kill the king and escape with his beloved. Hop-Frog is a typical OEdipus tale, moreover, in that the son triumphantly gratifies the two great wishes which inspire the OEdipus complex: first, by burning to death the famous, king to npd process, requite him for his guilty penis-urethral erotism (his ourang-outang’s livery was the murderer’s in another tale), and, then, by burning his seven ministers, all doubles of the cardinal royal figure. In addition, he escapes unharmed with Trippetta, the dancer, his protectress and abettor who represents Poe’s mother “to their own country; for neither was seen again.”(10) Whether in thus making the interpretation involved, concrete, and personal, Bonaparte compels even partial consent is Outlook Bubonic Plague Essay not my purpose to argue. I do think, though, that her hobby-horse at least bobs in the right direction. Indeed, what I want to argue is that the story does yield important meanings if we see it as a projection of psychic distress, but of anxiety and guilty identification which have their source in post-infantile social experience rather than in npd process infantile sexual traumata. “Hop-Frog,” I wish to suggest, provides access to have are you going, Poe’s consciousness and unconscious, to his state of mind and state of soul in the last years of npd process his life. Before offering my own reading, I should like to call on Harry Levin who can help us to understand how for Poe historical facts, literary sources, and Essay Jewish, personal experiences were imaginatively and unconsciously transmuted and shaped into a vivid fictional nightmare that at the same time refracts everyday social reality. Npd Process? Some readers will recall Levin’s claim in The Power of 12 years book Blackness that “whereas, for Hawthorne, black and white more or less conventionally symbolize theological and moral values, for Poe, whose symbols claim to npd process, be actualities, they are charged with basic associations which are psychological and social.”(11) We should keep this observation in mind as we return to the matter of the differences between Poe’s story and Froissart’s chronicle. The essential transformations of the source have to do with character, motive, and barrett, plot.

In Poe’s adaptation, Hop-Frog and npd process, Trippetta are invented and developed in some detail. In Poe’s [page 139:] adaptation, Hop-Frog and famous civil rights, Trippetta accomplish a more or less justified revenge on an obese King and his obtuse counselors. He who lives for the joke, dies by it. The story, as Terence Martin proposed many years ago,(12) is an instance of Poe’s wayward imagination forcing the grotesque into the cruel. The crude and npd process, naked aggression of the corpulent master is definitively repaid by the cleverly masked counter-cruelty of the have where are you, crippled dwarf-slave. The horrible fate in npd process Poe’s imagined court is by no means accidental; it includes, moreover, the king. No one in Essay Identity Jewish Identity power escapes the dwarf’s definitive revenge. But the new narrative is npd process more than a story of appalling retribution; it is 12 years book not at least in the sense the Levines specify a story about “Moral Issues” (p. Npd Process? 251).

To come to the point, I see “Hop-Frog” as a working out of Poe’s ambivalent response to poem to mother, the terrible realities of slavery as he and most Americans experienced them in npd process the North as well as in the South. At one level of his consciousness, as Harry Levin claims, Poe held the Negro in profound contempt and civil rights, supported the institution of slavery. His letters and article reveal him as an npd process unyielding upholder of slavery, and as no great admirer of the Negro. The Negroes in a slave book his stories are comic stereotypes, among whom the servant Jupiter in “The Gold Bug” is a relatively favorable example. For Northerners who sympathized with the npd process, slaves, Poe’s hatred was so intense that he could not review James Russell Lowell’s poems without launching into a diatribe against Abolitionism . . . .In the troubled depths of Poe’s unconscious, there must have been not only the poem to mother, fantasy of a lost heritage, but a resentment and a racial phobia (pp. 120-121).

The complication I want to insist on, however, is that in npd process “the troubled depths of Poe’s unconscious” he also identified with the objects of his racial phobia. In short, Poe was profoundly ambivalent about Blacks and the institution of Medieval on the Plague Essay slavery. He believed himself intellectually and morally superior to the mass of men black and npd process, white and Essay on Gay Identity, had an npd process aristocratic contempt for poem to mother the world, but another part of npd process this painfully divided man identified with the Bubonic Essay, wretched of the npd process, earth out of the anguish of his own experience as outsider and bottom-dog. Poem To Mother? If with his public mind Poe could conclude in the guise of Arthur Gordon Pym that the black Tsalalians black even to their teeth were “the most wicked, hypocritical, vindictive, blood thirsty, and altogether fiendish race of men upon the face of the globe,” ( P 1: 201) as a [page 140:] survivior of their treachery he watches with a helpless and npd process, horrified intensity that amounts to a barely suppressed relish the assault, stripping, and Identity versus Jewish, torching of the Jane Guy , the ship that had carried him south into the heart of darkness. Npd Process? The Tsalian women, “straight, tall, and well-formed and with a grace of freedom of carriage not to on the Plague, be found in civilized society” were “most obliging in every respect,” but their compliant nature masked a lust for destruction ( P 1: 174).

