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Top 200 National Universities ( U.S. Report! News World Report college rankings, 2015) The Princeton Review 2015: The Best 379 Colleges PolicyMic, a millennial generation news site, ranked UC as top in the nation for giving students the Best Bang for foreign, Their Buck. (2013) Regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC) About the College of conclusion internship report, Allied Health Sciences. The College of Allied Health Sciences educates and marketing prepares students in a variety of internship report, health care fields, including medical laboratory science. Students in the College of Allied Health Sciences can: Achieve clinical skills and provide high-quality service. Learn to cola matrix, excel in the scientific, professional and humanistic aspects of conclusion, health care. Gain knowledge of the changing needs and of Pablo Picasso demands in conclusion internship, the health care field.

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Bureau of report, Labor Statistics (BLS) projects that employment of medical laboratory technologists and technicians will grow 16 percent from 2014 to 2024, much faster than the average for all occupations*. Best Numbing Cream For Waxing! Patient access to conclusion, quality health care depends on the availability of certified professionals at every touch point. Best Numbing! Medical laboratory science is no exception, as an accurate diagnosis creates the basis for each patient’s treatment plan. The challenge for report, health care providers is the lack of nmru login, qualified medical laboratory talent with the credentials to conclusion internship report, fill increasingly sophisticated roles. In fact, the shortage is so great that the stealth marketing allied health discipline has been identified as an conclusion report, area of stealth, need under the federal Workforce Investment Act. Conclusion Internship! The University of Cincinnati is committed to age to work, expanding our curriculum in conclusion internship, response to mcdonalds, these increasing needs. It is our goal to grow the pool of skilled medical laboratory scientists through our online Bachelor of internship report, Science in Medical Laboratory Science program. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso! Interested students are encouraged to research the salary outlook and latest trends driving opportunities in this field.

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After completion of her PhD in internship report, Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine, Dr. Essay The Futility Of Conflict! Accurso helped to launch the online MLS program to report, assist laboratory professionals in reaching their educational goals. Dr. Accurso draws on her academic training and cream for waxing laboratory experience to help in designing and delivering a program that aims to challenge students to internship, advance their knowledge in stealth, the field of medical laboratory science. Our students’ success is the true reflection of conclusion, our commitment at the University of how did, Cincinnati. We are proud to conclusion, hear your stories of how earning your degree with us has made a difference in your life and the lives of others. What really strikes me about stalin, this distance learning program is the way everything is built with me, the student, in mind. The technology is internship report, simple to use and provides me an array of learning activities, from slide-show lectures to chatroom discussions, connecting me with whatever learning style fits best for the material at about The Futility in three of Literature hand.

The University of Cincinnati’s combination of expertise and efficiency has given me not only a top-notch learning environment, but has also provided me a way to excel with both my education and conclusion internship report career at stealth marketing the same time. — James Rawson, CLS (MLS) Graduate New Jersey. Internship! “This program has been wonderful. It is challenging and rewarding. Hitler! All of the instructors, facilitators and everyone else involved are very knowledgeable and internship always willing to lend a helping hand. Ansoff Matrix! I recently accepted a new position as a lab manager and truly believe that my experiences in this program contributed greatly to this success. With all of the daily responsibilities involved with being the head of internship report, my household, I found it nearly impossible to Picasso, continue my education and internship earn my bachelor’s degree.

That was until I discovered this amazing online program. Thank you UC!” — Marjorie Greene, CLS (MLS) Graduate Ohio. “I am extremely happy that I chose the marketing University of report, Cincinnati because I feel that it’s a quality program that will help me professionally when I retire from the about in three military. The facilitators are active within their groups and are always available to lend a helping hand. Internship! I would recommend the University of Cincinnati’s Clinical Laboratory Science (MLS) program to how did stalin gain, anyone who is serious about their education. I know that when I graduate I will have truly earned my degree, will be fully prepared for the national registry and will be proud to internship, hang the diploma on my wall.” — Adele Warner, CLS (MLS) Graduate Hawaii. Eligible applicants to of Pablo Picasso Essay, the University of Cincinnati Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Science program must hold an associate degree from a NAACLS accredited CLT/MLT program or equivalent coursework and conclusion ASCP CLT/MLT certification. Eligible applicants to best numbing cream, the University of Cincinnati Bachelor of conclusion internship report, Science in Medical Laboratory Science program must meet the following qualifications: Hold an associate degree from a NAACLS accredited* CLT/MLT program or equivalent coursework and ASCP CLT/MLT certification Complete a MLS program application packet Complete a UC online application Submit proof of ASCP CLT/MLT certification Possess a minimum 2.5 GPA Submit official transcripts from all schools attended Submit a letter of The Sexuality of Pablo, intent and conclusion report updated resume Submit three reference forms, an essential functions form and foreign a statement of health form (all available in report, the MLS program application packet) *The National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS); 5600 N. Hitler Policy! River Road Suite 720, Rosemont, IL 60018-5119; Phone: 773-714-8880; Fax: 773-714-8886; [email protected]; http://www.naacls.org Read More.

Q: What is the average salary of conclusion report, a medical laboratory scientist? A: Salaries for medical laboratory scientists vary depending upon the type of position that graduates might seek, as well as their geographical area. On average, medical laboratory scientists earn between $56,000 and $77,000 a year, according to marketing, a 2013 survey conducted by conclusion internship the ASCP. Q: I read the website. What if I have more questions? A: An enrollment advisor is available to answer all your questions. Coca Matrix! To have your enrollment advisor contact you, complete the form at the top of this page.

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oedipus flaws essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. Conclusion Internship? If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. The Sexuality Of Pablo? I have no sponsors and conclusion internship, do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to marketing sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and report, tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought.

Sophocles himself served as an army general. Stealth? Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to conclusion internship report decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to how did power cover over the obvious. This explains the conclusion, nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet.

The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the The Sexuality Picasso Essay, British preserve the conclusion internship, initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in gain power, Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. Conclusion Internship Report? An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to nmru login leave an unwanted or defective baby in conclusion internship report, the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to best numbing guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name.

It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. Conclusion Report? He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and hitler foreign policy, queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of conclusion report their own. So they adopted the of Pablo, foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and conclusion internship, marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay, a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into internship a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to power him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on conclusion internship report a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of numbing for waxing Thebes.

Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over internship report, Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the best cream, version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?

Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of conclusion Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the hitler foreign, passage. In the conclusion internship report, Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the stealth marketing, whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of conclusion internship Thebes, in great grief for nmru login the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to internship report the house of the cream for waxing, mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and internship report, the avenging spirits haunted him as for The Sexuality Picasso Essay an outraged mother -- to conclusion internship his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about mcdonalds, Oedipus.

I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the conclusion, tragic flaw of nmru login pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living?

You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Conclusion Report? Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and hitler, circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for internship report a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story.

The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. Stealth? If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by conclusion internship, the fulfillment of prophecies. How Did Stalin Gain? In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in internship, the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of hitler psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of internship report Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie.

You'll need to decide for hitler policy yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Conclusion Report? Believing in best cream, predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into internship battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to hitler spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.

Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the conclusion internship report, Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). Stalin Gain? We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of conclusion internship mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.

Dante asks the blessed souls in nmru login, heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of conclusion grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. The Sexuality Picasso? If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.

John Calvin was horrified about the implications of conclusion predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and nmru login, God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of conclusion report cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the best, Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against internship, those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.

Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in stealth marketing, the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and report, kindness to gain power strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of conclusion internship predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and cream for waxing, Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are.

Marlowe's Faustus and conclusion, a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about stealth marketing, predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the conclusion, vast majority of The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay psychic predictions in conclusion internship, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at stealth, one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in conclusion, our brains, and what we will think and do.

The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of gain power thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and report, how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Of Pablo Picasso? The bread and conclusion internship report, wine are Christ's body and The Sexuality Essay, blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will.

When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from report before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. How Did Stalin Gain? Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of conclusion Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about foreign, dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia.

Tells about internship report, modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is foreign, phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. Conclusion Internship? He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people.

As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of stalin gain non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of conclusion internship report a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Nmru Login? Plants, animals, and conclusion, people are all dying. Stalin Power? The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to conclusion internship the oracle of the god Apollo at foreign, Delphi to get an conclusion, answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives.

Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. The Sexuality Picasso? (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is conclusion report, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of best cream for waxing Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. Conclusion Report? (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of mcdonalds age to work robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to report be transferred away from stalin Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the conclusion internship report, killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in conclusion internship report, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to nmru login save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of internship general mass death.

Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and nmru login, that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. Conclusion Internship? On the other hand, if anyone conceals the how did gain power, killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Internship? Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Foreign Policy? (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in internship report, the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to power the killing.

In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. Internship Report? As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Best For Waxing? Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Internship? Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon.

Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the foreign policy, sphinx problem. Internship? The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the hitler foreign policy, truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias.

Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of conclusion planning a coup, using a smear by how did, a crooked psychic as an report, excuse. They exchange angry words.

Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the age to, killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. Internship? (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and hitler, isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Conclusion Report? Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for marketing treason. Conclusion? The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to power break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.

The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about conclusion internship report, things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in hitler, psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods.

And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and conclusion, Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.

Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for mcdonalds age to a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to internship report find out whether he was adopted. Nmru Login? All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother.

As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in conclusion, the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back.

The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is work, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the internship report, malicious work of some god or other.

He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the age to, city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. Report? And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural.

Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about work, how (1) we have to conclusion obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is stealth marketing, no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in conclusion report, oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to nmru login join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in conclusion report, from Corinth.

He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is mcdonalds work, your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Conclusion Report? And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the nmru login, news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of conclusion internship report grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Nmru Login? Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Report? Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the mcdonalds age to, man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. Report? because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and best cream, queen of Corinth to raise as their own.

Oedipus is starting to wonder about internship report, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the age to, heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to internship report be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in hitler foreign, honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found.

The say the report, spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Age To? Irony. The other shepherd is conclusion internship, brought in. Hitler? He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the conclusion, other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth.

Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into nmru login the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from conclusion inside.

A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the nmru login, eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from internship report their sockets. Oedipus now begs to best cream be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him.

The Chorus asks, How were you able to internship report rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is numbing, not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and internship, out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the The Sexuality, sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is conclusion, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of numbing cream Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the conclusion, same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?

To discern an cream for waxing, author's intentions, look for material that is internship, not required by the plot or intended simply to please the nmru login, audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is conclusion report, whether one can believe in work, oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is conclusion report, whether the best cream, Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense.

More generally, Sophocles goes out of conclusion his way to mcdonalds work present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the internship, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. Hitler Policy? The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by conclusion internship, the gods), and age to, Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. Report? At the hitler foreign, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune.

And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of conclusion internship their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the stalin power, end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for conclusion report thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in cream for waxing, their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for internship expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in numbing for waxing, many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is internship report, much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and hitler foreign policy, theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to internship report these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of policy moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.

It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for report realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II.

Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and foreign policy, people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. Conclusion Internship? He continues. Poetry now diverged in mcdonalds, two directions, according to conclusion internship report the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and numbing, the actions of conclusion report good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of how did power meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to conclusion internship the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV.

Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in best for waxing, his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of internship report actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the how did, chorus.

Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of conclusion artistic ornament, the foreign, several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.

And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in conclusion, a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the mcdonalds, trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI.

Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of internship drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of nmru login words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the conclusion, right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.

Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on nmru login which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life.

Yet Aristotle is silent on internship report this important element of tragedy. As you continue to age to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. Conclusion? I like Shakespeare, and cream for waxing, like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of conclusion internship report its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and foreign policy, love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time.

Shakespeare changed the conclusion, messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. Stalin Gain? The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the internship report, King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at marketing, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.

But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the conclusion internship report, events come on mcdonalds us by surprise; and conclusion report, the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and nmru login, effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by report, accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of best numbing cream for waxing design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon conclusion internship report his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to stealth be due to mere chance. Internship? Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in nmru login, them. (People want to conclusion internship believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of Picasso these reversal of the conclusion internship, situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan.

It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in numbing for waxing, the first place, that the conclusion internship, change of fortune presented must not be the best numbing cream for waxing, spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for conclusion report this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to how did stalin gain power the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of internship report a man like ourselves.

Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the mcdonalds age to work, character between these two extremes- that of a man who is internship report, not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of hitler foreign policy such families. Conclusion Report? -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso Essay? (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the conclusion internship, bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and stalin, is intended to do so.

Why is Aristotle avoiding the conclusion report, obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to work bad. Conclusion Internship? It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the how did, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience.

The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the report, true tragic pleasure. Stalin? It is internship report, proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in stalin gain power, the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and conclusion internship, no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only nmru login makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the conclusion report, purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on marketing to explain that the internship report, best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the numbing cream, piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. Conclusion Internship? For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at nmru login, what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the report, Oedipus. Of Pablo Picasso Essay? -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.

The killer may or may not know what he/she is conclusion report, doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.

Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the nmru login, purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is report, a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and The Sexuality Picasso Essay, classism. But the report, truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and work, brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism.

It remains to speak of report Diction and mcdonalds work, Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is internship report, said in foreign policy, the Rhetoric, to conclusion report which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is nmru login, evident that the conclusion, dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. Hitler Policy? If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and conclusion, said it -- the mcdonalds age to, tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Internship Report? Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stealth, stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.

1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Conclusion? It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Hitler Foreign? He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about internship report, tragic flaws and purging pity and fear.

Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to stealth marketing be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in conclusion internship, a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso? (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and internship report, is its origin, but the stalin power, sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the conclusion report, King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in stalin power, order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of conclusion internship report us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this.

Interestingly, I can't find the idea of best numbing hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of conclusion report hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life.

If Aristotle and how did stalin power, his successors had been free to speak the conclusion internship report, truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in work, turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and conclusion internship, your good character. Stealth? It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.

But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Report? Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso, our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the internship report, warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the hitler policy, truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in report, many ways, including variety of stalin plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the conclusion internship report, philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. Stealth Marketing? If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the report, universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in hitler, which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances.

Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is internship, no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from of Pablo Essay Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and internship report, this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.

Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of how did stalin power his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in conclusion internship report, this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. Hitler? You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives?

What sort of conclusion relationship do we have to foreign that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to internship report a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. Nmru Login? [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of conclusion report 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Best? I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong.

Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. Internship? A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to how did stalin gain acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by conclusion internship, his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in numbing for waxing, fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to conclusion report the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in stealth marketing, the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Conclusion? Aristotle's development of the mcdonalds age to, tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. Conclusion Internship Report? The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.

Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. Gain Power? The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is conclusion report, bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for foreign policy Oedipus, the internship report, author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. The Sexuality Picasso? We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on conclusion report both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. Stealth? You'll have to internship report decide for yourself about nmru login, this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for internship report whatever reason do not want to write their own papers.

I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at The Sexuality of Pablo, all computer-savvy, and conclusion, you turn in gain, a paper that you took for conclusion report free off the web, you will be caught. Hitler Foreign Policy? Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is internship, really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to how did gain power be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of internship us are in that category.

Miller adds that the stalin power, terror and the fear that is internship, classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about nmru login, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. Internship Report? 2004. Re-released 2011.

I'm Ed. Best Cream? You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the internship, other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the how did stalin power, quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the conclusion, circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.

Thanks for visiting. Health and policy, friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the conclusion, name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.

Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the mcdonalds, answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why.

Each of report three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the foreign policy, term immoral for the idea that the conclusion internship report, gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of marketing a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on conclusion report Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in mcdonalds age to work, the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out report, how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc.

If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and best cream for waxing, maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to internship report Oedipus the King, be ready for stealth marketing these questions from conclusion internship report your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for mcdonalds age to the decisive flaw in conclusion report, the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in nmru login, its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. Conclusion Internship? (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is nmru login, hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by conclusion internship, fast police cars, he is cream, much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for internship report mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and marketing, accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is conclusion internship, behind it. Nmru Login? Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and conclusion report, angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. Stealth Marketing? The Chorus sings about the need to revere the internship, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and marketing, decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)

Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of conclusion internship my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to nmru login come from conclusion report teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at stalin gain power, a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of conclusion internship report no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to nmru login draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to report take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!

Health and friendship! This isn't the The Sexuality, first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is internship, right and that I'm wrong, but not why. Nmru Login? In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from conclusion its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege.

Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over Picasso Essay, academic dogma.

I'm thankful for conclusion internship report the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in hitler policy, the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of report wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the foreign, sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.

reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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Why the Lean Start-Up Changes Everything. In the past few years, a new methodology for launching companies, called “the lean start-up,” has begun to conclusion internship, replace the old regimen. Gain! Traditionally, a venture’s founders would write a business plan, complete with a five-year forecast, use it to raise money, and then go into “stealth mode” to develop their offerings, all without getting much feedback from the people they intended to sell to. Lean start-ups, in contrast, begin by searching for a business model. They test, revise, and conclusion internship, discard hypotheses, continually gathering customer feedback and rapidly iterating on and reengineering their products. This strategy greatly reduces the chances that start-ups will spend a lot of stealth, time and money launching products that no one actually will pay for. Blank, a consulting associate professor at Stanford, is one of the architects of the conclusion lean start-up movement and has seen this approach help businesses get off the ground quickly and successfully.

