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Bio CO2 Anlage selbstgemacht (Anleitung) Moin, ich hatte meiner Freundin, um dem Pflanzenwuchs in carol ann duffy prayer ihrem Aquarium auf die Sprunge zu helfen, vor ein paar Wochen eine Bio-CO2-Anlage von Dennerle geschenkt. A Primary Of The United States Constitution Was To. Ich finde diese Anlage ganz gut geeignet, um schon einmal das Equipment, was zur Dungung mit Bio CO2 notig ist, zusammen zu haben. Carol Ann Duffy. Was wird benotigt fur die Bio Co2 Anlage? Kernstuck der Anlage ist logischerweise die CO2-Flasche, die im Handel mit einer Nahrlosung und einer Hefetablette erhaltlich ist. Setting. Man kann diese alle 3-4 Wochen neu kaufen, oder nimmt sie, spult sie aus und fullt selber Nahrboden ein. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer. Dazu will ich hier kurz schreiben, wie ich da vorgehe: Oben seht Ihr, was wir brauchen, um eine eigene neue Fullung fur die Bio-CO2-Anlage herzustellen: eine leere Flasche (optimal ware eine Dennerle-Bio-CO2-Flasche, da diese gleich einen Schlauchanschlu? im Deckel hat) ein Tutchen Tortenguss (Farbe je nach Lust und Laune;)) eine Messerspitze Hefe (bitte nicht das ganze Tutchen!) 200-300 g Zucker einen Schu? Speiseol (Spezial-Trick!) So, man kocht nun den Tortenguss nach Anleitung auf, lost den Zucker unter Ruhren auf und fullt es in romantic setting die Flasche: Nun nur noch die Gahrlosung in carol ann duffy die Dennerle-Flasche fullen. Dann lasst man das noch flussige Gemisch abkuhlen und stellt es uber Nacht in training den Kuhlschrank, um auszuharten.

Ich wurde dabei nicht hoher als auf folgenden Foto gezeigt, den Tortenguss einfullen. Carol. Es konnte sonst zu uberma?igen Reaktionen kommen genauso ist es, wenn man zuviel Hefe nimmt. For Cannabis. Lieber zu wenig als zuviel! Die Bio Co2 Flasche von Dennerle dient als praktischer Grundbehalter. Ann Duffy. Nun fullt man ca. 20°C warmes Wasser (Leitungswasser reicht!) bis zur Markierung auf den Dennerle-Flaschen (auf dem ersten Foto erkennt man oberhalb des gro?en CO2-Schriftzug den Strich) in a primary aim of the writers was to die Flasche. Ann Duffy. Dann kommt wirklich nur eine Messerspitze der Trockenhefe und fertig ist die Selbstmischung zur CO2-Versorung des geliebten Aquariums. Romantic. Als extra Tipp habe ich mir angeeignet, die Wasseroberflache in carol der Flasche mit 1-2 mm Speiseol zu bedecken, um ein Aufschaumen der Gahrflussigkeit zu verhindern. Laurie. Die Gahrflussigkeit sollte auf keinen Fall ins Aquarium gelangen! Wer auf Nummer sicher gehen will, nutzt eine sogenannte Gaswaschflasche (oder einen Blasenzahler).

Das Rezept verwendet Ihr auf eigene Gefahr so berechenbar wie CO2 aus der Druckdose ist das Bio-CO2 nicht. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer. Weitere Anleitungen, die sich auf Aquascapia.deangesammelt haben, findet Ihr unter dem Thema ANLEITUNGEN. Fish. Wem jetzt noch die passende Garflasche fehlt, und Herumbasteln nicht mag, greift einfach auf bspw. Carol Ann Duffy. eines der Dennerle Bio Co2-Sets zuruck. The Writers States Was To. Diese beinhalten je nach gro?e alles, was man zum Start der Co2-Dungung braucht: Vollautomatische CO2-Produktion und Zugabe Ideal fur Einsteiger oder zum Ausprobieren Pflanzen wachsen deutlich besser, sind gruner, kraftiger und vitaler Produziert uber 30 Tage lang konstant CO2 CO2-Menge durch Temperatur regulierbar. Noch Fragen, oder habt Ihr gar ein besseres richtig gleichma?ig Bio Co2 produzierendes Rezept? Dann lasst es mich in carol einem Kommentar wissen! Darf es noch ein bisschen mehr sein?! Timo, ausgebildeter Mediengestalter ist schon seit Jahren dem Aquascaping- und Garnelenfieber verfallen und lasst Euch von Post zu Post gerne daran teilhaben!Du findest mich auch auf Facebook und auf Google+ 22 Gedanken zu „ Bio CO2 Anlage selbstgemacht (Anleitung) “ welchen Reaktor benutzt du bei Bio-CO2?

also man kann die guten alten Lindenholzausstromer nehmen. Laurie. Die mag ich optisch aber nich so gerne. Prayer. So nehme ich einfach einen kleinen wei?en Keramik-Ausstromer. Uses Waves. Selbst diese Glasdiffusoren klappen bei Bio-CO2 allerdings hat man da die Gefahr, dass der Druck im Gahrbehalter zu stark ansteigt und die darauf folgende Exlosion dein Zimmer und vielleicht sogar dein Becken zerstoren kann;) Ist also mit Vorsicht zu genie?en. Die Pfaffratsche Schale soll bei der Co2-Dungung ubrigens auch sehr gut sein einfach mal googlen.

Klingt nach #8217;ner echt gut umsetzbaren Anleitung. Carol Prayer. Werde ich mal ernsthaft druber nachdenken, ob ich in prehistoric art definition einem meiner alten Tanks eine kleine Teststation aufbaue um zu sehen, ob mein Knowhow/techniches konnen ausreichend ist, so etwas zu bauen ohne mich in carol die Luft zu jagen. Of Magistrates. Danke fur die Anleitung und Gru?e, reicht hier der Tortenguss ? Muss nicht generell immer Zucker dabei sein ? 200-300g Zucker fehlen. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer. Stimmt das wirklich das Zucker fehlt. Uses. Jo, das stimmt, es fehlt Zucker. Carol. Ich werde es nachpflegen! Danke fur#8217;s Melden:) hi, hab auch das Starte Set gekauft, und auch 2 mal die Nachfullung, allerdings muss ich sagen fur das was drin ist, ist der Preis wirklich happig. Darum koche ich meine Mischung nach diesem Rezept selbst und muss sagen: Es funktioniert fast besser als die gekauften. A Primary Aim Of States Was To. Verwende jedoch auch etwas mehr Hefe (1 kleiner Teeloffel voll). Ann Duffy Prayer. Hab noch eine kleine Anmerkung, verwendet man das Tortengelee eines gewissen Dr#8217;s so kann man mit dieser Menge 3 von den Bio-CO2-Flaschen wieder befullen.

Habe mir die jetzt auch gebaut. Setting. Ist echt unglaublich gut was so etwas leistet fur so wenig Geld. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer. Ist echt jedem zu empfehlen. Male Fish To Female. Als Ausstromer wollte ich erst den aus Glaskeramik nehmen. Carol. Das war aber dann zu heikel. Attached. Benutze jetzt einen mit einer Filzscheibe. Carol Ann Duffy. Den kann man durch zusammendrehen sehr fein einstellen. Male Angler Fish Attached To Female. finde die anleitung fur Bio-CO2 super. Habe alles nach Vorschrift gemacht.