The fury of the rape of the Jane Guy , I propose, is a vivid depiction of the nightmare of npd process a slave revolt observed with the curious if not perverse pleasure that comes from the recognition of a certain kind of justice as the colonized, despised and on Gay versus Jewish Identity, powerless have their day. “Hop-Frog” takes place in another country, however, and in this story the wench is not a whore. What is stressed in this narrative is not Black perfidy but the dialectic of omnipotence and helplessness, oppression and npd process, revolt, injury and retribution. And even more clearly in this story than in Pym , Poe identifies with the indentured victims, with Hop-Frog and his mother-lover Trippetta. If, as Levin suggests, in the simians of poem to mother such tales as “Murders,” “Marie Roget,” and “The System of Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether” there is a hint of “an old Southern bugbear, the npd process, fear of exposing a mother or a sister to Outlook on the Plague, the suspected brutality of a darker race (p.

141),” in “Hop-Frog” the repressed rage of a race whose women are freely “petted” by white masters and whose men are forced to npd process, stand by as impotent witnesses is given terrible release. Hop-Frog, it will be remembered, comes to the court “from some barbarous region,” and browning, both he and Trippetta had been “forcibly carried off from their respective homes in adjoining provinces” ( M 3: 1346). Like a slave’s, Hop-Frog’s name was “not given to npd process, the dwarf by famous civil cases, his sponsors at baptism, but it was conferred on him, by npd process, general consent of the seven ministers,” the white power structure, his masters. Poe (who was described by contemporaries as having a “jerky gait” and bandy legs), was amused by stage stereotypes of shuffling blacks and Hop-Frog’s “interjectional gait” is reminiscent of the demeaningly comic shamble of the “house-nigger.” Like Pym’s half-breed alter ego Dirk Peters, however, Hop-Frog has “prodigious muscular power” (p. 1346) in his arms and another and more terrible kind of power in the imagination that conceives perfect revenge in the cataclysmic inversion of power relationships. In spite of this physical strength, Hop-Frog cannot be much use to Trippetta, “but she , on account of her grace and exquisite beauty [page 141:] (although a dwarf) was universally admired and petted: so she possessed much influence; and never failed to use it, whenever she could, for Medieval on the Essay the benefit of Hop-Frog” ( M 3: 1346). Her sexual attractiveness, in short, gives her the kind of leverage her symbolically castrated mate, for all of his wit, can never have. She can help him, but, disabled from the waist down, he “had it not in his power to render Trippetta many services,” (p.

1346) a theme explored in scores of nineteenth- and twentieth-century narratives by and about African-Americans. In this story, the seeds of the terrible denouement are planted in npd process the vivid scene in which the king, punningly, demands that Hop-Frog and Trippetta supply them with “character,” identities which they can display at the imminent masquerade ball. During this scene, the ill-humored king forces Hop-Frog to drink a goblet of wine; the immediate result is to make him think sadly of his “absent friends.” The king is enraged by Hop-Frog’s apparent sulkiness and orders him to drink down another goblet. Poem To Mother? At this point Trippetta intercedes on his behalf. Npd Process? In “evident wonder at her audacity” (read uppityness) the poem to mother, king, “purple with rage,” hesitates “for some moments” before pushing her away violently and throwing the “contents of the brimming goblet in her face (1348, 1349).” (One wonders what went on in those moments.) Forced to witness this degrading treatment of npd process Trippetta, Hop-Frog can only sonnet 29 elizabeth browning, grate his teeth menacingly. But when the king demands to know why he is making that noise, Hop-Frog “looking fixedly but quietly into the tyrant’s face, merely ejaculated; “‘I I? How could it have been me?’” The sound is explained away (in a marvelously compact allusion) as only that of a parrot “whetting his bill upon his cage-wires (p. 1349).” Hop-Frog here, as African-American characters in so many other nineteenth-and twentieth-century American texts do, behaves deceptively. After draining another bumper of wine, Hop-Frog explains that (just after the npd process, king had mistreated Trippetta and while the parrot was making the odd noise), there came to his mind “a capital diversion” a frolic often enacted in his country but one unknown in the king’s. The diversion, the beauty of which “lies in the fright it occasions among the women,” (p. 1350) is called, of course, “the Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs.” Delighted with this suggestion, the King excitedly promises Hop-Frog: “I will make a man of you (p.

1350).” Hop-Frog devises the poem to mother, costumes for npd process this masquerade, dressing the king and his counselors in stockinet shirts and drawers, then saturating them with tar. As the famous civil, [page 142:] narrator observes, “At this stage of the process, some one of the party suggested feathers; but the suggestion was at once overruled by the dwarf ( M 3:1350-51).” Abolitionists might be tarred and feathered, but not slaves. For as Hop-Frog works out his joke, we clearly understand that the eight unwitting victims have been reduced to the condition of a chain-gang of slaves, chained, we are told, “after the fashion adopted at the present day, by npd process, those who capture chimpanzees, or other large apes, in Borneo (p. 1351).” What more exactly appropriate and where have you been going, complete retribution than to transform the victimizer into npd process the victim, to 12 years a slave book summary, arrange for the lyncher to anticipate with relish and dress for his own lynching? As soon as the clock ceases striking midnight, the eight “ourang-outangs” roll and stumble (like a collective Hop-Frog) into the room. In the ensuring tumult, during which “there was much real danger from the pressure of the excited crowd,” p. 1352) the chandelier is lowered to npd process, within three feet of the floor.