He believes that if it’s widely adopted, it would reduce the incidence of start-up failure. Stealth! In combination with other trends, such as open source software and the democratization of venture financing, it could ignite a new, more entrepreneurial economy. There are numerous indicators that the approach is conclusion internship, catching on: Business schools and universities are incorporating lean start-up principles into their curricula. Even more interesting, large companies like GE are applying them to internal innovation initiatives. Launching a new enterprise—whether it’s a tech start-up, a small business, or an initiative within a large corporation—has always been a hit-or-miss proposition.

According to the decades-old formula, you write a business plan, pitch it to investors, assemble a team, introduce a product, and start selling as hard as you can. And somewhere in this sequence of events, you’ll probably suffer a fatal setback. The odds are not with you: As new research by Harvard Business School’s Shikhar Ghosh shows, 75% of all start-ups fail. But recently an hitler policy, important countervailing force has emerged, one that can make the process of starting a company less risky. Conclusion Internship! It’s a methodology called the “lean start-up,” and it favors experimentation over elaborate planning, customer feedback over The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay intuition, and iterative design over traditional “big design up front” development.

Although the methodology is just a few years old, its concepts—such as “minimum viable product” and “pivoting”—have quickly taken root in conclusion, the start-up world, and mcdonalds age to, business schools have already begun adapting their curricula to teach them. The lean start-up movement hasn’t gone totally mainstream, however, and we have yet to feel its full impact. In many ways it is report, roughly where the big data movement was five years ago—consisting mainly of a buzzword that’s not yet widely understood, whose implications companies are just beginning to The Sexuality of Pablo Essay, grasp. But as its practices spread, they’re turning the conventional wisdom about entrepreneurship on its head. New ventures of all kinds are attempting to improve their chances of success by following its principles of failing fast and continually learning. And despite the methodology’s name, in the long term some of its biggest payoffs may be gained by conclusion the large companies that embrace it. In this article I’ll offer a brief overview of lean start-up techniques and how they’ve evolved. Most important, I’ll explain how, in combination with other business trends, they could ignite a new entrepreneurial economy. The Fallacy of the Perfect Business Plan. According to conventional wisdom, the hitler policy first thing every founder must do is create a business plan—a static document that describes the conclusion internship report size of an opportunity, the stealth marketing problem to internship report, be solved, and stealth, the solution that the new venture will provide. Typically it includes a five-year forecast for income, profits, and internship, cash flow.

A business plan is essentially a research exercise written in nmru login, isolation at a desk before an entrepreneur has even begun to build a product. The assumption is that it’s possible to figure out most of the unknowns of a business in advance, before you raise money and internship report, actually execute the idea. Once an entrepreneur with a convincing business plan obtains money from investors, he or she begins developing the nmru login product in a similarly insular fashion. Developers invest thousands of internship report, man-hours to get it ready for nmru login, launch, with little if any customer input. Only after building and launching the product does the venture get substantial feedback from internship customers—when the sales force attempts to sell it. And too often, after months or even years of development, entrepreneurs learn the hard way that customers do not need or want most of the product’s features. After decades of watching thousands of start-ups follow this standard regimen, we’ve now learned at least three things: 1. Business plans rarely survive first contact with customers. Nmru Login! As the boxer Mike Tyson once said about conclusion internship report, his opponents’ prefight strategies: “Everybody has a plan until they get punched in the mouth.” 2. No one besides venture capitalists and the late Soviet Union requires five-year plans to forecast complete unknowns. These plans are generally fiction, and dreaming them up is almost always a waste of time.

The business model canvas lets you look at all nine building blocks of your business on hitler foreign policy, one page. Internship Report! Each component of the nmru login business model contains a series of hypotheses that you need to test. 3. Start-ups are not smaller versions of large companies. They do not unfold in accordance with master plans. The ones that ultimately succeed go quickly from failure to failure, all the while adapting, iterating on, and improving their initial ideas as they continually learn from customers. One of the critical differences is that while existing companies execute a business model, start-ups look for one. This distinction is at the heart of the conclusion internship report lean start-up approach. It shapes the stealth lean definition of a start-up: a temporary organization designed to conclusion report, search for a repeatable and scalable business model. The lean method has three key principles:

First, rather than engaging in nmru login, months of planning and research, entrepreneurs accept that all they have on day one is a series of untested hypotheses—basically, good guesses. So instead of writing an intricate business plan, founders summarize their hypotheses in a framework called a business model canvas. Essentially, this is a diagram of how a company creates value for itself and its customers. (See the exhibit “Sketch Out Your Hypotheses.”) Second, lean start-ups use a “get out of the building” approach called customer development to conclusion, test their hypotheses. Mcdonalds Age To Work! They go out and ask potential users, purchasers, and conclusion internship, partners for feedback on all elements of the business model, including product features, pricing, distribution channels, and affordable customer acquisition strategies. The emphasis is on nimbleness and speed: New ventures rapidly assemble minimum viable products and immediately elicit customer feedback. Then, using customers’ input to revise their assumptions, they start the mcdonalds work cycle over again, testing redesigned offerings and making further small adjustments (iterations) or more substantive ones (pivots) to ideas that aren’t working. (See the conclusion internship report exhibit “Listen to Customers.”) During customer development, a start-up searches for a business model that works.

If customer feedback reveals that its business hypotheses are wrong, it either revises them or “pivots” to age to, new hypotheses. Once a model is proven, the start-up starts executing, building a formal organization. Each stage of conclusion internship, customer development is iterative: A start-up will probably fail several times before finding the right approach. 1. Marketing! Founders translate company ideas into business model hypotheses, test assumptions about customers’ needs, and then create a “minimum viable product” to try out their proposed solution on customers. 2. Start-up continues to test all other hypotheses and tries to validate customers’ interest through early orders or product usage. If there’s no interest, the start-up can “pivot” by changing one or more hypotheses. 3. The product is refined enough to sell.

Using its proven hypotheses, the start-up builds demand by rapidly ramping up marketing and conclusion internship, sales spending, and scales up the business. 4. Business transitions from start-up mode, with a customer development team searching for answers, to functional departments executing its model. Third, lean start-ups practice something called agile development, which originated in the software industry. Agile development works hand-in-hand with customer development. Unlike typical yearlong product development cycles that presuppose knowledge of mcdonalds work, customers’ problems and report, product needs, agile development eliminates wasted time and resources by developing the work product iteratively and internship, incrementally. It’s the process by which start-ups create the minimum viable products they test. (See the exhibit “Quick, Responsive Development.”) When Jorge Heraud and Lee Redden started Blue River Technology, they were students in my class at Stanford. They had a vision of building robotic lawn mowers for commercial spaces. After talking to The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay, over 100 customers in 10 weeks, they learned their initial customer target—golf courses—didn’t value their solution.

But then they began to internship report, talk to farmers and found a huge demand for an automated way to kill weeds without chemicals. Filling it became their new product focus, and within 10 weeks Blue River had built and tested a prototype. Nine months later the start-up had obtained more than $3 million in venture funding. The team expected to nmru login, have a commercial product ready just nine months after that. In contrast to internship, traditional product development, in which each stage occurs in linear order and lasts for mcdonalds, months, agile development builds products in short, repeated cycles. A start-up produces a “minimum viable product”—containing only critical features—gathers feedback on it from customers, and conclusion report, then starts over with a revised minimum viable product. Stealth Mode’s Declining Popularity. Lean methods are changing the language start-ups use to describe their work. During the dot-com boom, start-ups often operated in “stealth mode” (to avoid alerting potential competitors to marketing, a market opportunity), exposing prototypes to customers only during highly orchestrated “beta” tests.

The lean start-up methodology makes those concepts obsolete because it holds that in most industries customer feedback matters more than secrecy and that constant feedback yields better results than cadenced unveilings. Those two fundamental precepts crystallized for me during my career as an entrepreneur. (I’ve been involved with eight high-tech start-ups, as either a founder or an conclusion, early employee.) When I shifted into teaching, a decade ago, I came up with the formula for customer development described earlier. By 2003 I was outlining this process in a course at the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley. In 2004, I invested in a start-up founded by hitler foreign Eric Ries and Will Harvey and, as a condition of my investment, insisted that they take my course. Eric quickly recognized that waterfall development, the tech industry’s traditional, linear product development approach, should be replaced by iterative agile techniques. He also saw similarities between this emerging set of start-up disciplines and the Toyota Production System, which had become known as “lean manufacturing.” Eric dubbed the combination of customer development and agile practices the “lean start-up.”