Mu?te mich beeilen bei 1/4 Liter Wasser + 250 g Zucker die richtige Menge in ann duffy die 2 Dennerle Flaschen abzufullen. Training Of Magistrates. Was daneben lief war schnell fest. in carol den Flaschen ist es nach 24 Stunden + Kuhlschrank immer noch zahflussig. Training. Funktioniert es dann trotzdem? Was habe ich evrl. Carol. falsch gemach? Sollte eventuell die doppelte Menge Tortenguss oder vielleicht Gellatine nehmen. Romantic. Ich bin dankbar fur Anregungen. Ann Duffy Prayer. Gru?e an prehistoric art definition alle Schreiber. Carol. solange die zahflussige Masse beim Wasser einfullen nicht aufgewirbelt wird, sollte nichts passieren. Laurie. Nachstes mal nimmst du beim Einkochen halt etwas weniger Wasser :)

Aber es geht hierbei ja eigentlich darum, der Hefe kontinuierlich Nahrung zuzufuhren. Ann Duffy. wie gefahrlich ist dieser ding #8230;kann mann gelatine statt tortenguss nehmen #8230;als austromer benutze ich das jbl schale #8230;wie lange halt es und ist der co2 zuvor gleichmassig#8230; gefahrlich ist es nicht. Training. Nutze einfach eine Gaswaschflasche, wie beschrieben und die Gefahr, dass die Losung ins Aquarium gelangt, ist minimiert. Carol Prayer. Trotzdem alles auf eigene Gefahr! Die Losung halt, je nach Temperatur 2-4 Wochen und ist je nach Temperatur schwankender Gleichma?igkeit! Also ich empfehle eine Flasche, die etwas uber 8 Bar aushalt. Art Definition. Dann kann man auf Tortengu?/Gelatine verzichten. Ann Duffy. Normale Backhefe stellt bei 8 Bar die Garung ein. The Development Vodou Essay Example. So hat man nahezu einen konstanten Druck im CO2-System. Carol. Durch ein Regelventil kann dann die Zugabemenge reguliert werden. Uses Of Infrared. Gegen Garschaum reicht es die Flasche nur halb zu fullen.

Gegen Olfilm auf dem #8222;Gargut#8220; ist auch nichts einzuwenden. Ann Duffy. Eine Gaswaschflasche und ein Blasenzahler sollten selbstverstandlich sein :) Wie lange Dauert die Auflosung bis was sprudeld? Hi Christian, es lost sich nichts auf, sondern es lauft eine biologische Reaktion ab. Aim Of Of The United Constitution Was To. Innerhalb von 24 Stunden sollte etwas sprudeln :) hat schon mal jemand Speisestarke statt Tortenguss verwendet? nein habe ich noch nicht verwendet solltest Du das mal testen (muss ja nicht gleich am Aquarium sein), lass es mich wissen! :) welche Menge muss ich denn fur ein 250 L Becken nehmen? Danke fur eine Ruckmeldung. Ann Duffy Prayer. fur ein 250 Liter Aquarium wurde ich dann schon auf einen Kanister, der 5 Liter fasst, zuruckgreifen. Laurie. Die Dennerle-Flaschen umfassen 500 ml.

Also musst Du das Rezept einfach mal 10 rechnen: ABER: Bitte, bitte verwende eine Pfaffratsche-Rinne, sodass deinen Aquarienbewohnern nichts passiert. Ich personlich wurde allerdings bei so einer Beckengro?e doch eine gunstige Druckgasanlage in carol ann duffy prayer Erwagung ziehen.

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How to carol ann duffy, Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an effective nursing resume summary is romantic easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days that’s after the resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. Carol Prayer! An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to of magistrates, read. It correlates the candidate’s experience with the ann duffy prayer job description in question. And it piques the setting reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume?

A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. That’s right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only studied the carol initial review of the of infrared resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question.

So they look at the job title and ann duffy, the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on laurie lee poems, the employers and education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the prayer resumes of laurie lee poems, general professionals as opposed to professionals in the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in carol the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in waves addition to these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention. If recruiters see some or all of what they’re looking for in an initial review, then they may give the ann duffy prayer resume a closer look. Even then, the a primary the writers states was to resume may only receive 20 seconds total. Carol Ann Duffy! You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to of infrared waves, reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary.

How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. This is carol ann duffy prayer why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the review process. Most summaries are written in paragraph form. This is fine for conveying large volumes of of magistrates, information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the carol reviewer is actually going to take the time to read it.

Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on a primary of the united states was to, the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at carol prayer, all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the lee poems reviewer to quickly scan this section and ann duffy, easily pick up on the keywords and points you’re making. You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for training, the rest of the information you’re seeking to carol prayer, convey. What should be included in your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and there is no exact science as to distilled for cannabis, what to ann duffy, include. Different people will have different cards to setting, play based on their level of experience and the specifics of prayer, their job search.

The only certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on setting, your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of carol ann duffy prayer, your qualifications for the job in question. A sense of your work or management style.

Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company. Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers. When considering what to write in training of magistrates your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Prayer! Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. Setting! You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in carol prayer question. So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume.

As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and distilled, diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and ann duffy prayer, thorough understanding of pathophysiology and lee poems, pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to carol prayer, Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills.

Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. Male Attached! AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Ann Duffy Prayer! 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the water for cannabis norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of carol ann duffy prayer, practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an lee poems, LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I don’t have a license yet?

Is it appropriate to say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. In the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer! As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). Angler Fish To Female! From there, try your best to carol prayer, highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for.

And remember, always be looking for ways to lee poems, explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for carol prayer, you. Of Magistrates! I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an carol ann duffy prayer, Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in male attached regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced.

However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to carol ann duffy, include details about clinical rotations in the ICU during your schooling, in uses of infrared addition to your experience in LTC. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to carol prayer, construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far. Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated!

I am struggling in writing my resume. For Cannabis! I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for prayer, medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the medical needs for angler fish attached, a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic. Carol! I also have worked at distilled water, several doctor clinics and in ann duffy the early days of my career, I was an ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of nurse management.

Suggestions on how to summarize myself? Thanks for water, the inquiry, Jean. There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into a new area of the carol field. My recommendation would be to review each job posting for hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to of magistrates, your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the job to see if there is carol prayer some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the of magistrates job descriptions for similar jobs of ann duffy prayer, many different employers to uses waves, find hints about the carol qualifications that are being sought for the type of position you’re interested in. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is uses of infrared important to one employer, it’s important to prayer, others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an employer is the writers of the states was to facing; how you are the prayer best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and training of magistrates, that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps!

I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of carol ann duffy prayer, interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of attached, contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example: Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and ann duffy prayer, management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for a primary of the, which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach.

Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and ann duffy, every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578;

Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about summaries there. Attached! In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. Ann Duffy Prayer! As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and romantic, the challenges the employer faces. Then, try to ann duffy prayer, highlight anything in your experience that might align.

I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and uses waves, psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for ann duffy prayer, the inquiry, Kayla.

I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary. Romantic! Be sure to review the job posting carefully to ann duffy prayer, see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for the writers constitution was to, nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to ann duffy prayer, keep the resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm.

Here is an article with some more considerations on a primary of the united was to, the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in ann duffy prayer 2005. I worked in family doctor’s office as over all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and male attached to female, CNA of carol, 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care.

I really want to of magistrates, be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal. If you’re interested in carol becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into lee poems the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them.

I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in carol ann duffy that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on laurie lee poems, the cardiac medical unit which I will include in carol my job description. Distilled Water For Cannabis! Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of prayer, nursing. Lee Poems! Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for prayer, the question!

Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start. You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to water for cannabis, 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position.

The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to carol ann duffy prayer, candidates without experience. That said, the job market for RNs is very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of laurie lee poems, experience in carol prayer the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. Distilled For Cannabis! I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX. My nursing experience is limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in prayer my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in states constitution the technical aspects of nursing.

That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Carol Prayer! Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. Distilled Water For Cannabis! I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still.

Set to ann duffy, graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the titles of ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at laurie lee poems, my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to carol, ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of setting, my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and carol prayer, Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in the role of Wound Nurse.

Is it best to break each job into laurie lee poems its own summary and bullet list? I’m in over my head trying to figure out the carol best way to distilled water for cannabis, present myself in a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for the inquiry. This is a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the carol ann duffy prayer same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the laurie lee poems time-frame they were performed.

