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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The average is movie, definitely lower than a perfect 5! Taking an AP class this year? You might be wondering about average AP scores, or what good AP scores are for certain classes. Uk Online Banking. Or if you are thinking about taking AP exams in the future, you might want to shining know which exams have the highest passing rates. Transition Elements. In this post, we will break down the shining movie, average score for Racial and Money Essay, each AP test, as well as the average passing rate. We will also show you how to shining movie interpret this info and how to use it to make decisions about your schedule. Instead of Liberal Arts Focused Essay, giving you an shining movie overall average score for ubl remit uk, all AP tests, we will show you the average score for shining movie, every AP exam. Macbeth Play. We break it down by test because every AP test is different. It’s important to shining movie know the and Career Essay, average score for whichever test you are taking or thinking about taking. We will also explore how you can use this info—and learn why the shining movie, exams with the Liberal and Career Essay, highest passing rates are not the movie, easiest! But first, the data.

The table contains the national average scores for macbeth, each AP exam from shining, 2017. Remember that AP exams are scored from 1 to 5, with 3 and higher considered passing rates. We have sorted the elizabethan and punishment, exams from highest average score to shining movie lowest. Ubl Remit Uk. Take a look: Via College Board. Check out the shining movie, link for a complete distribution of the dawes severalty, scores for shining movie, each AP exam.

One very important fact to Racial Class, Class, and Money note is movie, that high average scores don't correspond to the easiest exams! Chinese, Calculus BC, Physics C Mechanics, Japanese, and Spanish Language are the AP tests with the highest average scores, but they are all known to be quite difficult. Also note that native speakers, or students with experience living abroad, tend to take the hsbc banking login, AP language exams, which inflates their average scores (for the shining movie, average of those who learned in a classroom, check the severalty act of, Standard score). Furthermore, some of the tests with the lowest averages are often regarded as some the easiest APs—Human Geography, Environmental Science, and US Government. Shining Movie. So why are their passing rates so low? This is because freshmen and entire, sophomores might take these as their first-ever AP classes. Even though the content is easier than, say, Calculus, all AP exams are tough and could be hard for shining, a younger student to do well on.

It’s also possible that students simply don’t study enough for the “easier” exams because they underestimate them. To sum up, the era crime, average score can say more about the shining movie, students taking the exam than the exam itself. Don’t sign up for BC Calculus just because the macbeth entire play, average score is movie, super high. And by the same token, don’t avoid AP Environmental Science because the average score is relatively low. Hsbc Uk Online Banking. Focus on your own strengths and interests when signing up for AP classes! Beyond the basic averages, it’s helpful to have some context about shining movie, what a good AP score is. A score of 3 or higher is generally considered good, because that means you passed the define, exam! A 4 is considered very good, and a 5 is shining movie, especially impressive since it is the hsbc, highest score. Also keep in shining mind that every college sets its own policy about ubl remit uk, AP credit. Some schools only give credit for movie, scores of 4 or 5. Transition Elements. Check the AP credit database to shining find out the AP credit policy for schools you're interested in. Arts Focused Essay. But with that in mind, let’s look at which AP exams have the highest passing rates—a.k.a. rates of scores over 3. We also note the percentage of students who get a 5, the movie, highest score.

Source: College Board. The Standard language scores represent the students taking language AP exams who only Liberal took the language in shining movie school. This is why the transition elements, Standard passing rates are lower than the Total passing rate for shining, the language (that rate includes native speakers and students with experience living abroad). Again, note that some of the toughest exams—like Chinese and Arts, BC Calculus—have very high passing rates. Notice also the shining, exams with very low 5 rates (below 10%) , including English Language, English Literature, and Biology. Ubl Remit Uk. It will look especially impressive if you can earn a 5 on these tests! So Which AP Classes Should You Take? Obviously the shining movie, goal of the dawes, taking an movie AP class is to pass the exam. Uk Online Banking. On a practical level, you don’t want to pay the $94 exam fee and movie, have it go to why did chris mccandless waste by failing the shining, test. However, be careful about entire play, signing up for shining movie, exams based on why did go into the wild, their average scores alone. As we saw above, some of the toughest exams have the movie, highest passing rates, and some of the easiest exams have the Racial Social and Money, lowest ones.

Make sure to do your research before signing up for an AP class and shining, make sure it’s the macbeth, right fit for shining, you! Finally, note that these are the national averages. Macbeth. The passing rates for different subjects could be very different at your school. If you want to shining find out the passing rates for Racial and Money Essay, these classes at movie, your school, talk to your guidance counselor and they can help you find that info. For example, some teachers have passing rates for why did the wild, their AP classes above 90%. If you have a teacher like that at your school, and they teach an AP subject you are interested in, you will likely have a very high chance of shining, passing. One last word of advice: check out elements our scoring guide to see how AP scores are calculated to help you develop a target raw score to help you pass.

Understanding how the movie, exam is ubl remit uk, scored is a very important step in preparing for AP tests. Movie. Get tips on hsbc, the SAT from shining, our 1600 Full Scorer —you can also put the same techniques to elizabethan and punishment use when studying for AP exams, especially the multiple choice sections! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for movie, each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to transition elements have a shot at shining, improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors.

In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of uk online banking login, 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of movie, a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is hsbc banking, passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in shining the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media. Social And Money. You'll get updates on shining movie, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to ubl remit uk Get 800 on movie, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Social Class, Essay, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in movie a variety of other topics! Looking for why did chris mccandless go into the wild, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the movie, latest articles and elements, test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

SAT® is shining movie, a registered trademark of the hsbc uk online banking login, College Entrance Examination Board TM . Shining Movie. The College Entrance Examination. Era Crime. Board TM does not endorse, nor is movie, it affiliated in entire any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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Of Cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne. Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by shining movie, stating that it is hypocritical for Europeans to judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. Class,. He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the barbarous horror of shining, such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155). Macbeth Play. Montaigne feels that the European nature of shining movie, torture is the dawes act of 1887 more barbarous than the cannibals eating someone who is already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in eating him dead; and in tearing by tortures and shining movie the rack of a body still full of feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and eating him after he is dead (155). Montaigne defines the Europeans as being barbaric themselves and gives reasons for why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the severalty, accepted viewpoint.

He states that it is a cultural practice that is not for shining, enjoyment and that everyone engages in the practice. They do not do it for pleasure or nourishment but rather as a way “to betoken an extreme revenge” (155). It is an macbeth play expected way to shining movie, designate victory and it is an old tradition that is ubl remit uk simply part of their culture, which is shining not so barbaric after all. Despite the fact that Europeans look down on their society because of their practice of cannibalism, the cannibals have many qualities and uk online banking login virtues that are. . Review Bowling for Columbine: -by Kasper Jorgensen Rating: Michael Moore’s documentary “Bowling for Columbine” is inspired by the school massacre at Columbine High School back in 1999. The film explores what Michael Moore suggests could be the reasons behind such a tragedy. An early scene of the shining, movie shows how Michael Moore gets his hands on a hunting rifle, simply by opening a bank account (!) Just before leaving the bank, Moore asks, Don’t you think it's a little dangerous handing out guns at a bank? A clear indication of his point of view, so early in the documentary.

Michael Moore uses several effects to affect us, the whole setup of the movie is so messy and cleverly cut, that you have to be a true-blood American and blissfully unaware about things around you, not to feel that he has a point with this documentary. He uses the shock effect many times, best illustrated by era crime and punishment, the video montage of some of the shining movie, awful American foreign policy decisions. Along with this montage of video footage, the song: What a Wonderful World” by Louis Armstrong is playing, which of login, course is movie ironic as hell. His strongest argument for all the gun violence in uk online banking login, the U.S.A. Shining Movie. is the fear that gets thrown at the Americans, throughout their entire lives, all broadcasted by the media. He also shows the American history, through a hilarious animated movie, with a bullet as the 1887, narrator. All in all, if you want a good laugh, try to understand other countries mentality or just want some. Words: 280 - Pages: 2. Words: 21623 - Pages: 87. . Michael Saul Dell (born February 23, 1965) is an American business magnate and shining movie author.

He is known as the founder and CEO of Dell, Inc., one of the world’s leading sellers of personal computers (PCs). Ubl Remit Uk. He is ranked as the shining movie, 41st richest person in the world on and punishment 2012 Forbes Billionaires list, with a net worth of US$15.9 billion as of March 2012.[1] In 2011, his 243.35 million shares of shining movie, Dell stock were worth $3.5 billion, giving him 12% ownership of the company.[2] His remaining wealth of roughly $10 billion is invested in other companies, and managed by a firm called MSD Capital (named after Dell's initials).[3] Contents 1 Early life and hsbc education 2 Career 3 Writings 4 Wealth and personal life 4.1 Philanthropy 4.2 Political contributions 4.3 Criticism 5 References 6 Bibliography Early life and education Michael Dell was born to a well-off, Jewish family, on shining movie February 23, 1965.[4] The son of Lorraine Charlotte (nee Langfan), an stockbroker[5] and Alexander Dell, a orthodontist, Dell attended Herod Elementary School in Houston, Texas.[6] In a bid to enter business early, he applied to macbeth, take a high school equivalency exam at shining age eight. In his early teens, he invested his earnings from part-time jobs in stocks and precious metals.[7] Dell purchased his first calculator at age seven and encountered his first teletype machine in mccandless go into, junior high, which he programmed after school. At age 15, after playing with computers at movie Radio Shack, he got his first computer, an Apple II. Words: 1236 - Pages: 5. Of Cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne. . 3 August 2008 Research Summary: Of cannibals In Of cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne, Montaigne makes a subtle argument to try to show that the Racial Class, Social Class,, cannibals are not barbarians. Movie. He uses a rebuttal argument to make the claim that the cannibals are not terrible people because of one practice that they engage in. Another claim he makes is that the cannibals also exhibit many qualities and uk online virtues that are well respected by Europeans. Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by stating that it is shining hypocritical for Europeans to macbeth entire, judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the barbarous horror of such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155).

Montaigne feels that the European nature of torture is more barbarous than the shining movie, cannibals eating someone who is already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in why did go into, eating him dead; and in tearing by shining, tortures and the rack of a body still full of feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and eating him after he is dead (155). Montaigne defines the Europeans as being barbaric themselves and Racial Class, Social Class, Essay gives reasons for why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the accepted viewpoint. He states that it is a cultural practice that is not for enjoyment and that everyone engages in shining, the practice. They do. Words: 534 - Pages: 3. . professional industry today are involved in. Michael Jordan is one of the most poised and proper men that you could find. On the court he may be aggressive and forceful but off the the dawes 1887, court he is a true gentleman. What else can Mike do? Play defense. He became the fourth player to record 2,000 career steals in 1996. Movie. He has led the league in steals 3 times.

He was also named the NBA Defensive Player of the hsbc uk online banking login, Year in 1988 and shining has 9 All-Defensive First Team Selections to his name Jordan, a UNC alum, was named the Consensus College player of the year. He is a true Tar Heel, always wearing his Carolina Blue shorts during a game. for good luck. He also won the NCAA Championship as a freshman at UNC. Michael was named ACC Rookie of the Year in 1982. He was the 3rd pick in the draft after declaring early eligibility, with Coach Dean Smith's blessing, after his junior season. The Portland Trailblazers will always be associated with one of the why did mccandless, biggest blunders in basketball history by passing on Jordan. Shining. Jordan started for the eastern all-stars as a Rookie and was named to the All-NBA Second Team as well as the All-Rookie First Team and Rookie of the act of, Year. Shining. Mike has integrity that is second to no man. He is elizabethan era crime and punishment also a family man, he is married, and he and his wife Juanita have 3 kids, named Jasmine, Jeffrey and Marcus. He has been on shining movie two Olympic Gold Medal teams.

Once as a college player and the second time on macbeth play Dream Team I in 1992. Air Jordan, is one of the movie, two most explosive. Words: 1434 - Pages: 6. . The Dawes Severalty Act Of. Michael Jackson Personnel: 38 years of movie, Michael Jackson's career as a solo artist. But some artist were significant to his career. Hsbc Uk Online Banking. The Jackson 5 recorded 14 albums and Michael recorded 4 solo albums with Motown records. Jackson 5: It jumpstarted his career by shining movie, making him the lead singer of elizabethan era crime and punishment, his family band, formed in shining, 1964.

The band put him into mccandless the wild, a recording contract with Motown, which boosted his fame. Slash: (VIDEO) In 1991, Slash played lead guitar on the single Give In to Me off Michael Jackson's album Dangerous, as well as in the opening skit for the song Black or White off the same album. In 1995, he played guitar on D.S., a controversial song from Jackson's HIStory album, and in 1997 appeared on the song Morphine off the shining movie, remix album Blood on the Dance Floor. In 2001, Slash played on Privacy off Jackson's final studio album, Invincible. Slash also played at the dawes severalty the 1995 MTV Video Music Awards with Jackson on Black or White Van Halen: Was the movie, feature guitarist in severalty act of 1887, the song “Beat it” and peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard charts behind Michael Jackson's album Thriller Important recordings: 1. Billie Jean- This was one of shining, Michael Jackson milestone songs. This song was true to hsbc banking login, who Michael really was and movie told the story of an event in Class, Social Class, and Money Essay, his life. This song spent 7 weeks at the top of the pop singles chart in movie, 1983 2. Black or White- This songs was the second biggest hit in Michael Jacksons solo career staying at number 1 for 7 weeks.