The tools were popularized by a series of conclusion, successful books. In 2003, I wrote The Four Steps to the Epiphany, articulating for the first time that start-ups were not smaller versions of large companies and laying out the customer development process in stalin gain, detail. Conclusion Internship! In 2010, Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur gave entrepreneurs the standard framework for business model canvases in Business Model Generation. Hitler! In 2011 Eric published an overview in report, The Lean Startup. And in 2012 Bob Dorf and I summarized what we’d learned about lean techniques in a step-by-step handbook called The Startup Owner’s Manual. The lean start-up method is now being taught at foreign policy more than 25 universities and through a popular online course at Udacity.com. In addition, in almost every city around world, you’ll find organizations like Startup Weekend introducing the lean method to hundreds of conclusion, prospective entrepreneurs at a time. At such gatherings a roomful of start-up teams can cycle through half a dozen potential product ideas in a matter of hours.

Although it sounds incredible to people who haven’t been to one, at these events some businesses are formed on a Friday evening and are generating actual revenue by Sunday afternoon. Creating an Entrepreneurial, Innovation-Based Economy. While some adherents claim that the lean process can make individual start-ups more successful, I believe that claim is cream for waxing, too grandiose. Report! Success is predicated on numbing, too many factors for conclusion report, one methodology to guarantee that any single start-up will be a winner. But on the basis of what I’ve seen at hundreds of start-ups, at programs that teach lean principles, and at stealth established companies that practice them, I can make a more important claim: Using lean methods across a portfolio of start-ups will result in fewer failures than using traditional methods. A lower start-up failure rate could have profound economic consequences. Today the forces of disruption, globalization, and regulation are buffeting the economies of conclusion report, every country. Established industries are rapidly shedding jobs, many of which will never return. Employment growth in how did, the 21st century will have to report, come from best for waxing new ventures, so we all have a vested interest in fostering an environment that helps them succeed, grow, and conclusion report, hire more workers. The creation of an innovation economy that’s driven by stalin power the rapid expansion of start-ups has never been more imperative. In the past, growth in the number of start-ups was constrained by conclusion report five factors in best numbing for waxing, addition to the failure rate:

What Lean Start-Ups Do Differently. The founders of conclusion internship, lean start-ups don’t begin with a business plan; they begin with the search for a business model. Stealth Marketing! Only after quick rounds of experimentation and feedback reveal a model that works do lean founders focus on execution. 1. Conclusion Internship Report! The high cost of getting the first customer and mcdonalds work, the even higher cost of getting the product wrong. 2. Long technology development cycles. 3. The limited number of people with an appetite for the risks inherent in founding or working at a start-up. 4. The structure of the venture capital industry, in which a small number of firms each needed to invest big sums in a handful of start-ups to have a chance at conclusion internship significant returns. 5. The concentration of The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso, real expertise in how to build start-ups, which in the United States was mostly found in pockets on conclusion internship report, the East and foreign policy, West coasts. (This is conclusion internship, less an issue in mcdonalds, Europe and other parts of the world, but even overseas there are geographic entrepreneurial hot spots.)

The lean approach reduces the internship report first two constraints by helping new ventures launch products that customers actually want, far more quickly and cheaply than traditional methods, and the third by making start-ups less risky. Mcdonalds Age To Work! And it has emerged at a time when other business and internship report, technology trends are likewise breaking down the barriers to start-up formation. The combination of all these forces is altering the entrepreneurial landscape. Today open source software, like GitHub, and numbing cream, cloud services, such as Amazon Web Services, have slashed the cost of internship, software development from Picasso millions of dollars to thousands. Hardware start-ups no longer have to build their own factories, since offshore manufacturers are so easily accessible. Indeed, it’s become quite common to see young tech companies that practice the lean start-up methodology offer software products that are simply “bits” delivered over the web or hardware that’s built in China within weeks of being formed.

Consider Roominate, a start-up designed to inspire girls’ confidence and interest in science, technology, engineering, and conclusion internship report, math. Once its founders had finished testing and iterating on the design of nmru login, their wired dollhouse kit, they sent the specs off to a contract manufacturer in China. Three weeks later the first products arrived. Lean start-up practices aren’t just for young tech ventures. Large companies, such as GE and Intuit, have begun to implement them. Another important trend is the conclusion decentralization of best numbing for waxing, access to financing. Venture capital used to be a tight club of formal firms clustered near Silicon Valley, Boston, and report, New York.

In today’s entrepreneurial ecosystem, new super angel funds, smaller than the traditional hundred-million-dollar-sized VC fund, can make early-stage investments. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso! Worldwide, hundreds of accelerators, like Y Combinator and TechStars, have begun to formalize seed investments. And crowdsourcing sites like Kickstarter provide another, more democratic method of conclusion internship report, financing start-ups. The instantaneous availability of information is also a boon to today’s new ventures. Before the stalin internet, new company founders got advice only as often as they could have coffee with experienced investors or entrepreneurs. Today the biggest challenge is sorting through the overwhelming amount of start-up advice they get.

The lean concepts provide a framework that helps you differentiate the good from the bad. Lean start-up techniques were initially designed to create fast-growing tech ventures. But I believe the concepts are equally valid for creating the conclusion report Main Street small businesses that make up the bulk of the economy. If the entire universe of small business embraced them, I strongly suspect it would increase growth and efficiency, and nmru login, have a direct and conclusion, immediate impact on GDP and employment. There are signs that this may in best for waxing, fact happen.

In 2011 the U.S. Conclusion Internship Report! National Science Foundation began using lean methods to commercialize basic science research in a program called the Innovation Corps. Eleven universities now teach the methods to hundreds of teams of senior research scientists across the United States. MBA programs are adopting these techniques, too. For years they taught students to apply large-company approaches—such as accounting methods for tracking revenue and cash flow, and organizational theories about managing—to start-ups. Yet start-ups face completely different issues. Now business schools are realizing that new ventures need their own management tools. As business schools embrace the distinction between management execution and hitler foreign, searching for a business model, they’re abandoning the internship report business plan as the foreign policy template for entrepreneurial education.

And the business plan competitions that have been a celebrated part of the MBA experience for over a decade are being replaced by business model competitions. (Harvard Business School became the latest to make this switch, in conclusion report, 2012.) Stanford, Harvard, Berkeley, and Columbia are leading the charge and embracing the lean start-up curriculum. Stealth Marketing! My Lean LaunchPad course for educators is now training over 250 college and university instructors a year. A New Strategy for the 21st-Century Corporation. It’s already becoming clear that lean start-up practices are not just for young tech ventures. Corporations have spent the conclusion report past 20 years increasing their efficiency by driving down costs. But simply focusing on improving existing business models is not enough anymore. Almost every large company understands that it also needs to nmru login, deal with ever-increasing external threats by continually innovating. To ensure their survival and growth, corporations need to internship report, keep inventing new business models. This challenge requires entirely new organizational structures and skills. Over the years managerial experts such as Clayton Christensen, Rita McGrath, Vijay Govindarajan, Henry Chesbrough, Ian MacMillan, Alexander Osterwalder, and marketing, Eric von Hippel have advanced the thinking on how large companies can improve their innovation processes. During the past three years, however, we have seen large companies, including General Electric, Qualcomm, and Intuit, begin to implement the lean start-up methodology.

GE’s Energy Storage division, for instance, is using the approach to transform the way it innovates. In 2010 Prescott Logan, the general manager of the division, recognized that a new battery developed by the unit had the potential to disrupt the industry. Instead of preparing to build a factory, scale up production, and launch the new offering (ultimately named Durathon) as a traditional product extension, Logan applied lean techniques. He started searching for a business model and engaging in customer discovery. He and conclusion internship, his team met face-to-face with dozens of global prospects to explore potential new markets and how did stalin gain power, applications. These weren’t sales calls: The team members left their PowerPoint slides behind and listened to customers’ issues and frustrations with the conclusion report battery status quo. They dug deep to marketing, learn how customers bought industrial batteries, how often they used them, and conclusion internship, the operating conditions. With this feedback, they made a major shift in best numbing for waxing, their customer focus. They eliminated one of their initial target segments, data centers, and conclusion, discovered a new one—utilities. In addition, they narrowed the broad customer segment of “telecom” to cell phone providers in developing countries with unreliable electric grids. Eventually GE invested $100 million to build a world-class battery manufacturing facility in nmru login, Schenectady, New York, which it opened in 2012.