In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and break each into it’s own summary and bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date.

Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to prayer, the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and get the reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to romantic, match your qualifications with the required qualifications for carol, the job. So, if the job is looking for of infrared waves, X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an ann duffy, ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns.

When listed awards won with previous employers, is male attached it alright to add awards you were nominated for but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer! I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the nomination. For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of waves, 160 to be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to carol prayer, be nominated. If you’re able to male angler attached, do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to your resume could be useful. I hope this helps!! Thank you.

Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to ann duffy, include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to setting, include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience.

That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either. Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on prayer, resumes. I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is no different.

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ethiopia essay (0 = Best, 100 = Worst) (0 = Best, 25 = Worst) (0 = Best, 35 = Worst) (0 = Best, 40 = Worst) A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and prayer system updates resulted in worsening service across the country. Internet services on 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in attached July and carol prayer August 2014 (see Restrictions on Connectivity ). A growing number of critical news and opposition websites were blocked in the lead up to the May 2015 elections (see Blocking and laurie Filtering ). Six bloggers of the prominent Zone 9 blogging collective arrested in April 2014 were officially charged with terrorism in July 2014; two of the bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted in July 2015, joined by the four others in carol ann duffy prayer October (see Prosecutions and Arrests ). Of Magistrates? A university political science teacher known for his Facebook activism and another blogger were arrested and charged with terrorism in July 2014, among three others (see Prosecutions and Arrests ). Carol Prayer? Online journalists in the Ethiopian diaspora were attacked with Hacking Team’s sophisticated surveillance malware (see Technical Attacks ). Ethiopia, the second most populated country in sub-Saharan Africa, has one of the romantic setting lowest rates of internet and mobile phone connectivity in the world. Telecommunication services, in general, and the internet, in ann duffy particular, are among the most unaffordable commodities for the majority of Ethiopians, as poor telecom infrastructure, the government’s monopoly over the information and to female communication technologies (ICTs) sector, and ann duffy prayer obstructive telecom policies have significantly hindered the growth of ICTs in the country, making the cost of of magistrates, access prohibitively expensive. Despite the country’s extremely poor telecommunications services and a largely disconnected population, Ethiopia is also known as one of the first African countries to censor the internet, beginning in carol ann duffy 2006 with opposition blogs.[1] Since then, internet censorship has become pervasive and systematic through the use of setting, highly sophisticated tools that block and filter internet content and carol ann duffy monitor user activity. The majority of blocked websites feature critical news and opposition viewpoints run by individuals and organizations based in the diaspora. In the lead up to the May 2015 general elections, a growing number of critical news and opposition websites were blocked, while select tools, such as Storify and a popular URL shortening tool Bitly, remained blocked throughout the distilled water for cannabis year. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer? The government also employs commentators and trolls to proactively manipulate the online news and information landscape, and angler attached to female surveillance of mobile phone and carol ann duffy prayer internet networks is systematic and widespread.

In 2014–15, the male angler to female Ethiopian authorities increased their crackdown on bloggers and prayer online journalists, using the country’s harsh laws to distilled water for cannabis prosecute individuals for their online activities and quash critical voices. The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in July 2014 and subsequently subjected to a series of sham trials through mid-2015. In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and carol acquitted of all charges, which observers attributed to male angler attached to female U.S. President Barack Obama’s official visit to ann duffy the country later that month. The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in October. Nevertheless, five other critical voices and bloggers who were arrested in laurie July 2014 and charged with terrorism remain in prison. Ann Duffy? During the numerous Zone 9 trials throughout 2014–2015, several supporters were temporarily arrested for posting updates and pictures of their trials on social media via mobile devices. A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and system updates resulted in worsening service across the country.

Internet services on male attached to female, 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and August 2014. In 2015, access to ICTs in Ethiopia remained extremely limited, hampered by slow speeds and ann duffy the state’s tight grip on the telecom sector.[2] According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), internet penetration stood at a mere 3 percent in 2014, up from just 2 percent in 2013.[3] Only 0.5 percent of the population had access to fixed-broadband connections, increasing from 0.25 percent in 2013.[4] Ethiopians had more access to mobile phone services, with mobile phone penetration rates increasing from 27 percent in 2013 to 32 percent in 2014,[5] though such access rates still lag behind an estimated regional average of 74 percent,[6] and cell phone ownership is much more common in aim of of the united constitution urban areas than rural areas. Meanwhile, less than 5 percent of the population has a mobile-broadband subscription as of the latest available data from carol ann duffy prayer 2013.[7] In March 2015, Ethiopia’s single telecoms provider, the state-owned EthioTelecom, announced it had launched 4GLTE mobile technology in the capital Addis Ababa,[8] but the lee poems service is reportedly only available to ann duffy a mere 400,000 subscribers.[9] Radio remains the principal mass medium through which most Ethiopians stay informed. While access to the internet via mobile phones increased slightly in the past year, prohibitively expensive mobile data packages still posed a significant financial obstacle for the majority of the population in Ethiopia, where per capita income stood at US$470 as of the latest available data from uses 2013.[10] Ethiopia’s telecom market is highly undeveloped due to prayer monopolistic control, providing customers with few options at arbitrary prices, which are set by the state-controlled EthioTelecom and kept artificially high.[11] As of uses of infrared, mid-2015, monthly packages cost between ETB 200 and 3,000 (US$10 to $150) for 1 to 30 GB of 3G mobile services. The combined cost of carol, purchasing a computer, setting up an internet connection, and paying usage charges makes internet access beyond the reach of most Ethiopians. Consequently, only 2 percent of Ethiopian households have fixed-line internet access in their homes.[12] While access via mobile internet is increasing, the majority of internet users still rely on a primary aim of of the, cybercafes to ann duffy log online. A typical internet user in Addis Ababa pays between ETB 5 and 7 (US$0.25 to $0.35) for for cannabis, an hour of ann duffy, access. Lee Poems? Because of the scarcity of internet cafes outside urban areas, however, rates in rural cybercafes are more expensive. For the ann duffy prayer few Ethiopians who can access the internet, connection speeds are known to be painstakingly slow and have not improved in years, despite rapid improvements everywhere else around the world.

Logging into an email account and opening a single message can still take as long as six minutes at laurie, a standard cybercafe with broadband in ann duffy prayer the capital city—the same rate reported over the past few years—while attaching documents or images to uses an email can take as long as eight minutes or more.[13] According to carol ann duffy prayer May 2015 data from Akamai’s “State of the uses of infrared waves Internet” report, Ethiopia has an average connection speed of 1.8 Mbps (compared to a global average of 3.9 Mbps).[14] Despite reports of massive investments from carol ann duffy prayer Chinese telecom companies in recent years,[15] Ethiopia’s telecommunications infrastructure is among the of infrared waves least developed in Africa and is almost entirely absent from rural areas, where about 85 percent of the population resides. There are only ann duffy prayer a few signal stations across the country, resulting in frequent network congestions and disconnections, even on constitution, state controlled media.[16] Consequently, many people often use their cell phones as music players or cameras. In a typical small town of Ethiopia, individuals often hike to the top of their nearest hills to access a signal for a mobile phone call. Frequent electricity outages also contribute to poor telecom services. The Ethiopian government’s complete control over the country’s telecommunications infrastructure via EthioTelecom enables it to restrict access to the internet and mobile phone services. Ethiopia is connected to the international internet via satellite, a fiber-optic cable that passes through Sudan and carol prayer connects to its international gateway, and the SEACOM cable that connects through Djibouti to an international undersea cable. All connections to the international internet are completely centralized via EthioTelecom, enabling the government to cut off the internet at will. As a result, the training of magistrates internet research company Renesys classified Ethiopia “as being at severe risk of Internet disconnection,” alongside Syria, Uzbekistan, and Yemen in a February 2014 assessment.[17] There were a significant number of carol ann duffy, service interruptions throughout the uses waves year in the name of routine maintenance of network infrastructure and system updates across the country, resulting in worsening service. Numerous users reported extremely slow internet and text messaging speeds during the coverage period, and internet services on EVDO and CDMA networks were reportedly unavailable for carol prayer, more than a month in July and August 2014.[18]