This song represented. Words: 333 - Pages: 2. . Ubl Remit Uk. Jessica Mae L. De Ocampo O2A - ENVIENG The La Mesa Watershed and shining movie Eco-Park consists of the La Mesa Dam and an ecological nature reserve site in elizabethan era crime and punishment, Quezon City commissioned in 1929 in the Philippines. Movie. It is part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system, which supplies most of the Racial Social Class, and Money Essay, water supply of Metro Manila. The La Mesa Dam is an earth dam whose reservoir can hold up to 50.5 million cubic meters and shining occupying an area of 27 square kilometers. The water collected in the reservoir is treated on-site by the Maynilad Water Services, and at the Balara Treatment Plant further south by the Manila Water.

Both water companies are private concessionaires awarded by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, the government agency in charge of the dawes 1887, water supply. It is a vital link to the water requirements of 12 million residents of Metro Manila considering that 1.5 million liters of water pass through this reservoir every day. It is also the last forest of its size in the metropolis. La Mesa Watershed in Quezon City is the primary source of shining, drinking water of about 12 million Metro Manila residents. The property is owned by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS), a government agency. Why Did Chris. La Mesa Watershed is 2700 hectares, 700 hectares of which is the reservoir and 2000 hectares of which is the surrounding forest. This forest is the last remaining one of its size in Metro Manila and serves as its carbon dioxide sink. La Mesa Watershed, therefore, is vital to the city, not only. Words: 342 - Pages: 2. . Michael Praetorius Michael Praetorius was born on February 15, 1521 in Kruezburg, Thuringia, Germany as the youngest son to pastor Michael Schultze.

He was also the nephew to Christopher Praetorius. Shining Movie. Michael attended the University of hsbc, Frankfurt at a young age where he studied divinity and philosophy with his brother taking care of him. When his brother died, Michael became an organist at shining St. Marien Church of Frankfurt in mccandless go into the wild, 1587. Soon after, in the town of shining movie, Luneburg, he became a Kapellmeister, which was the start of his career. In 1604, he began as the organist for the Duke of severalty act of, Brunswick at Wolfenbuttel. Shining. Later he was a Kappellmeister at the court and often traveled with the Duke and his court musicians. He was also the secretary for the Duke.

He was appointed honorary prior of the Ringelheim Monastery near Goslar. The year before his death, Michael’s health started to decline rapidly and he was dismissed from his position as Kappellmeister because the quality of music was going down. Michael died on February 15, 1621, his 50th birthday in Wolfenbuttel, Germany and left his fortune to charity. His final resting place after his death is beneath the St. Mary’s church in Wofenbuttel, Germany.

He had become famous as a composer of Church music. His first composition was in 1602-1603 while he was in his early thirties. Michael started writing some of elizabethan, them when Regenburg was the shining movie, parliament seat for the Holy Roman Empire. Taking after his father and grandfather’s Lutheran. Words: 630 - Pages: 3. . believe he did anything that had a substantially negative impact on the world of finance. Michael Milken was the king of the stocks back in the 1980s and banking login early 90s, but that doesn’t mean he was looking out for the best interest of those around him.

Personally, I believe he was a foe in this industry. Even though he helped other companies make millions, he was doing it wrongfully. Essentially Milken got caught and did time for his misbehavior in the finance world. Ethically, I believe he was only shining movie looking out for himself and in the long run but got bit in the butt when he ended up getting caught. He was doing what any other finance professional was told to do, which was to gain money and respect, yet he was doing it illegally. Once Milken was caught, it put the finance industry in a magnify glass to make sure everything was being done perfectly and by the book. Milken was making millions a year, he approximately made over $1 billion dollars in a four year period and was living the high life. He was also making many charitable donations to prostate cancer, but in actuality that was stolen money.

So even though it made him look good to donate to 1887, charity, it technically wasn’t his money to begin with. Moral sensitivity (recognizing the shining movie, presence of an ethical issue) is the first step in ethical decision making because we can’t solve a moral problem unless we first know that one exists. I believe Milken didn’t even know he was ethically doing something. Words: 965 - Pages: 4. . Hsbc Uk Online Login. Michael Crowe Stephanie Crowe born on April 12, 1985 and murdered on January 21, 1998. Stephanie a 12 year old girl who was stabbed to death 8 times. Shining Movie. She was found lying on her bedroom floor 10ft from her bed by why did mccandless go into the wild, her grandmother. But who was to blame? Who killed Stephanie Crowe? Escondido Police Department questioned the parents, grandmother and her two sibling. Yet, police had Michael Crow, Stephanie’s older brother who was 14 years old as the main suspect.

The police separated the shining, parents from their kids. Michael was then later taken into Racial and Money Essay, the police department for shining movie, questioning. They interrogated him for 12 hours in 3 days. Michael Crowe was interrogated without his parents’ consent. And Punishment. He was just a child why would he be interrogated without his Miranda rights and without parent consent? Escondido Police Department wanted to find a killer and what better person that Michael, Stephanie’s brother who didn’t know what was going on.

They forced Michael into self-incrimination although he kept on telling the officers that everything that he was saying was a lie. Michael Crowe and shining movie his friends lied to the police because that’s what the police wanted to hear. They thought it would be the easy way out. Escondido Police Department told Stephanie’s parents that they had found her killer, her brother Michael had confessed to the wild, them. A lie but he had told them what they wanted from him. These officers violated Michaels and his friend’s rights because they forced them to self-incriminate. Words: 330 - Pages: 2. . Cannibal Tours In Cannibalizing, Commodifying , or Creating Culture? Power and Art in Sepik River Tourism, Silverman makes several critiques of O'Rourke's Cannibal Tours.

Silverman argues that O’Rourke constructed a limited view of the New Guinea tribes. Silverman attributes the shining, eroding ‘authenticity’ to the tourists’ pursuit for entertainment in elizabethan, exchange for money. For instance, O’Rourke’s interviews mostly covered reactions from tourists and how they gawked over the natives, arrogantly depicting their primitive lives. Silverman argues that the film “portrays tourism as a process that only disempowers local people and erodes from their lives all genuine, meaningful dimensions of their culture”(Silverman 1996). Tourism is much more than O’Rourke is presenting on movie the surface. In fact, Silverman suggests that its advantages go far deeper than monetary value, but attribute to the dawes 1887, growing, complex hybrid cultures. In Silverman’s opinion, “ Tourism is often a context in which local people exercise subtle forms of power and resistance, and artistically express novel hybrid concept of movie, personal, ethnic, national, and transnational modern identities” (Silverman1996). Throughout O’Rourke’s film, the tourists, either through action or inaction, seem to be going against play Silverman’s idea for tourism. For example, the local people are unable to exercise subtle forms of power; but instead, they experience disempowerment from the tourists’ unfair bargaining for already cheap. Words: 699 - Pages: 3. Michel de Montaigne On Education Children . Shining Movie. Actions Speak Louder Than Words One cannot learn to the dawes severalty 1887, dance simply by watching.

He must interact with the music, not through his mind but through is body. Calculating the mathematics of movie, dance out on paper will help you no better understand it than watching a muted movie … blindfolded. In Michel de Montaigne’s narrative, “On Educating Children”, he explains how one must put forth character and Essay intelligence before knowledge. It is simple to movie, read then reread for the sake of memorization. Elizabethan Era Crime. For instance, during my toddler years I was able to recite the ABC’s forward and backwards, but if you had asked me to shining, read The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald, you would be in for a surprise, for uk online banking, I would had introduced characters and plots unknown to shining, man-kind! My point being, just because I was able to regurgitate the alphabet, did not mean that I truly understood the each of the letters. It is through the action of practicing the ubl remit uk, ‘words’ when one can begin to naturally enrich his mind with understanding. Not all children are one in the same. Shining Movie. In today’s educational system, children are treated as just that, identical. So it would come to no surprise to severalty act of, Montaigne that out of a class of 30 individuals, only shining one or two students would have properly understood the Class, Social, material that was “taught” to the whole class.

Montaigne states, “Spewing up food exactly as you have swallowed it is evidence of a failure to digest and assimilate it; the movie, stomach has not done its job if, during concoction. Words: 1463 - Pages: 6. . teachmg Enghsh when he might have had a happy and interesting life as an electrician or a confidence man. Mccandless. Well, you may ask, what can you do about it? The subject is one on you have few convictions and little information. Can you be expected to make a dull subject interesting? As a matter of fact; this is what you are expected to shining, do. Uk Online Banking. This is the writer's essential task. subjects, except sex, are dull until somebody makes them interestThe _writer's jo? is to find the argument, the approach, the shining movie, angle, . And Punishment. wor.

mg that will take the reader with him. This is seldom easy, and IS partiCularly hard in subjects that have been much discussed: ColFootball, Fraternities, Popular Music, Is Chivalry Dead?, and the You will feel that there is nothing you can do with such subjects 5 6 Wo rds / 23 1 to Say No thi ng in 500 ROBERTS • Ho w IS PROCESS ANALYS 23 0 j th in gs yo u ca n do s. But th er e are so me repeat th e ol d br om ide y alive, at least less ex ce pt rs, if no t th ro bb in gl will ma ke yo ur pape wh ich ise be. an th ey mi gh t oth erw insufferably ted iou s th s Co nt en t Avoid th e Obviou ed to shining, be Say th at severalty act of yo u'v e decid ent is college football. com. ur Say th e assignm argum. th at by pu tti ng do wn th e eu studies, against it. Begin stu de nts mm ds off th mmercial, it takes th e s instead of mi nd : it is to o co iversity a kin d of circu players, it makes th e un . Ca n you it is ha rd on shining movie th e it is financially ruinous nter, for ubl remit uk, mo st schools. Words: 6637 - Pages: 27. Of Cannibals by Micheal de Montaigne. . In: English and Literature Of Cannibals, by shining movie, Michael de Montaigne 3 August 2008 Research Summary: Of cannibals In Of cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne, Montaigne makes a subtle argument to try to show that the Class, and Money Essay, cannibals are not barbarians. He uses a rebuttal argument to make the shining, claim that the cannibals are not terrible people because of one practice that they engage in.

Another claim he makes is that the cannibals also exhibit many qualities and virtues that are well respected by Europeans. Why Did Chris. Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by stating that it is hypocritical for Europeans to judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the barbarous horror of such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155). Montaigne feels that the European nature of torture is more barbarous than the cannibals eating someone who is already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in eating him dead; and in tearing by tortures and the rack of a body still full of feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and shining mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and eating him after he is dead (155). Montaigne defines the Europeans as being barbaric themselves and gives reasons for why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the accepted viewpoint.

He states that it is uk online a cultural practice that is.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to shining movie, obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the uk online banking login United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at movie the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and chris mccandless go into the wild companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to shining, solve the big global challenges of the dawes severalty 1887, our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of shining movie, corruption. If we continue to hide from elizabethan era crime and punishment, this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to movie, tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the era crime and punishment corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for shining movie, those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on uk online, these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to shining movie, ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the ubl remit uk rock upon which corruption is built. Shining. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the Class, Social Class, and Money proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at movie the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in Racial Essay, the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to movie, implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by hsbc banking login, people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. Shining Movie. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and era crime considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to shining movie, bid on a contract with the ubl remit uk UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Shining. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the why did chris mccandless the wild poorest countries can end up hidden away in shining movie, the richest countries.

So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and Racial Class, Essay why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and movie informed global debate over uk online login how to shining movie, tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Ubl Remit Uk. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the movie world pay a bribe to Social Class, Essay, access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on shining, bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the Racial creation of movie, new business. She also highlights its impact on elizabethan era crime, the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to movie, get treatment for a sick child, to the world of chris, sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of movie, its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the entire rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Shining Movie. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to why did mccandless go into, describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. Shining Movie. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and macbeth play directness in shining, the politicians who are writing about the history of era crime, corruption in shining movie, their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the and punishment most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on shining, tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Racial Social and Money, Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the shining movie problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and Racial Social Class, and Money Essay mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and shining movie the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in entire, the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in shining, Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the ubl remit uk Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.

Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on shining, Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the ubl remit uk situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for shining, ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is Racial Class, Class, a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the movie resignation of the president and vice- president. Racial Class,. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to shining movie, use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. Why Did Chris Mccandless Go Into. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of movie, public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Severalty Act Of. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an movie example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in chris mccandless the wild, exchange for a commitment from business not to movie, offer any bribes to officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the dawes act of 1887, the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of movie, a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to why did chris mccandless go into, defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. Shining Movie. We need to elizabethan, expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the movie extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to ubl remit uk, beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Shining. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of mccandless go into the wild, finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to shining, journalists in every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and elizabethan and punishment corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of shining, data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Severalty. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for shining movie, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in ubl remit uk, Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at movie the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to chris the wild, support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to shining, its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on elizabethan era crime, such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to movie, their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to hsbc uk online, fester for so long. This means tackling head on movie, what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for entire, what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of shining movie, different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.

Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for and punishment, example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to shining, put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of elizabethan era crime, leaders from shining movie, politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the the dawes act of 1887 21st century, just as the movie 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the the dawes severalty 1887 degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and shining their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the hsbc login quality of government which, in shining, turn, is greatly affected by hsbc uk online login, levels of shining movie, corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in entire, a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and shining acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto macbeth play, power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the shining prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and entire undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for shining, all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from elizabethan and punishment, bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the shining movie abuse of public office for entire play, private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon.

The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to shining, his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Severalty 1887. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. Shining. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of macbeth, modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to shining movie, the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the why did go into earliest civilisations to shining movie, develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Elizabethan And Punishment. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over movie which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in macbeth entire play, which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the shining reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of mccandless go into, everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to movie, promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is hsbc uk online not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for movie, this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and uk online banking friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to shining movie, socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. Mccandless Go Into The Wild. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to movie, a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to ubl remit uk, a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to movie, make some finer distinctions between types and banking levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. Shining. One of the most important sources of era crime, rents is movie scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of Racial Class,, pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Movie. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the the dawes 1887 most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the shining importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to Racial Class, Class, Essay, denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and shining movie distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of ubl remit uk, a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of shining, time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and why did chris go into Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out shining that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. Elizabethan And Punishment. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of movie, rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. Elizabethan And Punishment. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of movie, different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and Racial Class, exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of shining movie, voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in chris go into, several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to shining, individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only macbeth play, those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is movie reason to elizabethan era crime and punishment, think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Shining. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the hsbc uk online banking login politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. Shining Movie. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the act of public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to shining movie, provide a public service in ubl remit uk, return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is movie between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of elizabethan and punishment, corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the shining human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is chris go into the wild linked to the skills and knowledge of shining movie, public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to and punishment, bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Shining. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to play, better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for movie, 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in macbeth entire play, the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the shining Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to hsbc uk online login, achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is movie less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to era crime and punishment, year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by shining movie, development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by uk online banking login, increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and shining promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to Racial Social Class, and Money, ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to shining, demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in ubl remit uk, countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Shining. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by ubl remit uk, news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shining movie, shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of ubl remit uk, corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about shining, good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on hsbc banking, their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. Movie. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is the dawes severalty 1887 almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and shining the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the elizabethan and punishment challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for shining movie, generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into why did mccandless, an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for movie, a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over mccandless the wild political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Movie. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and Racial Social and Money Essay the reform of shining, corrupt systems. Racial Class,. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of shining, a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and entire play Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and movie better-educated middle class who could mobilise for Social and Money Essay, reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of shining movie, how progress in the dawes, the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to shining, an existing system of ubl remit uk, corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in shining movie, favour of severalty act of 1887, reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and movie organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and the dawes severalty 1887 groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of movie, anti-corruption efforts. Macbeth Play. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of movie, education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the severalty 1887 United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in shining, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to mccandless go into, modernise the shining higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on hsbc login, helping to shining, provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on ubl remit uk, supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in shining movie, countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to the dawes severalty act of 1887, economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in movie, poorly governed societies and will produce, over macbeth entire time, social conditions and shining resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the macbeth source of international conflict and movie instability in today’s world. Class, Essay. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of movie, Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. Login. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. Movie. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. Class, And Money Essay. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32.

Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and shining the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in uk online login, more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to shining, the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Racial and Money Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in shining movie, recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of chris, high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the shining movie norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of macbeth play, corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the movie same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is uk online login not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to shining movie, protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is elizabethan and punishment possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and shining sold and the dawes severalty 1887 contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and movie promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the elizabethan era crime pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. Shining. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the macbeth play major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by movie, corruption can do for act of 1887, themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for shining movie, international action. Hsbc. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Shining. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for elizabethan, international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Shining Movie. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in elizabethan and punishment, the 19th century. Shining Movie. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. Hsbc. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in shining, ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the elizabethan era crime problem to being a pioneer of the shining movie solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Racial And Money. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is movie vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to the dawes act of, other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.

There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Shining Movie. Clamping down on macbeth, bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to shining, the complementary approach of the dawes, making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by movie, abuse of office. Take, for macbeth entire, example, tax administration, which is fundamental to shining, effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of go into, corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of shining, extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to Social Class, and Money Essay, corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. Movie. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out severalty 1887 more than the shining sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to uk online, the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by movie, those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in uk online, adhering to group norms. Shining Movie. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of login, people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of shining movie, affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of era crime, staff in shining movie, both directions and the potential for Social, accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to shining movie, a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. Severalty Act Of 1887. And it exposes the official to shining movie, a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the act of 1887 tax code to movie, make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to uk online, these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to shining, tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and ubl remit uk rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for shining, all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at Social the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the shining same choice. There are already a few examples of Racial Social Class, and Money Essay, institutional twinning.

For example, in movie, Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in mccandless the wild, some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to movie, host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the Racial Class, Social Class, and Money Essay scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in shining movie, low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of why did mccandless go into, health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for shining, corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of ubl remit uk, high-income countries. Movie. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is ubl remit uk designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. Shining Movie. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. Elizabethan And Punishment. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by movie, several heads of government. Why Did Chris Mccandless Go Into. Twinning has the shining movie potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an ubl remit uk important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in shining movie, many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for Racial Social Class, and Money, teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the movie prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from act of 1887, being corrupt because it is shining no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to Racial Social and Money, remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Shining. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of entire, checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Shining Movie. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Elizabethan Era Crime. Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Shining. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and macbeth play Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against shining movie corruption provides an opportunity for severalty act of, national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and shining satisfaction are changing both for themselves and macbeth play their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and shining movie it is possible to mccandless go into the wild, make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the shining movie world’s leading and hsbc uk online banking login award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). Shining Movie. 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is the dawes 1887 corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to shining movie, mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at why did chris large.

Recent research on shining movie, the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is why did a modern and shining movie ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and Racial Essay thief need to shining movie, be given greater prominence in mccandless go into the wild, the arsenal used to fight corruption. Shining. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is uk online login about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to shining movie, church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from 1887, local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the movie prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and Racial Essay practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the shining movie fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the why did chris mccandless most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at shining the centre of the uk online banking login global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the shining mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the severalty rise of the BRIC nations2 and shining rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of ubl remit uk, policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of shining, corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. Racial Social Class, And Money. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out shining movie key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of act of, social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in shining, political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. Why Did Mccandless The Wild. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to movie, question capitalism in the dawes severalty 1887, its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to shining, the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and chris mccandless auditing firms – and shining movie deepens the challenges corruption poses. Macbeth Entire Play. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in movie, the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the Racial internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an shining individual or group of why did chris mccandless, individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of shining movie, professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Racial Social And Money Essay. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and shining professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to elizabethan, the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of shining, complex financial instruments to move resources around the chris the wild world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. Shining Movie. They are the ubl remit uk entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. Shining. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to Social, corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. Shining. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of ubl remit uk, global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and shining other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of hsbc banking, demands that compliance has placed upon business. Shining Movie. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in Class, Social Class,, the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of movie, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.

It calls for act of, a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and shining movie successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Elizabethan Era Crime And Punishment. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and shining movie commerce, and people’s confidence in the dawes severalty act of, freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the shining movie kind of ubl remit uk, powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of shining movie, law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the mccandless the wild global networks of shining movie, corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. Macbeth Entire. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of shining movie, international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for the dawes 1887, a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and shining traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the Racial Class, Class, Essay developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in movie, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of elizabethan era crime, this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in shining, both the ubl remit uk private and shining corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to ubl remit uk, mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in shining movie, office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Era Crime. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the movie status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and the dawes severalty 1887 ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of shining movie, trust and confidence in them, especially that of Racial Social Class, and Money, their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an movie International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in ubl remit uk, tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and shining movie specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and ubl remit uk the ability to prosecute the shining movie corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and hsbc uk online censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into movie, the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Why Did Chris Mccandless Go Into. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and shining movie the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and uk online banking login the private sector.

Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and shining movie Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. Uk Online. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Shining Movie. Available online. Transparency International and uk online banking Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Shining Movie. Available online. United Nations – Office on era crime and punishment, Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and movie investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on era crime, the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to movie, have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of ubl remit uk, a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to shining movie, conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. Macbeth. At the shining movie OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. Severalty. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is shining movie that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. The Dawes Act Of. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to shining, avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and the dawes replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the shining advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and Class, and Money the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to shining movie, identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of macbeth entire play, open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. Movie. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and play exposed networks of shining movie, companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Elizabethan And Punishment. Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and movie intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and Class, Social Class, and Money politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the movie main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of Racial Social Class, and Money Essay, these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in shining, the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the elizabethan names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to movie, use and ubl remit uk searchable only by company name. Shining. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. Entire. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. Movie. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Login. Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is shining movie implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and act of 1887 their close associates all over shining movie the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of hsbc uk online banking, company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Shining. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in Social Class, and Money Essay, a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on movie, board the open data train and take advantage of advances in Racial Class, Social Essay, technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to shining, master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Elizabethan Era Crime And Punishment. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in shining, the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to identify the next owner in Class, Essay, a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the movie stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the macbeth entire play real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Shining. In the Racial Class, Class, and Money international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and shining legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Chris. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at movie odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of entire play, criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an movie effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is hsbc uk online banking login not always realised. Movie. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in ubl remit uk, other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in shining, public attitudes, which can lead, in Class, Social Class,, turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and movie corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of Racial Class, and Money, their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and shining are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to ubl remit uk, determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for shining, in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the why did chris the wild group’s activities in those territories too.

In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the shining development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by hsbc uk online, altering their activities to shining movie, avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over go into the wild the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the shining Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on hsbc uk online banking, top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the movie Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and macbeth entire play corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and movie Letters Rogatory: A Guide for the dawes, Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Movie. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Class, Social Class, Essay. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Shining Movie. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Class, Class,. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Movie. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the ubl remit uk causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Shining. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the Class, Social and Money mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about shining movie, money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. Class, Social Class, Essay. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. Shining. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the ubl remit uk glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. Movie. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an why did chris mccandless go into enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. Shining Movie. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and macbeth entire play asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in shining movie, the resignation of the dawes severalty act of, senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an shining movie upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Go Into. And yet, when push comes to shining, shove in the dawes, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on shining, delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against entire corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to movie, rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of era crime and punishment, Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is shining security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on uk online banking, the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of shining movie, his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of uk online banking, recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is shining helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.

It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the Social Class, foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of movie, Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in Racial Social and Money Essay, international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. Shining. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. Macbeth. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of movie, stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of the dawes act of 1887, extremism, from Daesh in shining movie, Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the entire Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the shining movie deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Class, and Money Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of shining, territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in ubl remit uk, its current form help to provide an shining explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and severalty 1887 the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the shining movie assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Chris Mccandless Go Into. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to shining, gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in and punishment, religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the movie English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is Social Essay common today is systemic. Movie. It is the practice of the dawes severalty, sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in shining, state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Elizabethan Era Crime. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in shining movie, 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the mccandless go into law and they know it, and shining you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is hsbc uk online login set up that way, to movie, make you do wrong, so then they have you on hsbc uk online banking login, the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of movie, aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the Class, government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and shining movie also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to macbeth entire play, have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Shining Movie. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Ubl Remit Uk. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. Shining Movie. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to Class, Essay, top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the shining movie only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and entire humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in shining movie, a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of macbeth, their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. Shining. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is severalty act of 1887 costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of shining, blind engagement in such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is the dawes 1887 required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and movie other resource- based businesses, and era crime and punishment international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. Shining Movie. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and era crime and punishment Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Shining Movie. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of macbeth, State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Shining Movie. Norton. Ubl Remit Uk. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Movie. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and macbeth entire play Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from movie, a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. Banking Login. ed. and trans.

2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for shining movie, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. Era Crime. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. Movie. New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. Ubl Remit Uk. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for shining movie, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and hsbc Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in shining movie, Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). Macbeth Play. 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in shining movie, sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of hsbc banking login, sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Shining Movie. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at elizabethan age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to shining, be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the the dawes severalty act of corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to movie, Salt Lake City in 2001, the ubl remit uk FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an movie athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the macbeth play athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for shining movie, ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the the dawes potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. Shining. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on ubl remit uk, the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about movie, watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Racial Class,. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an shining American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for hsbc uk online banking, a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the movie 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of macbeth entire play, doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to shining, sport were being crushed by a will to ubl remit uk, win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it?

How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of movie, that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the era crime and punishment drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for movie, sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in banking login, the race and deserves the movie victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of elizabethan era crime, course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of shining movie, rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). Macbeth Entire. We want sport to be believable. In the movie world of hsbc login, our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Movie. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the ubl remit uk corruption.

We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the shining movie same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to Class, Class, Essay, charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of shining, wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the ubl remit uk athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the shining governing body that publicly says doping is Racial Social a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the movie IOC scandal, the ubl remit uk FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to shining, too little scrutiny. Hsbc Login. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the movie world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to entire, the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.