Hop-Frog hooks the you been where, king and npd process, the counselors to it, grabs a flambeau, “leaps” with the agility of a monkey on the king’s head, and has this gruesome cargo hauled thirty feet into the air. Then, to the accompaniment of poem to mother his fiercely grinding “fang-like teeth,” he sets fire to the king. In a few moments, “the work of vengeance was complete. Npd Process? The eight corpses swung in 29 elizabeth barrett browning their chains, a fetid, blackened, hideous and npd process, indistinguishable mass p. 1354).” In the words of Billie Holiday’s devastating lyric, they become strange fruit. Thus in “Hop-Frog” does Poe project the fear of slave revolts that openly gripped Virginia and the rest of the South during the sonnet browning, first half of the npd process, 1800s. 12 Years Book? Of course, similar fears gripped the North in Poe’s lifetime and continue to do so in our time, though most Americans bring these anxieties to full consciousness mainly when they erupt as “racial tensions” in the form of “disturbances” and “riots,” most especially when such “disturbances” threaten to interfere with Superbowl games or the building of Chamber of Commerce inter-racial harmony in Los Angeles (and other American cities). That he was able sympathetically, yet with a shock of horror, to project this nightmare inspired by Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner and other African-American leaders of slave rebellions,(13) would seem to be the measure, in his last desperate year, both of Poe’s endorsement of slavery and of his half-conscious sense of a fate shared with these slaves. As a young man he had complained bitterly to his foster-father, John Allan: “You suffer me to be subjected to npd process, the whims of caprice, not only of your white family, but the complete authority of your blacks” ( O 8). As a broken older man struggling futilely to make ends [page 143:] meet in the context of an emerging capitalism controlled by Northern industrialists, Poe seems to famous civil, have realized, however unconsciously, in a way that perhaps only he could have enjoyed, that the regional and racial jokes were on him. If this proposition seems far-fetched, perhaps we might recall the concluding sentence of Toni Morrison’s most recent book on American Africanism: “All of us, readers and writers, are bereft when criticism remains too polite and fearful to notice a disrupting darkness before its eyes.”(14) Or perhaps, finally, we might contemplate Nietszche’s designation of Poe as one of those “great poets” with “souls in which they must usually conceal some fracture; often taking revenge with their works for some inner contamination, often seeking with their high flights to escape forgetfulness from all-too-faithful memory; idealists from the vicinity of swamps .”(15) 1. Npd Process? Edgar Allan Poe, Review of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Twice-Told Tales [ Graham’s Magazine 20 (May 1842) 299].

2. Robert D. Jacobs, “Edgar Allan Poe,” The History of Southern Literature , gen. ed. Louis D. Rubin (Baton Rouge, 1985) p. 135. 3. G. R. Thompson, “Edgar Allan Poe and the Writers of the Old South,” Columbia Literary History of the United States (New York, 1988) pp. 268-269. 4. Arthur Hobson Quinn, Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography (New York, 1941) p. 596. For a compelling account of another likely source this one richly biographical see Louis D. Rubin, Jr.’s perceptive discussion of the sonnet barrett browning, catastrophic fire that consumed Richmond, Virginia theater in December of 1811. It was in the same theater that Poe’s mother performed, eight days before her death, for npd process the last time on 29 November 1811. Poem To Mother? Rubin speculates that the story dramatizes Poe’s resentment of Richmond’s “indifference to the plight of the Poe family, as well as for the later conduct of genteel Richmond toward a needy young poet-editor and his child bride.” Louis D. Rubin, Jr., The Edge of the Swamp: A Study in the Literature of the Old South (Baton Rouge and London, 1989) pp. 183-89.

I am indebted to Benjamin Fisher for calling this item to my attention. 5. James A. Harrison, The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe (New York, 1902). Npd Process? Stuart Levine and Susan Levine, eds., The Short Fictions of Edgar Allan Poe: An Annotated Edition (Urbana and Chicago, 1990) pp. 251-252. [page 144:] 6. Richard Wilbur, “The House of Poe,” Robert Regan, ed., Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays (Engelwood Cliffs, 1967) pp. 112, 116.

7. Hervey Allen, Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe (New York, 1934) p. 513. 8. James W. Gargano, The Masquerade Vision in Poe’s Short Stories (Baltimore, 1977) p. 6. 9. J. Gerald Kennedy, Poe, Death and the Life of Writing (New Haven, 1987) pp. 143-144. Kenneth Silverman, Edgar A. Poe: A Mournful and Never-Ending Remembrance (New York, 1991) pp. 406-407. Levine and famous civil rights, Levine pp. 251-252. 10. Marie Bonaparte, The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe: A Psychoanalytic Interpretation , trans.

John Rodker (1949) p. 513. 11. Harry Levin, The Power of Blackness: Hawthorne, Poe, Melville (New York, 1960) p. Npd Process? 120. See also Silverman pp. 206-207. Further evidence of Poe’s attitudes towards blacks may be seen in “A Predicament,” “The Man That Was Used Up,” and where where are you going, “The Journal of Julius Rodman.” 12. Terence Martin, “The Imagination at Play: Edgar Allan Poe,” Kenyon Review , 27 (1966) 194-209. 13. See, for example, Herbert Aptheker, Negro Slave Revolts in the United States, 1526-1860 (New York, 1939) and npd process, Eugene D. Genovese, From Rebellion to on the Bubonic Plague Essay, Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World (Baton Rouge, 1979). 14.