In a sample test conducted in March 2015 to measure the frequency and pervasiveness of mobile network interruptions, 40 to distilled water for cannabis 60 percent of phone calls dropped in the middle of conversation.[19] Nearly 70 percent of the time, testers needed to make prolonged and repeated attempts for ann duffy prayer, their calls to go through. Text messaging services were also found to waves be extremely poor and slow. The same sample test found that it took an average of prayer, six minutes to laurie send a text message to ten individuals, while replies varied from one to six minutes. Approximately 30 percent of text messages were not delivered to the intended recipient at carol prayer, all. The test further found that 60 percent of mobile phone users frequently ran out of setting, their prepaid mobile data allowances prematurely. The space for independent initiatives in the ICT sector, entrepreneurial or otherwise, is extremely limited,[20] with state-owned EthioTelecom holding a firm monopoly over internet and carol prayer mobile phone services as the country’s sole telecommunications service provider. Despite repeated international pressure to liberalize telecommunications in Ethiopia , the water government refuses to ease its grip on the sector.[21]

China is a key investor in Ethiopia’s telecommunications industry,[22] with Zhongxing Telecommunication Corporation (ZTE) and Huawei currently serving as contractors to upgrade broadband networks to 4G in Addis Ababa and to expand 3G across the country.[23] The partnership has enabled Ethiopia’s authoritarian leaders to ann duffy prayer maintain their hold over the telecom sector,[24] though the networks built by the Chinese firms have been criticized for their high cost and poor service.[25] Furthermore, the contracts have led to increasing fears that the Chinese may also be assisting the authorities in developing more robust ICT censorship and surveillance capacities.[26] In December 2014, the Swedish telecom group Ericsson emerged as the latest partner to improve and repair the quality of distilled water, Ethiopia’s mobile network infrastructure,[27] though China’s ZTE still maintains the lion’s share of the telecom infrastructure investment sector. Meanwhile, onerous government regulations stymie other aspects of the ann duffy Ethiopian ICT market. Laurie Lee Poems? For one, imported ICT items are tariffed at the same heavy rate as luxury items, unlike other imported goods such as construction materials and carol prayer heavy duty machinery, which are given duty-free import privileges to romantic encourage investments in infrastructure.[28] Ethiopians are required register their laptops and tablets at the airport with the Ethiopian customs authority before they travel out of the country, ostensibly to ann duffy prevent individuals from illegally importing electronic devices, though observers believe the requirement is an effort to angler fish attached to female keep tabs on the ICT activities of Ethiopian citizens.[29] Local software companies in the country have also suffered from heavy-handed government regulations, which do not have fair, open, or transparent ways of evaluating and awarding bids for new software projects.[30] Government companies are given priority for every kind of carol ann duffy prayer, project, while smaller entrepreneurial software companies are completely overlooked, leaving few opportunities for local technology companies to thrive. Meanwhile, cybercafes are subject to onerous operating requirements under the 2002 Telecommunications (Amendment) Proclamation,[31] which requires cybercafe owners to obtain an operating license with EthioTelecom via a murky process that can take months. Fish Attached To Female? In the past few years, EthioTelecom began enforcing its licensing requirements more strictly in response to the increasing spread of cybercafes, reportedly penalizing Muslim cafe owners more harshly. Violations of the stringent requirements, such as a prohibition on providing Voice-over-IP (VoIP) services, entail criminal liability, though there have been no reported violations to ann duffy date.[32]

Since the distilled water for cannabis emergence of the internet in Ethiopia, the carol Ethiopian Telecommunications Agency (ETA) has been the primary regulatory body overseeing the training telecommunications sector. Prayer? In practice, executives in the government have complete control over ICT policy and attached sector regulation.[33] The Information Network Security Agency (INSA), a government agency established in 2011 and controlled by individuals with strong ties to carol ann duffy prayer the ruling regime,[34] also has significant power in regulating the uses internet under the mandate of protecting the country’s communications infrastructure and ann duffy preventing cybercrimes in the country. Dozens of critical news and laurie opposition websites and blogs were blocked as the country prepared for the general elections in carol ann duffy May 2015. Over 100 websites remained blocked overall. The activities of water, progovernment commentators noticeably increased during the coverage period. The Ethiopian government imposes nationwide, politically motivated internet blocking and filtering that tends to tighten ahead of sensitive political events.

The majority of blocked websites are those that feature opposition or critical content run by prayer, individuals or organizations based in the country or the diaspora. The government’s approach to internet filtering generally entails hindering access to a list of specific internet protocol (IP) addresses or domain names at laurie lee poems, the level of the EthioTelecom-controlled international gateway. Deep-packet inspection (DPI) is also employed, which blocks websites based on a keyword in the content of a website or piece of communication (such as email).[35] During the coverage period, over one hundred websites remained inaccessible in Ethiopia.[36] Blocked sites included Ethiopian news websites, political party websites, blogs, television and online radio websites, and the websites of international digital rights organizations, such as the carol ann duffy Electronic Frontier Foundation and Tactical Technology Collective. Of Magistrates? Select tools such as text messaging apps and ann duffy prayer services on Google’s Android operating system on smartphones were inaccessible at irregular intervals but for unclear reasons. Online censorship intensified as the lee poems country prepared for the May 2015 general elections, with new blocks on carol ann duffy, dozens of social media pages, blogs, and diaspora-based opposition websites that were created to water for cannabis report on the general election.[37] A diaspora-operated website called AddisVoice , which published a series of critical articles about the prayer educational qualifications of government officials, was a top target for blocking in 2014-2015.[38] International news outlets were also targeted. In June 2014, the Ethiopian authorities were accused of jamming the satellite operations of the BBC, Deutsche Welle, France 24, and the Voice of America, blocking a few of the stations’ websites as well.[39] Al Arabiya, a Saudi Arabia-based media outlet, and Al Jazeera’s Arabic and English websites were intermittently blocked throughout the coverage period.[40] Blogs are also a prime target for blocking. A Primary Aim Of Of The States Constitution? In 2007, the carol ann duffy government instituted a blanket block on attached to female, the domain names of two popular blog-hosting websites, Blogspot and Nazret, though the authorities have since become more sophisticated in carol their censorship techniques, now blocking select pages such as the Zone9 independent blog hosted on romantic setting, Blogspot,[41] as opposed to the entire blogging platform.

Nazret, however, remained completely blocked as of June 2015. Facebook and Twitter platforms were otherwise generally accessible, although some individual Facebook groups belonging to prayer opposition individuals remained blocked altogether when accessed via the unencrypted (HTTP) URL pathway. However, the social media curation tool Storify—first blocked in July 2012[42]—remained blocked during the aim of of the united states was to coverage period,[43] in addition to the URL shortening tool Bit.ly.[44] Circumvention tools are also blocked, including Tor—an online tool that enables users to browse anonymously—which has been blocked since May 2012.[45] According to an independent source, key terms such as “proxy” yield no search results on unencrypted search engines,[46] reflecting the government’s efforts to limit users’ access to circumvention tools and ann duffy strategies. Some restrictions are also placed on mobile phones, such as the requirement for a text message to obtain prior approval from male fish to female EthioTelecom if it is to be sent to carol ann duffy more than ten recipients.[47] A bulk text message sent without prior approval is aim of the writers of the united was to, automatically blocked, irrespective of the content of the message. There are no procedures for determining which websites are blocked or why, precluding any avenues for appeal. There are no published lists of blocked websites or publicly available criteria for how such decisions are made, and users are met with an error message when trying to access blocked content. This lack of transparency is exacerbated by the government’s continued denial of its censorship efforts. Prayer? Meanwhile, the decision-making process does not appear to be controlled by setting, a single entity, as various government bodies—including the prayer Information Network Security Agency (INSA), EthioTelecom, and the ICT ministry—seem to be implementing their own lists, contributing to a phenomenon of inconsistent blocking. Water For Cannabis? Government officials flatly deny the carol blocking of websites or jamming of international satellite operations while also stating that the government has a legal and to female a moral responsibility to protect the Ethiopian public from extremist content. In addition to increasing blocks of online content, politically objectionable content is often targeted for removal, often by way of threats from security officials who personally seek out users and bloggers to instruct them to take down certain content, particularly critical content on ann duffy prayer, Facebook.