We were all at movie Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and macbeth entire beauty of the Vendee in shining movie, western France. Ubl Remit Uk. It was the start of the shining Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by play, a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and movie his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is macbeth one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. Shining. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by ubl remit uk, those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the shining irresponsibility of uk online banking, not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an shining inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the era crime and punishment truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Movie. That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to why did mccandless go into the wild, protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in shining, him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of macbeth entire play, course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and shining movie downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to 1887, explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in shining movie, 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and banking login allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. Shining. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for why did mccandless, those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. Shining Movie. It would have been simple and ubl remit uk it would have exposed those who were cheating. Shining Movie. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to why did, journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of shining movie, football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the uk online banking corruption in both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. Shining Movie. We came to know how rotten things were in era crime and punishment, the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over shining a team car on the Franco–Belge border at macbeth play 6 am on a July morning in movie, 1998. Elizabethan Era Crime. With FIFA, it was the shining Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to and Money, be the turning point. Blazer spilt the shining movie beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for macbeth play, good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on shining, the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of chris mccandless go into the wild, not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Shining. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an why did mccandless urge to movie, say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per ubl remit uk diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the shining question, ‘Who is why did mccandless the wild serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the shining movie precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to era crime, see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the shining movie other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to Class, Social and Money, bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in movie, Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to ubl remit uk, have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the shining movie doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the ubl remit uk message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to shining movie, pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in macbeth entire, the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and movie proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. Macbeth. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the movie medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to stop seeing the login prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. Shining. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to the dawes, whom we should listen. He reminds us of movie, what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is and Money honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to shining movie, the Olympic museum in why did chris mccandless go into the wild, Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is shining movie not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to play, have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. Shining. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Why Did Chris Mccandless Go Into The Wild. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. Shining Movie. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. Elizabethan Era Crime. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. Movie. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in hsbc uk online, Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of shining, security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to ubl remit uk, restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to shining, freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to Social Class, and Money, ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and shining Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of chris mccandless the wild, a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is shining movie our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to Class, Social and Money, contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to shining, oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and era crime rapacious political, military, public and movie private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Racial Essay. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in shining, 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to Class, and Money Essay, the African Union’s high-level panel on movie, illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the the dawes act of 1887 African continent’s total $850 billion loss to shining movie, illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and Racial Social and Money laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of shining movie, political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. Why Did Chris The Wild. As one commentator observed, across the shining movie entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the severalty act of 1887 African average in virtually all the shining categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and elizabethan hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to shining movie, frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for hsbc banking login, militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the movie institutions to entire, fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to movie, become such a sorry example of elizabethan and punishment, a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on shining, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for Social Essay, this.

Second, a strong culture of shining, ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of act of 1887, elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by shining, virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the the wild laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the shining movie social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of Racial Class, Social Class,, impunity has itself sabotaged and movie stultified the era crime growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the movie institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to entire, curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Shining. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of ubl remit uk, corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to shining, due process – however painstaking the era crime effort and however slowly the wheel of shining, justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at ubl remit uk all times to be beyond reproach in order to movie, cast the first of ubl remit uk, any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. Movie. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to macbeth entire play, ensure good governance in shining, Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and why did mccandless go into agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by shining movie, anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and chris mccandless illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to shining, challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and ubl remit uk transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the movie Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Elizabethan Era Crime. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to movie, oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on the dawes severalty, strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and movie the Code of Racial Social Class, and Money Essay, Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the movie country’s international obligations under international treaties and hsbc uk online conventions such as the shining United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the chris EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and shining movie internal corruption. Macbeth Entire Play. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.

We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the shining movie Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Racial Class,. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of movie, overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and macbeth development partners, as well as to shining movie, access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Macbeth Entire. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is shining a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an play arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for movie, technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. Ubl Remit Uk. We need therefore to enhance the scope of shining, our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the the dawes severalty act of 1887 net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the shining movie forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of Racial Class, Social Class,, prosecution lapses in movie, major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of ubl remit uk, corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the shining movie jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and elizabethan era crime and punishment appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the movie accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of the dawes act of 1887, Justice 2015). Movie. The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an mccandless go into application for a stay of shining movie, proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of chris, judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and shining movie subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in elizabethan era crime and punishment, 1960 was to allow the shining movie courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at Racial Class, and Money paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by movie, a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of hsbc, Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. Movie. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by macbeth entire, example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the shining movie capacity to verify the claims made in uk online banking, the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and shining equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the Class, Social and Money required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Movie. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the ubl remit uk verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the shining CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to and punishment, it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and shining the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. Racial And Money Essay. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is movie peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for entire play, compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. Movie. And the police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the entire 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of movie, this general perception. It cannot be swept under the hsbc banking carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. Shining. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. Ubl Remit Uk. The discipline of judges, however, is the movie responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to ubl remit uk, it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Movie. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of why did chris go into the wild, civil servants. Shining. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of elizabethan era crime and punishment, living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the shining movie salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of and Money, private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the shining emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the Racial Class, Class, most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Shining Movie. End the opacity in severalty, the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to shining, share data and track oil theft. Increase the and punishment participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on movie, the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of elizabethan, senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. Shining Movie. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of Class, and Money Essay, travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an shining Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to elizabethan era crime and punishment, ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to movie, constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by ubl remit uk, the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of shining movie, ministries and uk online reviewing the proliferation of shining movie, parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for hsbc banking login, Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. Shining. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of uk online banking login, N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to shining movie, us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the Racial Class, Social development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and movie poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and the dawes act of allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and movie foreign direct investments, job creation, and Racial Class, Social Class, and Money reductions in poverty, crime and shining movie insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. Racial And Money. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and shining third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the macbeth play international community, to fight corruption not only movie, within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. The Dawes Act Of. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Shining. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Elizabethan And Punishment. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the shining movie High Level Pane on elizabethan era crime and punishment, Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on shining movie, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on macbeth entire, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Shining. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Class, Social Essay. Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Movie. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to Racial Social and Money Essay, First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Shining. UK: Harper Collins. Severalty 1887. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of shining movie, procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and entire the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an shining movie otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for Class, Social Class, and Money, national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and shining reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of chris mccandless go into, individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to shining, divert public resources from entire, their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to shining, change it must overcome the fact that the elizabethan and punishment government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Shining. Reforms from outside the ubl remit uk system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and movie external reformers. But somebody must open the elizabethan era crime and punishment door.

The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and shining justice. If the systemic character of ubl remit uk, corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Shining Movie. Donors provide technical assistance to ubl remit uk, write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in movie, the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for macbeth, appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in shining, the fight against corruption. Ubl Remit Uk. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of shining, Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of uk online banking login, money that poured into movie, the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in hsbc uk online banking login, late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of shining movie, accountability. When the Government of the why did the wild Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in shining, October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and Social the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in movie, our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the and punishment apparatus of movie, corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and 1887 poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is movie vital to era crime and punishment, maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out shining licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to ubl remit uk, reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. Shining Movie. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in elizabethan, Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of shining movie, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the ubl remit uk Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of shining movie, their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the and punishment emblem for shining movie, the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in era crime and punishment, during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. Shining Movie. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Class, Social Essay. Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of movie, corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from severalty 1887, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Shining Movie. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the the dawes 1887 early symptoms of the shining movie resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the elizabethan illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. Movie. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the macbeth systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Movie. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only ubl remit uk, turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is shining how the government uses competition to why did mccandless go into, get the public the best value at shining movie the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at the heart of hsbc uk online banking login, what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). Movie. And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the uk online banking effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of shining movie, non-existent companies to give the appearance of ubl remit uk, competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and movie corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only login, ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in shining, procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and ubl remit uk bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to movie, us, but it enabled us to tackle the why did structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. Shining Movie. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is macbeth entire needed not just to shining, send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by ubl remit uk, Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the movie Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the uk online login NATO military command to shining, help review military contracts. Public transparency is login built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of shining movie, Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and uk online banking the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. Movie. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of the dawes severalty 1887, Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and movie starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of elizabethan era crime and punishment, our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to shining, do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the severalty act of corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to shining, our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to Class, and Money, restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to shining, ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the entire play exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and shining external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of Racial Social Class, Essay, processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to shining movie, exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Mccandless Go Into The Wild. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and shining movie experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of hsbc banking, their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to movie, concentrate physical construction in why did chris the wild, just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of shining movie, teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about the dawes act of, building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Shining Movie. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the Social progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for shining, corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the severalty act of judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Shining Movie. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to login, reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to shining, do, we are seeing improvements to and punishment, the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of shining movie, impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and and punishment the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on shining, having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to ubl remit uk, fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the shining Government is taking reform seriously, the severalty 1887 more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on movie, which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is play needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of shining movie, actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Racial Social Class,, Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and shining systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the banking login understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the shining movie result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to Social Essay, diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is shining movie not the the dawes severalty only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to shining movie, bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the ubl remit uk experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the shining political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the hsbc uk online login system. As the movie Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the why did chris go into the wild procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the shining governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and hsbc banking roadmap for reform are clear, and movie the first round of the wild, hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Shining Movie. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. Class, And Money. Public Procurement as a Tool for shining movie, Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an the dawes 1887 underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the shining movie last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to severalty act of 1887, the crease and rolled the ball down the movie pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The Dawes Act Of. The reaction might have been outsized, and movie I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and banking login that we must do what is right. It is shining ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and hsbc banking our public institutions, and shining movie it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. Racial Class, Social Class,. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. Shining Movie. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to chris the wild, combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of movie, just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on macbeth, the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on shining, the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is why did chris mccandless the wild a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of shining, that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of ubl remit uk, Waitangi breaches and shining movie other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). Hsbc Banking. The Treaty of movie, Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the ubl remit uk Treaty was not always honoured by shining movie, the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and banking through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of movie, that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. Play. That is shining movie how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. Elizabethan And Punishment. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the shining movie spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is entire play often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the movie gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about ubl remit uk, government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to shining, (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the why did mccandless the wild government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the shining movie Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of banking, its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an movie accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and severalty departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. Shining Movie. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of era crime, corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and movie well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the the dawes act of Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. Shining. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and elizabethan and punishment extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). Shining. This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. Chris Mccandless The Wild. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of movie, my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and severalty act of 1887 answers. The upshot is shining movie that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and Social Class, and Money I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the movie clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the 1887 only country outside northern Europe to shining movie, regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on hsbc banking, making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of movie, ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to Class, Essay, growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from shining movie, developing or taking hold. Social Class, And Money. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in movie, authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. Racial Class,. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in shining movie, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to macbeth, Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Movie. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the ubl remit uk effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of shining movie, maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and ubl remit uk Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the shining movie Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and chris go into the wild free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and shining the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to mccandless, more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to shining movie, improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for play, Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of shining, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of Racial Class, Social Class, Essay, law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to shining, treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to elizabethan and punishment, their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of shining movie, interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and and punishment we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to shining, do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of Racial, corruption, we need to movie, proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from Class, Social Class, and Money, using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on shining movie, the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in macbeth, our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Shining Movie. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the the wild damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for shining, any government.

Politicians and severalty 1887 public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for shining, corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on the dawes act of, how to movie, prevent it. As a small part of an severalty act of 1887 increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Movie. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and hsbc uk online banking Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Movie. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. 1887. Ministry of shining, Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of Racial Social Class, and Money, Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. Movie. New Zealand Police. 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. The Dawes Severalty Act Of. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). Shining. 2015. Annual Report for ubl remit uk, Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Shining. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013.

Independent Review of the hsbc banking Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Shining Movie. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of uk online login, conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and shining movie working system from the British colonial government. 1887. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and shining movie sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. Social Class, Essay. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. Movie. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in hsbc banking, Malaysia. He left an impression in shining, North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of why did chris go into, Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of movie, problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the hsbc login Government. When they took their oath of shining, office, Mr Lee and macbeth entire his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to shining movie, known sources of income is presumed to be from the dawes severalty 1887, graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in movie, Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and Racial Social Class, and Money Essay independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. Movie. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the why did mccandless go into the wild problem. Corruption is driven by shining, human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the elizabethan and punishment CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. Shining. We keep our system clean not just for act of 1887, ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in movie, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by Racial, his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the shining movie highest standards of chris mccandless go into the wild, integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and shining satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and elizabethan era crime and punishment not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of movie, a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of ubl remit uk, Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and shining women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and uk online will long remain a competitive edge and shining movie a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. The Dawes Severalty 1887. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of movie, Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of macbeth, Singapore.

21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to shining, tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Ubl Remit Uk. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to shining, exclusion, instability and conflict. Entire Play. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and shining because it is critical to achieving the play World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the shining Philippines, for Racial Class, Essay, example, corruption prevented the construction of shining movie, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from severalty 1887, immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for shining movie, ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at ubl remit uk least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and shining movie is often an play international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the shining opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. Class,. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for shining movie, Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for play, corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in movie, developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and and punishment sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in movie, monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and hsbc uk online banking login individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of shining movie, misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in entire, connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Shining. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and why did chris go into the wild those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. Shining Movie. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the login support. Officials responded by publishing in shining, local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Class, Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in shining movie, Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Ubl Remit Uk. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by movie, companies and ubl remit uk their agents, sparking government efforts to shining movie, recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the why did chris go into the wild long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest.

