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Antonin Artaud: Theatre of writers, Cruelty Essay. Antonin Artauds most profound piece of cisneros, work was not a poem, not a play, not an dissertation, acting role, but a theory: Artauds Theatre of Cruelty. He began to accur group form his Theatre of Cruelty theory after learning of the Balinese theatre that seemed, to dissertation him, to share qualities with his ideas about sandra cisneros street theatre. Artaud held a great respect for Balinese theatre which revolves around dance and writers, actions to indian act convey meaning (Encyclopedia Britannica). More traditional theatre revolves around words to convey meaning. Artaud believed that the specificity of verbal interpretations got in writers the way of Essay on Thinking Addiction Richard, true meaning and that using physical gestures to express thoughts was more effective (Encyclopedia Britannica).

He looked at drama as more of dissertation writers, a physical act than a recitation of a script. The entire form of theatre, in his view, needed to be different to suit his new idea that the purpose of theatre was to express the cisneros on mango cruelty of human beings (Encyclopedia Britannica). Artaud was very liberal in his ideas for this new theatre. Dissertation! He was specific in what he wanted out cisneros the house of the new theatre. He had many plans for how it would function and writers, many dreams of the effect it would bring to its audiences as well as the art form as a whole.

Antonin Marie Artaud was born in 1846 in sandra cisneros the house street Marseille France to his Greek parents, Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud. He was one of the writers two surviving children out of apple outline, nine, but he was very ill. Dissertation Writers! Many of his problems can be attributed to his early childhood illnesses and the way they were treated. As a child, Artaud suffered from apple logo outline, meningitis of the brain, neuraligia, and clinical depression. Since he was an unhealthy child, he was treated with opium which began his life-long addiction.

As a young man Artaud was smart, handsome, and capable. He wrote poetry, but his main focus was theatre. Dissertation Writers! He also acted in plays and directed theatre. While he was never well-known, he gave his life up to writing and excelled at it. Genetically! His aptitude for writing strange-yet-interesting pieces was a result of his demented mind. He had strange ideas that were both brilliant and misunderstood. The opium and dissertation writers, mental illness that brought Artaud his skill in indian act writing took a toll on his body and dissertation, were his eventual downfall.

Artaud spent some years of his life going in indian act and out of writers, mental hospitals. Pros! He lived a fast, short life nd he died at dissertation writers, the young age of 52 in a psychatric clinic. People may never definitely know whether Artaud was really intellectually inspired by genetically modified food pros the drugs he was so addicted to, but one might hope that the dissertation writers drugs that took his life away from him at such an early age served some sort of useful purpose. Such an Simply by Dr. Richard, odd man would seem to writers be more well-known, when in fact Artaud and his theories are so obscure that little can be found on them in any reliable resources. To fully understand Artauds Theatre of Cruelty completely, one must first understand the meaning Artaud puts into the word cruelty. He used the words in of reaction many different ways to express his own philosophies. Artaud, according to writers Lee Jamison, used the on mango street word cruelty to apply to dissertation writers many differerent philosophies and views of his. More specifically, she defines four different ways Artaud included the origin concept of dissertation writers, cruelty in his theories. Rates Of Reaction! The first of dissertation writers, Artauds conceptual definitions of on Thinking Simply Addiction by Dr. Richard, cruelty is the essense of human existence (Jamison). This definition of dissertation, cruelty is accur group that human life has no meaning, which is a cruel thought indeed.

This definition shows Artauds jaded persepctive of life. He believed that life had no meaning and that theatre should show everyone else the cruel fact that he knew to be true. The second definition is writers cruelty as a practice, the practice of cruelty being breaking away from false reality (Jamison). He believed that everyone was living a lie and should just accept reality rather than ignoring the apple truth. Artauds third cruelty concept is writers that he believed that the genetically modified food audience should be exposed to writers cruelty by means of the theatre experience. He did not just want the audience to see cruelty up on i killed the stage; he wanted to put them in the middle of it all and to experience it themselves. Writers! He wanted all barriers to Essay on Thinking About by Dr. Richard S. Sandor be erased and for the audience to become part of the dissertation writers action in drama (Jamison). In this way the audience could have a better understanding of the food pros concept Artaud was so eager to put on writers display in Essay on Thinking Simply by Dr. Richard the theatre. The fourth and dissertation writers, last interpretation of indian act, cruelty is dissertation Artauds own personal views.

He considered everything imaginable to apple outline be reality (Jamison). If it could be thought up, it was real. This ties in writers with the indian act willing suspension of disbelief which means what the writers audience is Essay on Thinking Simply Addiction S. Sandor experiencing in dissertation the theatre is indian act real in a way. Dissertation! The characters become people that the on Thinking Simply About S. Sandor audience cares about. Dissertation Writers! Understanding the many meanings Artaud put on one word, cruelty, is vital to sandra the house on mango understanding his meaning in his theory of Theatre of Cruelty. Dissertation! Artauds theories could very well be the of marijuana work of dissertation, a misuderstood genious carrying a jem of apple outline, precious intellect. He makes many valid points in his writing. Perhaps life is just a cruel, meaningless existence. Writers! One could never know without blind faith. There is no science to prove that life has a deeper meaning other than to live and reproduce.

If facing the indian act truth is cruel then Artaud believed that all people should stand up to cruelty and look it in the face. Artaud could be right in dissertation writers saying that people should not live a lie. Origin! Putting an dissertation, audience in food a dramiatic situation is a marvelous idea if not taken too far. Writers! His theories may have been the beginnings of outline, improvisational theatre or may have even spawned the modern day house of horrors. Artaud could be right about saying that even things that exist only in the mind are real. Reality is writers merely perception. Whether one can think of something or tangibly experience it, it is rates of reaction real in their perception. Dissertation Writers! Artaud had many excellent ideas and accur group, theories that carry on with humanity through today. Artauds theories very well may be the jumbled-up imaginations and creations of a drug-addicted mad man. Dissertation Writers! Perhaps his mental instability made him look at life through a distorted looking glass. What he saw was there, he was merely twisting it.

Life itself being cruel sounds exactly like an exaggeration a depressed person would make. Life can be wonderful in accur group so many ways. Existence itself is dissertation writers no cruelty to mankind. Existence merely forces the living to eat and breath, nothing more. Society may be a cruelty to mankind, but then again civilization is Essay on Thinking Simply by Dr. Richard not innate. That people tend to writers avoid the truth is a terribly large generalization to make. It sounds like it was just made up.

There is genetically modified no evidence put behind it at writers, all. On Mango Street! Putting an audience through cruelty by dissertation writers making them part of sandra the house on mango, a play is dissertation writers very cruel indeed. It may be so cruel that it serves no purpose at Essay Simply About by Dr. Richard, all, except to drive people away from the theatre. Dissertation! Looking at the man, it reasonably and writers, scientifically, if something cannot be seen, smelled, heard, touched, or tasted, one can never know if it is actually there. It almost sounds like something that would come out of the mouth of the house on mango street, someone mentally ill.

The main problem with no one adopting Artauds theatre was that immense changes would have to be made to the art in itself. Buildings would have to be changed so that the audience could be part of the action in dissertation writers plays. Writers would have write in a way that demonstrated Artauds theories. His precise and thought-out ideas for the theatre were too specific to be conformed to easily. If the changes had not been so drastic, theatres very well may have adapted and become Theatres of Cruelty.

Artaud was very particular in Essay About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor his theories. Dissertation! All of origin, Artauds theories tied in very closely to writers one another. Of Marijuana! To conform to dissertation writers one of Artauds ideas without conforming to accur group any other would be an immense challenge. University/College: University of writers, California. Type of Essay About by Dr., paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 17 September 2016. Dissertation! Let us write you a custom essay sample on Antonin Artaud: Theatre of Cruelty. for only indian act, $16.38 $13.9/page. Writers! Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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IELTS Tips: Conclusion or Overview for Writing Task 1? Watch this video to learn excellent tips about whether you need a conclusion or an overview for writing task 1 academic paper in IELTS. This is a common question asked by students and also a very common mistake to dissertation make in your test. Knowing whether you need an of marijuana, overview or conclusion can make all the difference to your results. Transcript. Hello my names Liz. In this lesson Im going to look at if you need a conclusion or an overview for IELTS writing task 1. This is a very important question and many students ask me about it. If you do the wrong thing then that will affect your band score: so Im going to look at 5 different questions. Do I need a conclusion for task one? What is an overview? Is the overview important?

Can I write an overview and a conclusion? and dissertation writers where can I put the overview? Lets have a look at the first question. Do I need a conclusion for task 1? Well the answer is no, you dont. In fact, its a bad idea to have a conclusion for task one. Addiction By Dr. Richard S. Sandor. You have an overview for task 1 and you have a conclusion for task 2 for writers, for your essay.

Now a conclusion is a paragraph that repeats and restates the main points and outline of course in a short report you shouldnt be repeating any information. Dissertation. So dont have a conclusion. But you do need to have an overview. So thats question two: Well overview is a paragraph and it contains all the key features of the chart or graph or whatever you have for your task 1. Cisneros. So all the key points are collected together and put in a overview paragraph.

It is so important it is critical for you IELTS writing task 1 this is for the criteria, task achievement. Dissertation Writers. Thats 25 percent. of your marks and if you dont have an overview, it will be almost impossible to get above band score five for that criteria. So very important indeed. Essay On Thinking Simply About S. Sandor. And number 4: Can I write an overview and a conclusion? Please dont. Again the overview contains all the key features and the conclusion is a repeat. We dont want repetitive information. Dissertation. Also when you have an overview and a conclusion together, it means that you are dividing your key features into two different places and this will affect the indian act, criteria of coherence and cohesion, which is all about paragraphs.

So its very important that all your key features are collected in one paragraph, in the overview, and theyre not again repeated anywhere else in that report. So definitely you cannot have both. Dissertation. And the last one : The overview statement usually goes after the introduction but it is possible to the house street put it at dissertation the end of apple your report after the dissertation writers, body paragraphs. Which is the best place? For me, I prefer it after the introduction. I like to read all the main points before I read the details but again thats up to you. Genetically Modified Food. Both places are logical. Writers. Now if you want some more lessons here are some links to rates of reaction help you prepare for you IELTS test see you soon. Conclusion or Overview: Video Tutorial. Note: This video replaces the dissertation, reading video which will now be published next weekend.

Hi mam liz good day. I just want to ask maam if do you have a model sample for writing task 1 academic for indian act, TABLES, DIAGRAM and mixed maam thank you in advance. Hello Liz, I want to ask when in Task 1 we are givn things like Gardens and Lawns, Domestic sector, Science, English, Coal, Housing, Clothing, Fish, Burgers and Chips, Rugby, Cricket and so on then while writing should we put first letter capital. You should not use inappropriate capital letters in a sentence. All English grammar follows the same rules for writers, using capital letters in indian act, a sentence. Thanks a lot Liz O?. Hi mam! where should I write overview.on second paragraph or at last ?plzz suggest me which one is writers better for good scoring.thnks.

Mam I want to get clarified one doubt that most of tutors on YouTube recommend to end task 1 with a conclusion but your suggesting to include an overview. Which one to choose? A conclusion repeats main points. You cant repeat anything in a short report for task 1. The examiner is looking for an overview this has been published by IELTS in their band score descriptors. Yesterday was my speaking exam and i got the topic regarding historical event in your country? Folowed by questions.

When and where it took place? Who took part in it? What were results so far? It was on 2nd september. Thanks for rates of reaction, sharing #128578;

Your scripts are so useful, and i wish i could have seen them earlier. However, the videos are not available and dissertation I could not watch them. Do you have any suggestions on that? All the best wishes, The problem is that Youtube is blocked in China. You need to find a way round it.

Hey mam,,please tell me overall can be put in diagram or flow chat also ? Dear friends I had my ielts exam on 29 of July. My Cue card was. describe an occasion when u need to b on time. N follow up questions was. How u manage your time? How can you manage your time? Why time management is genetically modified food pros important? N questions was on time management. Part one was on house. Thanks for sharing #128578; Can I write my overview in dissertation, the last Paragraph?

Today was my speaking exam , Talk about a place where there were lots of people . Where is the place ? Why you went there ? Like dislike of the place ? Thanks for of marijuana, sharing #128578; Thanks , very helpful. But an Examiner in British Counsil course says that you should have a conclusion in Task 1 . You will get reduced mark if you didnt. You can ask your friend if they mean the conclusion is the overview. Some teachers use the word conclusion instead of the word overview. Of course you need an overview it is stated by writers IELTS in their band score descriptors. Pros. Let me repeat this IELTS have stated this very very clearly in dissertation, their band scores for writing task 1. Dear Liz, as you stated that, overview contains all the main key features.How much bigger the overview shall be?I mean how many words shall I include to write an food pros, overview?

It is not about word count. It is about selecting the key features. Each type of writers task 1 is different. See my model answers: Hi Liz today i had so good test, the only thing in writing i mention conclusion as it suppose to Simply Addiction Richard S. Sandor be not. Dissertation Writers. Any idea that will affect my score band. Origin Of Marijuana. Thanks. I presume you are talking about writing task 1. If you had both an overview and a conclusion then you have separated your key features into writers, two different locations and this will affect your score for CC which is 25% of your task 1 marks. However, you can still do well in the other criteria and in task 2. Do i really need to do planning before writing task2.

Yes. You should spend at least 5 mins planning your ideas, supporting ideas and structure. first of all special thanks for your kindest to make this website, I really appreciate that, I need some one to check my writing , before I sent a msg for you ,and u sent me just the of your website but unfortunately its not clear . I do not offer essay correction services, but you can find a teacher to help you here: Can I write word called Conspicuous instead of the house on mango OVERALL? No. This is an academic report. Writers. The examiner is looking for an overview so the genetically, linking word Overall is the most logical and writers most appropriate. Hello Maam: may I inquire if the video regarding conclusion vs overview is updated. Origin. We have been informed in our review center here in Philippine to place an overview and conclusion. Be careful.

This is a short report, you dont want a paragraph to report key features and another paragraph to repeat them. Always check with IELTS official band score descriptors: I want to know about task 1 that can we start the second paragraph of task 1 with a comparisons instead of overview or highlighting feature and give the overview in the end of the task? Does this effect my band score #129300; Its fine to dissertation put the indian act, overview at dissertation writers the end.

Thanks for your help. How long can be the overview? Usually it is one or two sentences long. It depends how many key features there are. First of all thank you for creating this website of yours. Genetically. It is so helpful for us. Dissertation. I just want to clarify one question, because my previous instructor in origin of marijuana, IELSTS told me it is not allowed for us to use all capital letters in writing, is is true that we might penalize for doing it? Thank you Liz!! #128578; You can write all capitals for writing if you want. Dissertation Writers. You can find this information on the official IELTS website: However, I dont recommend it.

You will be marked on your use of punctuation which is not always easy to see using capital letters. Thank you for genetically food, your advise. Writers. I want to ask that is it okay combining the introduction and overall paragraph in a one paragraph? It is of reaction possible but I only do it for dissertation, diagrams when the intro sentence is very short. If you do put them together, make sure you use a linking word to highlight the overview statement. The intro statement and of marijuana overview statement must be separate even if they are in dissertation, the same paragraph. Many thanks for your useful website. I would like to ask you how many paragraphs we need to have in sandra cisneros the house, Writing Task 1 and Writing Task 2?

Do we also need to have an overview paragraph if the diagram we have to present is writers describing the different steps of a process (e.g. manufacturing yogurt)? I dont really see the point of an overview paragraph in this case. Yes, you MUST have an indian act, overview. Heres an example: Overall, yogurt is made after raw milk is passed through pasteurisation and various temperatures before being inoculated with starter cultures.. So, you can see, that we are choosing the key features to put in the overview. Another possible and dissertation simpler overview is: Overall, raw milk is indian act passed though 5 stages before becoming yogurt. The overview is the most important paragraph in academic writing task 1. Should we mention and write about all given data in two body paragraphs or its not necessary. Which is better way to do?

Thank you in advance. Your task is to select information. You are being marked on your ability to highlight and report. See this page: Dear Liz, First of all, thank you for your excellent tips in the lessons: I have few questions regarding the IELTS Reading and Writing: 1. Should we use pen or pencil for the writing tasks? 2. Is lower case writing (all are written in dissertation, small letters) affect the score? 3. Of Reaction. Is few spelling mistakes (two to four words in dissertation writers, total) in writing affect the score by too much? 4. Does IELTS center provide more answer sheets for Task 2? Thank you Liz, its really a nice way to learn. You have a very clear voice.

do the words enclosed inside braces count for the number of words in of reaction, the writing task 1. I did IELTS before 6 months and got score band 6 in writing 5.5 I had the mistake of in conclusion in task 1 does this mistake decrease my score 1 band or more. If your conclusion contained the dissertation writers, same content as an overview, then it wouldnt affect your score too much. Writing task was same for both IPD and BC same or different.pls tel me.Because i am taking ipd exam. All the questions are similar as BC. Liz, you are awesome, thank you very much #128578; Is it OK to write Overall as the graph shows . or after overall simply state the sandra cisneros, key information without as the graph shows. Its not going to dissertation writers help your score writing as the graph shows but it also isnt a problem if you decide to add it. Hi Liz, First of all, thank you for your helpful lessons. I have a question about overview part, is it right : we must not write any number in overview part ? for example: x experienced the greatest increase by 27% while y had the origin, least growth by 5% is it better I dont write the numbers ? Usually you dont write numbers in the overview.

However, for tables, you might consider adding any totals given. thank you for your answer. then I will have to repeat the dissertation, key points in body paragraph and add numbers. You are presenting details in the body not highlighting. Hi Liz, in the official Cambridge IELTS books, the overview is always in the end (in the modified food, model answers). Then why are you preferring to dissertation writers put overview after introduction? Please explain. There is no right or wrong place to indian act put the overview. It is writers usually best to present the key features because writing about logo outline, detail. However, it makes no difference to the score.

What a wonderful and fantastic website for all ielts candidates! I feel like I have found the right medicine for my ielts test wound . Your lessons are very helpful for us . Thank you so much for your hard work and generous effort . What is the different between overview conclusion please. A conclusion summarises main points already written. An overview contains key features not previously highlighted. So overview and summary is different from each other. If use both..will it hamper or increase my band score? You dont repeat information in a short report.

The overview contains the dissertation, key features you dont summarise them again later. I would like to ask about the summary. Is it possible to write both the the house on mango, (Overview) which is after the introduction and the (Summary) which is at the end of the report ? There is no summary, only an overview. Can you tell me the differences between an overview and body part? i dont know how to avoid repeating the key features in writers, the body part. And if the task have 2 pie charts that i cant compare information between them, what should i organize my report? do i need to have an overview for apple logo outline, both or just move directly to body parts for dissertation writers, each chart?

Highlight key features in your overview and then report detail in the body paragraphs. Hi Liz! First of Essay on Thinking Simply Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor all, thanks for the great lessons! I got an overall 7.5 on my test. With 8.5 in speaking, 8 in Listening, 7.5 in dissertation writers, reading, but only genetically modified 6 in dissertation writers, writing.

I watched all your videos, and food i followed all your steps. I cant figure out what i did wrong, other than the fact that both my essays were shorter than 150 and dissertation 250 words, and maybe some grammar mistakes. Ill have my IELTS exam again in origin, a few days. Dissertation. Any recommendations? Writing under the word count will reduce your score. Never write under the word count. Start learning more about the band scores: and consider my advanced writing task 2 lessons: I wrote ielts exam in last month . I got 6.5 in listening and rates reading ,6 in writers, speaking,very less score in writing;5 . In which part should I focus more to get band score of 7.In which way I have to practice ??i am not getting enough ideas to write task 2 topics.Even I dont have much knowledge about the topic as exam date is 28th May. Firstly, get trained in how to write an IELTS essay correctly: Secondly, develop ideas for topics.

You can google ideas online or use model essays to develop ideas. Here is a list of common topics: and here are some essay questions: Indian Act. Thirdly, to get band 7, you need to produce English with FEW errors. Dissertation. This means you aim for accuracy and avoid errors in grammar and rates vocab. i got 6 overall band but 4.5 in reading ,6 from dissertation writers, listening and writingand 6.5 in speaking. Really you are amazing .I like your way to explain the steps. Thank you so much, it is very useful.

You are amazing. Hello Liz, I completely understand the choice of rates of reaction overview over a conclusion in task 1, nevertheless, Im not sure if I should include also data in the overview paragraph or to provide it in the body paragraph? I mean to writers say if I should include for instance, data about years, currency etc as the case maybe? The units and categories on the graph or chart should be put in the introduction. The selected key features should be in the overview. The only data that usually does in an overview is when you have totals, such as in indian act, a table. Hello!! I have a doubt. In task 1 when we have a map or a life cycle do we need to have an overview?? Thanks a lot. All academic writing task 1 must have an dissertation, overview.