According to press reports, demand for the new batteries is so high that GE is already running a backlog of orders. The first hundred years of management education focused on building strategies and tools that formalized execution and efficiency for existing businesses. Now, we have the first set of tools for searching for report, new business models as we launch start-up ventures. It also happens to have arrived just in time to help existing companies deal with the mcdonalds work forces of continual disruption. In the 21st century those forces will make people in every kind of organization—start-ups, small businesses, corporations, and government—feel the pressure of rapid change.

The lean start-up approach will help them meet it head-on, innovate rapidly, and transform business as we know it.

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45 Quick Changes That Help Your Resume Get Noticed. The Muse Editor. There is certainly a time and a place for a resume overhaul. Report. Taking a couple hours to really clean up your resume is worth doing before you start a job search, or even just once a year as a tune-up. But sometimes, you don’t have that kind of time. Foreign. Sometimes, you just have a few minutes, and you want to spend them giving your resume a quick polishing-up. And for those times, we made you this list of internship report, resume updates that only take a few minutes, but that can make a big difference in making your resume shine.

Choose how much time you have, pick a (mini) project, and get ready for your resume to be that much more eye-catching. Ready, switch the mcdonalds work font of your resume to Helvetica, Arial, or Times New Roman—in other words, make sure it’s not hard to conclusion read (or stuck in Word’s standard Calibri). Using a common, clean font may not make your resume the prettiest out there, but it will make it more readable (and less likely to be rejected by applicant tracking systems). Best For Waxing. 2. Conclusion Internship. Remove “References Available Upon Request” If they want references, they’ll ask for stalin gain them!), and use the extra space to add a detail about conclusion your abilities or accomplishments. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working professional who wants to work in [blank] industry” is a bit obvious—why else would you be submitting your resume?—and takes up valuable space.

Save your resume as a PDF if it’s in any other format. That way, the formatting won’t get messed up when your resume is opened on a different computer. (To see exceptions to this rule, click here.) Change the file name from “Resume” to “[First Name] [Last Name] Resume”—it makes things easier for hiring managers and ensures your resume doesn’t get lost in the crowd. If you’re not local, recruiters might not look any further. If you are, recruiters may take your commute time into foreign policy, account and turn you down if they think it would be too long. In its place, add a link to your LinkedIn profile, as well as any other relevant social media handles (Twitter if it’s professional, Instagram or Flickr if you’re applying to social media or creative positions). Caveat: Never include Facebook, no matter how clean you keep it. Don’t want to drop your whole ugly LinkedIn URL onto your resume? (Hint: You shouldn’t.) Create a custom URL to your public profile using simply /yourname (or some similar, simple variation if somebody already has your name). LinkedIn has instructions on its website. Your resume is most likely going to be read on conclusion internship a computer, so making things like your email address, LinkedIn and other social profiles, and personal websites clickable makes it easier for the recruiter to learn more about you.

Omit any references to hitler foreign policy your birthdate, marital status, or religion. Conclusion. Since it’s illegal for employers to hitler policy consider this when looking at internship report your application (at least in the U.S.), they can’t request it (and offering it makes you look a little clueless). If you’re more than three years out of nmru login, college, remove your graduation year. Recruiters only really want to know that you got a degree, and you don't want them to inadvertently discriminate based on conclusion internship your age. While you’re at it, do a little rearranging, and move education down below your experience. Unless you’re a recent graduate, chances are your last one or two jobs are more important and of Pablo relevant to you getting the job. To improve readability, increase the conclusion internship report line spacing (also called leading) to at least 120% of the nmru login font size. To do this in Word, go to Format and select Paragraph. Conclusion Report. In the pulldown under Line Spacing, choose Exactly and set the spacing to two points above the size of numbing cream, your font (so, 12 if your font is 10 point). Conclusion Report. Need a little more space to hitler work with? Reduce your top and bottom margins to 0.5 and your side margins to no less than 0.75.

This will keep your resume clean and readable but give you more room to conclusion talk about what you've got. Remove anything high school-related unless you’re a year out of college or need to bulk up your resume and how did gain did something highly relevant (and awesome) during your high school years. Internship. Add any new skills you’ve gained, and remove anything that is a little dated (nobody wants to hear that you have Microsoft Word experience anymore—they expect it). If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own (“Language Skills” or “Software Skills”). Make sure formatting is best cream for waxing, consistent across your resume. You want all headers to report be in the same style, all indentations to line up, all bullet points to match, and best for waxing the like. You don’t want the styling to look sloppy! Find any acronyms, and write out the full name of the conclusion title, certification, or organization. Cream. You should include both, at least the first time, to conclusion report make sure the recruiter knows what you’re talking about and nmru login so an conclusion, applicant tracking system will pick it up no matter which format it is how did stalin, looking for.

For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Unless you are a designer or are submitting a (carefully crafted) creative resume, remove any photos or visual elements. On a more traditional resume, they generally just distract from the information at hand (and can confuse applicant tracking systems). If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, swap out the usual start and end dates for each position with years only (e.g., 2010-2012). Swap out conclusion internship, a couple of your boring verbs for stealth marketing some more powerful (and interesting) ones. Check out our list if you need inspiration. Swap out a couple of generic adjectives or titles (words like “detail-oriented” or “experienced” are overused and don’t tell a recruiter much) with stronger language that better describes your more unique strengths. Conclusion Internship Report. 24. List Your Promotions Correctly.

Worked multiple jobs within the same organization? Learn how to nmru login list them right on internship report your resume, then update it as such. As a rule, you should only stealth show the most recent 10 to 15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Conclusion Internship Report. So if you have anything really dated or random, remove it and nmru login use the conclusion internship space to bulk up other sections or add something more relevant. Go through line by line and how did stalin gain take note of any orphan words (single words left on report a line by nmru login themselves). See how you can edit the conclusion internship previous line so they can fit—making your resume look cleaner and opening up extra lines for you to do other things with. Make your document easier to skim by adding divider lines between sections. Check out section three of this great guide for how did power instructions.

Include any numbers on your resume? Go through and change them all to numerical form, instead of written out conclusion, (i.e., 30% instead of thirty percent). Policy. Even small numbers that are often spelled out should be written numerically—it makes them pop to the reviewer and conclusion report saves space. This will not only help you catch any spelling or grammar errors, but it will also help you notice any sentences that sound awkward or that are hard to understand. Look at mcdonalds age to work your resume “above the fold.” In other words, take a close look at conclusion the top third of hitler foreign, your resume—the part that will show up on the screen when the hiring manager clicks “open” on that PDF. That’s what’s going to make your first impression—so make sure it serves as a hook that makes the hiring manager eager to read more. Make sure you have no more than six to conclusion internship seven bullet points for any given position. If you do? Cut and condense. No matter how long you’ve been in a job or how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to age to get through them.

Give your resume to someone who doesn’t know you well to look at for 30 seconds. Then ask: What are the internship report three most memorable things? What’s the narrative? Take this feedback and think about how you can adjust your resume to The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso Essay get it closer to where you want. Similarly, drop your resume into a word cloud generator and conclusion report see which keywords are popping out.

If the most prominent ones aren’t what you want to be remembered by, or if there are important words that aren’t present, think about how you can tweak your resume to make that more clear. Stealth Marketing. Go through your bullet points, and add as many numbers and percentages as you can to quantify your work. How many people were impacted? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? (And, yes, it’s OK to estimate as long as you can roughly prove it.) Pick a few statements to take one step further, and add in conclusion internship report, what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. 36. Consider Adding a Qualifications Section. Perhaps in lieu of policy, your now-deleted “Career Objective?” This should be a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section that concisely presents the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences.

By doing this, you’re both appeasing any applicant tracking systems with keywords and giving the conclusion hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top. 37. Update Your Header to Make it Pop. You don’t have to have a ton of numbing cream, design knowledge to make a header that looks sleek and catches a recruiter’s eye. Conclusion Internship Report. (Hint: Use this same header on your resume and cover letter to numbing cream make your “personal brand” look really put together.) Need to fill up more space on your resume, or feel like you’re light on conclusion the experience? There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, freelanced, or blogged? Add a couple of these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If you need more space on your resume, check and see if any of marketing, your formatting decisions are taking up unnecessary space. Does your header take up too much at the top? Do you have any extra line breaks that you don’t really need? Tinker around with the formatting and conclusion report see how much space you can open up (without your resume looking crowded or messy). 40. Make Your Bullet Points Make Sense. Nmru Login. Look at each bullet point and make sure it’s understandable to the average person.

Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Download this free resume template so you’ll look extra polished. Report. Make sure all of the The Sexuality Essay experience on conclusion report your resume is updated. Add any awards you’ve received, new skills you’ve taken on, articles you’ve published, or anything else awesome you’ve done. Hop over to your LinkedIn profile, and Essay make any updates you’ve just made to your resume to your summary and experience sections there. Email three of your friends or professional contacts asking (nicely!) for a peek at their resumes.

You might be able to get some inspiration for your own (or even help them out). Find an awesome job to apply to with one of our partner companies, then get started on your cover letter with our easy-to-follow guide. WANT YOUR RESUME TO HELP YOU GET A JOB? Of course you do. Internship. Photo of person editing resume courtesy of Picasso, Hero Images/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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code chivalry essay The Mafia is oppression, arrogance, greed, self-enrichment, power and hegemony above and against all others. It is conclusion not an abstract concept, or a state of mind, or a literary term. It is a criminal organization regulated by unwritten but iron and inexorable rules. Power? The myth of a courageous and generous 'man of honor' must be destroyed, because a mafioso is just the opposite. -- Cesare Terranova, Italian Magistrate murdered in 1979. It exists. It is conclusion internship report a symptom of Sicily's endemic political corruption and a general cynicism regarding public institutions and the criminal justice system, its life sustained by a widespread mentality which breeds a general distrust in even the youngest Sicilians - distrust of everybody and every thing. The people who claim or imply that the international Mafia does not exist or is not very powerful (and that unfortunately has included one or two Italian-American ethnic organisations despite news of the Mafia in mcdonalds work, American publications such as Time and Newsweek ) are either in denial, intentionally deceptive, self-serving or plain ignorant. Four pervasive myths about the Sicilian Mafia - as opposed to the American, Calabrian, Apulian or Neapolitan forms of organized crime - should be dispelled. • The Mafia has a centralized organizational structure with a single man at the top, like a Pope.

This has never been true, although one infamous mafioso was indeed nicknamed The Pope. Internship? Vizzini, Genco Russo, Greco, Riina, Provenzano, Lo Piccolo and (now) Messina Denaro never controlled the mcdonalds age to work entire Sicilian Mafia, which has been compared to a hydra or octopus. Report? At best, they briefly, informally oversaw the cupola or commission that administers it loosely and collectively, but which would never risk regular meetings. Best? There is not, and never has been, a true capo dei capi (head of heads) of the Mafia or the Camorra (the Neapolitan brand of organized crime) in the manner of internship a Pope, CEO or general at the head of a rigidly structured organization. It is for this reason that decapitation is impossible. Italian investigators and prosecutors know this, yet they also know that less-important mafia bosses tacitly defer to more powerful ones, especially in hitler policy, certain matters involving foreign (international) business or, for example, the murder of a high-profile figure like a judge or senator. Within each cosca or cell, of conclusion internship report course, there are ranks. • The Mafia is hereditary, based on families. Times change, but until the foreign 1950s the Sicilian Mafia was not based on families but simply on geographical zones of internship report influence (Palermo, Catania, Corleone).

Calogero Vizzini, Michele Greco, Salvatore Totò Riina and Tommaso Buscetta were not the sons or near relatives of mafiosi. Nmru Login? However, the Italianate forms of Mafia that flourish outside Sicily eventually developed a hereditary system of leadership. That includes mainland Italy and internship the Americas. In the United States, there historically was a blurry cultural distinction between the true Mafia of Lucky Luciano and stalin power the gangsterism of Al Capone. The cosche (literally but inaccurately clans) are not actual families but local territorial cells which include many people, of various ranks, who are unrelated to each other.

That said, nowadays it isn't too unusual for a young mafioso to wed the internship sister or cousin of a fellow mafioso, or for the leader of a cosca to favor his own son with a certain benefit, such as extorting the pizzo in a specific neighborhood. There have also been cases of the wives of incarcerated mafiosi managing their husbands' affairs, including murder and numbing for waxing extortion, especially in internship, Catania. • The Mafia was supported by cream, the nobility and the Catholic Church. By the twentieth century mafiosi were extorting money from aristocrats and by conclusion, the end of the stealth marketing same century they were killing priests. Report? One might make a case that certain landholding aristocrats and mcdonalds higher clergy, including a few bishops, condoned the actions of the Mafia when it was expedient, but sweeping generalizations are unjustified. For example, the land reforms of conclusion internship 1948 dividing the large rural estates were opposed by the nobles who owned these properties, and certain mafiosi worked for these landholders as land managers. Until the twentieth century the mcdonalds age to work Church in Italy rarely took a strong position on any progressive social issue, so (for example) divorce was legalized in conclusion report, the country only in hitler foreign policy, 1974. If anything, we could say that the Mafia was sometimes facilitated by corrupt politicians who, like most Italians, were Catholic. It is true, however, that the Mafia flourished for a long time because the Church and the ruling class failed to recognize it as a threat to the very fabric of society.

• The Mafia traces its roots to the Middle Ages. This is conclusion perhaps the most ridiculous myth of all. While the closed, secretive mentality that fostered the development of secret criminal societies such as the Beati Paoli became commonplace with the Inquisition and Spanish rule during the sixteenth century, and though banditry in the countryside increased over time, the age to Mafia as organized crime (not just a Sicilian word having other meanings) did not exist until late in the eighteenth century at the very earliest. Only fantasists believe that it originated during the War of the Vespers, a revolt organized by the nobility, in 1282. Phenomena such as widespread charlatanry and professional incompetence, nepotism and the overuse of job preferments have helped it along by conclusion internship, discouraging transparency at every level of the hitler economy. Until the fifteenth century the feudal life of Sicily was little different from that of any other part of western Europe. The history of the internship report Mafia is marketing not as elusive as pundits, novelists and screenwriters would have you believe. Protection rackets (the pizzo) and the narcotics trade still exist, of course, with the report Mafia funnelling its ill-won profits into businesses such as supermarket and hotel chains across Sicily and hitler foreign even in northern Italy. But a phenomenon which has worsened in recent years is the report widespread theft of European Commission funding destined, in principle, for Sicilian economic development. Bribes, kickbacks and how did power outright theft by politicians closely allied with (or actually members of) the Mafia has been a fact of life in Sicily for a long time. The Mafia owns shopping centers, apartment blocks and construction firms that receive public contracts.

It extorts hundreds of millions of euros each year to buy ever more such businesses. In addition to politicians, many lawyers, doctors and architects are directly involved with the Mafia. It is a cancer that hides for a while but just won't die. Considering its profound influence on conclusion internship, Sicilian life, no history of best numbing for waxing twentieth-century Sicily can be complete or accurate without mentioning the most famous Sicilian fraternity. Tragically, the Mafia (and extreme political corruption generally) is the single socio-economic factor that distinguishes Sicily's economic base from those of other European Mediterranean regions such as Spain and Portugal - though it appears that Greece also has some serious problems with public spending and corruption. Report? It is one of the numbing cream world's most enduring criminal organizations, and one of the most serious social problems confronting Sicily today. In recent times, it has murdered judges, priests and children - though with its increasing grip on the legal economy (public contracts, stores, restaurants) - this rarely happens nowadays. Its hierarchy and vernacular are a reflection of Sicilian society itself, complete with religious allusions: Its ruling council is the Cupola, Michele Greco, was nicknamed The Pope, a leader of clans.

But, like the nobility, the Mafia is all but invisible. You probably won't see it if you visit Sicily. You probably won't see many of its effects, either, unless you look very closely. Those who presume that today's Sicilians do not think about the Mafia are sorely mistaken. Anti-Mafia organisations such as Addio Pizzo (of which Best of Sicily is a member) have done much to encourage merchants and other business owners to stand up against the Mafia, but there is still much work to be done. Banditry and conclusion internship report murder had been fairly commonplace since the mcdonalds age to Middle Ages, but the Mafia has existed as a loose network of conclusion local criminals only since the nmru login latter decades of the eighteenth century or the early years of the conclusion internship report nineteenth. Like the nobility, its roots are feudal. Indeed, the early history of the Mafia is well known. Many people incorrectly presume the mcdonalds age to Mafia to be the cause of certain social problems. Conclusion Report? In fact, it is the effect - the result of centuries of bizarre practices such as raccomandazioni (job preferments) which colour every facet of how did gain power life in Sicily, making it a fertile breeding ground for all forms of corruption, dishonesty and conclusion internship report criminality.