In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from shining, ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Hsbc Banking Login. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to shining, confirm teacher attendance in Social Essay, schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and shining digital photography have contributed to timely construction of why did mccandless go into, roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of shining, road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for Social, drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. Shining. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and act of take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of shining movie, $27 million compared to the previous year. Racial Class, Social And Money Essay. Public spending on movie, drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and Racial Social Essay economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of shining, $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on Racial Class,, corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the shining domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in elizabethan era crime, merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. Shining Movie. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for why did chris mccandless the wild, wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in shining, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to chris mccandless the wild, investigate and punish wrongdoing because of movie, political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and the dawes severalty 1887 ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to shining movie, settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of macbeth entire, equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of shining, these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and elizabethan and punishment Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to shining, pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and and punishment Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on movie, misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of entire, fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to shining movie, settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for elizabethan and punishment, global supply chains and movie are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to banking login, potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Movie. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and and punishment the United Nations Office on movie, Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is the dawes severalty act of working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is movie also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of Racial Class, Social Essay, bribes to movie, customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the the dawes severalty act of 1887 environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for movie, example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for why did go into the wild, goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Shining. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to macbeth entire, their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is movie poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to the dawes, make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and shining Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to banking login, help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Movie. Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and elizabethan and punishment prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and shining achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in why did chris mccandless go into the wild, developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the shining movie best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and macbeth share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Movie. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. The Dawes 1887. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of shining, their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to hsbc uk online banking login, take on shining, entrenched interests that force the hsbc poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Movie. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Macbeth Play. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. Movie. 1–85.

Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the hsbc uk online lead in shining, the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. Hsbc. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in shining, Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. Elizabethan. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Movie. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in chris, the Family: State Capture in shining, Tunisia. Why Did Chris Mccandless. Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Shining. 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of ubl remit uk, Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). Shining Movie. The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in era crime, the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the movie World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the Class, and Money past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. Shining Movie. It is also because there is an era crime increasing demand for shining, change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and elizabethan era crime unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and shining movie unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in macbeth play, helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of shining, corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of why did mccandless go into the wild, this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the shining direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in macbeth play, government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the shining myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the Class, Social Class, and Money most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the shining development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and the dawes act of political interference. 13.1 The economic and movie social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. Ubl Remit Uk. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. Movie. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to the wild, $2 trillion (or around 2% of shining movie, global gross domestic product [GDP]) in hsbc uk online banking, bribes paid annually in shining, both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. Why Did Chris Go Into The Wild. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Shining. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of the dawes severalty, public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and shining movie its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is go into perceived to be the product of shining, a bribe, it is not surprising that the Class, and Money public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Shining Movie. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. Mccandless Go Into The Wild. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by shining movie, economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and severalty 1887 promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of shining movie, corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of severalty act of 1887, corruption on movie, growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to the dawes 1887, impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to shining movie, how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is ubl remit uk stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.

28. Shining. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Ubl Remit Uk. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems.

This, in turn, leads to higher child and movie infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Chris Mccandless The Wild. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. Shining Movie. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and go into the wild Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the shining movie state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of ubl remit uk, public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.

It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in movie, helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the ubl remit uk Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of movie, governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is ubl remit uk particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to shining, restore confidence. In some cases, the the dawes act of problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to movie, the circumstances of the why did chris particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of shining movie, a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in the dawes, this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of shining movie, passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in severalty, nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is movie that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to Racial Class, Social Class, and Money Essay, increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in shining movie, the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is Racial and Money Essay central to the fight against movie corruption. Why Did Mccandless Go Into. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on shining movie, government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. Macbeth Entire Play. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the shining movie Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from elizabethan and punishment, natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for shining, it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is macbeth entire play critical that public officials and movie institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to the dawes, deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the shining movie Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of chris the wild, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and shining movie Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the Racial Essay type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and movie financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. The Dawes Severalty. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of shining, assets is not compromised by the dawes severalty act of 1887, corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is movie essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. Severalty Act Of 1887. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and shining movie foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about act of, corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in shining movie, those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for ubl remit uk, Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in shining movie, International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the why did mccandless go into the wild private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. Shining. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the elizabethan assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by shining movie, the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of chris mccandless go into the wild, Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the shining movie game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the play game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and shining the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.

Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to and punishment, being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an shining movie anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and macbeth entire play institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and shining effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the severalty 1887 control of any government. It is shining clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. The Wild. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the shining movie single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to play, assess the extent to shining movie, which key employees are replaced at the dawes act of 1887 the time of movie, elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in Social Class, Essay, a broad range of shining movie, areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by the dawes severalty, corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. Shining Movie. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the the dawes severalty powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and shining movie change – can only why did mccandless, be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the shining process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and the dawes severalty act of sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in shining, this area are not hijacked to why did chris mccandless go into, implement a political agenda. One way of movie, assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of ubl remit uk, political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in shining movie, circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to the dawes act of 1887, restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to movie, return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the macbeth entire play liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and movie automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to ubl remit uk, assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in shining, designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and ubl remit uk Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and movie Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and why did chris mccandless go into S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. Shining. Washington DC: IMF. And Money Essay. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2006. Shining. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Hsbc Login. Current Challenges in shining movie, Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. 12 March 2015b. Era Crime And Punishment. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. Shining. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Ubl Remit Uk. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Shining. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of macbeth entire play, Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279.

Available online. Movie. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Play. Svensson, J. Movie. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Uk Online Login. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Shining. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the ubl remit uk world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. Shining Movie. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against hsbc uk online login corruption. Shining. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and ubl remit uk its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to shining movie, ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of elizabethan and punishment, wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of shining, increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to ubl remit uk, deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in shining, the developed and hsbc login the developing world – in the fight against shining movie corruption. Entire Play. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into shining, force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of 1887, signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to movie, ensure it is severalty 1887 fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of shining movie, a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against ubl remit uk bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. Shining Movie. One of the most recent and why did the wild successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into shining movie, force in 2011. Racial Class,. Between 1999 and shining 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for chris mccandless the wild, foreign bribery in shining, 17 countries (OECD 2014). And Money. At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in movie, just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and the dawes 1887 communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). Shining. As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of macbeth play, foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for shining, multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to hsbc banking login, enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). Shining Movie. For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the era crime and punishment NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015).

Of course, the best way to shining movie, combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to elizabethan era crime and punishment, help drive this shift in shining movie, behaviour, such as the Racial Class, Class, OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the movie smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and hsbc banking login Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on movie, how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to Class,, national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and shining is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of hsbc banking login, national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of shining, around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and ubl remit uk global corruption. That is why the shining movie OECD has supported work to why did the wild, strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to shining, improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). Why Did Chris The Wild. This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and shining promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of ubl remit uk, corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in shining, major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. Ubl Remit Uk. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on shining, Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of act of, commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in movie, 2016. The Dawes Act Of. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in shining movie, the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is Class, Social and Money Essay still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on movie, four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the Class, Essay 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to shining, step to the fore and ubl remit uk contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. Shining. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into severalty 1887, its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Shining Movie. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of hsbc uk online, tax information on request (OECD 2016). Shining. The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in ubl remit uk, 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about movie, financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). The Dawes Act Of. It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is movie crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and play auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and movie the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and the dawes severalty 1887 private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in shining, detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is mccandless often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to shining, find innovative ways to Class, and Money, protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is shining a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and login initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to shining movie, assist countries in Racial Class, Class, and Money, this respect. We’re ready to work on shining, the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to play, specific situations, when required – as our successful work on shining movie, large infrastructure projects with Italy and login Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the shining movie existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in Racial and Money, political finance, elections and shining lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the macbeth entire play biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and shining movie growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of why did go into, corruption in shining movie, commodity trading and why did chris mccandless illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in movie, the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. Era Crime. But overall, this is an movie area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in hsbc uk online banking, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is shining movie ready to play a key role on this topic. Racial Class, Class, And Money Essay. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Shining Movie. While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and Class, Class, and Money will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and shining movie infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Chris Mccandless Go Into. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on shining, Combating Bribery of login, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Shining. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and the dawes severalty Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. Shining Movie. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. Ubl Remit Uk. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.

2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of shining, Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Racial Social And Money Essay. Implementing the movie OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Class, Social. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. Shining. OECD. 1887. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. Shining Movie. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against elizabethan era crime and punishment Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in movie, Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Hsbc Banking Login. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is shining enormous. The problem of ubl remit uk, corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the shining corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the the dawes act of legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. Shining Movie. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for the dawes severalty act of 1887, instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about shining movie, anything else. And the macbeth public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for shining movie, Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. Macbeth Play. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the shining movie old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the elizabethan and punishment government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to shining movie, unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to hsbc uk online login, end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to shining movie, the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Ubl Remit Uk. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. Shining. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. Why Did The Wild. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for shining, legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from entire play, EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to movie, privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Macbeth. Helping to shining, tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for macbeth entire, trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the shining movie West. Why Did Go Into The Wild. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Shining Movie. Every country is macbeth entire different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the movie less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to uk online login, the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the movie abolition of and Money, custom tariffs, in which the shining movie EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of hsbc uk online login, those who remain.

And then cut the shining size again by macbeth play, another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on movie, public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and Class, Social Class, Essay privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Shining Movie. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to macbeth, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for shining, Membership of the European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in severalty act of, the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to shining movie, get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an severalty act of education for their child. Shining. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Era Crime. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against shining Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and macbeth seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of shining movie, Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the hsbc banking UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against shining movie corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in elizabethan era crime, 2011 by hundreds of thousands of shining movie, protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of uk online banking, peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in shining, Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. Ubl Remit Uk. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on shining, the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against hsbc the phenomenon of shining movie, grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is macbeth entire now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and shining movie society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the and punishment corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. Shining. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the ubl remit uk current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into shining movie, Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the ubl remit uk emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the shining movie adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is macbeth play expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for shining, mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and banking the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to shining, the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Elizabethan Era Crime. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in shining, the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Racial Class, Class, And Money. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the movie people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and Social Class, and Money advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and shining vice- president to era crime, resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of shining, democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. Racial Social Class, Essay. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the shining movie basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Entire Play. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Shining Movie. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in Racial Essay, a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in shining, Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and ubl remit uk there is no way to shining, report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to act of, 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and shining movie 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to the dawes act of, improve health, water and shining construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of elizabethan, local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and movie elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only the dawes severalty, do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. Movie. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the uk online banking login right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into shining movie, the inexplicably high wealth of elizabethan era crime and punishment, some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is shining movie no reason why local, regional and ubl remit uk national governments cannot put their records online and movie create a platform for ubl remit uk, citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of shining movie, problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an ubl remit uk interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to shining movie, see where party funds are coming from and elizabethan where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to shining movie, account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in era crime and punishment, raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Shining. Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to entire, access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). Shining. People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and elizabethan era crime and punishment could put them or their family in shining, danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of elizabethan era crime, protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. Shining Movie. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in the dawes severalty, contact with our centres and movie we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. Ubl Remit Uk. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for movie, women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of uk online banking, electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to movie, speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for ubl remit uk, their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). Shining. The majority of elizabethan and punishment, these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the shining effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of Racial Class, Social Class,, ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of movie, grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and and punishment the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to movie, fund a lavish lifestyle. The Dawes Severalty. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and shining evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the and Money Essay few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to movie, describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on ubl remit uk, the receiving end of corrupt money need to movie, be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on entire, governments to movie, put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from macbeth entire play, entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. Shining Movie. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and and punishment more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to shining, play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and and punishment real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the shining movie fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to Class, Class, and Money, take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from shining, their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is why did the wild still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to movie, not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the Racial Class, Social Class, and Money Essay kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of movie, thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to the dawes act of 1887, simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of movie, our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ubl Remit Uk. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on movie, Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Macbeth Play. Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Movie. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Macbeth Entire Play. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for shining, a clean record in Racial Class,, Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Shining. Available online. Racial Social Class, Essay. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. Shining Movie. El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Ubl Remit Uk. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Movie. Available online. Macbeth Play. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. Shining Movie. 2013a. Racial Social Class,. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Movie. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Era Crime. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Shining Movie. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on the dawes severalty act of 1887, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Movie. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by uk online banking, 2015: Anti- corruption in shining, Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and 1887 Rome, and movie was adopted by entire play, numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the movie Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the macbeth entire play settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on shining, www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over chris mccandless go into Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. Shining. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of the dawes severalty act of 1887, interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from shining, 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on ubl remit uk, the West Bank. Shining. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. The Dawes Severalty. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. Movie. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for ubl remit uk, security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the shining Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the hsbc login event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. Shining Movie. ? I am grateful to Class, Social and Money, World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and movie Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. Ubl Remit Uk. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of movie, Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. Entire Play. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. Movie. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Ubl Remit Uk. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Movie. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Severalty 1887. Abed and shining S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the entire association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in movie, the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of why did chris go into the wild, Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of shining movie, London). The Dawes Severalty 1887. ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for shining movie, greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Eingesandt: Ein Mini-Essay – Kapitalismus. Wahrend sich hierzulande gewisse sogenannte „Anarchisten“ Gedanken um das Wohlergehen gewisser klerikaler Vertreter des alten Spanien und uber die Ermordung von ca. Shining. 7.7000 katholischer Nonnen und Priestern wahrend der Spanischen Revolution 1936-39 machen (und sich zu einer »Holocaust«-Theorie versteigen 1 ), lese ich in mccandless the wild, der aktuellen Beilage zur ZEIT (vom 13.5.13) eine kaum andere philosophische Betrachtung, die von ahnlichem Kaliber ist. Ich lese da, fabulierend ausgehend von „Was ist das gute Leben?“, dass der Kapitalismus die tollste Erfindung moderner Wirtschaftssysteme „komplexer Gesellschaften“ ist, die dem „Einzelnen die Freiheit, als Kunden, Arbeitnehmer oder Investoren“ gewahrt, „ihre sich andernden Wunsche in shining movie, den Markt zu tragen.“ Holla, die Krux ist dann blo?, dass auf der „Finanz- und Arbeitsmarkt typischerweise von Marktungleichgewicht gepragt“ sind, „weil eine Seite mehr zu verlieren hat als die andere.“ 2 . Elizabethan Era Crime. Die Schreiberin pladiert fur mehr Nachhaltigkeit des Kapitalismus, aber: „Auf den Kapitalismus zu verzichten ist keine Option“, „solange keine lebhafte Alternative in shining movie, Sicht ist. The Dawes Severalty. Aber wir durfen ihn nicht lassen, wie er ist.“ Wichtig scheint ihr aber die Qualitat des Kapitalismus zu sein, denn „gut“ an shining movie ihm ist sein „Innovationspotential, die Moglichkeit, gute Ideen schnell zu verbreiten“ … Philosophen konnen maximal die Dinge erklaren, sprach Karl Marx, es geht aber darum, die Verhaltnisse zu verandern. Hsbc Banking. Deshalb hilft derartiges Naomi Klein-Gesulze leider niemandem weiter. Shining. Ganz gewiss jedoch den wohlsituiert-spie?burgerlichen Demokraten, die aus Aktien, Wertpapieren, Rohstoff-Spekulationen, Miet- und Zinseinkunfte und der Abpressung von Mehrwert aus Arbeiterknochen ihren Profit saugen. Die Welt heult seit Jahrhunderten uber Ausbeutung und Unterdruckung – aber der Kapitalismus ist niemals „Schuld“; schon gar nicht die Menschen, die sich hinter der gutburgerlichen Fassade religioser Schutzheiliger (ob Christus, Buddha oder Mohammed ist dabei schnurzpipe!) verstecken [das ist per uk online se anti-semitisch!]; er ist nur irgendwie „falsch“ gepolt, unrichtig aufgestellt – eben wie ein Schiff, das permanent auf Kollisionskurs lauft und dabei immer mehr Ballast (sprich „Peronal“) abwirft. Movie. Warum sauft der Kahn aber nicht ab, wie Marc des seit mehr als 150 Jahren vorhersagte? Ich verstehe, dass Philosophen keine Ahnung von Okonomie und Ausbeutung haben, solange sie warmes Wasser und Geld fur Champagner haben. Go Into. Die Ideologie, dass Kapitalismus irgendetwas mit humaner, nachhaltiger Innovation (im gesellschaftlichen Sinne!) zu schaffen haben konnte, ist ein immanenter Widerspruch, da alles dem Profit untergeordnet ist.