See my model answers on the main writing task 1 page. All of your videos and tutorial tips are very useful for preparation. Logo Outline. Thank you very much for your Yeman service. How to Calculate the band score in IELTS exam. Mostly in Writing parts. I am Little bit confuse on dissertation Task 2. Of Marijuana. So can you please helping out to me. My exam on dissertation writers 9th Jan 2016. I wrote IELTS 2 times, But I couldnt get band score more than 6 in writing both the times In which part I have to focus to food pros get 6.5 or 7.

See my advanced writing task 2 lessons: and review my models for task 1 (focus on your overview for dissertation writers, task 1). Hi angel,just want u to know that u r amazing and generousi am sure universewilpay you backbless u xx. Thank you very much for clearing the doubt between overview and conclusion. You said that overview is important in Task 1. Origin Of Marijuana. Conclusion is not a good idea for this task. But in Road To IELTS I have found that the sample task 1 uses conclusion. Since that free materials are suggested by British Council, I am little bit confused now. To me an overview is way better than a conclusion in task 1. Dissertation Writers. Would you please tell me why sample passage in Road To IELTS uses conclusion? There are many teachers and authors that tell students to write an overview.

However, you will not find one ex-examiner or any person who has completed the IELTS examiner training course who will tell you to do that. However, this is your choice. The band score descriptors published by origin IELTS clearly show the examiner is looking for an overview in writers, order to indian act give any score over band 6 you decide if you want to write one or not. you are very helpful but I am kind of confused, I am taking the test in one month and I have never heard that conclusion is not needed for writing Task 1. I was watching your video about writing Task 1 and I was waiting for the conclusion all way long. Then I was readdressed here and found out that the conclusion is dissertation writers not necessary as I was used to believe. Moreover, I have made quite a lot of practice tests, now I am starting to watch the videos to fill the gaps do you think thats the apple outline, advantageous approach? Thanks in advance, Is there difference between overview and conclusion?

Do you think when I read more half an hour each day my writing skill will improve? Is there difference between task1 task 2? Please read my lessons on writers the main writing pages for your answers. All these questions have already been answered. Hi Liz.This is my first time to take the IELTS test. What are your advices? Watch my IELTS preparation video on apple the home page and then start reading IELTS lessons. Hi Liz, Thank you for your reply. I have watched most of your videos however Im still having a hard time to compose a sentence in writing an essay in writers, terms of paraphrasing the introduction.

The way I understood about paraphrasing the rates, introduction is to literally paraphrased the whole sentence according to what has been written. (word for word) considering the task 1 and writers 2 of essay writing are very time limited. Please help. Of Marijuana. Thanks. To rephrase something doesnt mean writing it word for word. You paraphrase the meaning which means write it again in your own way. hi liz. I can not write task 2 well. what should I do exactly? pls help me with this.

I have a problem with the overview . In this video I know that its important to write a overview but when I read some exemples on dissertation Ielts Write Right book I didt see any overview . But all of of marijuana these exemples was graded over 7 band . So can you tell me why is it ? I cant tell you why authors write what they do. Has the author of the book completed the IELTS examiner training? hi Liz, i really had a problem with my Writing Skill.. When it was explained, it seems very easy to me. But when i had to write on my own, i got nothing to say anymore..Can you please help me on dissertation this matter? thaNks #128578; You need to develop ideas for logo outline, topics that you can use in dissertation writers, your essays.

Of course, you cant predict all topics but you should have a good store of ideas for common topics. Here is a link to modified my essay ideas: You can also gain ideas from model essay you find online. Dissertation Writers. Start making a list of origin ideas to use. To learn more about dissertation writers, essay writing, you can try one of indian act my online lessons from my writing course:

Here you mentioned about dissertation writers, not writing the on Thinking, coclusion in short notes .However, when i was going through a book Cambridge ielts 8 , I found an answer with conclusion in it ( at page 168 ) .so, I am confused what model to follow . also , do the dissertation writers, examiner reduce the marks for handwriting and poor presentations ( like crossing the mistaken words here and there) Sorry, I dont know what you mean by short notes. There is no such type of indian act task in writers, writing task 1. sorry for not writing the question clearly , Here is what i mean. In this video ,you have mentioned about not writing the conclusion in short reports ( 1:10 secs in video ) ,as you mean to Simply About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor say not to write conclusion in writing task 1 . But when i was going through a page 168 of cambridge book 8, i found a answer with a conclusion . Dissertation. so i got confused as iam following your classes for preperation. Hope you will clear me out on this.

The IELTS Cambridge test books are written by IELTS not by genetically food pros teachers. They make their models as different as possible to ensure the exam remains challenging. It is writers always best to follow models from teachers who have been trained as examiner by outline IELTS. You should also follow the band score descriptors published by IELTS which clearly show that an overview is needed for task 1 and a conclusion is needed for task 2. I will Follow you. Thank you for your ielts lesson scripts and videos. They are helping me enormously a lot since I am reviewing by dissertation writers myself. I wish Ive seen your site before I took my first ielts so I might not have need to origin of marijuana retake it again to have better scores.

Anyways, more powers to you. Your efforts are greatly appreciated. Your voice is strong , clear and pleasant . Your method of teaching is dissertation writers very easy and new style. Essay On Thinking Simply About S. Sandor. Please give us more and more video lesson that is writers most useful. Dont forget to check my youtube channel (IELTS Liz). I have my tutor assessed my writing task 1 yesterday. after watching your lectures on writing task 1, I used Overall to start my overview but my tutor said that this is definitely a No No in Task 1. now im confused. The examiner is Essay on Thinking Simply About Addiction looking for an overview and the word Overall indicates an overview. It is essential that the examiner can locate your overview quickly and easily. Using overall helps the dissertation writers, examiner find your overview. Current IELTS exam topics and questions:

Share your IELTS test results. Answer to Reading Paraphrasing Lesson. Reading Skills for IELTS: Paraphrasing. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in indian act, WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017.

Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an writers, experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of modified food London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in a number of writers countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at on Thinking Simply Addiction S. Sandor the British Council.

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Category Archives: Pointless Essays. Thoreaus Cosmopolitical Proposal. Henry David Thoreau casts a long shadow over my thoughts about and practice of walking, particularly his essay On Walking which opens with I wish to speak a word for dissertation writers Nature, for absolute freedom and wildness, as contrasted with a freedom and culture merely civil,to regard man as an inhabitant, or a part and parcel of nature, rather than a member of society. In a stroke, he introduces what becomes an elemental conceptthe wildand frames his understanding of the human away from society in the big outside actively participating in the making of that outside. But his initial phrasing also opens the logo question of who is authorized to speak for another, particularly an other without language. Although the essay is dissertation writers, full of many strongly (if ironically) stated sentiments about who is qualified to walkIf you are ready to leave father and mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends, and never see them again,if you have paid your debts, and made your will, and Essay Simply Addiction by Dr., settle all of your affairs, and are a free man, then you are ready for a walk.speaking a word for dissertation nature is, from the first instant, made in a tentative voice. Modified Food Pros? He might speak a word for Nature, but he cannot speak for Nature. On Walking is an essay on being part and parcel of nature, of acknowledging its subtle magnetism, and the capabilities of the landscape. The Nature he speaks for is full of agencies known and unknown.

The Belgian philosopher Isabelle Stengers also wants to dissertation, question those who speak a word for Nature, to understand what authorizes certain people (usually scientists) to indian act, speak for nature, and to writers, what extent their words are final. Her Cosmopolitical Proposal advocates listening to multiple voices speaking for or with multiple constituencies, articulating alliances, and arriving at an often brief consensus. She opens with a questionHow can I present a proposal intended not to say what is, or what ought to be, but to provoke thought; one that requires no other verification than the way in origin which it is able to slow down reasoning and dissertation, create an apple opportunity to writers, arouse a slightly different awareness of the problems and situations mobilizing us? Her friend and mentor Gilles Deleuze once characterized Nietzsches philosophy as a series of genetically food pros darts provocations to thinking rather than a system or method. Alfred North Whitehead, Stengers other, more distant mentor, spoke of philosophy as lures for thinking. All threeWhitehead, Deleuze, Stengersoffer up concepts, a tool-box, to help do philosophical work. They give no absolute position from which to speak absolutely, but they do point out a branching path where thinkers can, in Thoreaus word, saunter. The beginning of On Walking is a critique of an overly sedentary existence promoted by the business economy, but it is also a description (sometimes prescription) of writers proper walking attitudes. In the About Addiction Richard latter part he echoes his mentor Emersons plea in the Divinity School Address for a unique American literature and dissertation writers, philosophy, one partaking of and maybe even articulating the wild land they now occupy. This notion of the wild is a fraught concept, one subject to many different appropriations, most notably to support eco-political movements advocating for setting aside wilderness areas. His line in wildness is the preservation of the world is often misquoted as in wilderness Without doubt, one could find elements of a Thoreavian wild in a vast wilderness, but it also is to be found in the civilized world: in swamps or low spots on farms, at the edges of Essay Simply About S. Sandor fields, in the margins of cultivation (agricultural and social). Thoreau himself, as Walden demonstrates, seeks out the wild and lives it on those very margins. He notes in dissertation writers On Walking, For my part, I feel that with regard to Nature, I live a sort of border life. His wild is Essay on Thinking Simply About by Dr., not an inhuman isolation from the tame or civilized, but instead is a force which gives energy, vitality, or following Whitehead, articulates the ultimate metaphysical ground, the creative advance into novelty. The wild is a source, a wellspring that creates in spite of the cultivation that civilization demands.

It is the tang of the wild apple or the wilding potato growing on the edge of a cultivated Peruvian field ready to dissertation writers, bring new taste and characteristics to the dinner table. A place to locate this is in one of his seemingly offhand rants near the end of the rates of reaction essay where, as a counter to an American obsession with the practical (or as a proleptic critique of the neo-liberal University), he calls for dissertation a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Ignorance. He immediately renames ignorance beautiful knowledge to distinguish it from the practical, but it could just as easily be called the wild as he follows his proposal with a Whitmanesque image of cattle who find vitality in the new spring grass after a winter of sandra cisneros the house on mango hay. Ignorance can take many forms, and dissertation writers, usually not particularly positive ones, but Thoreaus is a plea for thought freed from the cultivation of a rigidified civilization, of indian act one that only writers, listens to sandra cisneros the house street, narrowly defined expert voices speaking an officially sanctioned discourse. Dissertation Writers? Useful ignorance is a form of naivete, a voice that can produce insights that, because unrecognized, are not available to origin of marijuana, the expert witnesses. The central figure in Stengers Cosmopolitical Proposal is the idiot, a conceptual persona she takes from Deleuze (who appropriated it from dissertation writers Dostoevsky). In Stengers hands, the Essay by Dr. S. Sandor idiot is the tentative, unauthorized voice who asks non-sensical or useless questions. Idiotic questioning is a way to dissertation, strip bare the categories of sense and use.

She does not deny knowledge but does want a fuller understanding of the ground on which it stands: We know, knowledge there is, but the idiot demands that we slow down, that we dont consider ourselves authorized to believe we possess the meaning of what we know. Stengers idiot is Essay on Thinking Simply by Dr., a practitioner of Thoreaus useful ignorance, or perhaps is Thoreau himselfsomeone willing to ask naively the dissertation obvious question, who slows down a railroaded consensus. Thoreau is the consummate railroad philosopher. Regarding transportation to Fitchburg he notes it would take him a day to earn train fare, but he could walk it in a day, so he opted for the second. A form of sandra cisneros the house on mango street willful perversity perhaps, maybe a refusal to writers, participate in of marijuana an unnecessary economy, from most perspectives the action of an idiot, but definitely a way to slow down. In her plea for slow science, Stengers quotes Whiteheads critique of a narrow professionalism: minds in a groove. Each profession makes progress, but it is dissertation writers, progress in its own groove. () The groove prevents straying across country, and the abstraction abstracts from something to which no further attention is given. Inherent in this position is the desire to Essay on Thinking Simply About Addiction S. Sandor, move transversally, as Thoreau advocates, to dissertation writers, set out across the fields instead of following established roads, and as a consequence to slow down enough to pay due attention not just to the world encountered but also to sandra cisneros the house on mango, the thinking produced by that practice. Naive questioning, slowing down, paying due attention: these are pedestrian practices. In On Walking Thoreau notes, My desire for knowledge is intermittent, but my desire to bathe my head in atmospheres unknown to my feet is perennial and constant. This is dissertation, contrasted to Emersons more famous transparent eyeball, I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the indian act Universal Being circulate through me; I am part of God. Thoreau is not after knowledge (at least none of the officially authorized kind), nor does he attain airy transcendence. Instead he wants his head to go where his feet can take him, to those little known places he sought out while sauntering in the woods surrounding Concord. He opens On Walking tracing an etymology of dissertation saunter, first claiming it describes someone going to Sainte Terre, to the Holy land.

Then he sets out the possibility it comes from sans terre, to be without land, which will mean, having no particular home, but equally at home everywhere. Ultimately Thoreau prefers the former, but I like the latter because of the double logic it proposes. To be without ground is to acknowledge that the position from which you think and speak is indian act, solid but transient. To saunter intellectually is dissertation writers, not to be arrogant but instead tentative. Sandra Street? You can venture to speak a word for Nature, but you cannot utter the writers definitive term. You cannot close off the indian act conversation. The second half of the dissertation writers logic is that such groundless can still provide a home, that we dont have to apple, root ourselves in the village, condemned to repeat the same formulae, nor do we have to writers, run on the grooved rails of the train. Rates? Instead we can slow down, saunter across places hitherto unrealized, looking for knowledge of the wild, or even better, wild knowledge. T. Hugh Crawford. Christos Floating Piers: Learning to Walk. Finding myself in Milan after nearly a year of long-distance trekking, I couldnt pass up the chance to dissertation, walk on water.

Christos latest large-scale installationthe Floating Pierswas open on nearby Lake Iseo. Though not as well-known as its counterpartsComo or LuganoIseo is a charming lake with a large island. Instead of the sandra on mango usual ferry, the Floating Piers provides travelers with a bridge from the mainland town of Sulzano across to the island. Dissertation Writers? The lake is in indian act a quiet wine district, and Christos installation threatens to overwhelm the regions infrastructure. Arriving at Sulzano feels more like walking into carnival than an art exhibition. Dissertation? It was a brutally hot day, and Essay on Thinking Simply About, transport included a packed shuttle bus from satellite parking lots. Dissertation? Given the difficulty of travel and temperature, the visitors were in remarkably good humor, each showing a quiet expectation or maybe just plain curiosity about what they were about to experience. Christos installations tend to be visualthe many draped buildings, his wrapped islands, and the canyon curtainso The Floating Piers is indian act, a divergence.

It is participatory, a set of bridges that are meant to be crossed by walkers, pilgrims of all types learning to walk on a strange cloth-covered contraption. The installation was first conceived in 1970 by Christo and his collaborator Jeanne-Claude. A three kilometer set of bridges, it links Sulzano with the island town of Peschiera Maraglio and the tiny Isola di San Paolo. Open from June 18 until July 3, Floating Piers is 220,000 high density polyethylene cubes covered by 100,000 square meters of fabric and held in place by 200 anchors. With a color that approaches school-bus yellow, the bridges float just above the waters surface with edges tapering to writers, a zero point where the water laps and, on a hot day, invites.

The site and surrounding towns have been overrun with walkers. In the first five days alone, 270,000 vistors arrived, far exceeding all estimates and prompting nighttime closures to enable the towns to clean up and of reaction, reset for the next days onslaught. Planning walks usually involves maps with trail distance in kilometers and hours, but also topography with details on elevation gain and loss. Dissertation? The one bit of information often unavailable is a description of surface. A well-made trail up a steep incline can often be hiked faster than a poorly made level path. The Floating Piers has no elevation change. It is a two-dimensional plane perfectly level with the surface of the water, its colors forming an abstract diagram to be seen from above. Its bold diagonals are a striking sight, but the the surface walked is another matter. It is hard to describe the sensation of crossing. It is a flexing, forgiving surface that enables walking in any footwear (or with none at on Thinking About by Dr. Richard all) and the map provided does not so much guide as it abstracts.

Many of the dissertation visitors are local tourists, but there are also pilgrims from all over the world. Walking there is to hear a cacophony of languages and experience a cacophony of walking styles. Seasoned trekkers tend to move rapidly and directly, always aware of where they are on a trail and when in high traffic areas paying close attention to indian act, the movement of dissertation others. It is a full-bodied dance that is direct but accommodating, open but precise. In contrast, The Floating Piers is walked by a variety of rates of reaction people, each struggling to find their pace in relation to a crowd which moves to different rhythms or does not move at all (Selfie sticks have replaced trekking poles on this trail). The paths on the islands vary in width, but the floating bridges themselves are a uniform 16 meters wide. Covered in what they describe as a simmering yellow fabric, the walkway provides only one sense of directionalityacross the lake and back. The surface itself is unmarked, giving no indication of where to walk.

I recall hiking the dissertation Ninety-Mile Beach on the northernmost part of New Zealand. In that wide expanse of sand, I found myself unconsciously following any track that appearedhuman footprints, tire marks, even the seaweed of the tide lineif only to find a sense of where and how to walk. Christos walkers are given a blank space. The bridges are not long distance trails, nor are they city streets or the arcades of a shopping center. They have a direction, but give their walkers no directions. What is most striking about the project surface is that, like water, it is not a rigid plane. Indian Act? The piers flex, float, and move according to dissertation writers, their own complicated pattern, one that is influenced by the movement of the lake surface, the wake of indian act boats, and dissertation writers, the wind, but also by the footsteps of the many walkers. Rates? If you expect them to follow a pattern based on a human scale, you are in for a surprise as the surface rises to your foot or withdraws from it with no discernible rhythm. Consequently, the crowds moving in dissertation either direction (in or out) have to navigate the unpredictability of their fellow walkers and the chaotic flexing on the surface on which they stride. Perhaps it is the school-bus yellow, maybe the sharp and bold abstraction of its lines, or just the sheer child-like playfulness of the entire project, there is something about the Floating Piers that turns its users into children. It is a playful concept, but more fundamentally its users, like toddlers, must learn to negotiate the surface where they walk and the people with whom they share that surface.

The day I walked the Floating Piers, I got to tiny Isola di San Paola (the most playful section of the rates project) to find a pontoon workboat floating just off the writers yellow fabric coast. Sandra On Mango? Christo was there with guests, including a man wearing yellow pants that appeared to be made from the bridge cover fabric (Im sure they had a few extra yards lying around). There is nothing unusual about an artist visiting his own installation, but there was something poignant about this. Were it the opening for an earlier work, Christo would have been occupying more or less the same perspective as his audience. Here the artist was offshore looking obliquely at writers the planar surface of cisneros the house on mango street his art, but primarily he was looking at the walkers on that plane who were turning his bridges into bridges. The floating piers are just beautiful abstract surfaces on the lake surface until the walkers arrive. Then the paths become paths, the toddlers learn to walk, and a new, albeit temporary, community is formed. Footpaths are humanitys first writing, producing marks on the land that tell others where to go, and dissertation writers, they, by sandra cisneros on mango going, create community. Paths exist through use.

Christos are temporary and the community of walkers formed is transient, but the lesson remains. Dissertation? Given a sufficiently estranging path, we can become toddlers and once again experience the wonder that first walking brings. They were burning the fields in Helambu, mountains terraced like a 3-d model of a topo map but nearly as old as human history. Of Marijuana? First they burn the chaff and straw, then cultivate with short-handled heavy-headed hoes, a design older than the millennium. Dissertation? In the larger fields, a wooden plow is indian act, pulled by a yoke of yak, writing simple lines in the soil with a metal tip tapering to a plain point. The plows are carved from a small tree-trunk with a heavy root angled by the winds, water, and rocks where it grew. A handle is dissertation writers, mortised at the butt to give the plowboy control over depth and street, direction.

The ashes from the burn are turned into the soil, but only after the fire has filled the sky with a choking smoke. Writers? In the genetically food pros villages they heat and cook with wood, often in rooms without chimneys. Instead a hole up in the eaves helps draw some of the writers smoke from the kitchen. The paths that wind between villages and About by Dr. Richard S. Sandor, farms are littered with empty coughdrop blister-packs, an attempt to sooth the irritation of indoor and outdoor smoke. Dissertation? The latter was completely unexpected as I climbed the trail, finally gaining 3690 meters of altitude. Higher than I had ever been but still not above tree line. Cisneros On Mango? The forest remained primarily pine and juniper, though becoming more scrub-like as the afternoon progressed.

Ahead was a peak the path would go around, but I could see a recent rockslide had sheared off most of writers its face and indian act, the trail rerouted at that point. The foot stones were fresh and there were small cairns signaling the way, but as it turned out, in order to get past the slip, the path went almost to the peak. My altitude sensitive lungs went on full alert. Until this point, the hour estimates printed on my map had been spot on, but the walk from dissertation Mangengoth to indian act, Thadepati Bhanjyand was listed as one hour and took two and dissertation writers, a half. Sandra The House On Mango? Not sure what the writers kilometers were, but at this altitude they are of modified pros little consequence. The only writers, thing that mattered was the air.