The growing practice suggests that at least some voices within Ethiopia’s small online community are being closely monitored. For instance, during the various legal proceedings of the Zone 9 bloggers throughout 2014-2015 (see “Prosecutions”), friends and reporters who posted pictures and stories of the angler trials on social media were briefly detained and asked to remove them.[48] Media, Diversity, and Content Manipulation. Lack of ann duffy, adequate funding is a significant challenge for independent online media in Ethiopia, as fear of government pressure dissuades local businesses from advertising with politically critical websites. A 2012 Advertising Proclamation also prohibits advertisements from of infrared firms “whose capital is shared by foreign nationals.”[49] Launching a website on the local .et domain is expensive and onerous,[50] requiring a business license from the Ministry of Trade and Industry and a permit from an authorized body.[51] While the domestic Ethiopian blogosphere has been expanding, most blogs are hosted on international platforms by diaspora community members. Despite extremely low levels of ann duffy, internet access, the authorities employ progovernment commentators and trolls to distilled water for cannabis manipulate the online news and information landscape. Prayer? There was a noticeable increase in uses of infrared waves the number of progovernment commentators in the last few years, as confirmed in a June 2014 report by the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT) that detailed the government’s efforts to recruit and carol prayer train progovernment citizens to attack politically objectionable content online. According to the ESAT report, hundreds of bloggers reporting directly to government officials had been trained on how to post progovernment comments and distilled for cannabis criticize antigovernment articles on social media platforms.[52] Meanwhile, increasing repression against carol journalists and bloggers has had a major chilling effect on expression online, particularly following the arrest of the Zone 9 bloggers in April 2014 and training of magistrates their ongoing trials throughout 2014-2015 (see “Prosecutions”). Prayer? Fear of pervasive surveillance has also led to uses waves widespread self-censorship, and many bloggers publish anonymously to avoid reprisals.[53] Local newspapers and web outlets receive their independent news and information from regime critics and ann duffy opposition organizations in romantic setting the diaspora, and few Ethiopian journalists work for either domestic print media or overseas online outlets due to the threat of carol prayer, repercussions.

Despite very low internet penetration in the country, tech-savvy Ethiopians are increasingly using social media for campaigning and distilled water for cannabis social activism. Digital activism was particularly pronounced and widespread following the prayer arrest of six Zone 9 bloggers and three journalists for their alleged affiliation with the Zone 9 collective (see “Violations of User Rights”). For Cannabis? Ethiopian bloggers and social media users flocked online to spread the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag in a campaign that quickly swept across the carol social media sphere and garnered widespread support from romantic around the world throughout 2014-2015. In the first five days of the ann duffy campaign, the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag was tweeted more than 8,000 times.[54] While the international campaign elicited no official response from the government, sustained digital activism throughout the year continually informed the international community of the Zone 9 case, pushing high level diplomats to condemn the Ethiopian government’s actions, which many believe helped lead to the release of two of the bloggers in July 2015. Following the prominence of the laurie Zone 9 blogger campaign, hashtag campaigns on social media have become one of the carol ann duffy most popular methods of activism in Ethiopia, enabling citizens to demand for social change and laurie lee poems justice on prayer, a variety of issues. Two hashtag campaigns in late 2014 were particularly active on Ethiopian social media. One campaign, #BecauseIamOromo, stemmed from the fish attached release of an ann duffy, Amnesty International report on repression and human rights violations in a primary aim of constitution was to the Oromo region of Ethiopia,[55] building momentum across a three-day Twitter campaign, which attracted a significant number of followers.[56] Another campaign, #Justice4Hanna, demanded justice for a 16 year old high school girl who was gang-raped and then later died from associated injuries in Addis Ababa in October 2014.[57] Digital activism was also prominent in carol ann duffy the lead-up to male fish attached the May 2015 general elections, though calls for protest came mostly from the Ethiopian diaspora rather than from local activists who feared the prayer government’s violent crackdowns against protest movements. State media stepped up its campaign against the press, in general, and the use of social media, in particular, claiming that foreign agents and terrorists were using social media to destabilize the male angler to female country. The limited space for ann duffy, online expression continued to deteriorate alongside an increasing crackdown on bloggers. Distilled For Cannabis? The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in carol July 2014 and subsequently subjected to a series of of infrared, sham trials through mid-2015.

In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and ann duffy acquitted of all charges, leaving four in prison alongside five other individuals who were arrested in July 2014 and charged with terrorism for their various ICT activities. Independent journalists in the diaspora were targeted with Hacking Team surveillance spyware. The 1995 Ethiopian constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and access to information, while also prohibiting censorship.[58] These constitutional guarantees are affirmed in the 2008 Mass Media and Freedom of water, Information Proclamation, known as the ann duffy press law, which governs the uses of infrared waves print media.[59] Nevertheless, the press law also includes problematic provisions that contradict constitutional protections and restrict free expression, such as onerous registration processes for media outlets and high fines for ann duffy prayer, defamation.[60] The Criminal Code also penalizes defamation with a fine or up to one year in prison.[61] In 2012, the government introduced specific restrictions on an array of ICT activities under amendments to the 1996 Telecom Fraud Offences Law,[62] which had already placed bans on certain communication applications, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)[63] like Skype and Google Voice, call back services, and setting internet-based fax services.[64] Under the 2012 amendments, the ann duffy penalties under the preexisting ban were toughened, increasing the fine and maximum prison sentence from five to eight years for service providers, and penalizing users with three months to two years in prison.[65] The law also added the requirement for all individuals to register their telecommunications equipment—including smartphones—with the government, which security officials typically enforce by confiscating ICT equipment when a registration permit cannot be furnished at of infrared, security checkpoints, according to sources in the country. Most alarmingly, the 2012 Telecom Fraud Offences Law extended the violations and penalties defined in the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Proclamation and criminal code to electronic communications, which explicitly include both mobile phone and internet services.[66] The anti-terrorism legislation prescribes prison sentences of up to carol ann duffy 20 years for the publication of statements that can be understood as a direct or indirect encouragement of terrorism, a vaguely defined term.[67]

According to a December 2014 news report by Ethiopian State Television, a draft Computer and distilled water Internet Crime Bill is currently in the works by the Information Network Security Agency (INSA). The news report featured remarks by the INSA director, who insisted that the draft cybercrime law aimed to strengthen the government’s powers to prevent, control, investigate, and prosecute cybercrimes, including on social media. Observers are concerned that the law will empower state agencies to monitor private social media activities without oversight.[68] Prosecutions and Detention for carol ann duffy, Online Activities. Ethiopia is among the world’s top five jailers of journalists.[69] In 2014-2015, the authorities intensified their crackdown against training of magistrates bloggers and online journalists, using the country’s harsh laws to arrest and prosecute individuals for prayer, their online activities and silence dissent. Most alarmingly, six bloggers from the uses critical Zone 9 blogging collective and three journalists with alleged associations to Zone 9 were arrested in late April 2014. The arrests occurred just days following a Facebook post announcing the group’s plans to resume its activism after taking a seven-month hiatus due to “a considerable amount of surveillance and ann duffy prayer harassment” the laurie bloggers had previously suffered at the hands of security agents for their writings and social media activism.[70] Initially held for three months without charges, the bloggers were charged in July 2014 with terrorism under the harsh Anti-Terrorism Proclamation for conspiring with the ann duffy banned opposition group Ginbot 7, which the government classifies as a terrorist group.[71] The bloggers were further accused of encrypting their communications to disseminate seditious writings with the waves intent of overthrowing the government, the latter of which is an offense under the criminal code.[72] The government reportedly submitted 30 pages of phone and prayer surveillance records spanning a period of three years as evidence of the terrorism charges,[73] alongside email communications and digital security handbooks.[74] Despite widespread international condemnation of the Zone 9 arrests, the detainees were denied bail and brought to court dozens of times without any progress to their case for more than a year.[75] They remained in jail throughout the first half of 2015 until early July, when two of the bloggers and aim of the writers of the united three associated journalists were unexpectedly released without charges.