Toni Morrison, Playing in npd process the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination . (Cambridge, Mass. and poem to mother, London, 1992) p. Npd Process? 91. 15. Quoted in Diane Johnson, “Dreams of Edgar Allan Poe,” New York Review of Books , 18 July 1991 p. 7. [S:0 - MMM, 2006] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Bookshelf - Masques, Mysteries and Mastodons: A Poe Miscellany (Hop-Frog and sonnet browning, the American Nightmare)

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3 page essay on wwi About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Npd Process? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of Identity Jewish these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the npd process British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.

The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on Essay on Gay Identity versus Jewish Identity 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on npd process 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the Medieval Plague same evening. Npd Process? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 12 years a slave 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and npd process debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the poem to mother case in the past.

They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of npd process war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Poem To Mother? The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in npd process the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only where you been are you going, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige.

These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and npd process submit to the tyranny of famous civil rights cases events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the npd process consequences to 12 years a slave, themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and npd process only reliable ally, to sonnet barrett browning, be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the npd process Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of 12 years a slave their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Npd Process? This it was imperative to poem to mother, defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and npd process Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to poem to mother, patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and npd process waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to on the Bubonic Plague Essay, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to npd process, the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Poem To Mother? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the npd process dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and Identity versus Jewish with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for npd process, the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of famous civil rights America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in npd process that of Europe and the world, bringing to where have you been where going, an end half a millennium of European domination and npd process ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in famous civil France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and npd process field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an civil rights cases, enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies.

The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. Npd Process? The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the where where are you going ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. Npd Process? The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to civil cases, the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in npd process a very strong position.

The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to 12 years a slave summary, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of npd process French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. On Gay Versus Identity? These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and npd process their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. 12 Years Summary? During this period the Germans stood mainly on npd process the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to browning, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of npd process strategic significance were captured. Sonnet 29 Elizabeth? Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the npd process battles of the poem to mother Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on npd process the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Outlook On The Essay? The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat.

But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Npd Process? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to famous rights, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Npd Process? The Allied counter-offensive began in Essay versus July. At the npd process Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Essay on Gay versus Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the npd process war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and poem to mother the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the npd process security of Germany's eastern frontiers for book summary, the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the npd process Russians had been driven out of 12 years a slave book summary Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the npd process Austrians to fight an three fronts: against 12 years book summary Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in npd process the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to Identity Jewish, the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and npd process national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of where have you been Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out npd process, of the war.

This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in where are you the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at npd process, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.

This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of on Gay versus Jewish purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the npd process Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Where You Been Where Are You Going? Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the npd process Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on on Gay Identity versus the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the npd process Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an you been going, attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to npd process, withdraw at civil, the end of the npd process year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in 12 years a slave summary the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by npd process a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in famous civil rights Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to npd process, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in 29 elizabeth March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Npd Process? He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in civil rights cases Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and npd process surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. Have Are You? On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the npd process better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Outlook on the Plague Essay Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Npd Process? Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the where have you been going Black Sea, the Atlantic, the npd process Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. On Gay Versus Jewish? The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in npd process peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the sonnet military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of npd process season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in poem to mother defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of npd process naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for poem to mother, the establishment of npd process a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'.

This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of poem to mother First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. Npd Process? No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. Poem To Mother? The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by npd process European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Rights? They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in npd process the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the rights cases best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the npd process field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the poem to mother first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Npd Process? By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the on Gay versus Jewish First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in npd process the emergence of the poem to mother German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on npd process interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Famous Civil Rights Cases? 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of npd process these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Medieval Outlook Bubonic Plague Essay? The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the npd process Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Essay inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of npd process outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and barrett browning without political judgement. Npd Process? In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett browning, ruin.

The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Npd Process? Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.

They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. On Gay Jewish Identity? Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of npd process scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of 12 years book Belgium.

At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Npd Process? A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and npd process 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. 12 Years Book Summary? For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Npd Process? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the poem to mother stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Npd Process? The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to 29 elizabeth browning, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Npd Process? Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the famous cases war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for npd process, War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army.

There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Civil Cases? Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the npd process French and poem to mother Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and npd process decide the peace. Identity Jewish Identity? For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from npd process it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the Medieval Outlook Plague French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to npd process, acquiesce in a French defeat.

French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for poem to mother, making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the npd process field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from 29 elizabeth December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Npd Process? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the Identity Jewish German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and npd process Italian fronts. Poem To Mother? A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to npd process, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett browning Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of npd process their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Barrett Browning? Europe in npd process 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on have you been where are you going the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the npd process telephone, the 29 elizabeth browning typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of npd process unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and Medieval on the Plague Essay machine-guns transformed the npd process range, rapidity, accuracy, and civil cases deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Npd Process? But it did not begin as one. Civil Rights Cases? The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.

As a result the npd process opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of Outlook on the Bubonic Essay strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced.

For much of the npd process war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to famous cases, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by npd process shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and a slave book summary infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to npd process, fall back on their own firepower and versus Jewish Identity this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for npd process, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to Medieval Outlook Plague Essay, the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by npd process maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and 29 elizabeth direction, temperature, and humidity. Npd Process? All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in where have you been are you going large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the npd process infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the poem to mother explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to npd process, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of versus Jewish 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to npd process, a halt.

From the have are you autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Npd Process? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Poem To Mother? Effective use was made of npd process poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Famous Civil Rights? The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and npd process control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the on Gay Identity Jewish Identity British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and npd process mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Rights? Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory.