It is on mango, not surprising that Buddhist meditation practices focus so intently on breath. Spiritus is elusive at altitude. Just moving about in the Himalayas is an exercise in breathing, a palpable factor in all activity. Visiting the gompa at Bhraga required not just a long walk up the Annapurna Circuit but also slow acclimation. The general rule of thumb is not to gain more than 1000 meters altitude per day, and I was by no means pushing myself on arrival at dissertation writers the village. On learning I could see the inside of the monastery which was perched high on a cliff above the indian act village, I had to hustle to get up to it in time.

Almost immediately, oxygen debt crushed my stamina. Writers? I slowed and methodically made my way to modified food pros, the entrance where I was met by an ancient Nepali doorkeeper who instructed me to remove my shoes and writers, compose my breathing, then led me into an exuberance of Buddhist statuary, imagery, and of marijuana, manuscripts. Writers? I wandered in a daze, enthralled at the spectacle and the history it contained (Im sure lack of oxygen contributed to that daze). On leaving, she tied a thin, blue-green string around my neck (which remains to cisneros on mango street, this day), and I breathed one last time the smell of incense and ancient learning before descending some meters to the village and dissertation writers, its relatively richer oxygen world. Bhraga is on the Annapurna circuit in Nepal. As a child I was a voracious reader in a house with a decent but limited library. I remember Maurice Herzogs account of the indian act ascent (and more important, descent) of Annapurna in the first expedition to summit what was then the highest mountain yet climbed by Western mountaineers. That story remained tucked in my psyche, resurfacing when I read about the circuit. Ive been trekking long enough to have chucked the bucket list mentality over the edge many years ago.

My idea was to walk around the Annapurna massif as a sort of pilgrimage, like the Buddhist circumambulation of Mt. Kailash. In my pilgrimage, I would see the villages, people, and countryside but also the dissertation writers places Herzogs expedition passed, and I would see the mountain that bulked so large in my childhood imagination. Except for ice gear, I carry the equipment necessary to meet most challenges on a trail. The description of the Annapurna Circuit was quick to point out that people of moderate fitness were capable of finishing, so I didnt worry much about the specifics. My first days out were uneventful, walking without a guide on a well-marked, well-travelled path. As the days passed, I encountered many of the genetically modified pros same trekkers, listening to their conversations which almost never mentioned the walk itself. Instead, like a mantra, they repeated the words Thorung La, a pass that, at 17,769 ft., was the writers highest point on the circuit.

It soon became clear most of my hiking colleagues were focused almost exclusively on the challenge of that pass. Along with the 1000 meter rule, everyone hydrated relentlessly and many ate lots of garlic, a folk remedy I was most happy to follow. Morning eggs in the guest houses were usually covered in garlic. Some were also taking Diamox (acetazolamide), a drug used to treat Marfans syndrome and some forms of epilepsy. It is a diuretic which tends to acidify the blood, causing deep breathing and increasing the bloods oxygen supply, so it supposedly works as prophylaxis for mountain sickness. For these people, a pilgrimage around and of marijuana, through a remarkable landscape had been reduced to hemoglobin, to blood and dissertation writers, oxygen. My passage over Thorung La was uneventful. A beautiful but bitter cold day, a long steady climb followed by a hasty descent to Kagbeni, it was satisfying and, by origin walking at a judicious pace, my blood remained well-oxygenated. A few weeks later, on another continent I came to understand thin air.

I began the final ascent of Mt. Kilimanjaro at midnight, but not before asking the guides about the rationale for such a strategy. We had already spent days acclimating, and it seemed unwise to disrupt diurnal patterns just at dissertation writers the moment we were readying for the big push. They offered three explanations, each plausible, but not entirely convincing. The hike up from Kibo huts to Uhuru peak is less than six km with a little more than 1000m altitude gain. The summit is 5895m (19,341?). For comparison, Everest is 29,029?, and the highest peak in Essay About by Dr. Richard North America is Denali coming in at 20,310?. So the first answer had some merit seeing the sunrise from the dissertation writers crater rim is an rates of reaction incredible experience.

People walk up Poon Hill in Nepal starting at 4:00 am to see the sun rise over the Annapurna massif and Daulighiri, but that is dissertation writers, a well-marked and fairly short track. Another reason: it was the wet season and the rains tend to Simply About, start mid-morning, so they wanted to get up and then off the mountain early. Writers? The last, which seemed both patronizing and nonsensical, was actually the best. Hikers cannot see what they are climbing in the dark. It might only indian act, be six kilometers and only 1000 meters elevation gain, but it is dissertation, straight up the highest mountain in Africa. At 11:00, we had coffee and biscuits and by About Addiction by Dr. the stroke of midnight were walking out of dissertation writers camp, each wearing a headlamp directed at our feet. We soon discovered that rain the day before was snow up high, and within the hour we were in ankle-deep powder, each of us following single file, seeing only the terrain illuminated by our headlamps and concentrating on the footprints directly in front of us. This went on for six hours. Initially, I treated it the way I do all long treks.

Walking is an opportunity to think, but walking and apple logo, thinking at high altitude is a curious and subtle experience. I found while I did the Kili shuffleplacing one foot directly in front of the writers other, heel to toe with no space between (very much Pink Floyds The Wall walk)I could maintain a train of thought, but soon the indian act lack of oxygen took effect, and I could only focus on the feet stepping in front of me, step after step, hour after hour. Climbing in snow is physically taxing, and as the air thinned, every misstep or slip interrupted carefully patterned breathing which in turn made me stop to pant, trying to get oxygen balance back. The new snow slowed our pace, so we arrived at Gilmans point on the crater rim much later than expected. Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano a singular peak rising out of the Rift Valley that characterizes the geology of East Africa. We rested briefly, and for the first time could see beyond the halos of our headlamps. The sun washed across the landscape, making shadows of unbelievable intensity and finally breaking the monochrome of dissertation writers our night walk. By now I was really feeling the altitude. I had crossed Thorung La with little distress, but given the exertion of rates of reaction climbing in snow, I was gasping for air and feeling many of the symptoms of altitude sickness.

Nevertheless I continued the last bit of the climb around the crater rim to Uhuru point. There were congratulations all around, but what stunned us all was the sheer magnificence of a clear, rainless morning looking out over the glaciers surrounding a breathtaking crater (and I mean breathtaking in its most literal sense). We soon turned back lingering at the peak invites many problems including body-temperature drops and perhaps more time sliding down the incline in the rain. We made our long return to Kibo huts, and each step brought more oxygen. After a glorious hour resting, we geared back up and made the descent to writers, Horombo, had supper and slept the sleep of the dead. Rates Of Reaction? Emily Dickinson once wrote that the brain is wider than the sky. On Kilimanjaro, I learned that a tired, physically stressed, and oxygen-starved brain is no wider than the faint outline of a headlamp illuminating footsteps in writers the snow. Air signals its presence in on mango other ways, perhaps most directly by moving. In Nepal climbing to Tilicho Lake, I watched the snow on a mountainside break off, sliding into a ravine a couple of kilometers from where I walked. There was no danger the dissertation avalanche could reach the on Thinking Simply Addiction by Dr. trail, but in a few moments the clear sunny day was filled with airborne ice crystals moving east fast and wet.

About 20 minutes later, the same ricocheting wave recrossed the path, this time moving west, once again covering me completely in writers ice. The Tongiriro Crossing on New Zealands North Island involves altitude change though nothing like Kilimanjaro. The edge of the Red Crater is a little over 1800 meters and when I was to cross during my hike of the Te Araroa Trail there was still snow, a lot of it. Tongariro is one of those hikes that swiftly changing weather can make dangerous. My morning started out cold (down at low elevation) and indian act, wet, though there were glimpses of sun, and the cloud cover did not look significantly different from writers a typical New Zealand morning in late Spring. My plan was to first hike to the Ketatahi Hut which was about 18 km, so I hoped to rates, get there mid-morning and would then have a sense of how the weather would play out. Early on the hike went well, a long road walk followed by well-designed and maintained paths. When I emerged from the bush and started hiking the alpine tundra the temperature started to drop, and the wind picked up. Still, I was well dressed in wind/rain gear, ready for dissertation writers what I thought would come, but the genetically food rain intensified and the wind was soon gale force.

At times it actually pushed me off the dissertation writers trail. The last kilometer or two were otherworldly horizontal rain, freight-train wind, and no clear end in sight. Cisneros Street? Then the hut appeared (not a moment too soon). The first thing I saw when I got to the door was a sign redesignating the hut as a temporary shelter. It was not an overnight site any longer because of a recent eruption which had dropped rocks through the roof and disrupted the foundation. I went inside, stripped off wet clothes, and writers, with shivering hands made an on Thinking Richard early lunch. As I did not get appreciably warmerthe wind by now was bashing the sides of the cabin I spread out my sleeping bag on the table and dissertation, crawled in, which soon got my body temperature to a better range. Simply Addiction By Dr. S. Sandor? Before long some Department of Conservation people showed up to work on the hut, surprised to find anyone there in such weather and relieved that I had decided to return down the way I had come. I packed up, headed back into the maelstrom, and writers, could feel the temperature creep up as the altitude decreased.

While hiking back down the cisneros on mango mountain, I thought about dissertation, Thoreau in The Maine Woods where he climbed Katahdin, though he did not achieve the summit. His description of the indian act mountain is some of his best writing, and I was thinking about how to him Katahdin was a cloud machine, making its own weather. Dissertation Writers? He did not end up posing at the top for pictures the way Appalachian Trail thru-hikers do today, but he experienced the mountain in all its weather fury. From that perspective, his was a successful climb, as was mine that day on Tongariro. Another of Thoreaus mountains is rates of reaction, New Hampshires Mount Washington, a place where the air asserts itself insistently. It is writers, a mountain with a constant flow of of reaction tourists. I remember one day climbing it through the Tuckerman Ravine with one of my sons. Like Katahdin, Washington is also a cloud factory, so on nearing the summit the mist came in. Tom asked if we were close, and I responded that I could see something just ahead.

As it turned out, that something was the bumper of a car. We summited through a parking lot, then stood next to tourists in writers street clothes waiting our turn to snap a picture by the sign at the peak. Flat and exposed, Washington is situated at a point where major storm systems from the south and the west converge. It can have temperatures as low as -35 and, at Simply About by Dr. Richard 231 mph, the highest wind speed ever directly recorded by humans. It is no wonder that in the past 150 years, almost the same number of people have died on its slopes. Like Tongariro, the weather changes rapidly, with storms scudding in at an unheralded pace. Standing at dissertation the peak, ignoring the cog-railway and full parking lot, watching the clouds mark the wind direction and rates, speed, is to writers, experience air as air. Today when people speak of a medium they might be thinking of a trafficker in the spiritual realms but more likely are referring to a communication medium. I currently teach in of marijuana the newly re-named School of Literature, Media, and Communication, where media finds itself squarely in the middle, sandwiched between an elderly media form and the study of how to get the message through as clearly as possible. At least since McLuhan (actually since Plato), people concerned with effective communication focus not just on the message but also on its medium since, obviously, its specific affordances configure the dissertation writers messages that pass. Idealists desire transparency, the mythic state where the medium recedes to such an extent that the message stands clear for all to see and sandra cisneros street, understand.

In Remediation , my old friend and colleague Richard Grusin makes the distinction between immediacy and hypermediacy, where the first characterizes the push for transparency while the dissertation writers second calls attention to both the limitations and the affordances of the medium itself. Similar to Heideggers tools ready-to-hand and present-to-hand, immediacy and hypermediacy are engaged in of reaction a constant dance. One leads for dissertation a moment, then the other, as the message is Essay on Thinking About, passed and its medium registered. In the last half-century, we have come to think of information moving through a medium as fundamental to the maintenance of society and vital for continuing life through our very genetic structure. In a climate-controlled environment (at least in the West), air rarely shows itself as hypermediacy. Instead it seems textbook immediacy. Indeed, except for startling instances of dense air pollution (or to a trekker on the Helambu circuit during spring field preparation), the primary characteristic of air is its transparency. Dissertation? Something invisible, beneath notice, surely does not carry a message of consequence, but of logo course it does. We respond somatically to changes in air pressure. We feel deep in our souls the freshness of a clear cool morning.

We feel the oppressive weight of water on a humid day, and a stiffening breeze signals a change in dissertation the weather. The down on our cheek trembles in the slightest current of air or shift in temperature, but what makes air so clearly a medium is its very transparency. To experience the big outside on an exceptionally clear day is to be enthralled by its clarity, by exactly that which you cannot see. As William Carlos Williams says in origin the first poem of Spring and All : under the dissertation writers surge of the blue. mottled clouds driven from the. northeasta cold wind.

Now the grass, tomorrow. the stiff curl of wildcarrot leaf. One by one objects are defined It quickens: clarity, outline of leaf. The transparency of the air there does not withdraw in the face of the immediacy of the objectit produces it, enables it, and mediates it. Air is our first medium. T. Essay Simply By Dr.? Hugh Crawford.

Walkers Have Never Been Modern. for Bruno Latour. Robert MacFarlane along with Stanley Donwood and Dan Richards wrote a beautiful little book called Holloway . Dissertation Writers? A holloway is a sunken path, a deep shady lane. A route that centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run have harrowed into the land. In other words, a holloway embodies and of marijuana, records a human history of acting in and with the non-human world, a world made of earth, stone, water, but also animals, wheels, wagons, and tools. I recently finished the Camino Frances path of the writers Camino de Santiago, crossing the of reaction Pyrenees near St. Jean-Pied-de-Porte and walking through Pamplona, Burgos, and Leon to Santiago de Compostela, and then beyond to dissertation, the Costa de Morte, to Muxia and Finisterre (900 kilometers). Though its paths are not usually as deep as the indian act holloways MacFarlane explores in England, they record a deep history, one of dissertation pilgrimages to Finisterre that even predate the Christian Era. While parts today must be re-routed to apple, newer paths to avoid trekking on what have become major highways, the Camino breaths a complex history, passing by every church in dissertation writers its path, but also circling natural formations, avoiding rugged climbs, reflecting the wisdom of the choices made by centuries of walkers. With each step, the modern peregrino is constantly aware of those years of wear, an overwhelming sense of human and nonhuman history. Some years ago, I hiked the Appalachian Trail with one of my sons, a trek markedly different from the Camino for a number of reasons. Over 2000 miles, the AT winds its way up the east coast ridge of the United States, from Georgia to S. Sandor, Maine, never very far from large population centers but on land that is largely depopulated, giving little sign of its ever having been occupied.

There are of course moments when hikers feel history. Passing through northwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland is a lesson on significant battles of the American Civil War, but often the sense of hikers, one reinforced by the designers and maintainers of the trail, is that they are walking in wilderness, a place devoid of human history. This mood is even stronger for those hiking the other two major US long-distance trailsthe Pacific Crest and the Continental Divideboth of which indulge walkers in dissertation writers the fantasy that they are walking where no one has walked before. Unlike the intensely historical nature of the Camino, the trope of American long-distance trails is of reaction, uninhabited wilderness. Native-American habitation has been literally and symbolically erased from that landscape. American hikers, particularly those from the west, tend to fetishize this blankness, using human absence as a form of dissertation valuation, what is called the fallacy of the wilderness. It is indian act, as if there have been no centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run. It may seem odd to turn to dissertation, a French philosopher of science and technology to talk about attitudes toward the wilderness and human history, but Bruno Latour, in his early book We Have Never Been Modern and the recent An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence gives a vocabulary to help frame these observations. At the risk of oversimplification (which is inevitable given the logo outline length of this essay), We Have Never Been Modern is a critique closely related to dissertation, Alfred North Whiteheads notion of the bifurcation of nature which initially was a criticism of the philosophical distinction between an objects primary and secondary qualities but eventually becomes a tool to dismantle the genetically subject/object distinction that has dominated modern philosophy at least since Kant which is the avowed purpose of An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence. Dissertation Writers? In Latours timeline, Modernism began (or did not actually begin) when Western philosophy accepted and origin of marijuana, enforced a rigorous distinction between the subject and the object.

An accomplished modernity would be one that could rigorously control the writers boundary between knowledge of the natural world and of human society. Latours insight is that while that wall might be tall and seemingly impregnable, it (like all geopolitical walls real or imagined) cannot stop subject/object hybrids (what he calls quasi-objects and food pros, quasi-subjects) from proliferating. No matter how hard the dissertation modern knowledge police work, the subject/object distinction cannot be maintained for food pros long. A nature untrammeled by human contact and history, one seen only from a scenic overlook or walked on paths that were never built for transportation or human labor, is the dissertation wilderness ideal. From that perspective, American long-distance trails mimic the modernity Latour decries, one that erases the history of the material world and the imprint of human thought and action on the landscape. They are a celebration of Nature purged of all humans except the limited few with the strength, stamina, time, and indian act, financial wherewithal to make the writers trek. Of Marijuana? The holloway is an example of the sort of writers hybrid Latour invokes to destabilize the notion of an accomplished modernity. The holloway is objective, made of what we would call natural objectsdirt, stones, trees, roots, plantsand is modified, subject to natural forcesrain, wind, drought, frost heave. Writers? But it is also social as it was made and is maintained by human activity, serving as a conduit for labor, play, transportation, and human contact. To walk a path is to live its history and trip over its ruts, at the same time!

The modernity Latour critiques is indian act, one without history, and many ways it is one without thought. An accomplished modernism would be completely sleek, completely measurable, completely computable. It demands a seamless infrastructure, one that never calls attention to itself (see Swinging Bridges). In many ways, it is the neo-liberal dream. Walking a holloway track the Camino de Santiago or Nepals Helambu circuitis to writers, feel a sedimented history, but also much more. When you walk long enough, modern concerns (I owe money, I have obligations, I must be productive) diminish and something else (without the I) opens up. A range of forces come to beargravity, oxygen levels, a fine-grained sense of the weather, attention to flora, fauna, the origin impress of human activity, and memory. These and other factors constitute a mood that can open to reflection and writers, ultimately open onto origin of marijuana, the possibility of thinking instead of having thoughts which, like ideas, become tokens to dissertation, move about in some discourse to be measured and validated by a calculus of intellectual activity. Essay On Thinking About By Dr. S. Sandor? The latterthoughtsare prized by the neo-liberal academy as they can be converted into writers statements that circulate as a proxy for thinking and an emblem of intellectual activity, but are actually a faint shadow of the rates non-modern experience of thinking. In that light, the academias long slide from celebrating wisdom to knowledge (18th century) to information (20th century) to writers, data (21st century) is to the neo-liberal university, a place of constant self-assessment, periodic review, and impact analysis, a machine designed to halt thinking in origin of marijuana its tracks. The optimism of Latours book is his claim that we have never been modern, that such a state can never be accomplished because the writers boundary between subject and object, self and world, is a chimera.

Purification gestures may create power relations and try to reduce thinking to having thoughts, but the hybrid I am calling thinking proliferates outside those boundaries, in of marijuana a world that never was modern. On morning I woke in dissertation writers a Kathmandu hotel with no electricity which is of course a regular occurrence in most of the world. Indian Act? Technological differences tend to be what we first notice when visiting other places. Heading out dissertation writers, of the city deeper into logo outline the mountains is a move toward fewer conveniences and what seems a simpler life. Many writers, including some I highly respect, describe this as stepping back in time. I understand what they mean. Writers? In isolated rural areas, the daily practices of the people living there are often quite similar to those of their ancestors. Farmers tilling narrow terraced fields with short-handled heavy hoes or metal-tipped wooden plows with a yoke of oxen is a scene repeated for centuries if not millennia, so for visitors, it is of an antique simplicity. However the back in time attitude is the result of genetically modified food a parochial sense of modernity. Yes, without doubt, the people living in, say, Melamchigaon are not working in sanitized, hermetically-sealed, climate-controlled environments staring at dissertation writers computer screens all day, but they live in the 21st century, surrounded by Essay on Thinking Simply About Addiction by Dr. artifacts of that era including the ubiquitous steel and aluminum sheathing, cell phones, polyester jackets, airplanes and writers, helicopters circling, soldiers patrolling with automatic weapons.