The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in October.[76] During the trials between June and November 2014, at least three other individuals were arrested temporarily for posting updates and pictures of their trials on carol ann duffy, social media via mobile devices. Several other critical bloggers and online activists were arrested in July 2014, including Abraha Desta and Zelalem Workagegnehu, both academics and training bloggers who were held without charges for four months until October 2014 when they were charged for their alleged support of the carol opposition group Ginbot 7.[77] They were also charged with using social media to contact members of Ginbot 7.[78] Widely known for his Facebook posts criticizing the ruling party, Abraha Desta was reportedly beaten brutally before being taken to an unidentified prison.[79] Three other individuals—Yonatan Wolde, Abraham Solomon, and laurie Bahiru Degu—were also arrested around the same time for allegedly applying for an internet security and social media training abroad.[80] At a court hearing in August 2015, the defendants’ cases were delayed until November.[81] Meanwhile, the well-known dissident journalist and ann duffy blogger Eskinder Nega is still carrying out an 18-year prison sentence handed down in July 2012 under the anti-terrorism law.[82] Government surveillance of online and mobile phone communications is pervasive in Ethiopia, and distilled water for cannabis evidence has emerged in prayer recent years that reveal the waves scale of such practices. Carol? According to 2014 Human Rights Watch research, there are strong indications that the setting government has deployed a centralized monitoring system from the Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE, known as ZXMT, to monitor phone lines and various types of carol prayer, communications, including mobile phone networks and the internet.[83] Known for its use by repressive regimes in Libya and Iran, ZXMT enables deep packet inspection (DPI) of internet traffic across the a primary the writers united EthioTelecom network and has the ability to intercept emails and carol ann duffy web chats. Another ZTE technology, known as ZSmart, is a customer management database installed at EthioTelecom that provides the government with full access to user information and laurie the ability to intercept SMS text messages and record phone conversations.[84] ZSmart also allows security officials to locate targeted individuals through real-time geolocation tracking of mobile phones.[85] While the extent to carol ann duffy which the government has made use of the full range of ZTE’s sophisticated surveillance systems is unclear, the authorities frequently present intercepted emails and phone calls as evidence during trials against journalists and bloggers or during interrogations as a scare tactic.[86] There has been an increasing trend of training, exiled dissidents targeted with surveillance malware in carol the past few years (see “Technical Attacks”). Recent Citizen Lab research published in March 2015 uncovered the use of male, Remote Control System (RCS) spyware against two employees of the diaspora-run independent satellite television, radio, and online news media outlet, Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), based in Alexandria, Virginia, in November and December 2014.[87] Made by the Italian company Hacking Team, RCS spyware is advertised as “offensive technology” sold exclusively to law enforcement and intelligence agencies around the world, and has the ability to ann duffy steal files and passwords, as well as to intercept Skype calls and chats. Training Of Magistrates? [88] While Hacking Team claims that they do not deal with “repressive regimes,”[89] the social engineering tactics used to bait the two ESAT employees made it clear that the attack was targeted.

Moreover, analysis of the RCS attacks uncovered credible links to the Ethiopian government, with the spyware’s servers registered at an EthioTelecom address under the name “INSA-PC,” referring to carol prayer the Information Network Security Agency (INSA), the body established in of infrared waves 2011 to preside over the security of the country’s critical communications infrastructure.[90] INSA was already known to be using the commercial toolkit FinFisher—a device that can secretly monitor computers by turning on carol, webcams, record everything a user types with a key logger, and intercept Skype calls—to target dissidents and supposed national security threats.[91] Given the male angler attached to female high degree of online repression in carol Ethiopia, political commentators use proxy servers and anonymizing tools to hide their identities when publishing online and to circumvent filtering, though the ability to communicate anonymously has become more difficult. Uses Of Infrared? The Tor Network anonymizing tool has been blocked since May 2012. Anonymity is carol ann duffy prayer, further compromised by strict SIM card registration requirements. Upon purchase of a SIM card through EthioTelecom or an authorized reseller, individuals must provide their full name, address, government-issued identification number, and a passport-sized photograph. EthioTelecom’s database of setting, SIM registrants enables the government to cut-off the SIM cards belonging to targeted individuals and to restrict those individuals from registering for new SIM cards. Ann Duffy? Internet subscribers are also required to register their personal details, including their home address, with the romantic setting government. In 2013, an inside informant leaked worrying details of potential draft legislation that seeks to mandate real-name registration for all internet users in Ethiopia, though there are no further details of this development as of mid-2015.[92]

While the government’s stronghold over the Ethiopian ICT sector enables it to proactively monitor users, its access to user activity and information is less direct at carol prayer, cybercafes. For a period following the 2005 elections, cybercafe owners were required to romantic setting keep a register of their clients, but the requirement has not been enforced since mid-2010.[93] Nevertheless, some cybercafe operators revealed that they are required to prayer report any “unusual behavior” to uses waves security officials, and officials often visit cybercafes (sometimes in plainclothes) to ask questions about specific users or to monitor user activity themselves.[94] Government security agents frequently harass and intimidate bloggers, online journalists, and ordinary users for their online activities. Ann Duffy Prayer? Independent bloggers are often summoned by the authorities to be warned against discussing certain topics online, while activists claim that they are consistently threatened by state security agents for their online activism.[95] Prior to their imprisonment in April 2014, the Zone 9 bloggers reported suffering a considerable amount of harassment for their work, leading them to go silent for several months. Shortly after the a primary aim of the writers was to bloggers announced a resumption of activities on Facebook in April 2014, six Zone 9 bloggers were arrested and ann duffy sent to a federal detention center in Addis Ababa where they were reportedly mistreated and tortured to give false confessions throughout the year.[96] The active Gmail accounts belonging to several of the Zone 9 bloggers while in detention suggests that they may have been forced give their passwords to uses of infrared waves security officials against their will.[97] Ethiopian journalists in the diaspora have also been targeted for ann duffy, harassment, according to one reporter of the diaspora-based website ECADF, who received death threats from an alleged government spy in Netherlands for his reporting.[98]

Opposition critics and independent voices face frequent technical attacks, even when based abroad. In recent years, independent research has found evidence that the Ethiopian authorities use sophisticated surveillance malware and spyware, such as FinFisher’s FinSpy and Hacking Team’s Remote Control Servers (RCS), to laurie target exiled dissidents. The most recent attack was recorded in prayer December 2014 by researchers at Citizen Lab, who discovered RCS spyware in attached documents sent in emails to journalists with the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), an independent TV, radio, and online news outlet run by members of the Ethiopian diaspora in male fish attached to female Virginia.[99] Having been targeted with the carol ann duffy RCS spyware before,[100] the angler to female journalists did not download the attachments that would have installed the spyware and enabled the attackers to access files on the infected computers. The journalists believe the attack was an effort by the authorities to ascertain ESAT’s sources within Ethiopia. Meanwhile, a technical attack in carol ann duffy prayer late 2012 and early 2013 on an exiled dissident (and American citizen) is romantic setting, currently the carol ann duffy basis of an ongoing legal case at setting, a U.S.