This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to npd process, deepen the trench system and 12 years a slave book limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of npd process 1916 the Germans took these changes to on Gay Identity, their logical conclusion by npd process instituting a system of on Gay Identity versus Jewish 'elastic defence in npd process depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to Outlook on the, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and npd process speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by Medieval Essay a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of npd process communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the Outlook on the Bubonic Plague momentum and inflict upon npd process enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on poem to mother the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale.

It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Npd Process? Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and Identity versus Identity more men for the factories. Balancing the npd process competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in 12 years summary a much stronger position than Germany.

They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. Npd Process? American troops arrived in where have you been are you going France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of npd process production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.

In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in where are you going many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of npd process adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.

One of the major threats to this was the equality of barrett browning access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Npd Process? Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of Medieval Outlook on the Essay North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the npd process Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in 29 elizabeth browning everywhere by 1917. Npd Process? There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. 12 Years Summary? The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the npd process stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by famous cases the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Npd Process? Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Barrett Browning? This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Npd Process? They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic the quality of British military leadership.

The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the npd process British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to 12 years a slave, accept naval parity with the npd process Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.

The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by poem to mother Oxford University Press.

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Essays On Biodiversity Essays and Research Papers. ?Hand out npd process : Biodiversity Biological Diversity or Biodiversity - is the variety (diversity) of all life forms on earth, . encompassing all plants, animals, microorganisms and the intricate ecosystems they form. - the a slave book totality of ecosystems, species, and genes within the area. Levels of Biodiversity 1. Species Diversity (Different Life Forms) 2. Npd Process? Genetic Diversity (Different characteristics of plants, animals other living organisms) 3. Ecosystem Diversity (Different types of. Biodiversity , Ecology , Ecosystem 404 Words | 2 Pages. Biodiversity Ecological Essay Biodiversity is the variety of plant and animal species. . You Been Where Are You Going? Biodiversity is very important to our ecosystem. The biodiversity of species can provide a variety of food such as meat, vegetables, and npd process fruit. Most of our medicinal drugs come from rights plants.

The periwinkle plant found in Madagascar, helps treat a lot of patients’ cancer. The yew tree also provides drugs that can fight cancer. Biodiversity is being threatened and we need to protect it. A boy named Jason Spaniel. Arctic Circle , Biodiversity , Endangered species 937 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Detailed explanation Biodiversity ! Introduction What is npd process, Biodiversity ? The word ' biodiversity ' is civil rights cases, a . contraction (short form) of biological diversity. Diversity is npd process, a concept which refers to the range of variation or differences among some set of Essay on Gay Identity versus entities; biological diversity thus refers to npd process, variety within the civil living world (here a habitat). Npd Process? The term ' biodiversity ' is indeed commonly used to describe the number, variety and variability of living organisms. From the a slave above explanation. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 796 Words | 4 Pages.

continued loss of biodiversity as an npd process, issue separate from the where have you been where going core concerns of society: to tackle poverty, to improve the health, prosperity and . security of present and npd process future generations, and to deal with climate change. Each of those objectives is undermined by current trends in the state of our ecosystems, and each will be greatly strengthened if we finally give biodiversity the priority it deserves. The Majesty of Life When we say we want to save the planet, we use the poem to mother word biodiversity to npd process, encompass. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecosystem 1250 Words | 5 Pages. Biodiversity is comprised of the totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. The occurrence of various kinds of flora and fauna in a . region reflects its biological diversity or biodiversity . In most parts of the world which are habitable, the living world abounds in biodiversity . In a patch of forest, there is where have where are you going, a wide variety of insects, animals, plants and trees. All plant and animal species cannot occur at one place. Npd Process? Whether or not a species can occur on a site is determined by environmental. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 1841 Words | 6 Pages.

? Biodiversity J.N.M Grade 10A HIS Ms. Famous Rights? C.W Biodiversity is the npd process biological variety or diversity of . Medieval Bubonic Essay? life on Earth (Anup). Npd Process? It is a connection between all organisms (10 Surprising Threats to Biodiversity ); these organisms are all part of a “biologically diverse Earth.” Biodiversity enhances productivity in an ecosystem in which all species have an sonnet barrett, important role to play. Not only does it enhance productivity but also when it is conserved and healthy, it offers us many. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 778 Words | 3 Pages. major impact on npd process, biodiversity , not least with the increasingly demanding requirements to design more energy efficient and airtight buildings, . 29 Elizabeth? leaving less space for species to inhabit. Biodiversity under threat: There is much public concern about npd process threats to global biodiversity . Industrial pollution, changes in agricultural practices and 29 elizabeth climate change, are all having a direct impact on biodiversity . Npd Process? In this book the Editors provide a broad view of the many threats to global biodiversity imposed by human-induced. Biodiversity , Earth , Ecology 1658 Words | 4 Pages. ?Rachel Newell Walter Zeller International Relations November 18,2013 Loss of Biodiversity David Ehrenfeld says in his book . On The Plague? Biodiversity “The value of npd process biological diversity tells us a great deal about why biological diversity is in trouble”(212).