While they may not be in a high-tech envelope, they, like the vast majority of the worlds population, are in the larger 21st century world. The place where they live and work is origin of marijuana, a hybrid of writers high tech and traditional practices that a narrow, hyper-modern view overlooks. What the back in time trope brings is a sense of distance from and a concomitant blindness to the hybrid nature of all our lives. Silicon Valley daily life is also full of activities long practiced by humans but overlooked in pursuit of a digital totality. Ezra Pounds plea to indian act, make it new starts with an dissertation it that is modernized, but the it and indian act, all its deep history is sedimented in that new. Stepping into Melamchigaon is not a temporal disjunction. It is spatial. It is stepping into a different modernity or, to use Latours terminology, into the non-modern world where we have been all along. T. Hugh Crawford. Early on dissertation, in Walden , Thoreau says, It is true, I never assisted the sun materially in apple outline his rising, but, doubt not, it was of the last importance only to be present at dissertation writers it. Presence at first light, ever elusive but somehow fundamental. The labors of many people require they rise before the sun, but being up early does not necessarily put one in the presence of the sunrise as an event, the first of the new day. Rates? Long-distance walkers are a privileged few as they, like Thoreau, are up and about, doing their daily labor before the sun, and most days find themselves lingering on some path watching the writers unfolding of yet another rosy-fingered dawn.

In El Gamso on the Camino de Santiago, G, my trekking partner suggested we get up early enough to see the sunrise from the peak at Cruz de Ferro. Walkers are game for most things, but this was a pre-dawn trek of origin 15 km including a long steep climb. At 4:00 am, we were up and in a few minutes hiking fast and hard down the path, headlamps dimly lighting the way. It was smooth but still there was the occasional stumble. An advantage of the early time was a sky awash with stars, the dissertation writers Milky Way streaming through the middle, punctuated by indian act the occasional meteorite, but we had to ignore the dissertation writers sight most of the time, focusing instead on our feet. There was less than 3 hours time to cover the rates of reaction distance. Writers? Before long a crescent moon rose at our backs, partly showing the rates of reaction way.

That time of morning brings new sensations. Birds often unheard call out. Different temperature gradients cross the skin. The earth and dissertation writers, plants exhale unique odors. Setting a brisk pace, we made the the next town in indian act good time but then had to climb a ridge in mud and dissertation, flowing water, all as the horizon began to lighten ominously. Soon anticipation gave way to near despair.

Pushing on through the just-waking village of Foncebadon, we crested the main ridge, still short of Cruz de Ferre but finding an on mango ideal place to see the morning in. Sunrises happen every day but they are never the same. This day some low clouds ran interference as the orange intensified along the horizon, then a brilliant flash of yellow light turned our retinas purple. Dissertation Writers? Soon the suns rays touched all around and, though we had not materially assisted in its rising, we had contributed our mite and received everything in of reaction return. Its a strange feeling to have been up and toiling long and hard only to writers, recognize that a new day has just commenced. We got up, stretched, and made our way to the Cruz de Ferre, an iron cross atop a tall wooden pole surrounded by a huge pile of rocks brought by peregrinos from all over the world. Of Marijuana? I found a rock by the path and pitched it over my head onto the pile, while G retrieved the one she had carried from some far away place. Anticipation frames a moment, but the moment always exceeds it. That morning while watching the sunrise, I could not help but recall Holderlins hymn, The Ister, and writers, Heideggers commentary in a book of the same name. I kept repeating the modified opening lines:

Command, presence, inevitability, anticipation, anxiety. Sunrise is but one in 24 hours of moments, but it is a singularity, an edge, a precise point. It predates industrial time and is measured not in seconds or minutes but in durationa taunt, stretched now that extends from the first bit of pure light to the emergence of the sun as full body. Writers? Heidegger, ever the interrogator, questions Holderlins opening line: Yet if the fire comes of its own accord, then why is it called? The call does not effect the coming. He is pursuing a broader philosophical point, but his questioning uncovers the walkers dilemma, one phrased by Thoreau differently but essentially asking the indian act same thing: what calls for presence at a sunrise? Eager to see the day, we pause watching colors, the false dawn, then the moment of pure light. Our eagerness calls on dissertation writers, the sun to come, but it was the sun all along that brought us to this ridge. Indian Act? Presence at sunrise questions Being in ways few other quotidian actions can. The most temporal of events calls the caller out of measured time into duree.

It is time as a thread stretched to absolute thinness. Dissertation Writers? Clocks do not tick at Essay on Thinking About Richard S. Sandor sunrise; time expands, filling the dissertation writers horizon. But fire can bring destruction, and to think the now is to think its end. Not far from the Cruz de Ferro is the Galician Atlantic coast and Finisterre, the end of the earth in the Medieval world, the place where the rates sun goes to die. On the writers Costa de Morte there once was the altar of Ara Solis dedicated to indian act, that daily dying sun, something pilgrims witness with each sunset. Sunrise is dissertation, both inevitable and not, prompting questions of the end rather than the beginning.

Ben Schneider (of the band Lord Huron) asks, what if the world dies with the sunrise? Not an anxiety strongly felt by those called to witness the beginning of the sandra cisneros street day, but a thought that lurks in dissertation the background. To anticipate an event is to entertain the possibility of it not happening. Heidegger also calls the now the time of genetically food poets. The sun calls the poets to write. It calls walkers differently, not to give words but more fundamentally to dissertation, mark the surface of the modified food earth, to write paths with bootsoles. Writers? To be present at the suns rising, the way is trod, the ridge is climbed. To participate in outline the now of dissertation writers that moment is to be part of a longstanding community with feet maintaining the way and naming the history of the lands dwellers, sometimes going back millennia. The pause on the ridge gives the street sunrise a silent voice. An event made reverent by the act of stopping to pay attention, to attend.

Deleuze asks of writers Leibniz and Whitehead What is an food pros Event? He then produces a multiplicity of answers, or, to put it the dissertation writers same way, his answer is a multiplicity with some convergence. Of Reaction? An event is a gathering to writers, an intensity, a set of forces singled out and directing attention. It is, in Whiteheads terms, a concresence of elements, the active creation of the new and, I would add, the now which is always novel. Sunrise calls out a particular now for our attention, showing by implication the production, the concresence, of all nows, however unremarkable others may be. Sitting there on that hill in that moment was an event. We did not materially assist the sun in its rising, did not wake the birds songs or paint the full palette of colors on the sky or cause the mist to rise from the Essay on Thinking About Addiction plowed earth or bring both light and shadow to play across the dissertation land.

But we were there attending and anticipating. Already wide-awake from a long, hard hike, we were there to begin the rates of reaction new day. T. Hugh Crawford. During these long walks, Ive been thinking about bridges. Dissertation? This essay would have appeared here, but my friend Ian and the folks at the Atlantic decided to publish it there: For related material, please see the Pointless Essays tab below. A Walker of Rivers. Wateryoud have thought Id had enough of it. Starting the origin Te Araroa on September 1st (against the advice of everyone consulted), I sloshed my way through the Herekino and dissertation writers, Rataea forests, splashed up the Mangapukahukanu, climbed any number of peaks to admire the fog, and even tried (unsuccessfully) to wade across the genetically modified food pros mouth of the dissertation writers Okura just north of Auckland.

The better part of my first two months on the Te Araroa was in a damp mist if not outright downpour. But as spring gave way to summer, that fog lifted and water took on a new and logo, surprising qualityindescribable beauty. When hiking the Appalachian Trail in the United States, I crossed many riversfrom the white water of the Nantahala in North Carolina to the broad slow tidal waters of the Hudson just above New York City, or the writers Kennebec in Maine where a paid staffer ferries thru-hikers across in a canoe. The Te Araroa has more than its share of tough river crossings, particularly on the South Islandthe Rakaia, Rangitata, and my personal nemesis, the Ahuriribut along with crossings, the TA also brings opportunities to hike a rivers length, to become a walker of rivers. Each has its own attractions and devotees, but for me, nothing compares to the trek from St.

Arnaud along Lake Rotoiti then up the Travers River to its high mountain source. I woke early at the backpacker hostel in Essay on Thinking About by Dr. the Nelson Lakes Motelone of those places cherished by hikers both for its amenities and dissertation, the information passed between staff and fellow trekkers. Triple Hands Dave, a mountain guide who had also hiked the Appalachian Trail, was already cooking breakfast for his crew. I made coffee while we talked about the differences between the AT and the TA. Little did I know, I was about to start a days hike that would bring into stark relief those very differences. I soon packed up and headed out, but not to the trail just yet. Sandra On Mango Street? One of my Te Araroa resolutions was to never eat food from my pack when there was a restaurant nearby, so I wandered down to the St. Arnaud Cafe for the big breakfast. Hiking the Appalachian Trail brought few opportunities for a cafe breakfast.

It was almost always an early morning meal of dissertation writers cold poptarts or granola bars before plunging back in the wilderness, so lingering in a cafe was quite the luxury. The morning was cold as I sat at the picnic tables waiting for the cafe to open, using some free wifi to catch up on the news and staving off obligations back in of reaction the States. Soon I was tucking into a hearty breakfast followed by ice cream (on both the AT and the TA, thru-hikers can eat as much as they want, a habit hard to break after returning to a more sedentary life). Soon the trail beckoned, and I started the thirty kilometer hike to Upper Travers Hut. The best beginning of a day, one that limbers up old arthritic joints, is an easy flat walk. Along the shore of Lake Rotoiti, one of the Nelson Lakes that give water a good name, the manicured path at times veers out onto gravel beaches giving a chance to linger and study the waters color, texture, and the lake bottom which, regardless of depth, always seems just inches from the surface. By the time I got to the top of the lake, my legs felt young and the sun was shining brightly. There was a clear sense of adventure in the air, and the water was in the lake, streams and dissertation writers, river, not coming down on me from the sky.

The valley opened up as the indian act trail crossed old pastures and dissertation, followed the winding of the Travers, occasionally crossing by those swinging bridges that still give me pause. Walking those lower parts close to the river, I became increasingly aware of the indian act waters clarity, marveling at its almost unimaginable color. Dissertation Writers? In the United States before the advent of brown ceramic insulators, rural electrical lines were strung on blue-green glass knobs. Of Reaction? Today those knobs are collectibles (they make great paper weights). The one siting on my desk at home echoes the color of the Travers River, but it is a only a feeble echo.

The hike took me from the lake to the headwaters, so the rivers life unfolded across the day, going from the staid maturity at the mouth to the rollicking turbulence of youth (yes, the water really does rollick over rocks). The trail would wind through a mixed forest then return to the waters edge, each time bringing another striking view. The water was yesterdays mountaintop snow, its taste icy and intoxicating. I stopped once to look into dissertation writers what must have been a deep pool, though it was difficult to judge the depth of something so transparent. As I stared at the bottom perfect, round blue-gray stones a trout caught my eye. Large, brown, at Simply Addiction Richard least 20 inches long and initially invisible, the dissertation writers fish was holding steady in the current. Im not a fisherman though at that moment I wish I were. Instead I found myself thinking of modified food Ernest Hemingways short story Big Two-Hearted River where Nick Adams, the protagonist, is recovering from the writers mental anguish of fighting in Addiction World War I. He goes fishing in northern Michigan, and early in the narrative leans over a bridge rail to watch big trout in the current. Nick has travelled to this river hoping to find a way to steady himself. Similar to most long-distance hikers, his actions are studiedprecise, almost ritualized. Taking care is a way for him to control his situation and dampen down the uncertainty that wartime trauma has brought.

Standing there watching that particular trout, I began to better understand Hemingways story. The Travers plunges down the mountain to the lake below, waterfall after waterfall. Even slack water is anything but slack. That fish motionless in the pool was swimming fast. Holding steady is dissertation, hard work. Although smaller streams had been joining the river all day, toward late afternoon, they came rushing in louder. Rates Of Reaction? I could see the dissertation writers mountain looming after passing Hopeless Creek (one of many vaguely ominous place-names along the Te Araroa).

In contrast to the valley, the trail became steeper and more hazardous. Of Reaction? The surrounding mountains cast dark shadows, and dissertation, the trail itself made that familiar moveclimbing above the indian act stream then striking out level along an edge both narrow and dissertation, slippery. I walked with care, staring at the path to on Thinking About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor, keep steady, occasionally stopping to see where it leda narrow chasm cut by slips, slides, and tumbling brooks. Then I saw, dropping straight off a mountain top, a waterfall with fully half of the water making up the Travers river at that point. It was as if someone had just taken up half the dissertation river and leaned it against a mountain, then let it fall, that blue-green water rushing vertically for what looked to genetically modified, be hundreds of dissertation meters.

There are no words. The day was winding down as I finally made my way to the hut which, to my surprise, had smoke coming from the chimney. Hiking the Te Araroa early in the season had been a solitary experience, so I wasnt expecting company up near the top of Mt. Travers. With the hut in sight, I decided to cut across a meadow in what seemed a more direct route only to discover the way I had chosen was more water than land, so I managed to genetically modified food, soak shoes and socks within yards of my destination. On entering I was met by a partytwo Kiwi guides from Picton and four trekkers from Australia. They had crossed the dissertation lake by boat and spent the previous night at John Tait Hut, clearly hiking a more civilized pace than I was, something evident by their buoyant good humor. Overcrowded huts are a frequent conversation, particularly along the TA, but my early spring start had made most of my hut experiences lonely. I well remember two nights and one very long day at Waiopehu in the Tararuas where I found myself wet, cold, and alone staring at windows made opaque by rates of reaction driving rain, wondering what was out there. Dissertation? The morning it cleared brought a clear view of Levin, the town I had hiked out of origin of marijuana two days earlier, looking entirely too close for all my hiking efforts. The Waiopehu and Upper Travers huts are fairly new, spacious, clean and dissertation, inviting with the Upper Travers made even more so by modified the fire in the wood stove and a group of enthusiastic hikers.

I hung my wet clothes by dissertation writers the fire and indian act, instead of a solitary evening, I was treated with extra food, some wine, and lively conversation. The next morning, I woke to the expedition leader rekindling the fire, and writers, soon the rest were rustling about. I packed, made breakfast with steaming coffee and even had a second cup, but that day my goal was Waiau Forks which required a climb over Travers Saddle and then, later in indian act the afternoon, Waiau Pass. I said my farewells and writers, walked out into one of those days where the very air is like glass, imparting a sheen on everything within sight. Indian Act? The path soon climbed above the dissertation bush and spread out below was the entire river valley. Even though I couldnt, it seemed as if I could see all the way back to Lake Rotitiri, so for a moment it felt as though I was looking at an illustration in a topography book, one that explained the parts of a river valley, and I had the view from the top. All around were peaks, jagged rocks, some softened by the remaining snow the snow that melted and fed the Travers. I lingered for apple outline a while at that point where the river began, then turned to start the long descent to the Sabine Valley, heading off for another day of walking rivers. T. Hugh Crawford. Mountains weep.

No sadness there, though they do have moods. Dissertation Writers? Water seeps from cracks in rocks, down from thin streams, or gurgles beneath mats of moss. Paths are suddenly slick, the smell of the air changes as does the temperature. You become aware of something that had been absentor maybe it was following you all along, just beneath the surface. The skies were uncertain at Glenrock Stream. The wind picked up and indian act, rain spotted the dissertation stones, but there was also blue sky.

Morning showers on New Zealands South Island often dissipate quickly. The first part of the path was up through pastures. The hills were treeless and covered with brown grass. At erosion points, they showed their foundations: huge piles of gravel covered with a thin layer of soil and desiccated vegetation. Initially the trail was well-formed, so I soon arrived at the first hut, a tiny A-frame tucked up in a draw. Sandra The House On Mango? By then, the rain had intensified, and I should have gotten out heavy weather gear, but after a brief stop, I pushed on fast for the next hutComynswhich was only 6 km away. The wind over the open terrain was staggering and the rain horizontal, but it was at my back. I was already drenched, so I continued, covering the distance in writers a little over an hour, arriving wet, cold, and slightly hypothermic. Comyns is an old musterers hut made of corrugated steel siding bolted to a structural steel frame. It rocks and creaks in indian act the wind.

Even though it had a fireplace, there was no wood for heat or to dry clothes. Shivering, I peeled off wet layers, put on camp clothes, made soup, hung my stuff to drip, and crawled into a sleeping bag. It was Thanksgiving, and back home people were sitting down to a meal that was likely more than ramen noodles. Next morning I woke early, put on my still-wet clothes and followed the trail as it led out over the hill behind the hut. There I found a branch of the Ashburton River which rushed knee-deep and bitter cold past steep boulders. At least today the sun was shining except in the deep shadows, but the writers trail forded the river all morning (a fellow thru-hiker later told me he had to wade it twenty-three times). My toes were soon numbit felt as if I had boards strapped to my feet.

Mid-morning, the trail turned off to climb up Round Hill Creek which thankfully was narrow and easier to ford. Late that morning, I stopped and sat on a rock, turned to feel the warm sun on my face, and filled my water bottle. Without pausing to purify it, I drank draught after draught, marveling at the taste and reveling in the moment. Water is sublimeawful and awe-inspiring. Writing about the Cairngorms in Scotland, Nan Shepherd observes: This water from the granite is cold.

To drink it at the source makes the throat tingle. A sting of life is in its touch. Directly encountered raw, water stings and soothes, incapacitates and satisfies. Food Pros? It is dissertation writers, multiple. At the extremes a dealer of death and origin of marijuana, bringer of life, but mostly is a constant, gurgling companion. Plutarch says of the dissertation first philosopher, Thales the Milesian doth affirm that water is the principle whence all things in the universe spring. For Thales, water is prime matter, but for us it is also the source of the abstract philosophical ideals of Essay About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor purity and dissertation writers, clarity. Water is the basis for physics and metaphysics. Today we live different contradictions. Water is an image of purity and a source of fear, the vehicle of hidden contamination. Sandra Cisneros On Mango? When I was young, I hiked on dissertation writers, my uncles land in Highland County, Virginia where a tiny creek ran down through a huge pile of rocks. My uncle, a physician, assured me the rocks filtered it, rendering it safe to drink. I lapped it up, satisfied with his explanation and amazed by rates the taste, absent chlorine and fluorine.

I also remember by brother, on getting his drivers license, taking jugs over into the Fort Valley to get Miss Lucy her spring water which, I am fairly certain, was meant for her evening bourbon and branch. Even then, there were few places left where we could drink with confidence from the source. Now, frightened as we all are by writers all the outdoor organizations selling SteriPens and iodine tablets, fearful of giardia, lead, and the thousands of other toxins we have poured into Essay Simply Addiction by Dr. Richard the water table (what exactly is fracking fluid?), water is treated with suspicion. The crisis in Flint, Michigan (which we all know will be followed by dozens of other political/infrastructure failures), combined with the real and imagined dangers of drinking the water in any country unless served in a sealed plastic bottle, makes it a substance that is anything but an image of purity. It was with a certain cavalier freedom that I indulged the streams of New Zealand, and of course it was risky. One morning hiking out of Locke Stream Hut, the trail followed up a beautiful stream where I was ready to drink, only to discover in the headwaters a dead, bloated cow. Dissertation Writers? Water is the universal solvent, but what washes away the residue our modern contamination leaves?

Ever the natural historian, Thoreau subjects Waldens waters to rigorous analysis of clarity and color, claiming his pond first in genetically the Concord Lake District regarding clarity and taste. He writes at length on dissertation, the color of water, noting it is imparted by indian act surrounding materials trees, sand, sky. For Thoreau, Walden Pond has the perfect paletteblue sky, white sand, green treeswhich reveals the depths of those colors, and at the same time, the depths of the pond itself (which he constantly surveys). But minerals do impart color, and dissertation, blue-green or, as the sandra the house street name clearly indicates, aquamarine, is a marker of clarity and purity. I had the chance to walk the Travers River in New Zealand from its mouth at Lake Rotoiti to its headwaters in the Travers Saddle. There I saw for dissertation writers myself the color of an amazing water: thick blue-green swirling against rough white rock. Resulting from apple dissolved minerals, glacier melt, reflection from the sky, vegetation above the dissertation surfaceno matterit was the color of rates of reaction magic, and dissertation writers, maybe even truth. To know such water is both to see through it and at the same time, to see its surface, another doubleness that confounds understanding. That day on the Travers, the surface reflected and rates, sparkled while the depths, on examination, revealed large brown trout, swimming static in writers the current. On Thinking Simply? Thoreau, ever the master of seeing through and looking at writers offers a natural history of that surface: It is a soothing employment, on origin of marijuana, one of those fine days in the fall when all the warmth of the sun is fully appreciated, to sit on a stump on such a height as this, overlooking the pond, and study the dimpling circles which are incessantly inscribed on its otherwise invisible surface amid the reflected skies and trees. Along with being the only widely distributed substance which expands when frozen (making it the dissertation writers most potent of materials when it comes to shaping the world in which we live), waters surface tension and adhesive properties enact equally important transformations, including helping it defy gravity through capillary action as well as seep into of marijuana and through the dissertation most unlikely of places.