Nepotism (even in university positions) doesn't help matters, either. In such a climate, organised crime represents just one small step beyond the unfortunate conditions that already exist. In Sicily politicians literally buy votes with promises of employment or other gifts. The popular perception of mafiosi as Robin Hoods or even knights is misleading, but it is based on age to work, general distrust of authority and - until very recently - the historical laxity of law enforcement in conclusion report, protecting citizens. This situation has improved somewhat in recent years but still persists among the popolino, Sicily's large underclass. Work? From being friends of the friends, the more important mafiosi became known as men of conclusion internship report honor.

In truth, the Mafia code is the antithesis of the code of chivalry - or at best a bizarre interpretation of how did it. Sicilians' clannish nature (marriages arranged by parents were known into the twentieth century) created a favorable climate for the mafiosi. Omertà literally means manhood, and refers to the idea of a man resolving his own problems, but the term has become synonomous with the Mafia's code of silence. The duel, however, gave way to conclusion report, the vendetta and contract killings. There is how did stalin gain power no reliable historical record of conclusion report a duel between mafiosi, but there have been plenty of murders and, given its structure as a secret society. The freemasons certainly aided Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily in 1860 but so, it is believed, did some Mafia bands, even if they were not a decisive factor in his victory. In the same year, it was suggested to King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies that the Comorra, a Neapolitan organization similar to the Mafia, kill Garibaldi and hitler policy his officers upon conclusion internship their arrival in Naples. The King refused his subjects' offer. incredibly, the plan might have actually worked.

The Modern Mafia. A famous play, I Mafiusi della Vicaria, first performed in stalin power, 1863, described the Mafia as an organization complete with initiation rites, though folk historian Giuseppe Pitré's interpretation of Mafia history has been largely discounted as whimsical or at least highly embellished. By 1900, the conclusion internship black hand was identified with the The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso friends of the friends. They were one and the same, and each town (or city quarter) had its resident capo (chief). When the Fascists rose to power, Mussolini's Iron Prefect, Cesare Mori, threw most of internship report them in prison. In reality, the relationship between the Fascists and the Mafia was that of nmru login one group of report criminals pitted against another - two wolves fighting over the same chicken coop. The wartime collaboration of Sicilian-born Salvatore Lucky Luciano with the United States Navy may have made the aftermath of the Allied invasion of Sicily smoother than it otherwise might have been, but there is no evidence that the Sicilians in 1943 were any less welcoming of the The Sexuality of Pablo Essay Allies than the residents of Piedmont and Lombardy were two years later. Luciano's real influence was at internship, the Port of New York.

The Iron Prefect's enforcement of the Duce's laws had already made most mafiosi sympathetic to the American cause, or at least hostile to the Fascist one. The surrender, without even token resistance, of foreign thousands of Italian troops at Pantelleria, shortly before the main attack on Sicily, made it clear that most Italian recruits were unwilling to risk their lives for a lost cause - or perhaps for any cause. The Allies made mafiosi like Calogero Vizzini, of Villalba, provisional mayors who easily won election a few years later. It was easy for these men, imprisoned by Mussolini's regime without the benefit of a fair trial, to pose as anti-Fascists or even political prisoners. Conclusion? Under any political system, Vizzini, who died in 1954, was a murderer, plain and simple. In the immediate postwar years, as the hitler foreign Mafia set about the task of re-organizing its activities, several freelance bandits roamed the countryside. The most popular, Salvatore Giuliano, came closest to the image of conclusion internship a modern Robin Hood, and supported a separatist movement that favored an independent Sicily, perhaps as part of the of Pablo Picasso Essay United States.

Men like Giuliano were not mafiosi. Indeed, the mafiosi resented and perhaps even feared them. With the death of Calogero Vizzini, the Mafia slid into the realm of what Sicily's mafiosi later derided as gangsterism, a more reckless American style of conclusion internship report crime. In 1957, the Sicilian Mafia re-established ties with their brethren in marketing, the United States and Canada. It was Lucky Luciano, of all people, who orchestrated the alliance. Unlike Vizzini and his generation, the new Sicilian men of honor were vastasi (uncouth people) who made no pretension whatsoever at being gentlemen. Whereas, in public at least, Vizzini and people like him maintained a veneer of conclusion internship civility, and might even pass for dignified country squires, it was clear that newcomers like Giuseppe Genco Russo, Michele Greco and nmru login Luciano Leggio, though furbi (sly) in internship, certain respects, were essentially vulgar by nature. Men of honor and the code of honor, if either had ever existed in fact, vanished in a flurry of murders.

By the 1970s, even women and mcdonalds work children were not spared in the carnage. While the Mafia controlled building construction (effectively destroying large historical districts) and vast sectors of the economy (the meat trade, for example) and developed a successful heroin trade, the conclusion pizzo (extortion through protection money) remained a cornerstone of nmru login its system for generating revenue, day-by-day, year after year. As there were not yet laws against organised crime, people such as social activist Danilo Dolci were successfully prosecuted for defaming people who they publicly stated were mafiosi, and who in fact were! During the 1960s, the Sicilian Cupola and the American Commission began to conclusion, seriously cooperate in the narcotics trade, despite their expressed sentiment that heroin and cocaine were somehow less respectable products than extortion and murder. Stealth Marketing? The Sicilian faction was still more ruthless than its American counterpart, often resorting to the murder of judges and other public officials, as well as journalists, whose activities they considered inconvenient. Palermo's Falcone-Borsellino Airport is named after two such judges, and there is a monument in Piazza 13 Vittime (13 Victims), at the end of conclusion internship Palermo's Via Cavour, dedicated to the memory of people killed by the Mafia. Politicians as Mafiosi. In postwar Sicily's larger cities, mafiosi gradually infiltrated the building trades and bought their way into most government-run agencies. Hitler Foreign? Why are the newer districts of Palermo full of ugly buildings but lacking in green parks and efficient parking areas? Because the urban planning was undertaken by criminals.

The Mafia, albeit often indirectly, built nearly half of the conclusion internship new city of Palermo, where several corrupt officials literally sold building permits to Mafia front-men. Nmru Login? A similar situation emerged in Catania. And the Mafia built (and still indirectly operates) a few of Sicily's largest hotels. The Catholic Church has not always helped matters. Some priests now speak out against internship the Mafia (though pastors of Corleone, traditionally a Mafia stronghold, have not usually been among them), and at least one cleric was murdered for doing so. In the 1960s, however, a Cardinal Archbishop of Palermo issued a statement that the Mafia had never existed, and policy that author Giuseppe di Lampedusa, along with Danilo Dolci, had defamed Sicilians by implying that, among other things, most western Sicilians were secretive by nature or habit, and that the Mafia does indeed exist. How does such an organization survive into the twenty-first century?

It has a great deal to conclusion internship report, do with social factors - things like high unemployment, widespread lack of confidence in the competence of law enforcement authorities, distrust of the state. But the general secretiveness of the people is one of the main reasons organised crime is still so powerful in the Italian South, where common folk often seem suspicious of even the most ordinary social forces. Best For Waxing? The Italian ethos is based on the realities of everyday life: Italians presume that their elected leaders are thieves motivated by internship report, greed. Businessmen presume that associates will steal at The Sexuality, the first opportunity. Labor unions presume that employers will seek to internship report, exploit employees whenever possible. Marketing? Spouses presume that marital infidelity is simply a question of human nature, and report even use a particular word, cornuto, to describe cuckolded husbands.

As we've said, a large part of certain economic sectors (hotels, transportation, supermarkets, construction) are controlled by Mafiosi. In a land without a tangible industrial base, public monies are the stalin gain Mafia's main target. Everything has its price. Internship? Most politicians (Left and numbing cream Right) can be bought, and conclusion internship the same holds true for managers of most larger banks and utilities. In Sicily, many (if not most) public or semi-public jobs are sold for money or - in rarer cases - sex. The Sexuality Of Pablo Picasso Essay? (An attractive, educated but unemployed young woman is easy prey in a region with a perpetual 30% unemployment rate.) Public contracts are assigned - actually sold - in exchange for bribes and kickbacks.

Everybody expects a substantial kickback (usually at least 10%), from the politician who gets you a public advertising or construction project to internship report, the event organizer who gets your musical group a gig in mcdonalds age to work, the local music festival. In business, money laundering is a way of life. It's all part of conclusion report The New Mafia. In such a climate, the pizzo (protection money) and revenue through legitimate businesses set up with Mafia money are still important. Buying the European Commission. Against such a backdrop, one easily understands that the Mafia is not always the primary cause of organised crime in Sicily. More often, it is a simple symptom of the corruption that permeates almost every aspect of public and professional life in Sicily. How Did Gain Power? New corruption is born every day: In recent years, certain local politicians who have spoken against conclusion the Mafia have covertly purchased large sections of Palermo's historical district through front companies (there were no public auctions), and given well-paying consulting jobs to their friends and relations. Sicilians call it mafiosità , the Mafia-like mentality so prevalent in Sicilian life, especially among politicians and business people.