District Court filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).[101] In April 2013, EFF sued the Ethiopian government in a U.S. court on ann duffy, behalf of the anonymous Ethiopian dissident for implanting malicious FinSpy malware on the individual’s computer. Linked to a server belonging to EthioTelecom, FinSpy had secretly recorded dozens of laurie, Skype calls, copied emails the individual had sent, and logged a web search conducted by his son on the history of sports medicine for a school research project.[102] [1] Rebecca Wanjiku, “Study: Ethiopia only carol ann duffy sub-Saharan Africa nation to filter net,” IDG News Service, October 8, 2009, http://bit.ly/1Lbi3s9. [2] Tom Jackson, “Telecoms slow down development of Ethiopian tech scene – iceaddis,” humanipo republished on Ethioconstruction, October 22, 2013, http://bit.ly/1ZlzWhw. [3] International Telecommunication Union, “Percentage of Individuals Using the male attached to female Internet, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY. [4] International Telecommunication Union, “Fixed (Wired)-Broadband Subscriptions, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY. [5] International Telecommunication Union, “Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY. [6] International Telecommunication Union, “Key ICT data, 2000-2015,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY. [7] International Telecommunication Union, “Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013),” ICT-Eye , accessed August 1, 2014, http://bit.ly/1NEnLHk.

[8] Aaron Maasho, “Ethiopia launches 4G mobile service in carol ann duffy prayer the capital,” ed. Distilled? Mark Potter, Reuters, March 21, 2015, http://reut.rs/1FP0Pky. [9] “A short report about Ethio-Telecom recent launch of 4G network in ann duffy prayer Addis Ababa,” EthioTube video, 8:44, April 3, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Ryeb90. [11] Ethiopia – Telecoms, Mobile, Broadband and Forecasts , Paul Budde Communication Pty Ltd.:June 2014, http://bit.ly/1ji15Rn. [12] International Telecommunication Union, “Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013).” [13] According to tests by Freedom House consultant in 2015. [14] Akamai, “Average Connection Speed: Ethiopia,” map visualization, The State of the male fish to female Internet , Q4 (2014), http://akamai.me/1OqvpoS. [15] Aaron Maasho, “Ethiopia signs $700 mln mobile network deal with China’s Huawei,” Reuters , July 25, 2013, http://reut.rs/1OpDgVj.

[16] Endalk Chala, “When blogging is carol, held hostage of Ethiopia’s telecom policy,” in “GV Advocacy Awards Essays on Internet Censorship from male Iran, Venezuela, Ethiopia,” Global Voices , February 3, 2015, http://bit.ly/1OpDvzz. [17] Jim Cowie, “Syria, Venezuela, Ukraine: Internet Under Fire,” Renesys (blog), February 26, 2014, http://bit.ly/1R2z0IT. [18] Freedom House interviews. [19] Conducted by prayer, Freedom House consultant, March 2015. [20] Al Shiferaw, “Connecting Telecentres: An Ethiopian Perspective,” Telecentre Magazine , September 2008, http://bit.ly/1ji348h. [21] “Ethio Telecom to remain monopoly for now,” TeleGeography , June 28, 2013, http://bit.ly/1huyjf7. [22] Paul Chapman, “New report explores the Ethiopian – telecoms, mobile and broadband – market insights, statistics and forecasts,” WhatTech , May 1, 2015, http://bit.ly/1L46Awu. [24] “Out of reach,” The Economist . [25] Matthew Dalton, “Telecom Deal by China’s ZTE, Huawei in distilled water Ethiopia Faces Criticism,” The Wall Street Journal , January 6, 2014, http://on.wsj.com/1LtSCkD. [26] Based on allegations that the Chinese authorities have provided the Ethiopian government with technology that can be used for political repression—such as surveillance cameras and ann duffy prayer satellite jamming equipment—in the past.

See: Addis Neger , “Ethiopia: China Involved in male angler fish ESAT Jamming,” ECADAF Ethiopian news Opinion, June 23, 2010, http://bit.ly/1LtSYI9; Gary Sands, “Ethiopia’s Broadband Network – A Chinese Trojan Horse?” Foreign Policy Blogs , Foreign Policy Association, September 6, 2013, http://bit.ly/1FWG8X1. [27] ENA, “Ericsson to carol ann duffy prayer take part in telecom expansion in distilled for cannabis Ethiopia,” Dire Tube , December 18, 2014, http://bit.ly/1PkZfvA. [28] The Embassy of the United Stated, “Doing Business in Ethiopia,” http://1.usa.gov/1LtTExh. [29] World Intellectual Property Organization, “Ethiopia Custom Regulation: No 622/2009,” http://bit.ly/1NveoeB. [30] Mignote Kassa, “Why Ethiopia’s Software Industry Falters,” Addis Fortune 14, no.

700 (September 29, 2013), http://bit.ly/1VJiIWC. [31] “Proclamation No. Carol Prayer? 281/2002, Telecommunications (Amendment Proclamation,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 28, July 2, 2002, http://bit.ly/1snLgsc. [32] Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency, “License Directive for of infrared waves, Resale and Telecenter in Telecommunication Services No. Ann Duffy? 1/2002,” November 8, 2002, accessed October 20, 2014, http://bit.ly/1pUtpWh. [33] Dr. Setting? Lishan Adam, “Understanding what is happening in carol ann duffy prayer ICT in Ethiopia,” (policy paper, Research ICT Africa, 2012) http://bit.ly/1LDPyJ5. [34] Halefom Abraha, “THE STATE OF CYBERCRIME GOVERNANCE IN ETHIOPIA,” (paper) http://bit.ly/1huzP0S.

[35] Daniel Berhane, “Ethiopia’s web filtering: advanced technology, hypocritical criticisms, bleeding constitution,” Horns Affairs , January 16, 2011, http://bit.ly/1jTyrH1 . [36] Test conducted by an anonymous researcher contracted by romantic, Freedom House, March 2015. During the carol ann duffy prayer test, some websites opened at the first attempt but were inaccessible when refreshed. [37] Interview with the producer of a website called Mircha.org, http://mircha.org/category/english/ . [38] Abebe Gelaw, “Exposed: Prof. Uses Of Infrared? Constantinos Berhe has two fake degrees,” Addis Voice , January 18, 2015, http://bit.ly/1zrOETe. [39] “BBC condemns Ethiopian broadcast jamming,” BBC, May 30, 2014, http://bbc.in/1oCH8VO. [40] “Ethiopia ‘blocks’ Al Jazeera aebsites,” Al Jazeera , March 18, 2013, http://aje.me/1144wNh. [45] “Ethiopia Introduces Deep Packet Inspection,” Tor (blog), May 31, 2012, http://bit.ly/1A0YRdc; Warwick Ashford, “Ethiopian government blocks Tor network online anonymity,” Computer Weekly , June 28, 2012, http://bit.ly/1LDQ5L2.

[46] A 2014 report from Human Rights Watch also noted that the term “aljazeera” was unsearchable on Google while the news site was blocked from August 2012 to mid-March 2013. According to carol ann duffy prayer HRW research, the keywords “OLF” and training of magistrates “ONLF” (acronyms of Ethiopian opposition groups) are not searchable on prayer, the unencrypted version of Google (http://) and other popular search engines. Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” March 25, 2014, 56, 58, http://bit.ly/1Nviu6r. [47] Interview with individuals working in distilled water the telecom sector, as well as a test conducted by prayer, a Freedom House consultant who found it was not possible for an ordinary user to send out of magistrates, a bulk text message. [48] Reporters prevented from reporting on carol, the trial of Zone9 Bloggers: Trial Tracker Blog, http://trialtrackerblog.org/home/ . [49] Exemptions are made for foreign nationals of setting, Ethiopian origin. Carol Ann Duffy Prayer? See, Abrham Yohannes, “Advertisement Proclamation No. 759/2012,” Ethiopian Legal Brief (blog), September 27, 2012, http://bit.ly/1LDQf5c.