And, as Thoreau helps us see, waters surface properties produce arresting effects. There is the hypnotic, psychically lapidary phenomena of ocean waves, but also the strangely textured, patterned ripples on indian act, the surface of a stream rolling over its bed. The uneven rocks, through the mediation of the water, produce a ridged geometry that is regular, complex, and utterly compelling. In a poem from dissertation writers The Whitsun Weddings , Philip Larkin also helps us recognize what water reveals, how it provokes human contemplation, and gives access to a wider understanding: If I were called in. To construct a religion. I should make use of water. Going to church. Would entail a fording. To dry, different clothes;

My liturgy would employ. Images of sousing, A furious devout drench, And I should raise in the east. A glass of water. Where any-angled light. Would congregate endlessly. His water is not symbolic, metaphoric, or really even spiritual. Instead it is insistently physical. It souses and modified food, drenches furiously. It is matter, perhaps even Thaless prime matter.

Along with Larkin, Nan Shepherd writes with insight and understanding about the materiality of water: For the most appalling quality of water is its strength. Writers? I love its flash and gleam, its music, its pliancy and logo outline, grace, its slap against my body; but I fear its strength. Water is pliant, it has heft, and ultimately, power. In New Zealand, rivers braid over wide gravel valleys. At any given moment you may be walking on a smooth dry gravel bed or right beside a raging torrent. Absent swinging bridges, trekkers must cross rivers that demand care, something that increases in urgency as the braids get deeper and wider. I remember crossing the dissertation writers Otira near the Arthurs Pass with some fellow hikers where we locked arms through pack straps and marched across together. The man on the downstream end who was both tall and strong floated up from the genetically modified riverbed and was only kept anchored by dissertation writers his grip and the feet of those of genetically pros us who were upstream. I did not have the same luck some days later trying to cross the Ahuriri. I woke that morning with a vague sense of dread as the descriptions of the trail were not promising.

My direction was up the saddle, down a river with no real trail to follow and writers, markers that were few and far between. Topping that off, there was a ford at the end of the day. Once again, it was cold and wet with rain falling as I headed up to the trailhead. Indian Act? The hike initially was uneventful, the mist cleared, and writers, the trail soon turned up toward the pass, following a rollicking stream through an old beech forest. Just before it broke out indian act, of the woods above bushline, I stopped at a big rock, got out my stove and made oatmeal and dissertation, coffee. Then I just sat, listening to the chorus of voices the water made. No monotony there, the indian act sounds were polyphonic and complex. I could pick out a roar and a tumble, gurgles and dripsall playing in a water wall-of-sound. The following ascent was steep but by noon I was over the saddle and on my way down what turned out to be a well-marked path. Dissertation Writers? Soon I climbed another ridge where a large flat plateau opened up, a space worthy of a Sergio Leone film.

The area was high desert a lot of water flowing through it but the soil was thin. Rates Of Reaction? In the bogs were masses of moss and springy grass and dissertation writers, the edges of the streams had bushes and spear grass, but on on the plain, the vegetation was crispy and sandra street, thin except the dandelions which were blooming by dissertation the millions. They were different from the logo ones back home. Leaves were small and thick with no lobes. Instead, they spread out touching the ground avoiding the drying wind to get maximum sun and hoard moisture, waiting for the beginning of December to dissertation, thrust up a single bloom on sandra cisneros on mango, a two inch stalk. That day was all yellow. Later in dissertation writers the afternoon, the valley flattened, then opened to the river. My plan was to ford and camp just on the other side, but I arrived to indian act, find a high, fast-running current.

To the west I could see a range of snow capped mountains melting fast in the days hot sun. The river was milky green, so full of glacier melt (milk) that I could not see the bottom. Dissertation Writers? Reading the braids is an art, seeking out points where the river splits into cisneros the house on mango smaller crossable threads. Dissertation? I surveyed the scene and made several tentative forays, trying to get a good foothold and genetically pros, then cross, but each time Id get about 1/4 of the writers way across and genetically pros, the bottom would drop out. The icy water refreshed after a hot walk across the plain, and the density of the water was palpableso green but so opaque as to dissertation, make it impossible to see my feet, let alone the bottom I needed to find. Logo? It became obvious I would have to walk along the dissertation river instead of across. The map showed a bridge downstream, so off I went, first in the gravel river bed, then up an a small ridge, but the Ahuriri did what all rivers eventually do.

It swung over to my side and crashed hard against a cliff, making walking impossible. About 100 meters nearly straight up was a flat plateau covered in pine which I had no choice but to on Thinking Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor, climb, then weaving in and out of trees, sticker bushes, pasture, barbed wire fences, fording a dozen streams, I finally got to the bridge, having hiked over 12 hours. As it was late, I found a flat place to dissertation writers, pitch my tent and a small stream for water, then retired exhausted. Indian Act? Some days, the power of the water exceeds all determination. Death by water is actually a frequent occurrence for solitary trekkers who ignore its appalling quality, but there are those who seek it outthe Thames in T. Dissertation? S. Logo Outline? Eliots imagination or the Ouse in Virginia Woolfs actual death. Still, we have turned water into a different medium for dissertation death. About Addiction By Dr.? Global warming brings both unstable weather and drought to wider and wider regions.

In spite of its image of clarity and purity, we have decided to dump all of our shit into our water (wise civil engineer there). Today there is scarcely a source that does not require treatment, costing untold dollars in cleanup or for the medical care for those not lucky enough to have access. Or it simply hastens the death of dissertation those who have access to nothing but filth. Water wars are our destiny, and soon no one will understand that once water, in its natural, unpolluted state, had taste a brilliant flavor because the lucky few will only drink treated, purified, filtered piss rather than the stuff that once bubbled up from springs as if by magic. Apple Outline? No, by writers magic. Nan Shepherd sought out water we no longer know, that strong white stuff, one of the four elemental mysteries, can here be seen at its origins. If we no longer have water, do we have origins? Norman MacLean, a writer of rivers, expressed our current situation in the closing line of his novella A River Runs Through It : I am haunted by genetically modified food waters. His vision is the hauntology of writers a substance which, like all the on Thinking Simply About Addiction Richard previous doublings, is both absent and still present in dissertation writers its very degradation. Essay About S. Sandor? We are haunted by dissertation purity, clarity, and lossan ecology verging on theology. If there is a god, it is water. T. Hugh Crawford.

What if the transcendental field were actually a field? Not a disciplinary field or a term from physics, but instead a field humming and buzzing with lifesoil, insects, plants, birds, animals (including humans), with a path through. Gilles Deleuze returns to fields, to immanence, in his last essay, Pure Immanence: A Life. It is a work of old age. Nearing death, A Life deserves to origin of marijuana, be thought. Dissertation Writers? I have recurred to this essay many times over the years but have only recently arrived at cisneros on mango an age where I feel its richness, something I am still incapable of writers expressing even as it moves me. So instead I just want to make a tentative claim. Deleuzes last essay can be read by walkers as their A Life. In those few pages (it is a remarkably compact piece), he does not mention walking, but does describe with uncanny precision the experience of non-self, the actual life that both appears and is performed by serious walkers. Apple Outline? Another pointless essay, Im not venturing any real claims beyond the writers one above. Modified Pros? Instead I want to proceed in the manner of my friend Isabelle Stengers and dissertation, try to origin of marijuana, think with Deleuze (a strategy that requires many quotations, but it is the only way I know how to dissertation, proceed). His opening sentences are by themselves a complete essay and a summary of A Life: What is a transcendental field?

It can be distinguished from experience in that it doesnt refer to an object or belong to a subject (empirical representation). It appears therefore as a pure stream of cisneros on mango a-subjective consciousness, a pre-reflexive impersonal consciousness, a qualitative duration of consciousness without a self. Perhaps feeling old, Deleuze is making himself an ancient philosophera pre-Socraticvoicing a philosophy of dissertation writers immanence, a philosophy lost because of subjects set over against of marijuana objects, lost because of the transcendence of the idea of writers self. As he says in the Nietzsche essay included in Pure Immanence , The degeneration of philosophy clearly begins with Socrates. So what would an a-subjective consciousness be? Practically it seems an impossibility as, at cisneros the house least to me, consciousness has always been the province of the self, but Deleuze want to speak of a transcendental field (and later pure immanence, the two of writers which veer together). Indian Act? So the question is whether it is possible to experience that field prior to dissertation, or in spite of the fall into a subject-object existence. Clearly A Life is some sort of process of recovery. Sitting in a library reading Deleuze can twist the mind. We fall, we grope, yet a-subjective consciousness remains elusive. But the field begins to answer, the field crossed on foot in a long ramble where, as all long-distance walkers know, the subject-object dualism is nonsensical. Minds are in bodies, bodies are in logo clothes and gear, which in turn are in the world. By that I dont mean the World writ philosophically large, but rather the physical world being occupied and traversed: this path, this air, these sounds which do not appear to the senses as an outside, an object to be surmounted, but instead are the blurred zone of the becoming of field.

Not being, not self field! He follows this opening with the question that I, having grown up on American Transcendentalism, have always asked of this essay: It may seem curious that the transcendental be defined by such immediate givens. Although the Transcendental he struggles against is Kantian, lets instead walk a bit with Emerson, because I dont think Deleuze is terribly far from him here (though their paths soon diverge). The ecstatic moment of American Transcendentalism occurs in Nature : In the woods, we return to reason and faith. Dissertation Writers? There I feel that nothing can befall me in life,no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground,my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space,all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. Although I acknowledge the grammatical brilliance of his semi-colons, I have always had difficulty with the speed of Emersons movement. In a few short sentences, he goes from the of reaction woods to the currents of universal being. As an inveterate walker himself, Emerson knows crossing such distance takes time. The speed of walking is the speed of thought something much slower than the rapid transcendence Emerson executes here. Of course he has a philosophical point to make, one not to be found in the field but instead is enabled by the field. Emersons transcendence is a movement out of the givens of the path he actually walks, so even though his loss of dissertation mean egotism seems much like Deleuzes a-subjective consciousness, in the process it loses its immanence. So it is here that Emersons way diverges from of reaction Deleuzes, but lets follow it for just a moment to see how it aligns with, instead of moving away from Kants.

Still from writers Nature : The first effort of origin thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. Writers? When the eye of Reason opens, to apple logo, outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from dissertation imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of the house on mango street objects. This in some ways accounts for his rapid transcendence. As is clear from his transparent eyeball and fear of losing his sight, Emerson wants to celebrate what the mind brings to perception of nature which is, from the dissertation outset, considered as spectatorial other. Origin? Emersonian objects are refined by Emersonian subjects. Dissertation? Very much in a Kantian tradition, he wants to celebrate what the genetically modified mind brings to dissertation writers, those objects, the imagination and affection that temper the Essay Simply by Dr. Richard angularity of the dissertation material world. The other path, the one followed by Deleuze is through the apple outline animal eye along with all the other senses (including proprioception) that perform the crossing of the transcendental field.

Given Emersons spatio-visual metaphors, his transcendence is a move up, a change in perspective that provides an intellectualized understanding, a birds eye view of the writers field. Deleuzes transcendental field is only known by keeping feet plodding along that muddy path. A serious walkerone who is tramping long enough for the daily world to vanish and to also move beyond an aesthetic appreciation of taking a walkcan recover the transcendental field that pre-exists the subject-object distinction with a different form of cisneros the house empiricism, one Deleuze calls transcendental: We will speak of a transcendental empiricism in contrast with everything that makes up the world of the subject and the object. There is something wild and powerful in this transcendental empiricism that is of course not the element of simple sensation (simple empiricism), for sensation is only a break within the flow of dissertation absolute consciousness. Wild and powerfula good way to describe what he opens up in this passage. Walking presses the question of consciousness (simple or absolute) and sensation, both of which push the boundaries of A Life in the world. Where to begin? Maybe back in the field where we started. Of Reaction? Without doubt, a general walk across that meadow, that field buzzing with life, is full of writers sensations perceived by all the aggregate entities found there equipped some sensorium (all the way to light sensitive minerals).

Deleuzes absolute consciousness senses this but does not articulate a sensation as that pitches the apple logo absolute consciousness into an oppositionsense/mind/subject vs. Dissertation? world/object. To have a sensation is to Essay Simply Addiction by Dr. Richard, break from the field where all participate, interact, flow. It is instead, as he said earlier, a qualitative duration of consciousness without a self [emphasis mine]. He continues: Must we then define the transcendental field by writers a pure immediate consciousness with neither object or consciousness with neither object nor self, as a movement that neither begins nor ends. Here it seems he is using the term consciousness as a placeholder, a concept, to describe this movement or becoming within the genetically modified food transcendental field. Consciousness becomes a fact only when a subject is produced at writers the same time as its object. The world of becoming he wants to describe happens before that fall into subject/object. In terms of indian act human experience, such events come in waves. Dissertation Writers? We walk across that field, the sandra cisneros the house low-growing shrubs crowd in the path. An unseen rock produces a stubbed toe, an intense sensation, articulating an immediate subject/object. No transparent eyeball or part or particle of God there.

Just you, your foot, and dissertation writers, that damn rock. Of Marijuana? But what was happening before the unfortunate incident? Was the walkerbathed in light and heat, surrounded by sounda subject living in an objective world? In Kants transcendental philosophy, yes. In Deleuzes wild and powerful transcendental empiricism, no. We seem to be in writers some philosophical rare air here, but those out trekking for About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor a long time, who move from the dissertation writers awareness that they are taking a walk into of marijuana walking, find themselves living an act that is automatic, but not unconscious. This is why Deleuzes idea is so wild and writers, powerful. The walker is conscious, aware, but only occasionally finds herself as a subject set up against genetically modified an object. An example: walking the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal which is dissertation, considered by of reaction many to be one of the best long distance treks in the world. Because of the spacing of writers villages with accommodations, people usually circle the massif counterclockwise. A constant topic of conversation amongst trekkers is the Thorung La, a pass 17,769 ft. high which requires careful acclimatization to indian act, prevent altitude sickness.

A walker can approach a trek like the Annapurna Circuit as a circumambulation of a mountain, a way to pay respect to it and the path followed, a path as a pure stream of a-subjective consciousness. Or, because Thorung La is an obstacle, it becomes something to be conquered, a goal, something on a bucket list. There is perhaps no stronger subject/object distinction than man vs. mountain. That sense of self is dissertation, a youthful philosophy, one of cisneros challenges, finely hammered arguments, or treks with rigidly determined itineraries and carefully marked scenic overlooks. The older, pre-Socratic Deleuzian circumambulator passes landmarks, marvels at dissertation writers the eagles overhead, shrinks from high swinging bridges, and of course occasionally takes bearings, but most often feels the path, the air, and light. That experience is by no means a construction of self or a movement into a different world. Rather it is the experience of pure immanence. So what then is A [Walking] Life?: We will say of pure immanence that it is A Life, and nothing else. The experience of pure immanence is rates of reaction, what he was sketching out earlier with the transcendental field. It is pre-subject/object and dissertation writers, simply lived (not lived simply). The experience of pure immanence is in the walk in of marijuana the field not leading to higher consciousness but instead to A Life: The transcendental field is writers, defined by a plane of immanence and Essay Simply Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor, the plane of immanence by dissertation writers a life. Here is the apple logo outline payoff: Deleuze executes an ethical turn, wanting to embrace A Life not as a primitive experience prior to the celebrated constitution of the human mind, but rather as one I would call profoundly ecological. Such a life is a haecceity [intensity] no longer of individuation but of singularization: a life of writers pure immanence, neutral, beyond good and evil, for it was only the subject that incarnated it in the midst of things that made it good or bad. To experience the ethical not as a form of judgment but rather as a form of origin becoming both outside the trivially ethical good/bad and inside a transcendental field of fully engaged life, one experienced by many people in many places, but without doubt regularly lived by walkers. It is a life of dissertation writers traverse, of being always in-between: This indefinite life does not itself have moments, close as they may be one to the house on mango, another, but only between-times, between moments. Walking is always between.

To stop at a scenic overlook, to marvel at the [Emersonian] spectatorial, is to dissertation writers, stop. To be in a moment, not between. Indian Act? As he says in the essay on Nietzsche published in the same volume: Modes of life inspire ways of dissertation writers thinking; modes of thinking create ways of living. Life activates thought, and thought in turn affirms life. A Life is not continuously lived, but when it occurs, it is performed: A Life contains only virtuals. It is made up of virtualities, events, singularities.

What we call virtual is not something that lacks reality but something that is engaged in the process of origin of marijuana actualization following the dissertation plane that gives it its particular reality. A day may begin with a plan and proceed by a map (the product of ichnographic vision), and by the end might have traced out that (usually digital blue) line, a plane that Deleuze and Guattari would call territorialization (in A Thousand Plateaus ), but the cisneros the house passage is purely virtual. Writers? In the measure of the day, a walker enacts a plan (not a plane), but that walking is slow. Its measure is on the level of the between-moment. Simply Addiction Richard S. Sandor? This virtuality is a-conscious because Consciousness becomes produced as a fact only when a subject is produced at the same time as its object Consciousness, subject, object are retrospectively produced in the performance of immanence. This then accounts for the indefinite article in Deleuzes formulation. We are never in the presence of THE LIFE. That would be Being, a definition that pinpoints life in the way GPS and a map captures position but loses everything else. Dissertation Writers? The map does not include the eagles circling overhead, the of marijuana smell of cherry blossoms, the dissertation writers squeak of dry snow, the slip of sandra the house mud, a midday snack of a Snickers bar, and that sense of rhythmic totality walking brings.

It is writers, indefinite because such becoming always evades capture, even as it is beyond articulation which is why Deleuzes last essay is so damn difficult. Of Marijuana? So is dissertation writers, walking. T. Hugh Crawford. The Appalachian Trail is modified food, often called the green tunnel, an acknowledgement of the dense forest canopy that surrounds the footpath. Couple that with uneven terrain that demands downcast eyes and you have an experience that by writers and large is About by Dr. Richard, devoid of the spectatorial beauty used to dissertation, advertise and origin of marijuana, celebrate the trail. Those magnificent views come from scenic overlooks occasionally encountered but not regularly lived. Still, most long-distance hikers seek that momentary spectacle, looking for dissertation writers the hikers sublime. Essay On Thinking Simply About By Dr. S. Sandor? They seem to understand pleasure, definitely know pain, and without doubt experience more than their share of natural beauty. I cannot even begin to dissertation, explain what motivates long-distance hikers.

Many want to test their resolve in the face of deprivation over long stretches of sandra on mango street space and dissertation, time, others simply enjoy the simplicity the hikers life brings, but all, on some level, acknowledge the desire to experience isolated mountaintops, silent forests, cascading waters. Although over time its fortunes have risen and fallen in aesthetic theory, the concept of the sublime maintains a special place for walkersthe experience of awe that is awful, a beauty that overwhelms, something that arrests as well as upends. At least since Burke, our understanding of the sublime has been contrasted with the beautiful, terms that are often mixed, particularly in nature writing. For me, the sublime has always been a brutal beauty, though the modes of brutality need some explication. As an aesthetic category, the sublime can be encountered in language (Longinus), nature (Kant), or the visual arts (Lyotard), but it always remains within a discourse of power, specifically of being overpowered. Indian Act? However in most accounts, itsimilar to beautyis either spectatorial or is passively experienced through speech or reading.

It is writers, a moment of arresta hiatusproducing awe, terror, and of marijuana, a pleasure somehow derived from pain; it belittles and makes anxious. We are puny in the face of its irresistible force (Longinus). Not far from the dissertation writers Appalachian Trail is rates of reaction, Virginias Natural Bridge, a limestone formation once owned and surveyed by Thomas Jefferson who, in Notes on Virginia calls it the most sublime of Natures works. When regarded from below, it is quite a sight, but, as Jefferson further notes, visitors who venture to dissertation, the top fear creeping to indian act, its edge: Looking down from this height about a minute, gave me a violent head ache. He acknowledges the dissertation sublimity of the view below, but the view from the top [is] painful and intolerable. Jefferson hung in Monticello a painting of Natural Bridge by modified food pros William Roberts, a work that participates in the spectatorial sublime, as does viewing the dissertation writers bridge from the stream bed. However Jeffersons embodied experience on the precipice is different, resembling trekking in the big outside with its uncertainty, anxiety, pain, and genetically pros, sometimes fear. For Burke, terror is the sublimes ruling principle. It is lived in an instant though it is the product of a slowly building situation. Terror in the sense of breathless fear is not a common experience of the hiker, but a low-grade anxiety about health, safety and loss, an anxiety not regularly experienced by writers people in familiar surroundings, is part of what could be called the ambulatory sublime. Beautiful scenesthe ubiquitous scenic overlooks are staged by sandra street an enframing that brings them into writers foveal vision, into a comfortable spectacle. Evolution linked adrenaline and the flight response to peripheral vision, the fear that is invoked by movement on the edges of perception. Moving through the bush requires a heightened awareness of the flickering between foveal and peripheral perception. There the origin of marijuana micro-sublime is writers, lived at the edges of perception, where uncertainty and danger lurk. On the Te Araroa, hikers often have to follow poles topped by orange cylinders marking the pathless trail.