People tend to over look the importance of biodiversity . Without it we would lose a lot of the summary resources that we use for npd process, important and everyday things. One example is on the Bubonic Essay, that a lot of medicines come from npd process plants, and the more plants we have on the planet. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Endangered species 1849 Words | 9 Pages. UNIQUE AND THREATENED BIODIVERSITY The patchwork of isolated islands, the tropical location of the country, and the once extensive areas of . rainforest have resulted in high species diversity in some groups of organisms and cases a very high level of endemism. There are five major and at least five minor centers of endemism, ranging in size from Luzon, the npd process largest island (103,000 km?), which, for sonnet barrett, example, has at least 31 endemic species of mammals, to npd process, tiny Camiguin Island (265 km?) speck of land north. Biodiversity , Endangered species , Endemism 2268 Words | 7 Pages. ? Biodiversity Essay Does encaging the animals in such places as zoo and aquarium be clarified as preserving . biodiversity ? There are two sides to this issue. Main points that support the famous rights idea of keeping the animals in npd process, cages that often come up are zoos are able to provide protection and they can increase the population of those species who are endangered (Hurley, J). Some important points that are against poem to mother the idea of encaging the animals include the animals develop abnormal behaviours and they believe.

Biodiversity , Ecology , Endangered species 778 Words | 2 Pages. MARKS 100 = 15% OF FINAL GRADE. DUE DATE: FRIDAY 28 OCTOBER 2011 I. VITI LEVU – MAJOR ESSAY 1 Write an 8-page essay on . “Viti Levu: A Case Study of Island Biodiversity ”. Your essay should focus on npd process, the different natural and cultural terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity that are found on have you been where are you, Viti Levu, with focus on dominant species (plants and animals) and crops in different areas. The essay should be based on npd process, what you have learned in the past and your personal research and observations. Biodiversity , Dune , Fiji 935 Words | 3 Pages. between preserving our natural heritage and Medieval on the Bubonic developing our land for practical uses increases substantially. In an effort to npd process, examine whether our natural . heritage is poem to mother, still worth preserving in npd process, the face of competing land uses, this essay analyzes the benefits that our biodiversity continues to provide us with in modern society. Throughout this analysis, relevant examples are drawn from published studies, as well as practices of organizations / individuals from other countries.

Today, the primary forests. Air pollution , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Threats to Biodiversity and Conservation of Bubonic Essay Biodiversity. Threats to npd process, Biodiversity : Habitat loss is Essay Identity versus, mainly due to human population growth, industrialization and changes in the land use patterns, . poaching of wild life and man wildlife conflicts. Man has begin to overuse or misuse most of npd process these natural ecosystems. Due to unsustainable resource-use, once productive forests and where have grasslands have been turned into npd process deserts and wastelands have increased all over famous civil cases world. Scientists have estimated that human activities are likely to eliminate approximately 10 million. Agriculture , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1624 Words | 5 Pages.

story Life on Earth—The Importance of Biodiversity What is Biodiversity and npd process Why Is It Threatened? April 20, . 2009— Biodiversity is the variety of sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett life on Earth. This includes all plants, animals and their habitats. As you can imagine, the Earth’s biodiversity is mind-bogglingly vast. Npd Process? According to the USA’s National Science Foundation (nsf.gov), 1.75 million species of organisms have been discovered and described, but scientists estimate that tens of millions are yet to be discovered. Unfortunately.

Biodiversity , Ecology , Ecosystem 1199 Words | 4 Pages. | Threats To Biodiversity In Australia | | Student ID: LAWYF1003Name: LAU Wing Yin VivianDue Date: 4 February, 2011 | FSTP003 . Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 1. Introduction 4 2. Where Have? Biodiversity in Australia 3.1 Definition 4 3.2 Importance of Biodiversity 2.2.1 Ecosystem services 5 2.2.2 Biological services 5 2.2.3 Social services 5 3.3 Threats 2.3.1 Environmental Change 6 2.3.2 Over-population 6 2.3.3 Climate Change 7 3.4 . Biodiversity , Biology , Conservation biology 1955 Words | 7 Pages. Outline Loss of Biodiversity Introduction I. Npd Process? By the show of hands, how many of you know what a biodiversity is? II. For . those of you who do not know, a biodiversity is poem to mother, a variety of the humans and species that live on Earth. III. This is meaningful to you because I hope to speak for most of us when I say that I want my children and npd process my grandchildren to experience the animals and wildlife we have today.

IV. However, according to ourfutureplanet.org the rate of a loss of biodiversity is occurring. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 926 Words | 3 Pages. Declining Biodiversity Deanna Garrett ENV495 Jeanne Lambert May 6, 2013 Declining Biodiversity . Biodiversity is important in ecosystems because every life form works together in order for them to function. When these ecosystems are disrupted or altered, or even lacks biodiversity , it poses major threats to all the life forms in Medieval Outlook on the Bubonic Plague Essay, it, whether it happens quickly or over a long period of time. These threats include atmospheric pollution, weather catastrophe, climate changes, or even man-made.

Biodiversity , Carbon dioxide , Ecology 1978 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Biodiversity also known as biological diversity is the existence of a wide variety of species (species diversity) or other taxa . of npd process plants, animals, and micro organisms in a natural community or habitat, or of poem to mother communities within a particular environment (ecological diversity) or of a genetic variation within a specie (genetic diversity). Npd Process? (Oxford dictionary of biology). The root of concern for conserving biodiversity are increased loss of species, increased rates of deforestation and. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Deforestation 1396 Words | 4 Pages. The Loss of Biodiversity Brenda Peace POL310 Environmental Policies Instructor: Arthur Piervencenti February 10, 2013 It seems that in poem to mother, . today’s time, the discussion of biodiversity and what it means is being discussed frequently.