Aber das bin ich leid, Leuten erklaren zu wollen – speziell den Einzellern die hier auf S.tk geistig herumkriechen, die weder meiner Klasse angehoren noch irgendein Bewu?tsein haben. Wer’s nicht kapiert, solle Baxmeyer oder DIE ZEIT lesen. 1 Martin Baxmeyer – DA-Redakteur und mutma?liche FAU-„Genosse“ („Dr. Shining Movie. Martin“) 2 Lisa Herzog, Philosophin und Volkswirtin, labert uber „Ist der Kapitalismus unser Schicksal?“ (Magazin, S. Why Did Mccandless The Wild. 25) Kommentar verfassen Antwort abbrechen. Kapitalismus mit menschlichem Antlitz. Von Henryk M. Shining Movie. Broder. Dagobert Duck war gestern. Uk Online Login. In Zeiten der Ackermanns und Essers gibt es keine anstandigen Kapitalisten mehr, nur noch Sozialarbeiter in shining, Armani-Anzugen, die es als unfein empfinden, uber Geld zu reden. Uk Online Login. Jeder Handler will ein Wohltater und ein Held sein – selbst wenn er mit Leichen handelt.

Ein Bild sagt mehr als tausend Worte. Shining. Der Mann im feinen Zwirn lacht und macht das Victory-Zeichen. The Dawes. Der Mann ihm gegenuber lacht zuruck, beide Manner sind bester Laune. Shining. Sie wirken, als hatten sie gerade eine Gehaltserhohung bekommen, die sie gleich wieder klug angelegt haben. Hsbc Banking Login. Oder als waren sie eben in shining movie, einem Prozess freigesprochen worden und konnten nun nach Hause gehen, zuruck zu Frau, Kind, Hund und Hobbykeller. Elizabethan. „We shall overcome some day!“ Dabei stehen Herr Ackermann und Herr Esser, zusammen mit vier weiteren Angeklagten, erst am Anfang eines Strafverfahrens, in movie, dem geklart werden soll, ob sie sich der „Untreue“ schuldig gemacht haben, weil sie rund 111 Millionen Mark an Class, Pramien verteilt bzw. Movie. kassiert haben sollen, als Mannesmann von Vodafone vor vier Jahren ubernommen wurde. The Dawes Act Of 1887. Allein Esser soll „nach monatelangem Einsatz bis zur totalen Erschopfung“ (Ackermann) 30 Millionen Mark als Belohnung bekommen haben Es riecht nach Selbstbedienung und Vetternwirtschaft, nach Geben und Nehmen, nach Hilfst Du mir, dann helf ich Dir. So sieht er also aus, der Kapitalismus mit menschlichem Antlitz. Shining. Denn egal, ob die Angeklagten verurteilt oder freigesprochen werden, es sind keine Rauber und Raffgeier, die da angeklagt werden, sondern leitende Angestellte, die bis zum Umfallen arbeiten, sich dabei „vom Prinzip der Leistungsgerechtigkeit leiten lassen“ (Ackermann) und nichts als Undank ernten. Elizabethan. „Das ist das einzige Land, wo diejenigen, die erfolgreich sind und Werte schaffen, deswegen vor Gericht stehen.“ Man muss diesen Satz zweimal lesen, um seine Dimension zu begreifen. Shining Movie. Ackermann, Esser und die anderen stehen vor Gericht, weil sie erfolgreich waren und Werte geschaffen haben.

Waren sie erfolglos geblieben und hatten Werte vernichtet, konnten sie heute, ohne von der Justiz belastigt zu werden, in mccandless go into the wild, der Karibik liegen und das Leben genie?en. Sie meinen es so, wie sie es sagen. Shining. Und nun regen sich alle auf, finden „die Arroganz der Machtigen“ unertraglich und die Verteidigungsstrategie an banking login den Haaren herbei gezogen. Movie. Dabei ubersehen sie, worum es wirklich geht. Entire Play. Es gibt keine anstandigen Kapitalisten mehr, nur noch Sozialarbeiter in shining movie, Armani-Anzugen, die sich fur das Gemeinwohl opfern. Der letzte wahre Kapitalist war Dagobert Duck, er war gierig und geizig, hat am liebsten in macbeth play, Geld gebadet und Profitmaximierung war sein Leben. Shining Movie. Heute gilt er als die Karikatur eines Kapitalisten, tatsachlich war er dessen perfekte Inkarnation. Macbeth Entire. Wurde es jemand wagen, Ackermann oder Esser mit Dagobert Duck zu vergleichen, hatte er sofort eine Beleidigungsklage am Hals. Movie. Denn der Kapitalist von heute redet uber alles, nur nicht uber Geld. Why Did. Und packt er sich bzw. Shining. seinen Buddies doch mal die Taschen voll, dann war dies „zulassig, angemessen und rechtlich sogar geboten“.

Ein Verzicht ware nicht nur moralisch verwerflich, sondern auch von Strafe bedroht. Der Kapitalist von heute agiert so, wie Mutter Teresa agieren wurde, wenn sie an hsbc uk online banking der Spitze der Deutschen Bank stunde. Shining. Das Geschaft ist nicht mehr Ziel und Zweck, sondern nur noch Mittel zum Zweck – um Gutes zu tun. Racial Class, Social Class, Essay. Naturlich zuerst sich selbst und den nachsten Freunden. Movie. Aber das ist so selbstverstandlich, dass man daruber nicht reden muss. Act Of 1887. Ackermann und Esser sind keine Ausnahmen, deren Verhalten von der Hohe ihrer Bezuge bestimmt wird. Movie. Am Sockel der Einkommenspyramide gilt derselbe Verhaltenskodex wie an ubl remit uk der Spitze.

Einerseits hat sich der Slogan „Geiz ist geil!“ durchgesetzt, fahren die Leute Hunderte von Kilometern, um ein paar Euro beim Tanken oder Haareschneiden zu sparen, andererseits gilt es generell als unfein, ubers Geld zu reden. Shining Movie. Man kann jeden Freund auf einer Party fragen: „Wann hast du deiner Frau zuletzt einen Orgasmus appliziert?“, ohne dass er die Anfrage als Zumutung empfinden wurde. Hsbc. Nur wenn man von ihm wissen mochte, wie viel er verdient, verweist er auf sein Recht auf Aussageverweigerung. Abgeordnete, die ein Vielfaches ihrer Diaten mit Nebenjobs verdienen, die sie nur bekommen haben, weil sie als Abgeordnete tatig sind, sehen keinen Interessenkonflikt am Werk, im Gegenteil, sie wollen nur ihre „Unabhangigkeit“ finanziell absichern. Movie. Und im ubrigen, sagen sie, sei es doch nur gut, wenn ein Abgeordneter „mitten im Leben“ stehen und handeln wurden. Elizabethan Era Crime And Punishment. Inzwischen sagt jede Nutte, die im Nachtprogramm eines Lokalsenders interviewt wird, es komme ihr darauf an, soziale Unterschiede auszugleichen, weswegen sie von allen Kunden dieselbe Gebuhr nehmen wurde. Es ist der alte deutsche Idealismus, der sich da artikuliert, die Verachtung fur die „Handler“ und die Bewunderung fur die „Helden“. Shining Movie. Die einen treffen sich beim Weltwirtschaftsgipfel in severalty act of, Davos, die anderen beim Weltsozialforum in shining movie, Bombay.

In Deutschland freilich mochte jeder Handler vor allem ein Held sein. Ubl Remit Uk. Selbst wenn es jemand ist, der mit Leichen handelt, wie der Heidelberger Anatom Gunther von Hagens, geb. Movie. Gunther Liebchen. Jahrelang hat er sich fur die „Demokratisierung der Anatomie“ eingesetzt, ist dabei reich, beruhmt und beruchtigt geworden. Severalty 1887. Nachdem der SPIEGEL Art und Umfang seiner makabren Geschafte aufgedeckt hat, stellte sich Liebchen hin und kehrte den Idealisten raus: „Durch mein Beispiel habe ich Diskussionen angeregt. Shining. Ich schaffe da ein neues Bewusstsein. Ubl Remit Uk. Das ist Teil meiner politischen Mission.“ Er habe einen „Beitrag zum Fortschritt in shining movie, China geschaffen“ und „schon Vieles demokratisch bewirkt dort“, au?erdem habe er „weltweit 400 Arbeitsplatze“ geschaffen.

Nur uber die Summen, die er bei der Umsetzung seiner Mission einnimmt, wollte von Hagens lieber nichts sagen. Um sich selbst noch heldenma?ig zu toppen, erklarte er sich schlie?lich zum Opfer einer Intrige. Macbeth Entire. „Mich beschleichen mitunter ostalgische Gefuhle. Shining Movie. Ich bin es aus der DDR gewohnt, bespitzelt zu werden.“ Nur das Victory-Zeichen, das hat er sich verkniffen. Hahaha – geil! Brodo schlagt zu #128521; Harte Arbeit rechtfertigt einiges im Hirn von Brodo – und wer so hart arbeitet wie Ackermann Co, der muss Recht haben! Besonders interessant ist, wie sich Brodo vorstellt, dass Ackermann „Werte schafft“? Und dann sollte Brodo noch erklaren wie er sich von genetisch bosen Deutschen unterscheidet, die ihre Boshaftigkeit angeblich unter anderem daraus schopfen, den „Handler“ zu verabscheuen, wobei sie diesem Negativbild den „Helden“ entgegensetzen – was macht denn Brodo, der seine „Helden“ bei Esser Ackermann sieht und Ausgebeutete (als nicht retuschierbaren Widerspruch zu Adorno) hasst? Schone lecker Labersulze von antideutschbrodo – inhaltlos, widerspruchlich und gepragt vom religios antideutschen Realitatsverlust.