Spaced at considerable distance, they are sometimes not clearly visible, so on reaching one, the direction to the next is not obvious. The orange chosen for marking stands out indian act, from the rest of the landscape, but it is most easily distinguished by peripheral vision, that part of sight best equipped to dissertation, notice the anomalous in the field. Hikers searching for the next marker saccade across the scene, using low-level anxiety to find their way across what feels a vast and inhuman landscape. Such moments are obviously not the origin of marijuana sublime in writers any traditional sense, but they structure a hikers form of of reaction attention. Like vision flickering from dissertation foveal to peripheral, walking is both spectatorial and immersive, a double move described by the inveterate walkers Wordsworth and Thoreau. Hikers stop for the spectacular, are arrested by food pros those moments, but then continue on, feeling both the loss of the scene and the possibility of an even better one at the next turn. They are moving bodies immersed in dissertation writers a moving nature. Hall of Fame hiker William Wordsworth is reputed to have walked 180,000 miles in his lifetime. Skipping his final exams at Cambridge, he and a friend went on a 2000 mile walk across Europe, with his sublime moment occurring in the Alps. Definitions of the apple logo outline sublime usually focus on dissertation writers, a moment, that awful singularity, but such moments pass and walkers continue their journey.

For them, the sublime opens out over time and is experienced as anticipation, arrest, loss, and continuation. Hiking long-distance (and 2000 miles across Europe qualifies) is passage, not stasis. Hikers may creep out onto the edge of the Essay on Thinking Simply About Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor precipice, but they also will spend most of the day trudging step by step in less heart-pounding circumstances. Despite his anticipation, Wordsworths actual crossing of the Alps, as detailed in The Prelude , was a belly-drop. Like most long-distance hikers, he and his friend become momentarily disoriented (moment of dissertation writers low-level anxiety). Finding someone to ask the indian act way, they discover they have already passed what they most anticipated: To our inquires, in their sense and substance. Translated by the feelings which we had, Ended in thisthat we had crossed the Alps. Major waypoints bring excitement: Springer Mountain, Katahdin, that constantly shifting AT half-way point in Pennsylvania, the Canadian border on the Pacific Crest Trail, High Cup Nick on the Pennine Wayall points of passage to be cherished, not missed. For Wordsworth, crossing the Alps did not bring a sublime view, but it was a temporally sublime moment, part of the ambulatory sublime experienced not through the eyes but instead through his bootsoles, a quickened pulse and a sense of lossfailure to capture, contain, or comprehend an always already passing world.

Wordsworth follows that momentary disappointment with an image of timeless sublimity: Downwards we hurried fast, And, with the dissertation half-shaped road which we had missed, Entered a narrow chasm. Cisneros? The brook and road. Were fellow-travellers in this gloomy strait, And with them did we journey several hours.

At a slow pace. The immeasurable height. Of woods decaying, never to be decayed, The stationary blasts of waterfalls, And in dissertation the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky, The rocks that muttered close upon indian act our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side.

As if a voice were in them, the dissertation sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, Tumult and origin, peace, the darkness and the light Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the great Apocalypse,

The types and symbols of Eternity. Permanence and change, momentous visions, it is all here in horrible, awful, overwhelming forms. The reader gets Longinian discursive sublime full-bore, but the long-distance walker gets the other. Theirs is a stationary blast passed by. The pain is dissertation writers, not nausea or terror, but footsore pain/pleasure at seeing that which is nominally and normally unavailable to all but the indian act most intrepid. The beauty is brutal, and the experience is brutalizing. Wordsworth missed marking his crossing of the divide, but as he well knows, walking is always about loss. The decaying woods are never to be decayed because they live a different, longer, temporal rhythm. Dissertation? At the same time, walkers are acutely aware of origin their temporal rhythms, the need to mark out the days trek, to not get lost, and to live the way intensely.

Long before hordes of Appalachian Trail hikers began to dissertation, arrive at Baxter State Park to climb Mount Katadhin marking the end of their 2000 mile journey, Thoreau attempted an rates of reaction ascent which he documented in The Maine Woods . Although a part of the dissertation massif now bears his name, Thoreaus climb was unsuccessful (if you define success as attaining the summit). He set out from his groups encampment just below tree line early one morning filled with hope only to be stymied by the notoriously difficult weather near the peak. He attained the top of one of Katahdins shoulders but in the mist could not make out the actual peak. Turning, he descended to rejoin his companions offering up this sublime vision: Nature was here something savage and awful, though beautiful. Rates? I looked with awe at the ground I trod on, to see what the Powers had made there, the form and fashion and material of their work. Then, Here was no mans garden, but the unhandselled globe. It was not lawn, nor pasture, nor mead, nor woodland, nor lea, nor arable, nor waste?land. . . Dissertation? Man was not to be associated with it.

It was Matter, vast, terrific, ?? not his Mother Earth that we have heard of, not for him to rates, tread on, or be buried in. Thoreau is firmly in the rhetoric of the literary sublime, offering up a vision of the inhuman which permeates such scenes, but his experience of that climb is another sublimity. His passage, his inability to comprehend the dissertation writers misty, craggy, inscrutable world he was passing through, was filled with amazement and anxiety. Rates? Retracing his steps down a pathless scree in hopes of clearer weather or a sign that he was on the proper way, Thoreau as walker lives the ambulatory sublime and experiences its brutality. Back in November, I woke in Upper Travers Hut hearing Grant, an expedition leader, stoking the fire in the wood stove, and before too long his hiking crew started rustling about. I packed, made oatmeal and coffee, then had a second cup while talking with the crew when I really should have been hiking. Ideally I wanted to dissertation, get to apple logo outline, Waiau Forks to camp that night, but that required an writers early morning climb over Travers saddle which is 1700 + meters and then, late in the day, Waiau Pass which, at 1800+ meters, is the highest point on on mango, the South island part of the Te Araroa and also the most dangerous. Regretfully I said my farewells and started out. Dissertation Writers? It was a sunny clear day as I climbed up above the bush line.

All around were snow-capped peaks, and I made it to the top within an hour, lingering for a moment before starting the long descent to the Sabine River Valley. The winter snows, avalanches, and rock slides had pretty well taken out all the poles marking the lower part of the decent, so I followed rock cairns helpfully but haphazardly piled to show the rates of reaction way. By late morning I found the trail through the woods where I crossed the dissertation writers river and logo, made my way up toward Blue Lake. Dissertation Writers? Like the Travers, the origin of marijuana Sabine is clear and fast running. Dissertation Writers? At its headwaters is Essay on Thinking by Dr. S. Sandor, Blue Lake, the place where the body of the first hiker to dissertation, die on origin of marijuana, the Te Aroroa was found. I arrived by midday and decided there was enough daylight to make the writers trek over Waiau. The trail took me past Lake Constance which rivals Blue in color and sandra cisneros on mango street, beauty though getting around it required some hard climbing and narrow ledge hiking.

The last bit was on a gravel beach at the waters edge. The waters coming into it came across a wide flat plain that the trail followed. It gradually narrowed to a canyon surrounded by snow-capped mountains with nothing that looked like a pass in writers evidence. Then trail markers made a sharp turn and went straight up the origin of marijuana side of one of the mountains which might have had a little bit of dissertation a dip in altitude compared to the others, but hardly deserves the name pass. The initial climb was on loose gravel, so each step slid back almost as much as it went forward. After an hour or so, I got the the first leveling off to rest. Apple Logo? In mid-winter this is a high avalanche risk area, and I was uncertain what conditions reduce that risk in the spring. Soon I found myself crossing snowfields on the way up, and at the top I saw that the descent down the other side was deep snow for more than a third of the dissertation way to the valley floor. Fortunately someone had been through recently, so I was able to follow their footsteps down.

Im not sure how deep the snow was, but only the tops of the logo markers were visible and dissertation, I would sink to about mid-calf with each step. Sweating from exertion but with freezing feet, I finally got below snow line, followed the western branch of the Waiau River to Essay on Thinking About Addiction Richard S. Sandor, where it met the eastern half. Dissertation? After eleven hours of hard hiking, I pitched my tent in a beech forest beside the river, built a small fire to dry out my shoes and warm my feet, then gratefully crawled into my tent ready for a hard nights sleep. That day was not part of apple logo outline a discursive or artistic sublime. There were a few moments where the views were without doubt overwhelming. Writers? The Travers and Waiau Passes afforded scenes that surpass capture, and apple logo, a Sabine tributary that runs through a deep roofless cave crossed by a narrow wooden bridge would surely have given Jefferson another head ache, but it was a day of the ambulatory sublime.

A walk where pain was mixed with pleasure, confidence was shaken by uncertainty, and fear was promoted by both low-level anxiety and the real possibility of bodily harman intensity not captured by dissertation writers traditional aesthetic categories. It was temporal, embodied, and immersive, but above all, it was brutal.

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8 Ways Roads Helped Rome Rule the Ancient World. The Romans revolutionized land transport by dissertation, paving a network of roads that spanned across the empire. 8 Ways Roads Helped Rome Rule the Ancient World. 8 Ways Roads Helped Rome Rule the Ancient World. October 04, 2017. Roadways were the lifeblood of Ancient Rome. Over the course of modified food 700 years, the Romans built more than 55,000 miles of paved highways throughout Europeenough to dissertation writers, encircle the globe.

These engineering marvels ensured the swift movement of goods, soldiers and information across the Empire, and played a crucial role in tightening Romes grasp on the Mediterranean Basin. Explore eight reasons why this remarkable transit system helped unite the ancient world. They were the key to Romes military might. The first major Roman roadthe famed Appian Way, or queen of the indian act roadswas constructed in 312 B.C. to serve as a supply route between republican Rome and its allies in dissertation writers, Capua during the Second Samnite War. From then on, road systems often sprang from indian act, Roman conquest. As the legions blazed a trail through Europe, the Romans built new highways to link captured cities with Rome and establish them as colonies. These routes ensured that the Roman military could out-pace and out-maneuver its enemies, but they also aided in the everyday maintenance of the Empire. Reduced travel time and writers, marching fatigue allowed the fleet-footed legions to rates, move as quickly as 20 miles a day to respond to outside threats and internal uprisings. Writers? Even the most isolated parts of the Roman world could expect to be swiftly supplied or reinforced in the event of an emergency, lessening the need for large and costly garrison units at frontier outposts.

Since Roman roads were designed with speed of travel in mind, they often followed a remarkably straight trail across the countryside. Land surveyors, or gromatici, began the genetically modified food building process by using sighting poles to painstakingly chart the dissertation most direct route from Essay on Thinking Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor, one destination to another. The resulting roads often shot straight up steep hills, and small bridges and tunnels were built to ensure the path could traverse rivers or pass right through mountains. Even in instances where the road was forced to divert from its course, the dissertation Romans typically opted for sharp turns and switchbacks over sweeping curves to preserve their arrow-straight design. Indian Act? Britains Fosse Way, for example, only writers, veered a few miles off course over its entire 180-mile distance. Roman builders used whatever materials were at rates hand to writers, construct their roads, but their design always employed multiple layers for durability and flatness. Crews began by indian act, digging shallow, three-foot trenches and erecting small retaining walls along either side of the proposed route.

The bottom section of the road was usually made of leveled earth and mortar or sand topped with small stones. This was followed by foundation layers of crushed rocks or gravel cemented with lime mortar. Finally, the surface layer was constructed using neatly arranged blocks made from gravel, pebbles, iron ore or hardened volcanic lava. Roads were built with a crown and writers, adjacent ditches to ensure easy water drainage, and in some rainy regions they were even nestled on raised berms known as aggers to prevent flooding. As the made their way down one of Romes many roadways, weary travelers could guide themselves by a detailed collection of mile markers. Much like the road signs on modern interstates and freeways, these stone pillars gave the distance to the nearest town in genetically modified food pros, Roman miles and instructed the traveler on the best places to stop. Writers? They also provided information on when the genetically food road was built, who constructed it and who last repaired it.

To embody the dissertation writers idea that all roads lead to Rome, the Emperor Augustus even saw that a so-called golden milestone was placed in the Roman Forum. Cast from gilded bronze, this monument listed the distance to all the citys gates and was considered the the house street convergence point of the Empires road system. They included a sophisticated network of post houses and roadside inns. Along with road signs and mile markers, Roman roads were also lined with state-run hotels and dissertation writers, way stations. The most common of these ancient rest stops were the horse changing stations, or mutationes, which were located every ten miles along most routes. These simple posthouses consisted of outline stables where government travelers could trade their winded horse or donkey for a fresh mount. Switching horses was especially important for imperial couriers, who were tasked with carrying communications and tax revenues around the Empire at breakneck speed.

By stopping off at multiple posthouses, couriers could move as far as 60 miles in a single day. Along with the more common mutationes, travelers could also expect to encounter roadside hotels, or mansiones, roughly every 20 miles. Each mansio offered basic lodgings for writers, people and outline, their animals as well as a place to eat, bathe, repair wagons or even hire a prostitute. They were well-protected and patrolled. To combat the activities of thieves and dissertation, highwaymen, most Roman roads were patrolled by special detachments of imperial army troops known as stationarii and of reaction, beneficiarii. These soldiers manned police posts and watchtowers in both high traffic and remote areas to help guide vulnerable travelers, relay messages and keep an eye out for runaway slaves. They also doubled as toll collectors. Dissertation? Like modern highways, Roman roads were not always free of charge, and troops were often waiting to levy fees or taxes on goods whenever the route reached a bridge, mountain pass or provincial border. They allowed the indian act Romans to fully map their growing empire.

Much of what historians know about Romes road system comes courtesy of a single artifact. Named for its medieval owner, Konrad Peutinger, the dissertation writers Peutinger Table is a 13th century copy of an actual Roman map created sometime around the 4th century A.D. Indian Act? This eye-catching atlas was drawn on dissertation writers a 22-foot-long collection of on Thinking About Richard parchment and shows the entire Roman world in full color along with several thousand place names. Cities are illustrated with sketches of small houses or medallions, but the writers map also includes the indian act locations of lighthouses, bridges, inns, tunnels, andmost importantlythe Roman highway system. All the major Roman roads are listed, and the map even gives the distances between various cities and landmarks. The Peutinger map has proven indispensable to scholars studying the Roman transit system, yet historians still debate its original purpose. Some have claimed it was a field guide for dissertation, government figures traveling on official business, while others contend it was displayed in an imperial palace. Thanks to their ingenious design and careful construction, Roman roads remained technologically unequaled until as recently as the 19th century.

But while modern asphalt highways might offer a smoother ride than the Via Domitiana or the of reaction Appian Way, Romes 2,000-year-old roadways take the dissertation prize for durability. Many Roman roads were used as major thoroughfares until only recently, and someincluding the Via Flaminia and Britains Fosse Waystill carry car, bike and foot traffic or serve as the guiding route for Essay Richard S. Sandor, highways. Romes enduring engineering legacy can also be seen in the dozens of ancient bridges, tunnels and dissertation, aqueducts still in use today. Get the rates latest History in the Headlines delivered straight to your inbox! You will soon receive an activation email. Once you click on the link, you will be added to our list. If you do not receive this email, please contact us. Dissertation? To ensure delivery to outline, your inbox, add us to your address book.

At this time we are unable to complete your subscription. This email address has been previously opted out from receiving any emails from A+E Networks. If you changed your mind, please contact us and indicate that you would like to dissertation writers, subscribe to HISTORY emails. Indian Act? You have already subscribed to this list. If you completed your subscription and still have not received an dissertation email, please contact us. Indian Act? At this time we are unable to complete your subscription. This email address has been previously opted out from receiving any emails from A+E Networks. Dissertation? If you changed your mind, please contact us and indicate that you would like to modified food pros, subscribe to HISTORY emails.

You will soon receive an dissertation writers email with a direct link to your profile, where you can update your preferences.If you do not receive this email, please contact us. 2017, AE Television Networks, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Get HISTORY at your fingertips. Sign up now for our weekly newsletter. Catch up on the weeks biggest stories with the History in the Headlines newsletter. You will soon receive an activation email. Once you click on the link, you will be added to our list. Rates Of Reaction? If you do not receive this email, please contact us.

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Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes. The notion of dissertation paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the early 1900s. With current television revenue resulting from NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in basketball, there is now a clamoring for compensating both football and basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship. This article takes a point/counterpoint approach to the topic of pros paying athletes and writers, may have potential implications/consequences for origin college administrators, athletes, and coaches. Dr. Dissertation. John Acquaviva defends the current system in which colleges provide an athletic scholarship that provides a free college education in return for playing on the university team. Dr.

Dennis Johnson follows with a counterpoint making the case that athletes in these sports should receive compensation beyond that of of marijuana a college scholarship and dissertation writers, forwards five proposals to origin of marijuana pay the athletes. Key words: pay for play, athletic scholarships. Introduction: History of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) The idea of writers paying college athletes to compete dates back to what is origin, considered to be the first intercollegiate competition. Dissertation Writers. In a regatta between Harvard and Yale Universities, Harvard used a coxswain who was not even a student enrolled at the Ivy League school (5). Much like todays universities whose appetites for rates of reaction appearances in corporate-sponsored big money football bowl events; Harvard may have used the non-student to please regatta sponsor Elkins Railroad (23). In the late 1800s, football played by college teams was a brutal sport but enjoyed by many fans. However, from dissertation writers 1900 to 1905, there were 45 players who died playing the apple outline, sport (22).

This prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to summon the writers, presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, and threaten them with a ban unless the origin, sport was modified. As a result of that meeting, a group of 62 university presidents convened to form the Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906. Dissertation Writers. This group evolved into the NCAA in genetically food, 1910, but as a group it only dissertation writers, possessed supervisory power (22). College football became even more popular in the period of 1920-1940. This was a time when commercialism in of marijuana, the educational system was being questioned on a variety of levels. Dissertation Writers. One such fundamental question was posed in 1929 by Howard Savage, a staff member of the genetically modified, Carnegie Foundation. Writers. He raised a question in an article entitled Athletics in American College (originally published in 1930 but reprinted in 1999) whether an institution in the social order whose primary purpose is the development of the of reaction, intellectual life can at writers the same time serve an agency to promote business, industry, journalism, and rates, organized athletics on an extensive commercial basis? More importantly, the report asked can it (the university) concentrate its attention on securing teams that win, without impairing the sincerity and vigor of its intellectual purpose (9, p.495)?

Savage also states that alumni devices for recruiting winning teams constitutes the most disgraceful phase of recent intercollegiate athletics (9, p. 495). In sum, the writers, original 1929 report claimed that big time college sports were not educational, but were entirely financial and commercial. Athletes during the early and mid-1900s were routinely recruited and paid to play; and there were several instances where individuals representing the schools were not enrolled as students. For example, there is one report of a Midwestern university using seven members of its team that included the town blacksmith, a lawyer, a livery man, and four railroad employees (5). Other athletes at colleges were given high paying jobs for which they did little or no work. Essay On Thinking Simply About By Dr. Richard S. Sandor. In 1948, the dissertation, NCAA adopted a Sanity Code that limited financial aid for rates athletes to tuition and fees, and required that aid otherwise be given based on need (5). In the early 1950s, with the threat of writers several southern schools bolting from the NCAA, the code was revised to allow athletic scholarships to cover tuition, fees, and a living stipend. However, by the mid-1950s many schools were still struggling with the issue of offering athletic scholarships.

Some university presidents ultimately decided to maintain the principles of amateurism and further serve the mission of higher education. Those were presidents of universities that today make up the indian act, Ivy League. They concluded that it was not in the best interest of their universities to award athletic scholarships, and have remained steadfast even today. After passing Title IX in the mid 1970s, the NCAA absorbed the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and began to govern womens sport at the collegiate level. Over the past 50 years, the writers, NCAA has also expanded into three divisions with a multitude of championship events on a yearly basis (20). There are more than 1,300 member institutions that represent an estimated 400,000 student athletes who participate in sport (21). The result of this growth and development are enormous increases in revenue. Essay On Thinking About Addiction By Dr. Richard. NCAA President Mark Emmert reports the dissertation, NCAA revenues for the 2010-11 fiscal year is projected at $757 million, of which $452.2 million will go to Division I members (14). While seemingly operating in a purely capitalistic/professional atmosphere, the origin, NCAA continues to endorse an amateurism concept in writers, college athletics.

These competing, and often contradictory, values lead some college athletes in big time football and basketball programs to question the status quo of the present system through their words and actions. For example, many athletes are still attempting to get their piece of the pie, albeit under the table. And so it leads to our point-counterpoint. Point: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid. The intensity of the argument to pay college athletes has escalated in the past few years. Perhaps its because of the current economic climate and everyone, including amateur athletes is looking for ways to make money? Or maybe its because many higher learning institutions have given the public access to their annual budget and readers focus on origin the profit of dissertation writers select athletic programs? Or maybe it is due to the absurd coaches salaries and the money that colleges make from football bowl games and basketball tournaments? Regardless, this has magnified the genetically, fact that the athletes see none of dissertation these profits and thus begs the simple question: Wheres my share? Perhaps a fair question, but to understand this argument better, a healthy debate is needed.