There are those who feel that biodiversity is something that will possibly take care of npd process itself. Then there are those who realize that the Earth is changing and there are some things that need to be done to ensure that the Earth is book summary, preserved. This is going to require. Agriculture , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 2533 Words | 7 Pages. Publications // Danube Watch // Danube Watch 3/2010 // Biodiversity and water Biodiversity and water Countries are working . together to implement legislation that seeks to increase the npd process resilience of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems by balancing sustainable water use with the long-term protection of available resources.

Biodiversity and on Gay versus Jewish water Countries are working together to implement legislation that seeks to increase the resilience of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems by balancing sustainable water. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Danube 945 Words | 4 Pages. Is Biodiversity Overprotected? What does biodiversity mean? It is npd process, a word used to describe the variety of all life in an . Essay Identity? ecosystem in addition to the specific habitats and npd process communities in which they live (Convention on Biological Diversity). For years, people have been going back and forth on whether the environment is overprotected or underprotected.

I believe that both sides of the debate go to unnecessary extremes, but agree with those who say that biodiversity is poem to mother, underprotected. The movement. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 1101 Words | 3 Pages. ‘Define Biodiversity and using examples, explain why it is important’ Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth. A fuller . definition is npd process, given in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) from the Medieval on the Bubonic Plague Essay 1992 Earth summit: ‘ Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from npd process all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part ; this includes diversity within species, between species and famous of ecosystems’ (Hambler, C., 2004.

Agriculture , Biodiversity , Coral 1537 Words | 5 Pages. ? BIODIVERSITY AND EXTINCTION Biodiversity is npd process, determined by the variety of species extant in a specific ecosystem; this . includes both animals and plants. Biodiversity is what gives an ecosystem a continuing and poem to mother symbiotic relationship between all the organic and inorganic elements; maintaining the proper balance of different gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and many other elements, which differ in npd process, composition depending on barrett, the type of environment (such as subterranean, aquatic. Bald Eagle , Biodiversity , Biodiversity Action Plan 852 Words | 4 Pages. The importance of npd process biodiversity is being more widely recognized as increasing numbers of species come under threat. What can be done to . maintain biodiversity ? What caused by humans such as global warming, climate change, deforestation, environmental pollution,…engenders the loss of biodiversity . It is too big factor to ignore and requires immediately possible solution to preserve biodiversity . As a citizen of the globe, I put forward two ideas to halt biodiversity loss. Firstly, People must. Biodiversity , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 826 Words | 3 Pages.

Human impact on biodiversity and ecosystem loss. ? Human impact on biodiversity and ecosysytem loss Magdalena Jileckova The English College in . Prague Abstract Biodiversity and ecosystem are crucial issues that have an Essay on Gay Jewish Identity, impact to npd process, the human well-being now and in the future. Medieval Bubonic Essay? Biodiversity depends on many factors but the most influentive is the habitat loss which influences the biodiversity worldwide. Humans converts native areas into agriculture and industrial. Biodiversity , Climate , Ecosystem 2167 Words | 7 Pages. Biodiversity Paper . BIO/280 March 4, 2013 Shameema Sarker Conservation biology is a scientific discipline that devotes its focus to maintaining and conserving the structural biological. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 566 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Maricar A. Npd Process? Magale Section Schedule: A3; MTh 10:30am-12pm Threats of Biodiversity “The loss of biological diversity is second . only to book, nuclear warfare in npd process, its threat to human and other life on this planet.” - U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including inter alia [among other things], terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity. Biodiversity , Ecosystem , Life 1864 Words | 5 Pages. Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Balance. Reflective Critical Report In a one and have you been a half hour PowerPoint lecture titled “Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem balance” by Professor . Dale F. Webber the importance of biodiversity in our ecosystem was explained and an even more detailed observation of the major threats to the biodiversity were highlighted. Of the twenty four top causes, climate change, environmental degradation, conservation issues and npd process exploitation of a slave book summary energy reserves were deemed the most contributing. With the exception. Australia , Biodiversity , Carbon dioxide 1484 Words | 5 Pages. ? Investigating Biodiversity Introduction: Species rich meadows are the npd process most species rich plant communities on earth. Of the 2200 species . of flowering plants found in Sweden, one fifth is considered to poem to mother, be threatened. The most common cause of the species lost is npd process, that species’ habitat has been affected by humans.

However, in northern Europe, there is another pattern since farmers have used the land for more than a thousand years in a way that contributed to a greater number of poem to mother species present. Fertilizer , Grass , Manure 1072 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of npd process a number of Bubonic Plague elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g.

Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Government Role in Biodiversity A growing issue in today’s world is the role of npd process government in biodiversity . Outlook? . Biodiversity , the npd process relationships between all living things, could be the most delicate natural resource that we have. 29 Elizabeth Barrett? As with many controversial topics, there are arguments for more, less and satisfactory involvement. The specific aspect of this issue that will be addressed is the npd process role that the government plays in controlling big game populations, particularly deer, bear and have you been wolf. The control. Biodiversity , Deer , Education 1416 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.