This doesn't always mean that somebody is a mafioso per se, just that he behaves like one. Mafiosetta is the Sicilian term for Picasso Essay an attractive young woman who acts in this way. Clientelism, nepotism and the excessive use of recommendations to assign everything from conclusion report public construction contracts to clerical jobs foster widespread corruption, and therefore organised crime. Picasso Essay? Bribery and kickbacks (the Italian word is bustarella for the envelope, busta, in which the internship report money is paid) are normal in Sicily. Billions of dollars poured into marketing the Sicilian economy by conclusion internship, the World Bank, the United States, the European Commission and the central Italian government have ended up in the hands of corrupt politicians, consultants and others who, in many instances, were connected to the Mafia in some way. In many cases, the how did power children or grandchildren of Mafiosi and Mafia-collaborators who stole money earmarked for Sicilian development under the Marshall Plan decades ago are now respectable citizens who one would not overtly associate with organised crime. In other words, the internship report families have become legitimate. To many Sicilians, wealth is viewed as an end in itself; the methods employed to gain it are of little importance so long as misdeeds go unpunished. It's no secret that the criminal justice system does not function very well in Italy. Gain Power? And where there is report no law, there is no sin. The sale of jobs is not limited to banks, national companies (telecommunications, energy, airlines) and public administration.

Until the 1990s, military promotions in Italy (in the Carabinieri and Army) to colonel or general were often based on bribes equal to around €20,000, linked to power, a recommendation, of course. Hence the lack of conclusion prestige attached to how did stalin, such ranks. All things considered, it's no wonder that the Sicilian economy is a disaster. It's rather embarrassing when the first large-scale organ transplant unit in Sicily (ISMETT) is established only in the late 1990s, and then with the help of an American hospital. It makes Sicily seem like an under-developed country.

Were it not so ironic, it would be amusing to internship report, see the deceptive manner in nmru login, which officials often disguise their efforts to exploit the status quo by overtly supporting pointless anti-Mafia public awareness campaigns while robbing public monies. Sadly, the European Commission and conclusion the central Italian government continue to nmru login, support many so-called development projects in Sicily, few of which result in little more than untaxed wealth for the projects' managers. Internship Report? Indeed, the phenomenon has spawned an entire industry as politicians and their friends scramble to propose projects with grossly inflated budgets. In the 1980s, a new profession, that of the progettista , was born. Hitler Foreign? The term refers to the project consultant who seeks European Commission funds on internship, behalf of mcdonalds work a town, association or governmental agency (presumably one lacking personnel competent to know how to manage public money efficiently, as though that were an esoteric art), and then spends these monies, taking a large commission for internship himself and his cohorts. To many Sicilians, the progettisti are new mafiosi, or perhaps new robber barons. Considering the vast investments involved, the tangible results are precious few, apart from expensive vacation homes for the project administrators themselves. One can only conclude that Sicilian progettisti, Mafia proponents or Sicilian politicians have in some way infiltrated or corrupted elements of the European Commission in The Sexuality Picasso, Brussels.

It's a long way from stealing cattle in the mountains. The Discovery of America. Our discussion concentrates on conclusion internship, the Mafia in Sicily . It is The Sexuality of Pablo Picasso worth mentioning, however, that outside Italy, the internship Mafia and its progeny have been the object of every form of gain power fame that modern society carries in its sophisticated cinematic arsenal. The first films to depict the internship Mafia in an appealing light were made not in hitler policy, Italy, but in the United States, where authors like the late Mario Puzo presented American mafiosi as pseudo-aristocrats. It is an image still bolstered by conclusion, television and cinematic portrayals despite the numbing cream for waxing fact that the American Mafia, if indeed it ever conformed very closely to such stereotypes, has been overshadowed in its own country by criminal organizations from South America, the Far East and Russia.

In Italy, films such as I Grimaldi (The Grimaldis) present the conclusion internship report glossy cinematic portrayal of the homegrown version of the stealth Mafia based on the American model, complete with lavish homes, luxury cars and attractive, well-dressed people (its use of the name of the ruling dynasty of Monaco implicitly associating mafiosi with royalty). This is an image that contrasts sharply with the conclusion report reality we see on the evening newscasts - of plump, ugly men with unattractive wives and ordinary cars, living underground as latitanti (fugitives) despite their wealth. When Bernardo Provenzano, a Mafia boss, was finally arrested, he was living in a makeshift bunker outside his native Corleone. On the marketing other side of the ocean, several Italian-American cultural organisations decry the persistent cinematic image as nothing less than bigotry, citing the (accurate) statistic that fewer than one percent of Italo-Americans are in the Mafia. A few of these organisations, echoing the conclusion internship official position held by the FBI until the 1970s, denied the The Sexuality Essay very existence of the Mafia until it was mentioned in criminal cases in federal courts in the 1980s.

Until then, anti-defamation lobbying garnered some isolated and conclusion unexpected results; it was strange, for instance, to work, hear references to the syndicate in American telefilms when everybody knew from context that the teleplays' characters were referring to the Mafia, which American mafiosi usually referred to as our thing or our business. Sicilians laugh at the charming Italo-American myth that the internship report Mafia doesn't exist, but they also enjoy The Sopranos and Goodfellas. Unfortunately, cultural factors have sometimes added to the confusion; to outsiders, New Yorkers Rudolph Giuliani and John Gotti seemed to for waxing, represent opposite sides of the same ethnic coin, and the negative side of that coin still appeals to conclusion internship report, some of nmru login America's Italian descendants in search of an internship report, easily-acquired cultural identity, the so-called guido. Marketing? Renting The Godfather trilogy at the DVD store is easier than reading Dante's Divine Comedy . The Freshman and Married to conclusion internship report, the Mob were successful parodies, while The Untouchables and Essay Goodfellas presented a slightly more accurate, and less varnished, view of the Mafia in America. In Italy, the cultural element creates fewer complexities.

Italians recognise that today's mafiosi are drawn from the lowest social stratum, and nobody outside that (rather large) social class would ever aspire to be a mafioso. Collaborating with the Mafia, however, is another story. It is impossible to separate the Mafia from today's Sicilian political corruption. Indeed, it is this aspect of Sicilian life which permits the Mafia's survival. Its adaptability has always distinguished the report Mafia. Best? Now that heroin smuggling is passé the organisation has infiltrated many parts of the legitimate economy. This is more than mere money laundering. Mafia front men (often associates not yet tainted by conclusion internship, criminal records) have established everything from supermarkets and shopping malls to stores selling computers and cell phones. Stealth Marketing? These businesses - a source of revenue in conclusion, themselves - feed the Mafia.

So do betting parlors and bingo salons. Crime and Punishment. The 1980s saw greater international collaboration in Mafia cases, especially between the Italian and American governments. The former passed a law against associazione mafiosa (Mafia-type association), whose effects are similar to those of the American RICO Statutes. Unlike Americans, Italians refer to organized crime not for the sake of euphemism but because there are so many independent criminal organizations in Italy (the Mafia in Sicily, the Comorra in hitler, Naples, etc.). Mafiosi are occasionally (if not routinely) jailed, and sentences are fairly harsh for the worse offenders.

Some of the captured mafiosi have begun to turn state's evidence, actually breaking the code of silence to unmask their accomplices. The most famous of these pentiti is Tommaso Buscetta. Italy has no death penalty, and leftists want to make life sentences illegal. Report? Despite the laws regarding Mafia association, the burden of legal proof required for conviction is very high. Unfortunately, while it's sometimes easy enough to confiscate a chain of supermarkets or even a clinic owned by mafiosi (yes, they're in health care too), the related matters of bribery and corruption in public life are more difficult to address.

Many Sicilians, including judges Giuseppe Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, have literally given their lives in the war against the Mafia. Some of gain power Sicily's more prominent politicians would have us believe that the Mafia is nearly extinct. (Perhaps those who promote such a fantasy are themselves involved with it in some way.) Reports of its early demise are greatly exaggerated. Though by now somewhat dated, the most authoritative book published in conclusion report, English on stealth marketing, the Sicilian Mafia is the late Claire Sterling's Octopus - The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia (New York and London 1990). Its extensive bibliography provides a wealth of material for anybody interested in internship report, reading further on this topic. Our history of the Mafia presents information on its origins.