Wie die Bourgeoise sich das Leiden anderer zu Nutzen macht, das ist wirklich interessant. Hatte ich eine Zeitmaschine, wurde ich Brodo gerne in 1887, den Jubilee Street Club schicken, da konnte er lernen, wahrend er mit einem Putzjob dort anfangt. Shining Movie. Vielleicht ware er dann kein hilfloser Snob geworden und wurde sich nicht nur durch gro?e Worte ohne Inhalt hervortun. Ist Kapitalismus bose? Unter Kapitalismus wird allgemein ein Wirtschaftssystem verstanden, das in why did chris, Verbindung mit Eigentum und einer funktionierenden Marktwirtschaft auf die Mehrung des Kapitals ausgerichtet ist. Ob Segen oder Fluch, da scheiden sich die Geister. Wahrend die einen ihm die Schuld geben an shining der Verelendung der „Massen“ im 19. Racial And Money. Jahrhundert (Marx, Engels etc.), weisen andere nach, dass er die vom Feudalismus hinterlassene bitterste Armut der Menschen im Verlaufe des 19. Shining Movie. und 20. And Punishment. Jahrhunderts in movie, einen beachtlichen Wohlstand verwandelt hat (z.B. Mccandless The Wild. v. Shining Movie. Miese).

In einer freien Marktwirtschaft – so die Theorie, produziert, besser ermoglicht der Kapitalist – sozusagen als unbeabsichtigtes Nebenprodukt – auch Wohlstand fur andere, denn die „Akkumulation“, das hei?t die Vermehrung von Kapital nutzt allen. Banking Login. Jedes gro?ere Produkt, jedes Haus, jedes Auto, jeder Arbeitsplatz setzt zu seiner Herstellung vorhandenes Kapital voraus. Shining Movie. Das positive Ideal des Kapitalismus (und der Marktwirtschaft sowieso) lautet: Derjenige der sein Kapital und seine Krafte im Markt dorthin schickt, wo sie am besten honoriert werden, der schickt sie automatisch dorthin wo sie fur andere den gro?ten Nutzen schaffen. The Dawes Severalty Act Of 1887. Dass dieses Ideal durch verschiedene Entartungen teilweise pervertiert wird ist eine andere Sache. Ja durchaus, der Besitz von Kapital ist etwas Wunderbares. Movie. Kapital ist – auch bei vernunftigem, nichtspekulativem Gebrauch – praktisch selbstvermehrend; es ist der Goldesel aus dem Marchen. Why Did The Wild. Fur den der genug davon angesammelt hat konnte es die Erlosung sein, zumindest die Erlosung von der Arbeit und von wirtschaftlichen Sorgen. Adam, so sagt die Hildegard von Bingen, lebte im Paradies aus seinem Eigentum und – er hatte noch nie gearbeitet! Das heutige Paradies des Kapitalismus hat allerdings ein paar ernsthafte Schonheitsfehler.

Wenige werden immer reicher, wahrend die meisten immer armer werden, auch wenn sie es noch nicht alle gemerkt haben. Shining. Die heutige Vermogensverteilung steht derjenigen zur Feudalzeit wahrscheinlich kaum nach. Global gesehen ist die Ungleichheit noch gro?er sodass der Kapitalismus fur viele in era crime and punishment, seinen Auswirkungen zu einer lebensbedrohlichen Katastrophe wird. Ein Paradies aber, in shining movie, dem nicht alle „Paradiesianer“ sind, ist fur niemanden eines, daran gibt es keinen Zweifel. Kapital sammelt sich am leichtesten bei denjenigen an uk online die schon welches haben, das macht sein Selbstvermehrungseffekt. Shining. Derjenige, der durch Arbeit und geschickte wirtschaftliche Aktivitat mehr erwirbt als er ausgibt und den Rest sich anspart, um damit etwas Gro?eres zu machen oder im Alter davon zu leben, der ist in macbeth, der Regel nicht das Problem sondern ein Segen fur die Volkswirtschaft. Das richtigen Probleme, die der Kapitalismus uns macht, entstehen dann, wenn die Akkumulation des gleichen Kapitalstocks uber die Generationen hinweg fortgesetzt wird, das hei?t wenn die Nachfahren eines Familienclans fast ungebremst durch praktisch nicht vorhandene Erbschaftssteuern mit dem ererbten Vermogen weitermachen konnen. Das richtige Problem entsteht dann, wenn der Markt nicht funktioniert weil die Teilnahmebedingungen am Markt fur die Menschen brutal unterschiedlich sind.

Denn der Markt ist ein Monopolyspiel, aber leider kein gerechtes. Movie. Einer von den zehn Mitspielern heute beansprucht gleich am Anfang per uk online Erbrecht die Halfte von allem Spielgeld und von allen Stra?en und Hausern. Shining. Das Spiel ist insofern schon ein perverses Spiel, aber es ist es vor allem auch deshalb ein perverses Spiel, weil es gar kein Spiel ist sondern ernst, und weil die anderen neun Mitspieler nicht ausscheiden konnen, es sei denn, sie schieden aus ihrem Leben aus. Die Option der Vergesellschaftung des Kapitals, also der Enteignung aller, ist ausgetestet und als nicht menschengema? befunden worden. Macbeth Entire Play. Wo immer die Menschen frei entscheiden konnen, entscheiden sie sich fur Eigentum und fur ein Marktsystem. Movie. Wir brauchen also vermogensbasierte faire Startbedingungen fur die jungen Erwachsenen unserer Gesellschaft. Hsbc Uk Online Banking. Wenn es uns nicht gelingt die jetzigen enormen Konzentrationen an movie Eigentum an Class, and Money unserer Welt auf relativ wenige Menschen nach dem Tode der Eigentumer wieder in shining movie, gro?erem Umfang dem Zugriff der breiten Bevolkerung zuganglich zu machen, dann wird der Kapitalismus an era crime and punishment sich selber ersticken oder wieder mal eine Katastrophe auslosen. Movie. Wenn ein Mopolispieler die ganzen Stra?en und das ganze Geld bei sich versammelt hat, ist fur die anderen das Spiel bekanntlich aus. Macbeth Entire. Fur ihn selbst aber auch. Shining Movie. Wir brauchen ein Erbausgleichssystem, das das durch Tod freiwerdende Vermogen uber einen Erbausgleichsfond und ein gesetzliches Grunderbrecht fur Jeden, in elizabethan era crime and punishment, einen breiten, gerechten Vermogensbildungsprozess der Bevolkerung einschleust.

Diese Rezirkulation ware der Weg, wie mit den Nachlassen erfolgreicher Mitmenschen der geringste Schaden angerichtet und der hochste Nutzen erzielt wurde. Wir sollten unser Real-Monopoly dringend umbauen: Von einem Endsiegerspiel, dass zwingend von Zeit zu Zeit in shining movie, einen Crash mundet und einen Neustart erfordert, zu einem modernen „rezirkulierenden“ Entwicklungsspiel in elizabethan, dem alle gewinnen wenn es gut lauft. Die Litanei vom Schicksal. von Gregor Dotzauer. Noch nie bluhte die Kapitalismuskritik so bunt wie heute – von Frank Schirrmachers Kampfschrift „Ego“ bis zu Wolfgang Streecks Krisenstudie „Gekaufte Zeit“. Movie. Uber die Konjunktur einer intellektuellen Disziplin zwischen Radikalitat und politischer Zahnlosigkeit. Wenn es nach der schieren Zahl der Verwunschungen und Grabgesange ginge, dann ware es morgen, spatestens ubermorgen, mit dem Kapitalismus vorbei. And Money. Die Stimmung ist anscheinend so umsturzlerisch wie nie – auch ohne die Aktivisten von Attac und Occupy. Shining Movie. Denn vielleicht braucht es nicht einmal mehr ein revolutionares Subjekt, weil er von alleine kollabiert.

Nach Jahrhunderten sozialer Kampfe und Jahrzehnten spatkapitalistischen Darbens sind nun offenbar funf, sechs Jahre verscharfter internationaler Finanz- und Schuldenkrise drauf und dran, dem System den Rest zu geben. Dabei ist nicht einmal ausgemacht, worin dieser einmal als moribund und dann wieder als beharrungsstur beschriebene Kapitalismus uberhaupt besteht. Handelt es sich um eine Wirtschaftsform oder eine Mentalitat, eine anthropologische Verfasstheit oder eine soziale Konstruktion? Wo beruhren sich seine europaisch-demokratischen Auspragungen mit den autoritaren in severalty act of 1887, China? Und geht es nur mit protestantischer Ethik oder auch mit konfuzianischer Disziplin? Der Singular lost sich schnell auf in shining, Pluralitaten, und es ist zweifelhaft, ob sie Phanotypen eines einzigen monstrosen Genotyps sind.

Es herrscht eine uberwaltigende Gleichzeitigkeit von Ungleichzeitigkeiten. Elizabethan. Der finsterste realwirtschaftliche Raubtierkapitalismus koexistiert mit computergestutztem Hochgeschwindigkeitstrading und die Knochen schindende Ausbeutung bettelarmer Arbeitskrafte mit der konsumistischen Besiedelung grundversorgter Seelen. Entsprechend divers sind die kritischen Zugange. Shining. Es konnte in Racial Class,, diesem Fruhjahr keine gro?eren Gegensatze geben als den zwischen Frank Schirrmachers Kampfschrift „Ego – Das Spiel des Lebens“ (Blessing), die Nummer eins der deutschen Sachbuch-Bestseller, und Wolfgang Streecks Adorno-Vorlesungen „Gekaufte Zeit – Die vertagte Krise des demokratischen Kapitalismus“ (Suhrkamp), die fur den Preis der Leipziger Buchmesse nominiert sind. Shining. Schirrmacher beschwort in Racial Social Class, and Money, apokalyptischen Worten den Abschied des Menschen von sich selbst in movie, der digitalen Okonomie des Wissens und sieht einen roboterhaften homo oeconomicus entstehen. Entire. Wolfgang Streeck wiederum, Direktor des Kolner Max-Planck-Instituts fur Gesellschaftsforschung, untersucht mit eiserner sozialwissenschaftlicher Empirie, wie sich Europas Demokratien in shining, den letzten 40 Jahren immer wieder Zeit durch die Abstraktion Geld erkauft haben: die Stundung ihres realen Zusammenbruchs.

Beide Bucher widersprechen einander nicht. Macbeth Entire. Sie unterscheiden sich aber in shining, einem fundamentalen Punkt: Schirrmacher druckt sich um eine politische Einbettung seiner Thesen. Uk Online Login. Dagegen gibt Streeck freimutig uber seine Verankerung in shining movie, Traditionen der Frankfurter Schule Auskunft, die der Annahme „eines prinzipiellen Spannungsverhaltnisses zwischen dem sozialen Leben und einer von Imperativen der Kapitalverwertung und Kapitalvermehrung beherrschten Okonomie“ folgen: „Niemand kann nach dem, was seit 2008 geschehen ist, Politik und politische Institutionen verstehen, ohne sie in why did the wild, enge Beziehung zu Markten und wirtschaftlichen Interessen zu setzen. Movie. Ob und inwieweit das ,marxistisch’ ist oder ,neomarxistisch’, ist eine Frage, die mir ganz und gar uninteressant erscheint.“ So zeichnet Streeck den Weg vom Steuerstaat zum Schuldenstaat und von da aus zum Konsolidierungsstaat in play, neoliberalen Zeiten nach. Eine interessantere Frage ist es, ob sich unpolitische Kapitalismuskritik uberhaupt denken lasst. Shining. Ist sie ohne das Problem der Verteilungsgerechtigkeit nicht ein schlechter Witz?

Ihre Schwundstufen, die Klage uber die Beschleunigungsgesellschaft, die Burnoutgesellschaft oder die Mudigkeitsgesellschaft, der der Karlsruher Philosoph Byung-Chul Han mit leise antidemokratischen Anwandlungen ein erfolgreiches Buchlein gewidmet hat, mogen dies nahelegen. And Punishment. Auch ist Schirrmachers hysterischer Populismus sicher mitschuldig daran, dass seine keineswegs einfaltige Argumentation in shining movie, Talkshows mitunter auf Lebenshilfeniveau reduziert wird: Nun seid mal nicht so egoistisch! Doch sobald man den Fokus erweitert, geraten die politokonomischen Kontexte wieder in macbeth entire, den Blick. Die Angstlust, mit der man auf den Kapitalismus als die Generalmetapher fur alle Zumutungen dieser Zeit starrt, hat indes auch die Hoffnung im Sinn, dass die Dinge nicht so schlimm kommen, wie sie kommen sollen: dass Europa also nur an movie den Randern brockelt oder der Klimawandel glimpflich verlauft. Era Crime. Dieser psychohygienischen Funktion kommt jede kapitalismuskritische Farbe recht, und auch wenn aus ihr noch kein politisches Handeln erwachst, steht sie mit Stephane Hessels zum Herz-Jesu-Sozialismus tendierender Schrift „Emport euch!“ nicht dummer da als mit Joseph Vogls kulturhermeneutischer Analyse „Das Gespenst des Kapitals“ oder David Graebers anarchistischer Theorie der „Schulden“.

Gier ist nicht der Geist des Kapitalismus. Jede Auseinandersetzung ist besser als keine Auseinandersetzung, und man sollte sich vergegenwartigen, dass auch halb vergessene Epochenbucher wie Herbert Marcuses Studie „Der eindimensionale Mensch“ schon aus einer kruden Mischung von intellektueller Scharfe, grenzenloser Ubertreibung und agitatorischer Wucht bestanden. Shining. Eine funktionalistische Betrachtungsweisen und die Vorstellung, man konne der unheimlichen Matrix mit einem individuellen Schritt entrinnen, leben in play, solchen Theorien immer zugleich. Shining Movie. Interessanterweise empfiehlt J.M. Hsbc Login. Coetzee in shining movie, „Here and why did go into the wild, Now“, seinem Briefwechsel mit Paul Auster, Platons Hohlengleichnis als die Urgeschichte einer Ruckkehr aus den Illusionen der Finanzwirtschaft in shining, die Wirklichkeit.

Die gefesselten Hohlenbewohner, die ihr Leben lang nichts als flackernde Zahlenreihen gesehen haben, mussten sich nur abwenden und waren frei. Wurden sich die westlichen Krisengesellschaften dann nicht mehr Max Webers Evergreen „von der schicksalvollsten Macht unseres modernen Lebens: dem Kapitalismus“ vorsingen? In seiner superlativischen Gestalt zielt diese, seine religionssoziologischen Aufsatze aus dem Jahr 1920 einleitende und schon fast zu Tode zitierte Formulierung auf eine durch Mark und Bein gehende Totalitat, lange bevor sie als totalitar gebrandmarkt wurde. Why Did Chris The Wild. Sie klingt verdachtig nach dem „Verblendungszusammenhang“, den Theodor W. Shining. Adorno und Max Horkheimer 1947 in ubl remit uk, der „Dialektik der Aufklarung“ konstatierten, erst recht, wenn Weber feststellt, dass „der heutige, zur Herrschaft im Wirtschaftsleben gelangte Kapitalismus sich im Wege der okonomischen Auslese die Wirtschaftssubjekte – Unternehmer und Arbeiter – schafft, deren er bedarf.“ Sogar Michel Foucaults in shining, den siebziger Jahren entwickelte Idee einer Biopolitik scheint darin angelegt, die Kontrolle immer weiter ins Korperinnere verlagert und auf die Uberwachung der leisesten Lebensregung aus ist. Nur wird der Zusammenhang, in ubl remit uk, dem Webers Wort steht, meist unterschlagen.

Denn kapitalismuskritisch ist Max Weber zunachst nur im Sinn des Unterscheidenwollens. Movie. „Schrankenloseste Erwerbsgier“, hei?t es im selben Atemzug, „ist nicht im mindesten gleich Kapitalismus, noch weniger gleich dessen ,Geist’.“ Er wei?: „Dies Streben fand und findet sich bei Kellnern, Arzten, Kutschern, Kunstlern, Kokotten, bestechlichen Beamten, Soldaten, Raubern, Kreuzfahrern, Spielhollenbesuchern, Bettlern: – man kann sagen: bei ,all sorts and Racial, conditions of shining movie men’, zu allen Epochen aller Lander der Erde“. Entire. Deshalb kann Kapitalismus „geradezu identisch sein mit Bandigung, mindestens mit rationaler Temperierung, dieses irrationalen Triebes. Shining. Allerdings ist Kapitalismus identisch mit dem Streben nach Gewinn, im kontinuierlichen, rationalen kapitalistischen Betrieb: nach immer erneutem Gewinn: nach ,Rentabilitat’.“ Man kann dies als das ewige oder nun doch endliche Schauspiel von Entfesselung und Zahmung der Produktivkrafte verstehen – aber auch so, dass es immer um weniger geht als das unbegreifbare Ganze. Chris. Der kommunitaristisch gepragte Philosoph Michael J. Movie. Sandel nennt es in hsbc uk online banking login, seinem Buch „Was man fur Geld nicht kaufen kann“ (Ullstein) schlicht die „moralischen Grenzen des Marktes“. Shining. Und in macbeth, seinen legendaren Einfuhrungsvorlesungen „Gerechtigkeit – Wie wir das Richtige tun“ (als Video unter http://www.justiceharvard.org) zeigt er an shining movie vielen Beispielen die Beschranktheit utilitaristischen Denkens. Ubl Remit Uk. Das ist nie radikal, dafur grundlich und eine Anleitung zu politischem Handeln. Movie. Denn das Monster Kapitalismus ist ein unformiger Gegner.

Gerechtigkeit im Einzelfall ist immer konkret. „Noch nie bluhte die Kapitalismuskritik so bunt wie heute“ Nach diesem Satz brauch man schon nicht mehr weiterlesen. War Marx nun doch kein Philosoph oder hatte er einfach keine Ahnung von Okonomie und Ausbeutung? Ich schwore Karl Marx und den Fuhrern die er mir bestimmt, unerschutterliche Treue und Gehorsam! Oi! Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (8) Die Revolution der gebenden Hand. 13.06.2009 · Die kapitalismuskritische Linke definiert das Eigentum als Diebstahl. Chris Go Into. Der gro?te Nehmer ist aber der moderne Staat.

Wir leben in shining movie, einem steuerstaatlich zugreifenden Semi-Sozialismus – und niemand ruft zum fiskalischen Burgerkrieg auf. Von Peter Sloterdijk. Meinhard Miegel im Gesprach: 2015 – das Jahr der finalen Krise. Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (5): Die nachste Blase schwillt schon an. Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (6): Der Schaden der anderen. Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (4): Die Firma ist eine Zumutung. Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (3): Martin Walser. Zukunft des Kapitalismus (2): Modell Deutschland.

Die Zukunft des Kapitalismus (1): Wohlstand fur alle. P.S.: „Marxismus Reflexionen“ wurden von Oi!-Antideutschen verfasst, sowas wurde ich ja nicht empfehlen #128521; »Das Kapital hat einen Horror vor Abwesenheit von Profi t oder sehr kleinem Profi t, wie die Natur vor der Leere. Uk Online Login. Mit entsprechendem Profi t wird Kapital kuhn. Zehn Prozent sicher, und man kann es uberall anwenden; 20 Prozent, es wird lebhaft; 50 Prozent, positiv waghalsig; fur 100 Prozent stampft es alle menschlichen Gesetz e unter. seinen Fu?; 300 Prozent, und es existiert kein Verbrechen, das es nicht riskiert, selbst auf Gefahr des Galgens.« • THOMAS JOSEPH DUNNING (1799 – 1873), englischer Gewerkschafter und Publizist: Trade‘s Unions and movie, Strikes: their philosophy and why did chris, intention, London 1860, S. Shining. 35f.

The poor stay poor, the chris go into the wild, rich get rich. That’s how it goes. die Armen bleiben arm, die Reichen bleiben reich, Leonard Cohen im Album I’m Your Man (Februar 1988) Ran an shining movie die Jobs! 14.06.2013 – 23:34 Uhr. Von JAN W. Why Did Go Into. SCHAFER. Die Konjunktur verlauft bislang mau! Doch Deutschlands Firmenchefs bleiben cool: Sie wollen weiter Mitarbeiter einstellen. Shining. Und zwar so viele wie seit Jahren nicht.

Das ist mutig, verdient Respekt! Und es ist ein Zeichen von Solidaritat: Wer in the dawes severalty act of, unsicheren Zeiten Jobs schafft, gibt vielen Menschen die Chance zum sozialen Aufstieg. Jetzt sind die Arbeitslosen am Zug. Shining. Die Jammer-Ausrede „Ich finde einfach keinen Job“ zieht nicht mehr! Denn: Die Firmen suchen Zigtausende Mitarbeiter auch fur „einfache“ Stellen: Bauarbeiter, Putzhilfen, Verkauferinnen, Wachleute.

Alles Jobs, fur die man keinen Doktortitel oder Studium braucht. Hier geht es nur um eines: den Willen, ehrlich und hart zu malochen. Wer diesen Willen nicht hat, verwirkt auch das Recht auf dauerhafte Stutze durch den Staat. Die Heimat der Sklaven ist der Aufstand. Nur Schamlippen kussen die Toten. On Stage | Sendung vom 20.06.2013. Erinnerung an ubl remit uk eine Revolution. Franzosische Revolution, 1789: Das Direktorium in shining movie, Paris entsendet drei Emissare nach Jamaika, um dort im Namen der franzosischen Republik einen Sklavenaufstand gegen die Herrschaft der britischen Krone zu organisieren. The Dawes Severalty. Doch Napoleon setzt das Direktorium ab und lasst sich zum Kaiser kronen, der Auftrag hat keinen Auftraggeber mehr.

Hat sich damit auch der Auftrag erledigt? Heiner Mullers Stuck ist 1979 in shining movie, scheinbarer Distanz zur Gegenwart entstanden, so dass es auch an ubl remit uk den Theatern der DDR gespielt werden konnte. Shining. Das Stuck ist weder ein Abgesang noch eine Bilanz vergangener Epochen, sondern stellt die zeitlose und aktuell wieder wirkungsvoll zu beantwortende Frage nach dem Einzelnen im Lauf der Geschichte neu. Der Schauspieler Ulrich Muhe war einer der engsten kunstlerischen und personlichen Weggefahrten von Heiner Muller. Ubl Remit Uk. Als Hommage an shining movie ihn inszenierte Muhe das Revolutionsstuck zum 75. Era Crime. Geburtstag Heiner Mullers im Haus der Berliner Festspiele.

Zum Gedenken an shining Ulrich Muhe, der am 20. Why Did Chris Mccandless. Juni 2013 60 Jahre alt geworden ware, wiederholt ZDFkultur diese Aufzeichnung. Theaterstuck von Heiner Muller. Widerstand und Verzicht – Lasst sich dadurch die Welt retten? Jahrzehntelang hat die Marktwirtschaft in shining, Deutschland funktioniert: Die Arbeitslosigkeit hielt sich in banking login, Grenzen, und die sozialen Gegensatze taten es auch. Shining Movie. Doch diese Zeiten sind vorbei: Die Ungleichheit wachst, und auch die Zerstorung von Natur und Umwelt nimmt zu. Hsbc Banking Login. Nicht zuletzt bedingt durch die Finanzkrise wunschen sich acht von zehn Bundesburgern ein anderes Wirtschaftssystem. Wie kann ein sozial-okologischer Umbau der Gesellschaft gestaltet werden?

Muss es neue Formen des Widerstandes geben? Mussen wir dem Konsumzwang widerstehen und uns radikal einschranken, damit die Ressourcen nicht weiter ausgebeutet werden? Oder muss zunachst der Kapitalismus als „Grundubel“ beseitigt werden? Gaste in shining, der Sendung „Funkhausgesprache“ „Es gibt keine Losung okologischer Probleme getrennt von derjenigen sozialer Probleme, weil beide ihre Ursachen in chris mccandless, der kapitalistische Produktionsweisen haben.“ „Zeit des Zorns – Warum wir uns vom Kapitalismus befreien mussen“ Dr. Movie. Norbert Reuter. Volkswirtschaftler, Mitglied im Bundesvorstand der Gewerkschaft ver.di.

„Konsum lasst sich nicht einfach verbieten, vielmehr mussen wir politische Vorgaben machen, etwa in severalty 1887, Bezug auf konsequentes Wiederverwerten.“ Prof. Shining. Dr. Elizabethan Era Crime And Punishment. Uwe Schneidewind. Prasident des Wuppertal Instituts fur Klima, Umwelt und Energie. „Eine grune Technologie alleine reicht nicht aus, um Umweltprobleme zu losen, auch Konsumverzicht ist notig.“

Moderation Randi Crott. Jetzt bin ich allein. On Stage | Sendung vom 20.06.2013. Jetzt bin ich allein. Seine gro?en Rollen am Deutschen Theater in shining, Berlin bis 1991 sind unvergessen, seine Hauptrolle im Stasi-Drama „Das Leben der Anderen“ brachte dem Film den Oscar. Racial Class, Class,. Ulrich Muhes (1953 bis 2007) Leben und Werk ist ein Spiegelbild der deutschen Geschichte – auch in shining movie, ihrer Zerrissenheit. Hsbc Banking. Seine Erfahrungen in movie, der DDR pragten sein Denken und Handeln entscheidend. Muhe spielte seine gro?te Theaterrolle unter der Regie seines Entdeckers Heiner Muller: „Hamlet“. Elizabethan Era Crime And Punishment. Von August 1989 bis Marz 1990 dauerten die Proben am Deutschen Theater in movie, Ostberlin. Hsbc Login. Muhes Hamlet-Darstellung in movie, Heiner Mullers achtstundiger Inszenierung am Deutschen Theater ist Ausgangspunkt und wiederkehrendes Motiv des Portrats von Christoph Ruter: Ein Mensch zwischen Kunst und Leben, zwischen Altem und Neuem, zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland, der sich zweifelnd, wutend, trauernd, anklagend und zugleich auch zaghaft, unentschlossen und zuruckhaltend als Antiheld gebardet.

Zum Gedenken an macbeth Ulrich Muhe, der am 20. Shining Movie. Juni 2013 60 Jahre alt geworden ware, wiederholt ZDFkultur dieses Portrat.

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