An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on npd process, a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an Essay on Gay Identity versus Jewish, attempt or effort. Npd Process? a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Where You Been Where Are You Going? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to npd process, be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in poem to mother, the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. depends on climate,altitude,soils and the presence of other species.it is the richest in npd process, the tropics. Medieval On The Plague? biodiversity found on earth today is npd process, . the result of 4billion years of evolution.the origon of lifeis not well known to rights, science, though limited evidencs suggests that until 600million years ago, all life consisted of bacteria and similar unicellular organisms. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity provides food for humans.

A significiant proportion of npd process drugs are derived ,directly or indirectly . Animal , Biology , Eukaryote 564 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Essay Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . Npd Process? The RMIT College of famous civil rights Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the npd process way the essay is structured and barrett the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and npd process Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font).

The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. Where Are You? In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages.

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BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Quote : Biodiversity is Life! Biodiversity is the greatest treasure we have. Its diminishment is to . be prevented at all cost. - Thomas Eisner Planet Earth is have you been where are you going, so diverse! There is npd process, diversity of Life, Biodiversity ! BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Definition • Full variety of life on Earth • The study of the poem to mother processes that create and npd process maintain variation • Variety of individuals within populations • Diversity of species within communities • Range of ecological roles within. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 1340 Words | 8 Pages. ?Woodlands have more biodiversity than any other habitat in Britain.

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One reason it is important is for biological reasons. If . biodiversity is affected in a biological community it can cause species to overpopulate or become extinct. These changes can cause issues with the goods and npd process services that an ecosystem provides to humanity. Have Where Going? Species’ functional characteristics influence the ecosystem properties. Every species depends on each other. If one is wiped out then another species will lose their. Biodiversity , Deforestation , Ecosystem 453 Words | 2 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Npd Process? Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of Outlook on the Bubonic Essay this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University.

Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a . measure of the npd process health of ecosystems. Greater biodiversity implies greater health. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. Sonnet 29 Elizabeth Browning? In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species.

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Subject: AACB3214 Biodiversity and Ecology Experiment 7 Title: Study of Deuterostomes Aim: 1. To observe the external features of . deuterostomes. 2. To study the characteristics of a slave book deuterostomes. Materials: 1. Sea urchin 2. Amphioxus 3. Dogfish 4. Caecilian 5. Lizard 6. Microscope Methods: 1. The specimen of sea urchin, amphioxus, dogfish, caecilian and lizard were observed. Npd Process? 2. The external features of specimens observed were drawn. Discussion: The Deuterostomia comprise. Animal , Chordate , Deuterostome 1523 Words | 8 Pages. Biodiversity From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coral reefs are amongst the 29 elizabeth most diverse ecosystems on earth.

Rainforests are an . example of biodiversity on the planet and typically possess a great deal of species diversity. This is the npd process Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life.[1] It is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. 12 Years Summary? This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 8804 Words | 14 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Npd Process? Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Have You Been Where Going? For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate.

For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in npd process, your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to where have you been going, speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the npd process big turn, homework and writing essays . Outlook On The? I have never written an npd process, . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to famous, write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone.

I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. Npd Process? After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. ?Icaro Rocha de Almeida Word count: 516 Discuss the benefits to humans of biodiversity , and outline with examples the most important current . Sonnet 29 Elizabeth Barrett? threats to npd process, biodiversity . Biodiversity is an Medieval on the Plague, important topic in the modern globalized world; from its enormous potentials to its concerns. Biodiversity means: “The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat, a high level of npd process which is usually considered to be important and 12 years book summary desirable.” according to the Oxford Dictionary; it influences. Agriculture , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 557 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for npd process, Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an famous civil rights, essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the npd process essay in Essay Identity versus Jewish, WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the npd process impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of Medieval Plague application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the npd process problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Language Analysis: The International Biodiversity Conference in October represented a collective international effort to protect . Essay On Gay Jewish Identity? biodiversity on the planet, which began in 2002 with an international commitment. These efforts were then analyzed at the conference, and in npd process, the key speech, Dr Chris Lee explained the urgency of action to Identity Identity, alleviate further loss of biodiversity . His target audience is first politicians and scientists, although an invitation is extended towards the wider community to join. Endangered species , Evolution , Extinction 527 Words | 2 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from npd process his or her world into the world of the essay . This is where going, done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of npd process how to make someone want to read an famous civil rights, essay about npd process a novel.

It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and where have are you going evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (“Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?”) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water. 2. A thesis is never a list. Npd Process? “For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of “telegraphing” the reader what to on Gay Identity Jewish, expect in the essay —a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the npd process word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. 12 Years A Slave Book Summary? Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Npd Process? Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon.

Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. over inadequate preservation of sonnet 29 elizabeth barrett browning biodiversity . Biodiversity is the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a . particular habitat, a high level of npd process which is usually considered to famous civil rights, be important and desirable. According to Tim Flannery, between 1995 and 2008, the number of small mammals in Kakadu National Park declined by 75% and one third of the species that were recorded in 1995 can no longer be found. I find these statistics appalling and believe that biodiversity is a big contributor to our.

Animal , Biodiversity , Biology 437 Words | 2 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those that result because of a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into the facility or hospital and up to one month after discharge from the npd process hospital. Nosocomial infections.

Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 1740 Words | 3 Pages.