So, here are some points to consider. Colleges and indian act, universities provide an invaluable and vital service to our communities: education. A now-famous bumper sticker once read: If you think education is expensive, try ignorance. To address that very slogan, the U.S. census bureau, as reported by Cheesman-Day and Newberger (7), expressed this best when they reported that the writers, lifetime earnings for those with a college degree are over $1 million dollars more than non-graduates. Genetically Modified Food Pros. Despite such a statistic, essays and op-ed columns continue to pour in from those who favor paying student-athletes while simultaneously refusing to acknowledge or accept the value of a college education. Is a college education priceless or not? A sports-journalist in writers, a recent national radio interview proposed that any argument against paying college athletes based on modified the sole reason that education is the prize is antiquated. But what seems antiquated and even shortsighted is the belief that paying a college athlete some (or even a lot of) money will solve all or even some of students long-term issues.

The fear of the NCAA, as it should be, is that the mere notion of dissertation writers paying college athletes undermines the universitys primary purpose education, something far more valuable than a modest annual stipend proposed by many. If it currently appears that the origin of marijuana, universities dont really care about the athlete, paying them would intensify that belief, not dissolve it. The irony in this dispute is dissertation, that student-athletes do cost the university a substantial amount of money each year. For example, a full scholarship over four years can range between $30,000 and $200,000 depending if the institution is public or private (29). But lets address this main point head on: There is an obvious lack of appreciation of modified pros a college degree from those in favor of writers paying athletes, and until a genuine gratitude for this concept develops, this argument will probably continue to logo outline linger. Point #2: There Are Problems with Payment. Despite the well-documented scandals and corruption in college athletics (30), many would probably agree that paying athletes would exponentially increase the need for intense NCAA oversight an enormous task by all accounts. Plus, there are the practical issues to consider. For example, how much should the dissertation, athletes get paid and will payments be based on performance? What if the origin, athlete gets hurt?

What if the athlete is writers, a bust and despite remaining on the team, doesnt start or even play at all? Issues that seem to raise far more questions than answers. But perhaps most important What will happen to the non-revenue sports at the colleges who lose money from all of their sports programs including football and basketball? It has been shown that only modified food pros, a fraction of Division I football and writers, mens basketball programs turn a profit (24, 20). The other Division I football and basketball programs as well as sports such as baseball, softball, golf, hockey, womens basketball (minus a couple of notable programs), and just about of reaction, all Division II sports not only fail to make money, but actually drain their athletic budgets. The outcome here would be inevitable: Forcing athletic departments to pay its football and basketball players would result in writers, the eventual elimination of most, if not all, of the non-revenue sports. Is that what we want? We cannot afford to be myopic on this issue. That is, there are only a limited number of programs that make big money, but yet there are hundreds of schools who absorb big losses at the cost of providing athletes a place to compete and origin of marijuana, earn a degree. Writers. The purpose of the NCAA, along with Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Little League, and dozens of other organized forms of amateur sport is to provide a venue to play these sports something we should not take for granted. The problem is that some have shifted in thinking that playing an sandra cisneros the house organized sport is a right, whereas it still stands as a privilege. Point #3: The University Offers More Than an dissertation Education.

Concerts, lecture series by prominent people, on-stage productions, movies, intramural sports, fitness facilities, and indian act, a variety of clubs are all part of the typical university experience. Most students agree that colleges are self-contained acres of learning and socializing, all which takes place in dissertation writers, a safe environment. Its common for schools to subsidize the above-mentioned on-campus activities by adding fees to the tuition which means that its free to a full-scholarship athlete. Other benefits to the athlete include the regular use of pristine gyms, well-manicured fields, athlete-only (and often team-only) workout facilities, sports medicine care, the opportunity to rates travel via away games, specialized meal plans and free foot gear and athletic attire. In addition, athletes are improving their trade from the writers, best coaching minds in modified, the sport; not to mention having access to some of the best nutrition and dissertation writers, strength/conditioning personnel. And perhaps the most overlooked benefits are that the school provides the player with high-profile name recognition, a dedicated fan base, media exposure, and a competitive atmosphere with proven rivals, all of which took decades, effort and money for each institution to modified food pros establish. Point #4: The Athletic Department Has Its Role. Keep in dissertation writers, mind that student-athletes are not employees of the university, rather they are students first and athletes second. The university can indeed make money from the sports programs; however, for those that do, the money simply goes back into the athletic program to fund the non-revenue sports (24). In fact, every year the NCAA sponsors over 80 national championships in three divisions, demonstrating the indian act, range and depth of their organization (20).

While it is true that the champion in football and mens basketball (and most other sports for that matter) seem to dissertation writers come from a relatively small pool of universities, it might be safe to assume that paying athletes would create an even bigger disparity since so few universities actually make money. Lets face it, we are an underdog-loving country, and Essay on Thinking Simply Addiction by Dr. Richard S. Sandor, paying athletes would all but ensure that teams like Butler University, who made it to the Final Four in consecutive tournaments (2010 and dissertation, 2011), will never do it again. From the moment the full-scholarship papers are signed, each participants role is sandra cisneros the house street, very clear: Schools accept the responsibility of the students tuition, meal plan, and boarding, while the athlete is provided with the dissertation writers, opportunity to earn a degree, engage in college life and play their favorite sport in apple logo outline, a well-organized, and often high profile fashion. The document signed by each student-athlete describes this agreement in an unmistakable manner. Although wordy and at writers times complex a necessity due to the nature of the agreement theres no vagueness in the general arrangement or a hidden agenda from origin of marijuana either party (10). Dissertation. A failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business big or small to of reaction crumble. If for some reason the university could be held liable for entrapment or some other form of dishonesty, then their athletes argument would stand on firmer ground. But frankly, the details of dissertation writers this agreement are well known by all involved, and rather strangely, no one seems to mind when signing them.

In conclusion, it should be noted that any NCAA improprieties or blatant corruption may have a carry-over effect into empathizing with the position given here. While corruption and other related-concerns are legitimate and need investigation, paying college athletes still remains a separate debate. It is rates, vital to this process to view each NCAA issue independently and avoid making judgments on them as a whole. The position here is that, like many organizations, the NCAA should not be dismissed or discredited on one issue due to the mishandling of others. Further, if the contention is that many student athletes enter college unprepared or that athletics takes up too much time to excel (or even earn a degree), those are separate, but much needed arguments, and are not related to the issue of paying athletes. Now more than ever, we live in an era of entitlement. At one time our country viewed the chance at higher education as a priceless commodity. However, it now seems that a college education is not held in writers, the same esteem and Essay on Thinking Simply About Addiction Richard, worse yet, some see it as simply an opportunity to earn money.

Although it is now evident that there has been a failure to dissertation convince much of the public of the true value of an education, keeping college athletes as pure amateurs remains the right thing to do. Counter Point: Athletes in Big-Time Sports Should Be Paid. The argument that a college athletic scholarship is an equal quid pro quo for a college education has been utilized since athletic scholarships were approved by the NCAA in 1950s. My colleague makes one point that is of reaction, totally accurate a college graduate can in fact make a great deal more money over a lifetime when compared to non-graduates. However, the remainder of the authors points are half-truths and in reality just plain falsehoods.

For instance, a full athletic scholarships do not provide a free education (as it does not cover all costs incurred from matriculation to graduation. In many cases, the university does not live up to its end of the bargain of providing an writers education; as evidenced by the dismal number in the graduation rates, especially among African Americans. Furthermore, the athletic scholarship is only a one-year (renewable) agreement that can be terminated by the coach or university in any given year for any reason. In debating the pay-for-play issue in modified pros, college athletics, the writers, history of the governing body (i.e., currently the NCAA), their mission and view of sandra cisneros on mango amateurism, the past history of college athletes benefitting financially, and the degree to which athletes benefit from the university experience must all be examined. The counter point section of this paper addresses each point made by my colleague. Using the Eitzen (12) analogy comparing the dissertation, NCAA and indian act, big-time athletic programs to the old southern plantation system will be the dissertation writers, underpinning wellspring for the subject of athlete exploitation and the financial benefits enjoyed by the university derived from that plantation-like exploitation. Cisneros The House. An economic viewpoint will be presented to demonstrate the cartel-like atmosphere held by the NCAA while maintaining the dissertation writers, illusion of amateurism. Finally, five proposals that outline means to promote pay-for-play in NCAA Division I football and genetically modified food, mens basketball will be presented. The arguments that follow are specifically tailored for those two sports at schools who receive bonus money from the NCAA, as those universities and their coaches enjoy considerable revenue from TV contracts and dissertation, sponsorships generated by bowl games and March Madness appearances.

Point #1: Athletic Scholarships Provide a Free Education is not correct. As mentioned, in the 1950s the NCAA approved adding living stipends to athletic scholarships that previously included only tuition and fees. Today, the full ride scholarship can only include tuition, fees, room, board, and books. And as mentioned in the previous section, in apple outline, some cases, depending on the school attended, that scholarship can be worth anywhere from $30,000 to $200,000, although the figures $20,000 to $100,000 over a four year period might be more accurate. In any case, that still does not cover the full cost of attending college. The Collegiate Athletes Coalition (CAC) estimates that NCAA scholarships are worth about $2000 less than the cost of dissertation writers attending a university, as it does not account for on Thinking About Addiction expenses such as travel and sundries. Former Nebraska head football coach and United States Congressman, Tom Osborne (R-NE), calculates the gap between scholarship funding and the actual cost of attendance to be closer to dissertation writers $3,000. Even former NCAA President, Myles Brand, indicated that he favored increasing scholarship limits: Ideally, the value of an athletically related scholarship would be increased to of marijuana cover the full-cost of attendance, calculated at between $2,000 to $3000 more per year than is currently provided, I favor this approach of providing the full cost of dissertation writers attendance (23, p.232).

So yes, the scholarship can be seen as pay for play, or at sandra the house on mango the very least, a quid pro quo for services rendered during a four year period. However, even with a full scholarship, an athlete will have to pay somewhere between $8,000 and $12,000 out of pocket to bridge the cost-of-living gap. Therefore, the full athletic scholarship does not provide a free education. Writers. Thus question remains: is the full scholarship a fair and equitable deal for indian act the athlete? Athlete Exploitation-The Plantation System. Eitzen (12) among others (27) makes the analogy that the NCAA operates like the dissertation, plantation system of the old south. Of Marijuana. The coaches are the overseers who get work from the laborers (players) who provide riches for the masters (universities) while receiving little for their efforts. Perhaps slightly over-stated (obviously the athlete is not a slave, but maybe an indentured servant), the dissertation, studentathlete is dominated, managed, and controlled, and they dont receive a wage commensurate to their contribution as expressed in dollars earned by the university. Eitzen notes that athletes are sometimes mistreated physically and mentally and are often denied the rights and rates, freedoms of other citizens.

Ultimately, they have no real democratic recourse in an unjust system. There are other similarities to the plantation analogy. Writers. Slaves were not free to leave the plantation much like an athlete cannot get out of outline a letter of intent (without penalty) and/or transfer without the penalty of sitting out a year. Much like the slaves who had no right to privacy, athletes are subject to mandatory drug testing (even though their coaches/masters are not tested), room checks, and limits on where they can and writers, cannot go in the community. Origin. The athletes can be prohibited from political protests and the right to assemble. And finally, they can be subjected to writers mental cruelty and physical abuse (e.g., early morning torture sessions), all in order to create obedient slaves; student athletes. Furthermore, collegiate athletics is often the only game in town for many of these athletes.

For instance, football players must be in indian act, their third year of college or over the age of 21 to enter the National Football League (NFL). Basketball players, on the other hand, must attend college for one year or ultimately sit out dissertation writers a year before they can enter the National Basketball Association (NBA). Thus, the Essay Simply by Dr., college game has become a feeder system similar to a minor professional league and it is in reality, the only game in town. Point #2: Athletes Dont Know the dissertation writers, Real Deal. My colleague is partially correct in of marijuana, that most student athletes know that they are getting a scholarship that will allow them to go to school and dissertation, play a sport. Logo. However, many dont know the real deal as they generally have very little understanding they are about to enter a plantation-like system in which their scholarship in not guaranteed (i.e., renewable yearly) and can be terminated at any time. Student-athletes are also a led to dissertation writers believe that they will play and receive a college degree while possibly picking up a few fringe benefits along the way.

Take, for example, the recent stories regarding players like Reggie Bush, Cam Newton, or the players at Ohio State who received money and/or other benefits as a result of rates playing football. Even though student athletes know they will not get directly paid for playing, many desire and even expect some form of compensation. Slack (25) surveyed 3,500 current and retired football players in 1989 only to find that 31% had received under the dissertation writers, table money during their college careers and 48% knew of others who had received payments. This seems to sandra on mango imply that while many recruits may indeed know the deal, they display their discontent by accepting payments or other benefits not currently allowed by the NCAA. In reality, the writers, statement athletes know the deal with regard to indian act academic achievement and degree completion seems to lack substance. Dr. Nathan Tublitz, co-chair of the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletes, an organization of 51 faculty senates whose purpose is to remind college presidents, athletic directors, and coaches that student athletes are students first. He points out dissertation that: schools arent doing these kids any favors by admitting them when its unlikely that they will succeed academically. We bring 17 year-old kids, some of Simply by Dr. S. Sandor them from the inner city and we wine and writers, dine them.

They have female chaperones. We put them up in fancy hotels. They come here and see an incredibly fancy locker room with individual TV screens, air conditioning and videogames. They go in sandra on mango, and see the new football stadium and the new $200 million basketball arena. They see a medical training facility that is stunningly beautiful with waterfalls, treadmill pools, and the sate-of-the-art medical and dental equipment. They come here and are treated like royalty. Until they break a leg or get put on writers the second string and they get set aside. Many dont earn a degree. They dont have the training or the skills to be independent after they leave the apple, university.

Theyre lost (28, p.D10). When the scholarship is signed, the dissertation writers, athlete and his family have reasonable expectations which include efforts by the coaching staff and university administration to on Thinking Simply by Dr. S. Sandor meet all obligations of the contract. Additionally, my colleague notes, that failure to writers honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business big or small to crumble. If the NCAA and athletic departments in higher education are a business, why are they allowed to act in a cartel-like fashion? And finally, do student athletes really know the outline, deal when they penned their name on national signing day? It appears they dont. Point #3: The University Offers More than Education-Its Possible-But Not Probable. Academic Detachment. Dissertation. My colleague also makes the claim that the university offers more than an Essay Simply About S. Sandor education (e.g., concerts, lectures, intramurals, and clubs) in settings that enrich the college experience. Due to writers the plantation effect, however, many athletes are not able to of reaction take advantage of those events. For instance, few if any of the scholarship athletes would be allowed to play in dissertation writers, an intramural contest for the coachs fear of injury. Origin Of Marijuana. Student athletes are also over-scheduled with study halls, practices, weight training sessions, film study, individual workouts, more practice, travel, and competition; all in an attempt to help athletes maintain focus on their sport.

Adler and Adler (1) spent five years recording systematic information regarding the athletes lives in a big-time college basketball program. After observing, interviewing, and traveling with them, they concluded that big-time basketball and being seriously engaged in academics were not compatible. Dissertation. They also found that freshmen had a period of optimism regarding academics when they first arrived on campus, but after about two semesters they found that the social isolation combined with the fatigue of training kept them from becoming involved in academic life. Positive feedback these basketball players earned was always athletic-related and not academic. They soon learned what they had to modified do to stay eligible. Coaches made sure they scheduled classes that did not interfere with practices.

Ultimately, the researchers realized that academic detachment was encouraged by the peer culture, and dissertation, because of their social status (e.g., big man on campus), it became difficult for Essay Simply Richard them to focus on academics. Coakley (8) reported that not all of the athletes in the Adler Adler (1) study experienced academic detachment. Those who entered college well-prepared with appropriate high school courses, strong parental support and an ability to develop relationships outside of sport were able to succeed in the classroom. Its important to note that too many minority athletes from low socioeconomic environments struggle in writers, academics an issue that is often perpetuated by the coaches. For instance, Robert Smith, former running back for Minnesota Vikings and pre-med student while at Ohio State, needed two afternoon labs in the same semester. Essay Simply. Since the labs conflicted with practice, coaches suggested that he drop them because of the commitment he made to play football.

Against the wishes of the coaching staff, Smith took the dissertation writers, classes but was forced to sit out the season as red shirt athlete; a further example of the plantation effect. Benson (3) noted that one perspective was missing from the literature included a full expression from the black athletes point of view. Benson conducted a qualitative interview study of 12 African American students at a DI football program where the graduation rate was 31-40% for black football players compared to 60-70% of white football players. The results in this instance cannot be generalized due to the small sample size (N=12), but it does provide a snapshot of the thoughts regarding education and athletics of this group. Further, they reflect the results obtained by Adler Adler (1). Another major finding of the Benson (3) study was that the marginal academic performance was created by outline a series of interrelated practices engaged in by all significant members of the dissertation writers, academic setting, including peers, coaches, advisors, teachers, and the student athletes themselves. It began in the recruitment, and continued through the first year. Black student athletes received the message that school was not important, and Addiction by Dr. Richard, that as time passed, they had no real control over their destiny in the classroom. It was simply a matter of survival to keep the writers, grade point average (GPA) to a point to be eligible. Of Reaction. They all felt like the coaches did not walk the talk in dissertation writers, terms of academics.

They would just talk the academic game in rates, public but then in reality they would have fits if classes ever interfered with the program. Simply put, student athletes learned it was a matter of survival and dissertation writers, a basic expectation to maintain a GPA just high enough to origin remain eligible to compete (3). The Black Dumb Jock. Dissertation Writers. Harry Edwards (13) discussed the creation of the Essay on Thinking Addiction S. Sandor, black dumb jock image prior to studies completed by Alder and Alder (1), Benson (3), and Coakley (8). He (i.e., Edwards) theorized that they were not born, but rather systematically created. The previous mentioned studies serve as evidence to support his statement (1, 3, 8). The exploitation of athletes is not solely an writers NCAA issue but a societal one. Indian Act. For example, Fred Butler was passed on writers through elementary, middle, and high school because he was a good football player. Sandra The House On Mango. He graduated from dissertation high school reading at Simply About by Dr. a second grade level and went to El Camino Junior College.

There he took a number of physical activity classes while hoping to be drafted into the NFL. When no offer came, he played at dissertation California State University-Los Angeles for a year and a half. When again no offer came and of reaction, his eligibility expired, he failed out of school within months with no degree, no offers to play pro ball, and no skills to dissertation writers use for rates employment. And he still could not read! (18). Similarly, Former NFL player Dexter Manley testified before a Senate Committee that he played four years at Oklahoma State University, only to leave the school illiterate. And the sad feature is that academic detachment from the writers, university athletic department perspective doesnt seem to be an issue because there are always more impoverished (and usually minority) kids waiting to come in and play. Thus, student athletes in many cases cannot take advantage of the many extras offered by a college education.

Why do athletes accept a diluted academic experience or the corruption of modified doctored transcripts, phantom courses, surrogate test takers, and tutors writing papers? Perhaps it is because they are disenfranchised under the current system, and will lose scholarships, starting roles, and writers, eligibility if they complain. George Will argued that College football and basketball are, for many players, vocations, not avocations, and academics are unsubstantiated rumors (12, p.5). So do full scholarship athletes get a chance to take advantage of all the extras of the university experience? More than likely it is not the case especially when they cant even hope for a meaningful degree. NCAA as a Cartel. Kahn (16) examined the origin, operation of the college football and basketball systems of the NCAA and offers lessons about the writers, determinants and effects of supply and demand. Specifically he utilizes economic principles to calculate the value of college football player to a university. He notes that total ticket revenues for football and mens basketball were $757 million in 1999, total value that exceeded the total ticket sales for all of professional baseball, football, and hockey that year.

A figure indicating that the NCAA is a very successful business entity engaged in capitalism. According to Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor the cartel theory, the NCAA has enforced collusive restrictions on payments for factors of production, including player compensation, recruiting expenses, and assistant coaches salaries; it has restricted output; and it has defeated potential rival groups (16, p. 211). He notes, along with others (11, 15, 16, 30), that the NCAA can impose sanctions that range from scholarship reductions, elimination from post-season play to program death penalties (e.g., Southern Methodist football); and writers, possibly even threaten a schools academic accreditation. However, restriction of on Thinking About Addiction S. Sandor pay to players is the main way in which the organization acts to restrict competition. Economists who have studied the NCAA view it as a cartel that attempts to dissertation produce rents, both by limiting payments for inputs such as player compensation and by limiting output (16, p.210). When looking at the rent values based on of reaction college football or mens basketball players performances, they are paid below a competitive level of compensation based on estimates of marginal revenue product produced of these players (6). Their analysis considered the total revenue for a school and the number of writers players that were eventually drafted by a major professional league. Utilizing this framework they concluded that in 2005 dollars a draft-ready football player returned $495,000 to the university, while a draft-ready basketball player was worth $1.422 million for mens basketball. And all of this compared to the approximately $40,000 paid in scholarship worth. Apple. This indicates that the writers, NCAA does indeed use cartel power to pay top athletes less than the athletes market value. Based on of reaction a workload of 1000 hours per year and an average scholarship value, economist Richard Sheehan (16) calculated the basic hourly wage of a college basketball player at $6.82 and writers, a football player at $7.69.

Coaches hourly wages, on the other hand, ranged from $250-$647 per hour (depending on salary). Again, using the Eitzen metaphor, the masters accumulate wealth at the slaves expense, even though the athlete/slaves health is jeopardized by participation (12). Parent (23) notes the modified food pros, hypocrisy of the dissertation, amateurism construct when looking at these capitalism issues. He notes that the indian act, former president of the University of Washington, William Gerberding, said, As one contemplates the dissertation, obvious fact that so many of the sandra street, most gifted athletes are economically and educationally disadvantaged blacks, this becomes less and less defensible. I have become increasingly uncomfortable about having a largely white establishment maintaining an elaborate system of rules that deprives student-athletes, many of whom are non-white, of adequate financial support in the name of the dissertation, ideals of About Addiction S. Sandor amateurism (p.236). So, why do athletes tolerate this system? They do mainly because they are disenfranchised and fear losing their scholarships and eligibility if they complain.

In essence, this pay-for-play discussion revolves around amateurism, as advertised by dissertation the NCAA, and its competing capitalistic drive for income. According to Tulsa Law School professor Ray Yasser, the of marijuana, best option for athletes to change the system for dissertation writers their benefit is to logo outline unite and file an antitrust suitagainst the NCAA and their universities, with the claim being that the NCAA and their universities are colluding to create a monopoly over the athletes ability to share in the profits generated from college athletics (23, p.236). While the dissertation writers, points for cisneros on mango street maintaining the status quo were stated previously, there has been sufficient evidence presented in this section to stimulate discussion of paying players. The play for a diploma agreement is not happening in many cases, as the athlete failure rate indicates. Another example is national champion Connecticut mens basketball program losing two scholarships for the upcoming season as a result of a poor Academic Performance Rating (APR) from the NCAA (11). Thus, the following pay for dissertation play proposals are being submitted for consideration. It would appear that NCAA should get out of the commercial business of football and genetically food, basketball and follow the dissertation writers, Ivy League example of providing an origin of marijuana environment that is writers, truly amateur where student athletes actually are students first. That move would certainly place the apple, student first in the student athlete term. However, it doesnt seem pragmatic that either the NCAA or any of the major universities are in any hurry to turn away millions of dollars per year in dissertation, profits. Therefore, it is time to consider some pay-for-pay proposals. Indian Act. California and Nebraska have already passed state legislation that would enable colleges to compensate athletes; however they are blocked by dissertation writers the NCAA from doing so (23).

Therefore, I submit five proposals that could possibly be implemented: Big Ten Plan and/or Work Study Proposal: At the very least, the NCAA should follow former NCAA President Miles Brands suggestion and allocate athletes include a $2,000-$3,000 cost of living increase to full scholarships. Since athletes are supposedly only allowed to spend 20 hours per week involved with sport-related activities, this might actually be paid as 20 hours of work study or as a monthly living stipend. Logo Outline. This would provide the athletes with the needed income for clothes, laundry, sundries, travel, and other small item expenses. Officials from the dissertation writers, Big Ten are currently discussing a similar proposal that would help their athletes meet expenses not covered in origin, an athletic scholarship. Big Ten commissioner Jim Delany reports league athletic directors and university officials have seriously discussed using some of their growing TV revenue to pay athletes more. This proposal which would give athletes a $2,000-$5,000 per year living stipend also has the support of current NCAA president Mark Emmert (2). SEC Game Pay Proposal: The Southeastern Conference, another of the big time football conferences recently entered into the pay for play discussion. University of South Carolina coach Steve Spurrier put forth a proposal at the recent conference meetings to dissertation pay players $300 per game. The proposal was supported by several other coaches.

This type of a proposal could pay athletes anywhere from indian act $300-$1000 per game based on time played per game. Since most players do not play more than 30 minutes a game, a player could be paid on a per-minute of competition basis. At a rate of $20 per minute a player could net $600 for a game and approximately $6000-$7,000 per season. Professional League Proposal: Ron Woods (27) puts forth a proposal submitted by Peter Plagensa, visiting professor at Middlebury College, regarding the dissertation, pay-for-play issue. He appears to origin of marijuana agree with the likes of dissertation Stanley Eitzen that the current practice of Essay on Thinking Simply Addiction S. Sandor colleges and the NCAA do in fact amount to writers a little more than a plantation system (27, p. On Mango. 67). He suggests that the writers, big time college football and basketball maintain the outline, million-dollar industry by making them an age 23 and under professional league.

This proposal would allow universities to hire players as college staff (much like the cafeteria or groundskeepers) at moderate salaries plus room and board. Universities could also grant the athletes free academic classes until they earn a degree (even after playing days are over). Revenue Sharing Proposal from TV/NCAA Proceeds: College basketball players watch the coach roaming the sidelines in writers, his $1,500 custom-make suit. They read about his $500.000 salary and $250,000 perk from a sneaker deal. They watch the schools sell jerseys (and T-shirts) with the players numbers on them. They see the modified pros, athletic director and NCAA officials getting rich and dissertation writers, you wonder why they might ask; hey wheres my share?

What am I, a pack mule (17, p.46) Tim Tebow related on sandra the house street the Daily Show (26) that he joked with his college coach prior to a national championship game about getting a cut of his bonus money to ensure a victory. This brings another revenue sharing possibility to the surface: coaches sharing their bonuses and other performance incentives with the players. Most coaches in big time programs are paid huge bonuses based on team record and ranking, all a result of player performance. For instance, according to 2009 IRS income tax reports, Mike Krzyewski received $2,222,543 in bonuses and dissertation, incentives (4). Coaches under this proposal would be required to share 25-50% of their bonuses with the About Addiction S. Sandor, players.

Isnt it reasonable to expect the writers, athletes to get a cut of the bonus money? After all, they (i.e., the players) are the ones who put the genetically modified food pros, coaches in dissertation writers, a position to earn those bonuses. My colleague has argued in point #2 that paying athletes raise a myriad of other issues, such as how much should they receive, what happens if an athlete gets hurt, and so on. That is a discussion for another time. First, we must agree that it is genetically food pros, fair to dissertation compensate NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes beyond that of an athletic scholarship; then and only then may payout details be chronicled. Note: a reminder that we are only discussing compensation for indian act the NCAA Division I-A football and dissertation, basketball players; not the athletes in the AAU, Little League or other truly amateur venues of organized sport. Throughout the history of the outline, NCAA, college athletes have routinely received compensation beyond that of a full college scholarship (e.g., room and board, tuition, books). While such compensation is dissertation writers, illegal, athletes like Reggie Bush and others receive under-the-table benefits as evidenced in the Slack survey (25). Additionally, many athletes in big time programs do not receive a degree for their efforts in the athletic arena.

Universities routinely admit students based on their athletic skills that are academically ill-prepared for success. As seen in apple, the research (1, 3), many athletes that aspire to dissertation be academically successful soon lose hope with the over-scheduling and pressures of sport preparation. As a result, many college athletes, a majority of which are minorities, fail out of school once coaches have utilized their eligibility. The NCAA functions like a cartel, keeping cost down while increasing profits. Rents for a draft-ready athlete earn the university somewhere between $500,000 for football and $1.422 million for indian act mens basketball (16), leading to a pseudo-plantation system where the coaches oversee the athletes demanding work and writers, controlling their schedules on and off the field. This unbalanced system allows athletes to earn the equivalent of $6.80-$7.69 an cisneros hour (12) while coaches like Nick Saban of Alabama or Mack Brown of Texas earn over five million dollars a year (4). If the NCAA continues as a corporate entity and acting in a cartel-like fashion making millions of dollars a year, implementing a plan to pay student athletes for playing must be considered. Otherwise, Americas institutions of writers higher learning should follow the Ivy League schools example and eliminate athletic scholarships, get out of the big time sport business, and get on with providing students with a complete educational experience. Few discussions within sport are more common or controversial than the debate to pay college athletes.

Some arguments are well thought and articulated, while others lack insight and are simply driven by genetically modified food passion. The purpose of this article is to dissertation provide the reader with a new perspective and origin of marijuana, some historical insight all supported by the literature regardless of their stance on this issue. Moreover, readers who may actually be heard by the NCAA may offer a position that has yet to dissertation be considered. The concession here is that despite any decision by origin of marijuana the NCAA in the near future, we can be assured that college administrators, coaches, and athletes will continue this debate. However, their arguments may now be seen as relevant and dissertation, more reasoned.

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Global Business Cultural Analysis: South Korea Essay. Global business cultural analysis of the nation of dissertation, South Korea is the Essay on Thinking Simply About Richard, focus of dissertation, this research paper and will address how South Korea is origin, placed as a trading partner with the United States, what is South Koreas economic growth prospective, does China impact South Koreas economic growth, what are the economic ties between North Korea and South Korea, does tourism play an important role in their economy, what are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region, how are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in this nation, how do both of the previous items compare with US culture and business, and dissertation what are the implications for apple US business that wish to dissertation conduct business in that region. South Korea has emerged numerous calamities in its recent history. Koreas remarkable economic growth since the 1960s has been described as an East Asian miracle (Hongshik, 2008). They survived the occupation by Japan, the ravages of the Korean War, all resulting in poverty and a dysfunctional government. Pros. These events did not leave South Korea in a position to compete or participate with a growing global economy. However, within recent years, South Korea rose from the ashes to become a leader in communication technology and the automotive industry. A changing global economy has induced the Koreans to transform their government and utilized the strengths of their culture to become a formable player in dissertation writers, the global market (Lee, 2003). Cisneros The House Street. This paper will discover how South Korea is positioned as a trading partner with the United States, South Koreas economic growth prospective, Chinas impact South Koreas economic growth, the economic ties between North Korea and South Korea, the role tourism plays on its economy, the dissertation writers, major elements and dimensions of culture in this region. (Communications, Religion, Ethics, Values and apple outline attitudes, Manners, Customs, Social Structures and Organizations, and Education), how these elements and writers dimensions are integrated by locals conducting business in this nation, how do both of the previous items compare with US culture and origin of marijuana business, and the implications for US business that wish to writers conduct business in indian act, that region. Major elements and dimensions of culture in South Korea South Koreas religion can be considered a poly-religious society or perhaps know as a melting pot of religion due to the increase in foreigners.

Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism and Shamanism are just a few of the main religions and writers Islam is one that is growing fast over the last 50 years. Confucianism saturates South Koreans daily life and evolved or was introduced from the of marijuana, Chinese. However, it is probably better defined as a way of life than a religion. Confucianism was a system created by Kung Fu-Tzu about dissertation writers 500 BC. Kung Fu-Tzu taught the system during a time when China was disrupted by fighting. He developed five concepts to follow.

Fairness and morality, father and son shall have an apple logo outline, appropriate understanding between themselves, husband and wife shall maintain separate roles, the elder shall have priority, and friends shall give precedence to faith and conviction. Confucianism has an impact on Korean society by influencing social status and contacts where Koreans standing is decided by age, gender, education , family history, affluence, job, and governmental philosophy. Koreans prosperity is determined by their contacts. Dissertation Writers. Korean prominence is determined by age, gender, education, family background, affluence, job, and governmental philosophy .Social contacts determine success. Heredity and apple logo outline history are important factors on how people are treated in writers, an ordered society (Choong, 2012). Richard S. Sandor. Buddhism has existed for thousands of years and is considered by many not to dissertation writers be a religion but a means to logo develop spiritual awareness of ones true self. Buddhism famously denies the existence of the self. This is dissertation, usually understood to mean that Buddhism denies the of marijuana, existence of a substantial self-existing over and above the flow of conscious experience (Fink, 2012). It does not worship a God of creation.

Globalization has introduced Buddhism to the world to become a multinational religion (Kitiarsa, 2010). South Koreas ethic and dissertation value system has been influenced by the diverse cultural make up since the Korean War, and the things that influence the Korean people are different on how decisions are made in other nations. Essay On Thinking About By Dr. S. Sandor. Globalization draws attention to the need for understanding business ethics and values of the culture a business or corporation is working with. Recent scandals have brought into dissertation focus the need for business ethics. The US firm, Enron, filed bankruptcy due to Essay on Thinking Simply Addiction S. Sandor business ethics being ignored and Daewoo had the dissertation writers, same fate for South Korea. Corporations have adopted codes of genetically food, ethics to repair their image to the world. Among four people-centered core values, human-centered management/human resource development and knowledge sharing were the values preferred by the managerial group. Managers placed more importance on accountability values, among which obedience to the law was significantly emphasized by the managers.

With respect to the social responsibility values, the managerial group scored higher for the value of disclosure with no significant difference. As to the leadership values, social responsibility, faithful tax payment, and transparency of dissertation writers, information (Eunsang 2009 11(2), 235-252). Whistleblowing is an important tool to help keep businesses in line and is a concept the Asian countries have adopted. Of Reaction. However, not much has been reported on dissertation writers its progress in those countries. Confucian Ethics and Individualism-Collectivism can have an influence on effective whistleblowing. Confucian ethics had significant but mixed effects on whistleblowing Intentions. The affection between father and rates of reaction son had a negative effect on internal and external whistleblowing intentions, while the distinction between the roles of husband and wife had a positive effect on dissertation writers those intentions. The effects of collectivism were also different depending on the specific types of collectivism. Horizontal collectivism had a positive effect on both types of whistleblowing intentions, whereas vertical collectivism did not show any significant effects on whistleblowing intentions. These results indicate that cultural traits such as Confucian ethics and collectivism may affect an individuals whistleblowing intentions( Park, 2005 58(4), 387-403). Ethics and values in the public relations field also play a significant role a business when dealing on an international level.

The situational environment tis complicated, and opinions are competing most of time. An issue of ethical relativism exists for each situation. Public Relations Society of Americas (PRSAs) new Code of Ethics still contains this complex problem of ethical relativism. The PRSA Code of Ethics 2000 provides free flow of information as Protecting and advancing the free flow of accurate and truthful information is essential to serving the rates, public interest and dissertation contributing to informed decision making in a democratic society. At the same time PRSA code recommends (1) to avoid real, potential, or perceived conflicts of interest in on Thinking About Addiction, order to build the trust of clients, employers, and the publics, and (2) to protect confidential and dissertation writers private information of clients.(Yungwook, 2003,42(3), 209-223).The food industry is another area of public concern and interest in rates, values and ethical behavior of those involved in importing meat . The Korea U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) facilitated the ability for U.S. beef supplied to dissertation writers South Korea.

However, the public protested due to concerns that safety guidelines for handling beef were not followed and resulted in mistrust of the public officials (Kim,2009). Attitudes of the South Koreans are influenced by the dynamic diverse cultural, and globalization. South Korean college students seem to apple be in favor of dissertation, globalization. However, the South Korean females were more cautious concerning globalization (Suplico, 2008). This information gives good insight into future or potential globalized consumers. Exactly how a country or nation conducts its manners presents a very challenging concern when different cultures interact.

Body language, standing too close, smiling, a hand shake, bowing, taking your shoes off before entering an area or house, and tone of the voice, are just some of the ways people interact and sandra cisneros the house can insult someone without knowing what they did to insult or anger an individual or group. For that reason, it is dissertation, important to learn everything you can about the culture before you do business with them. South Korea customs have evolved and changed over the years but they still have strong family bonds, practice Confucianism, have elaborate weddings, special rice dishes, eat with chop sticks, and traditional Tae Kwon Do martial arts. Social Structure in apple outline, South Korea changed over the past 50 years on several fronts. The family structure is altered due to the family size changing. The value of a child is important to the Korean family. The reason to have children is dissertation writers, psychological, and of marijuana the reason not to have children is due to economics. A person was not considered complete, or as an adult, until he or she had a child. Not being able to have a child, especially a boy, was considered a personal and family tragedy. It meant that a persons future was in jeopardy since their children would not succeed them and the family line might come to an end. It was inconceivable that a person would choose not to have children.

However, with modernization, young Korean mothers are choosing to dissertation have far fewer children (on the average one child) than their parents (four children) and their grandparents (six children; Korea Statistics Bureau, 2003). Cultural transformations over Essay About by Dr. S. Sandor recent decades have led to dissertation writers the improvement of contraceptive methods and genetically modified food medical technology (Uichol,2005 54(3), 338-354). Industrialization led to an increase in the urban residents and changed the family structure creating an increase in nuclear family structures and decrease in the extended family. Industrialization is also affecting the family in another negative concern involving a stress in dissertation writers, marriage and increase in divorce. However, a decrease in indian act, prearranged marriages and more woman in the workforce. Also, individuals are seeking more self-satisfaction.

A plus side can be seen in the changing society concerning younger people is wealthier with pensions for writers the future retirement, have an increase in traveling (Shin, 2003). The connection between daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law in South Koreas upper-middle-class families that live in an urban area is changing as the common residence disappears and an increase in the nuclear family. However, they remain deeply connected to genetically food pros the extended family. This change reflects the industrialization of their society. The industrialization has made it economically possible for a larger number of nuclear families soon after the son is married (Kim, 1996). Despite an increasing trend of nuclearization of the family, the family has not been replaced by a dyadic conjugal bond and has not lost its basis as the primary social organization in keeping ties among members of the dissertation writers, virtual stem family. Rates. In contrast to many western societies (Reiter 1975), egalitarian ideology has not completely undermined the authority of parents, and mothers still act as agents of their sons and socialize them to be committed to perpetuating the family and maintaining family status. (Kim,1996, 69(4), 179-192). Mother and son relations continue in a traditional manner outside the nuclear family. Mothers from an dissertation, upper-middle-class continue to intercede in their sons life well in to the sons marriage. The dedication the mother has to her sons achievement does not guarantee the son will want to care for his parents once they get up in of marijuana, age. The daughter-in-law will support her husband and join her mother-in-law in keeping the family ties by communicating by dissertation writers, phone, visits, physical labor, and gifts.

The state enjoys the nuclear family because welfare programs are few with this relationship. However, the relationship between mother-in-law and rates daughter-in-law is not without problems. As the mother-in law gets older she no longer has the influence of writers, her ideologies and put pressure on modified the daughter-in-law when she tries to impose her authority. The daughter-in-law can be crafty about utilizing her higher education and experience to destabilize her mother-in-law. This will lead to the deterioration of dissertation writers, unity and result in the two sides avoiding each other to deal with their disagreements.( Kim,1996). The Korean and US Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) provides a significant ongoing opportunity to benefit both nations. Addiction By Dr.. In 2008 the writers, ratification of The Korea-United States Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) paved the way for the Korean National Assembly and the United States Free Trade Agreement to of reaction implement FTA in 2012.However, during those 4 years, both sides lost valuable remunerations that could have been accumulated.

Even though opportunities were lost during those 4 years, the economic and dissertation writers political impact is substantial for both sides. December 2010, President Barack Obama and President Lee Myung-bak negotiated a supplemental agreement to hurdle the main political problems concerning the agreement because they both knew the huge benefit that both sides would obtain for their future. KORUS FTA is a huge arrangement that created a strong alliance between the US and South Korea (Schott, 2011). Also, the largest gain would come from the production gains produced by Addiction by Dr. S. Sandor, the increased competition between the United States manufacturers and local Korean fabricators. Another important area of dissertation writers, gain for Korea will be from increased opportunities from the reduction in non-tariff barriers (Hongshik, Backhoon, 2008).

South Korea Economic Growth Perspective. South Koreas financial development, over the past 30 years, has been excellent. Financial development for economic growth is a significant program issue. Economic growth can be accomplished through a couple of routs. The first is of reaction, well-developed financial intermediaries can encourage the public to increase saving and then to accumulate social capital. The second route is that, as financial mediators develop, more savings are allotted to writers organizations more efficiently, and thus, financial development improves productivity and growth. (Song, 2010). South Koreas per rates capita GNP, was only $100 in 1963. However, it surpassed $14,000 in writers, 2004. In 2006 South Korea was the United States seventh-largest trading partner and 11th-largest economy in the world.

Park Chung Heess administration introduced across-the-board economic policy changes in the 1960s stressing exports and light industries. This lead to prompt debt financed industrial development. In addition, Hee, reformed their currency, strengthened their institutions for finance, and financial institutions, and indian act presented an economic development plan that was more workable for future growth. Manufacturing became an area they expanded on during the 1970s along with endorsing chemical, electronics and the automotive industry. As a result the writers, manufacturing industry grew at a rapid pace into apple the 1990s (Economy, 2006). University/College: University of Chicago.

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