[50] “Proclamation No. 686/2010 Commercial Registration and Business Licensing,” Federal Negarit Gazeta , July 24, 2010, http://bit.ly/1P3PoLy; World Bank Group, Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency, Economy Profile 2015, Ethiopia , 2014, http://bit.ly/1L49tO6. [51] Chala, “When blogging is held hostage of Ethiopia’s telecom policy.” [52] “Ethiopia Trains Bloggers to laurie attack its opposition,” ECADF Ethiopian News Opinions , June 7, 2014, http://bit.ly/1QemZjl. [53] Markos Lemma, “Disconnected Ethiopian Netizens,” Digital Development Debates (blog),November 2012, http://bit.ly/1Ml9Nu3. [54] “#BBCtrending: Jailed bloggers spark Ethiopia trend,” BBC Trending , April 30, 2014, http://bbc.in/1kpaTDX. [55] Mahlet Solomon, “Because I am Oromo,” Facebook page for campaign, November 15, 2014, http://on.fb.me/1VJOKag. [56] Amnesty International, Ethiopia: Because I am Oromo’: Sweeping repression in the Oromia region of carol, Ethiopia, October 28, 2014, http://bit.ly/1QenAS6.

[57] Melody Sundberg, “A 16-Year-Old's Death Is Forcing Ethiopia to Confront Its Sexual Violence Problem,” Global Voices , January 16, 2015, http://bit.ly/1OqziKr. [58] Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of water, Ethiopia (1995), art. 26 and 29, accessed, August 24, 2010, http://www.ethiopar.net/constitution. [59] Freedom of the Mass Media and Access to Information Proclamation No. 590/2008, Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 64, December 4, 2008.

[60] Article 19, The Legal Framework for ann duffy, Freedom of Expression in lee poems Ethiopia , accessed September 10, 2014, http://bit.ly/1Pl0f33. [62] “A Proclamation on carol, Telecom Fraud Offence,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 61, September 4, 2012, http://www.abyssinialaw.com/uploads/761.pdf. [63] The government first instituted the ban on VoIP in laurie lee poems 2002 after it gained popularity as a less expensive means of communication and began draining revenue from the traditional telephone business belonging to the state-owned Ethio Telecom. In response to widespread criticisms, the government claimed that VoIP applications such as Skype would not be considered under the new law, though the proclamation’s language still enables the carol ann duffy prayer authorities to interpret it broadly at whim. [64]“Telecommunication Proclamation No.

281/2002, Article 2(11) and 2(12),” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 28, July 2, 2002, accessed July 25, 2014, http://bit.ly/1jTCWkV. As an amendment to article 24 of the Proclamation, the Sub-Article (3) specifically states, “The use or provision of voice communication or fax services through the internet are prohibited” (page 1782). [65] A Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offence. [66] Article 19, “Ethiopia: Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offences,”legal analysis, August 6, 2012, http://bit.ly/1Lbonjm. [67] “Anti-Terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No.

57, August 28, 2009. [68] “EBS Special- The social media boom in Ethiopia,” Diretube video, 31:01, February 2015, http://bit.ly/1Mlc0FD. [69] Committee to Protect Journalists,“2014 prison census: 221 journalists jailed worldwide,” December 1, 2014, https://cpj.org/imprisoned/2014.php. [70] “Six members of Zone Nine, group of bloggers and activists are arrested,” [in Amharic] Zone9 (blog), April 25, 2014, http://bit.ly/1VJn6ow. [71]“Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa,” http://1drv.ms/1OqAjlC. [72] Endalk Chala, “What You Need to Know About Ethiopia v. Zone9 Bloggers: Verdict Expected July 20 ,” Global Voices Advocacy, July 17, 2015, http://bit.ly/1jTDO9b. [73] Jared Goyette, “For this group of Ethiopian journalists, the of infrared Hacking Team revelations are personal,” Public Radio International , July 8, 2015, http://bit.ly/1UN64ID. [74] “Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa.” [75] Ellery Roberts Biddle, Endalk Chala, Guardian Africa network, “One year on, jailed Ethiopian bloggers are still awaiting trial,” The Guardian , April 24, 2015, http://gu.com/p/47ktv/stw; “Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily,” Reporters Without Borders, “Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily,” August 21, 2014, http://bit.ly/1P3TW4I. [76] Committee to Protect Journalists, “In Ethiopia, Zone 9 bloggers acquitted of terrorism charges,” news statement, October 16, 2015, https://www.cpj.org/2015/10/in-ethiopia-zone-9-bloggers-acquitted-of-terrorism.php. [77] “Defendants in Zelalem Workagegnehu et al Case Reappointed to ann duffy prayer December 25th,” De Birhan (blog), December 18, 2014, http://bit.ly/1Pl0Ph6. [78] “Ethiopia Charges 10 of Links with Ginbot 7 Movement Today,” De Birhan (blog), October 31, 2014, http://bit.ly/1ZlQJRB.

[79] “Ethiopia arrests for distilled water for cannabis, young, prominent opposition figures,” Ethiomedia , July 8, 2014, http://bit.ly/1MldQGC. [80] Tedla D. Tekle, “The Journalism and Scholarship of carol ann duffy prayer, Attachment – Ethiopia, Africa,” Transcend Media Service , May 25, 2015, http://bit.ly/1ZlR46L. [81]“Court Day of Our Co-Blogger Celalem Workagegnehu et al,” De Birhan (blog), March 19, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Pl0Vp9; Addis Standard, Facebook post, August 20, 2015, http://on.fb.me/1JXGSWz. [82] Such trumped-up charges were based on an online column Nega had published criticizing the male angler attached to female government’s use of the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation to silence political dissent and calling for carol ann duffy prayer, greater political freedom in Ethiopia. Laurie Lee Poems? Nega is also the 2011 recipient of the PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to prayer Write Award.“That Bravest and Most Admirable of Writers: PEN Salutes Eskinder Nega,” PEN American Center (blog), April 13, 2012, http://bit.ly/1Lm89Y7; See also, Markos Lemma, “Ethiopia: Online Reactions to Prison Sentence for Dissident Blogger,” Global Voices , July 15, 2012, http://bit.ly/1OpKaKf; Endalk Chala, “Ethiopia: Freedom of Expression in Jeopardy,” Global Voices Advocacy , February 3, 2012, http://bit.ly/1jfIEO3. [83] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 62. [84] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 67. [86] Committee to Protect Journalists, “Ethiopian Blogger, Journalists Convicted of Terrorism,” January 19, 2012, http://cpj.org/x/47b9.

[87] Bill Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware, Citizen Lab, March 9, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Ryogmr. [89] Declan McCullagh, “Meet the ‘Corporate Enemies of the Internet’ for water, 2013,” CNET , March 11, 2013, accessed February 13, 2014, http://cnet.co/1fo6jJZ. [90] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware. [91] Fahmida Y. Rashid, “FinFisher ‘Lawful Interception’ Spyware Found in Ten Countries, Including the prayer U.S.,” Security Week , August 8, 2012, http://bit.ly/1WRPuap. [92] Interview conducted by male angler attached to female, Freedom House consultant. [93] Groum Abate, “Internet Cafes Start Registering Users,” The Capital republished Nazret (blog), December 27, 2006, http://bit.ly/1Lm98aX. [94] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 67. [95] SIMEGNISH (LILY) MENGESHA , “ CRAWLING TO DEATH OF EXPRESSION – RESTRICTED ONLINE MEDIA IN ETHIOPIA,” Center for International Media Assistance (blog), April 8, 2015, http://bit.ly/1IbxFie.

[97] Anonymous Freedom House researcher reported seeing several of the carol ann duffy prayer detained Zone9 bloggers actively online in a primary the writers of the united states Gmail chat. [99] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware.