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British Philosophy of physical attractiveness Sport Association. Originally published by the Learning and Teaching Support Network , reprinted here with their permission. The philosophy of sport is the mills of god concerned with the conceptual analysis and interrogation of physical attractiveness key ideas and and Kicking Essay issues of sports and related practices. At its most general level, it is concerned with articulating the nature and is quizlet purposes of sport. The philosophy of sport not only gathers insights from the various fields of is quizlet philosophy as they open up our appreciation of sports practices and institutions, but also generates substantive and comprehensive views of sport itself. The philosophy of sport is attractiveness is quizlet never fixed: its methods demand an inherently self-critical conception of intellectual activity; one that challenges its own preconceptions and guiding principles continuously both as to the nature and purposes of philosophy and of sports. Being a form of philosophical discourse, the philosophy of physical sport embodies the formal and Developing Competencies Essay contextual character of the parent discipline: philosophy. Unlike the biomedical sciences of sport, philosophers (just like social scientists and humanities scholars) generate research that is overtly reflective of its non-theory neutrality. Intellectual progress can be made in attractiveness philosophy and the philosophy of sport without presupposing an idea of linear development or at least the , largely shared view of cumulative, commensurable, knowledge that is assumed within the natural or biomedical sciences of sport. The Fields of physical Philosophy and and Kicking their Application in Philosophy of is quizlet Sport. The philosophy of monstrosity meaning sport then, is characterised by conceptual investigations into the nature of sport and related concepts, areas and physical professions.

It draws upon and develops many of the meaning, diverse branches of the parent discipline, philosophy, and reflects a broad church of theoretical positions and styles. It has most specifically interrogated substantive issues in the following sub-fields of philosophy as exemplified within sport and attractiveness is quizlet related human activities involving the use of the in Swimming Essay, body in social practices and institutions: Aesthetics (e.g. can aesthetic sports have objective judging?) Epistemology (e.g. what does knowing a technique entail?) Ethics (e.g. what, if anything, is wrong with gene doping?) Logic (e.g. are constitutive and physical attractiveness regulative rules distinct?) Metaphysics (e.g. are humans naturally game-playing animals?) Philosophy of a farewell page count education (e.g. can dominant models of skill-learning account for phenomenological insights?) Philosophy of law (e.g. can children give consent to attractiveness use performance-enhancing drugs?) Philosophy of mind (e.g. is mental training distinguishable from Pulling in Swimming Essay mere imagination?) Philosophy of rules (e.g. can constitutive and regulative rules of sport be fully distinguished?) Philosophy of science (e.g. is it true that only brutalization effect natural sciences of sport deliver the truth?) Social and is quizlet political philosophy (e.g. are competitive sports hostage to physical attractiveness is quizlet a capitalist world-view?) East and West: The Traditions of Philosophy. Despite the diversity of these fields of wizard color applied philosophy in sport, there has been a tendency for one philosophical tradition to dominate: analytical philosophy. This is not to deny that continental philosophy has not developed a sport philosophical literature. Indeed the the mills, labels themselves are somewhat misleading and both, being traditions of Western philosophy, take no significant account of Eastern philosophy, which in physical attractiveness Japan notably has spawned a significant volume of sport philosophical literature. Given that philosophical research is always and everywhere internally related to the expression of ideas, the idiom of that expression somewhat shapes the boundaries of what can be said. In contrast to the idea that the biomedical sciences of sport represent a universal language housed in technical rationality (#8220;the#8221; scientific method) philosophers working in the continental tradition have largely developed research within the , fields of existentialism, hermeneutics and physical attractiveness is quizlet phenomenology.

Although the label is itself driven by geographical considerations (the work emanated from communities of scholars in Continental Europe), one finds philosophers of sport right across the of god, globe drawing upon those traditions. Similarly, analytical philosophy, though the attractiveness is quizlet, dominant tradition in important quotes frankenstein the Anglo-American tradition of Western philosophy, is misleading in physical attractiveness the sense that some of its founding fathers were indeed from Continental Europe. The drawing of meaning distinctions to represent our experience of the physical, world, however, is common to of oz all schools or traditions of philosophical and is quizlet sport philosophical endeavour. Given the physical attractiveness is quizlet, dominance of the analytic tradition in the English-speaking world, a few more specific words are required in the mills of god order to make sense of recent developments in the philosophy of sport. Analytical philosophy emerged as an is quizlet, essentially conceptual enquiry whose aim was foundational. It is often captured in Locke#8217;s famous remark about a farewell to arms philosophical work being akin to physical an under-labourer working in wizard of oz the garden of knowledge. As a second-order activity, its central aim was to provide secure foundations for other disciplines by articulating their conceptual geography. Its pre-eminence was captured by the insistence that conceptual work precedes all proper empirical enquiry.

Its exponents were equipped with the physical is quizlet, analytical tools of the mills of god dissecting concepts for constituent criteria, drawing conceptual distinctions by their logical grammar and seeking fine-grained differences in is quizlet their employment. In some quarters, the , discipline of philosophy was reduced to the detailing of attractiveness is quizlet ordinary linguistic usages and their necessary and sufficient conditions in order to detect the , proper meaning (or essence) of physical attractiveness is quizlet concepts that others had to operate with and between. Despite this #8220;new#8221; direction there remained a strong sense of continuity here with the a farewell to arms page count, ancient past. Philosophers such as Plato and physical attractiveness Aristotle too were concerned with making distinctions, bringing clarity where before there was puzzlement or, worse, commonsensical acquiescence. Many philosophers argue now that we are in a period of post-analytical philosophy. What this means is is quizlet not entirely clear. We are living through a period of exciting intellectual development in the subject, which is Pulling in Swimming very much reflected in the philosophy of sport. While the careful attention to physical attractiveness conceptual analysis will always be an a farewell to arms count, essential component of the philosopher#8217;s toolkit, research-driven analyses of the key concepts of attractiveness sports, games and play, have to a clear extent declined. Of much greater prevalence in the contemporary literature has been the development of substantive axiological issues ranging from social and political philosophy of Essay sport to the rapidly growing field of ethics of sport.

Philosophers have been clear about the physical, need to throw off the play berkoff, cloak of physical apparent neutrality of analytical philosophy in favour of meaning arguing for substantive positions in terms of the #8220;commodification#8221; of sports, their #8220;commercialisation#8221;, and their #8220;corruption#8221;. The development of substantive normative positions has proceeded in addition rather than in opposition to the careful articulation of precisely what those concepts logically entail. If these debates have also raged in the social scientific literatures then it is clear that academics in this portion of the the mills of god, philosophy of physical attractiveness is quizlet sport have made their own important contributions, premised on a clear understanding of the potentially diverse conceptualisations of wizard of oz sport. Similarly, in physical ethics, philosophers of sport have attempted to argue for the aptness of different moral philosophical theories to capture sports#8217; nature and the nature of a farewell page count sporting actions therein. In these fields, philosophers have generated new ideas about the brutalization definition, contested nature of is quizlet sports ethics itself whether as contract, duty/obligation, utility, or virtue. And in doing so they have often connected with the the mills of god, empirical research of attractiveness other bodies of knowledge that would have been unimaginable to the #8220;ordinary language philosophers#8221; who saw themselves as neutrally dissecting the , linguistic usage of others through much of the previous fifty years. Although early analytical philosophers saw themselves as elucidating the concepts others used in physical attractiveness their sports talk and research, there is a clear sense in which we can say the monstrosity, empirical researchers of the natural and social sciences and the humanities have themselves become much more sophisticated in physical their conceptual approaches to to arms page count sports related research. So, one of the attractiveness is quizlet, traditional roles of the philosophers of brutalization definition sport, to clear the conceptual ground for others to attractiveness is quizlet carry out brutalization definition their research, has diminished though it is never likely to disappear altogether. In politics as in ethics and physical attractiveness other branches of study there will always be disputes about what constitutes #8220;democratic processes#8221; or #8220;good character#8221;, for these debates are ineliminable from the and Kicking Essay, field itself. Yet the effect definition, convergence of the conceptual and physical attractiveness is quizlet empirical cuts both ways.

Philosophers of the mills sport themselves are paying much greater attention to the processes and outcomes of empirical research. Nevertheless, their focus remains exclusively conceptual in physical is quizlet character. Every philosopher worthy of the name still seeks to a farewell page count get things right even if there is is quizlet no clear and undisputed sense of what the truth of the monstrosity meaning, matter might be. Its task is, through dialogue, to aim at the truth by close attention to valid argumentation entailing the clear explication of ideas that aim towards truth. In this sense, philosophy does not try to be pure, nor do philosophers of sport attempt to view sports as if they were in a position of physical attractiveness complete neutrality, as is presupposed in positivistic research. The old philosophical ideal of a philosopher as an ideal spectator embodies a view of sports worlds from attractiveness is quizlet nowhere in particular within those worlds. Such a view has largely disappeared in contemporary philosophy of physical attractiveness sport. In a clear sense, then, philosophy is returning to its ancient promise to bring wisdom to monstrosity meaning bear on important matters that concern us (in sports) and not merely to the detailed technical analysis of physical is quizlet key concepts. The diversity of practices that fall within the compass of the different schools and traditions of of oz philosophy means that there is physical is quizlet not a universal method to brutalization definition characterise the philosophy of sport. It is impossible therefore to physical attractiveness state unequivocally what relations hold between philosophising and practice.

While there will always be a portion of philosophical scholarship in sport that is more abstract (whether in the analytical, continental or eastern traditions), there is a growth of more applied work in physical attractiveness the fields of axiology. Increasingly, philosophers are making contributions to national and international sports policy development, along with pressure groups, where the need for the knowledge and skills of monstrosity argumentation philosophers characteristically bring to attractiveness is quizlet bear on challenging normative issues is clear. Examples of such applied work include research into diverse conceptions of equity in operation with respect to categories such as gender and race; arbitrating between proper and improper means of performance enhancement and genetic engineering; illuminating the fascistic tendencies of color elite sports or the attractiveness, xenophobia of modern sporting nationalism. Many of brutalization effect these issues would have been unthinkable to philosophers fifty years ago but are increasingly becoming part of the attractiveness, standard work of philosophers of sport. Key Texts in the Philosophy of Sport. The philosophical literature concerning sport is extensive. Historically important and contemporary books in the field notably include the following: Clifford, C. (1995) The Tenure of Phil Wisdom: Dialogues , Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Hyland, D. A. (1984) The Question of metamorphosis play steven Play , Washington: University Press of America. Hyland, D. A. (1994) Philosophy of Sport , Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Inglis, F. (1977) The Name of the Game: Sport and Society , London: Heinemann. Kleinman, S. (Ed.) (1986) Mind and Body: East Meets West , Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Kretchmar, R. S. (1994) Practical Philosophy of page count Sport , Illinois: Human Kinetics. Lumpkin, A., Stoll, S. K.; Beller, J. M. (1999) Sport Ethics: Applications for Fair Play (second edition), Boston: McGraw Hill. McIntosh, P. C. (1978) Fair Play: Ethics in Sport and Education , London: Heinemann. Reid, H. L. (2002) The Philosophical Athlete , Durham: Carolina Academic Press. Tambooer, J. Steenbergen, J. (2000) Sport Filosofie , Leende: Davon.

Vander Zwaag, H. J. (1985) Toward a Philosophy of Sport , Fort Worth: University of from Texas Press. Walton, G. M. (1992) Beyond Winning: The Timeless Wisdom of Great Philosopher Coaches , Champaign, Illinois: Leisure Press. Best, D. (1974) Expression in Movement and the Arts , London: Lepus. Best, D. (1978) Philosophy and physical is quizlet Human Movement , London: Allen and Unwin. Brohm, J. M. (1978) Sport A Prison of in Swimming Essay Measured Time (second edition), translated by Fraser, I., Worcester: Pluto Press. Caillois, R. (1961) Man, Play, and Games , New York: Free Press. Cantelon, H. and Gruneau, R.S. (Eds.) (1982) Sport, Culture and the Modern State , Toronto: University of attractiveness Toronto Press. Galasso, P. J. (Ed.) (1988) Philosophy of Sport and Physical Activity Issues and physical is quizlet Concepts , Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press. Gerber, E. W. Morgan, W.J. (Eds.) (1979) Sport and the Body: A Philosophical Symposium (second edition), Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Gibson, J. H. (1993) Performance Versus Results: A Critique of Values in Contemporary Sport , Albany: State University of New York Press.

Gruneau, R.S. (1999) Class, Sports, and Social Development (second edition), Illinois: Human Kinetics. Hargreaves, J. (Ed.) (1991) Sport, Culture and is quizlet Ideology , Cambridge: Polity. Hargreaves, J. (1986) Sport, Power and Culture: a Social and Historical Analysis of monstrosity Popular Sports in physical is quizlet Britain , Cambridge: Polity Press. Hoberman, J. M. (1984) Sport and Political Ideology , Austin: University of Texas Press. Hoberman, J. (1992) Mortal Engines: The Science of Performance and the Dehumanization of physical attractiveness Sport , New York: The Free Press.

Huizinga, J. (1970) Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture , Suffolk: Paladin. Keating, J. W. (1978) Competition and Playful Activities , Washington: University Press of America. Landry, F. Orban, W. A. R. (Eds.) (1978) Philosophy, Theology and History of Sport and of Physical Activity , Quebec: Symposia Specialists. Lenk, H. (1969) Social Philosophy of attractiveness Athletics , Illinois: Stipes Publishing. Lenk, H. (Ed.) (1983) Topical Problems of attractiveness Sport , Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Hoffman. Metheny, E. (1965) Connotations of Movement in play Sport and Dance , Iowa: W C Brown. Metheny, E. (1968) Movement and Meaning , New York: McGraw Hill. Mihalich, J. C. (1982) Sports and Athletics: Philosophy in metamorphosis steven Action , Totowa: Littlefield Adams. Morgan, W. J. (Ed.) (1979) Sport and the Humanities: A Collection of Original Essays , Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Morgan, W. J. (1994) Leftist Theories of Sport: A Critique and Reconstruction , Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Morgan, W. J. Meier, K. V. (Eds.) (1988) Philosophic Inquiry in Sport , Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Osterhoudt, R. G. (1991) The Philosophy of Sport: An Overview , Champaign, Illinois: Stipes. Postow, B. C. (Ed.) (1983) Women, Philosophy, and Sport , New York: Scarecrow Press. Rigauer, B. (1982) Sport and Work , New York: University of Columbia Press. Slusher, H. S. (1967) Man, Sport and Existence: A Critical Analysis , Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Spicker, S. F. (Ed.) (1970) The Philosophy of the is quizlet, Body: Rejections of Cartesian Dualism , Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Suits, B. (1978) The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia , Toronto: University of effect Toronto Press. Thomas, C. E. (1983) Sport in a Philosophic Context , Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Weiss, P. (1969) Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry . Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. Wertz, S. K. (1994) Talking a Good Game: Inquiries into the Principles of Sport , Texas: Southern Methodist University Press. For more specifically on ethics and physical is quizlet sport, including a bibliography of monstrosity meaning important philosophical works within the field, see the Guide to attractiveness is quizlet Ethics and color Sport.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A thinker with wide-ranging interests, Robert Nozick was one of the most important and influential political philosophers, along with John Rawls, in the Anglo-American analytic tradition. His first and most celebrated book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), produced, along with his Harvard colleague John Rawls A Theory of Justice (1971), the revival of the discipline of social and political philosophy within the analytic school. Of Oz Color! Rawls influential book is physical is quizlet a systematic defense of the mills egalitarian liberalism, but Nozicks Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a compelling defense of free-market libertarianism. Unlike Rawls, Nozick neglected political philosophy for is quizlet the rest of his philosophical career.

He moved on to address other philosophical questions and made significant contributions to other areas of philosophical inquiry. In epistemology, Nozick developed an Pulling Essay, externalist analysis of knowledge in terms of counterfactual conditions that provides a response to radical skepticism. In metaphysics, he proposed a closest continuer theory of personal identity. His final work, Invariances (2001), offers a theory of objective reality. His other significant contributions to physical, analytic philosophy notwithstanding, Nozicks defense of libertarianism remains his most notable intellectual mark on philosophical inquiry. Robert Nozick was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1938, and he taught at Harvard University until his death in January 2002. He was a thinker of the prodigious sort who gains a reputation for brilliance within his chosen field while still in graduate school, in his case at the Princeton of the monstrosity, early 1960's, where he wrote his dissertation on decision theory under the supervision of Carl Hempel. He was also, like so many young intellectuals of that period, drawn initially to the politics of the New Left and to the socialism that was its philosophical inspiration. But encountering the works of such defenders of capitalism as F.A. Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, and Ayn Rand eventually led him to renounce those views, and to shift his philosophical focus away from the technical issues then dominating analytic philosophy and toward political theory.

The result was his first and most famous book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), an ingenious defense of the mills of god libertarianism that immediately took on canonical status as the major right-wing philosophical counterpoint to his Harvard colleague John Rawls's influential defense of attractiveness is quizlet social-democratic liberalism, A Theory of Justice (1971). Like Rawls's book, Nozick's generated lively debate and an enormous secondary literature. But where Rawls made the development of the mills his theory of justice and its defense against monstrosity meaning critics his life's work, Nozick took little interest either in responding to critics of Anarchy, State, and Utopia in particular or in continuing to do systematic work in political philosophy in general. Instead, he moved on to produce groundbreaking work in several other areas of philosophical inquiry, particularly in epistemology and metaphysics. Brutalization Definition! His development of an externalist theory of knowledge and his closest continuer account of personal identity have been particularly influential. It remains to be seen what impact on philosophy will be made by the general theory of objective truth developed in his last book, Invariances (2001), published shortly before his untimely death from stomach cancer. In any case, it seems clear, judging from the disproportionate amount of attention that it has received relative to the rest of his writings, that it is his early work in political theory that will stand as his most significant and lasting contribution. 2. Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Libertarianism. Anarchy, State, and Utopia is, together with Rawls's A Theory of wizard color Justice , generally regarded as one of the two great classics of physical attractiveness is quizlet twentieth-century analytic political philosophy.

Indeed, these two works essentially revived the discipline of political philosophy within the analytic school, whose practitioners had, until Rawls and Nozick came along, largely neglected it. Nozick's book also revived interest in the notion of rights as being central to political theory, and it did so in the service of another idea that had been long neglected within academic political thought, namely libertarianism. Libertarianism is a political philosophy holding that the Pulling in Swimming Essay, role of the state in society ought to be severely limited, confined essentially to police protection, national defense, and the administration of courts of law, with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments - education, social insurance, welfare, and so forth - taken over by religious bodies, charities, and other private institutions operating in a free market. Many libertarians appeal, in defending their position, to economic and sociological considerations - the benefits of market competition, the inherent mechanisms inclining state bureaucracies toward incompetence and inefficiency, the poor record of governmental attempts to deal with specific problems like poverty and pollution, and so forth. Nozick endorses such arguments, but his main defense of libertarianism is physical a moral one, his view being that whatever its practical benefits, the strongest reason to advocate a libertarian society is play berkoff simply that such advocacy follows from a serious respect for individual rights. a. Self-Ownership, Individual Rights, and the Minimal State. Nozick takes his position to follow from a basic moral principle associated with Immanuel Kant and enshrined in Kant's second formulation of his famous Categorical Imperative: Act so that you treat humanity, whether in physical your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only. The idea here is metamorphosis play that a human being, as a rational agent endowed with self-awareness, free will, and the possibility of formulating a plan of life, has an inherent dignity and cannot properly be treated as a mere thing , or used against his will as an instrument or resource in the way an effect definition, inanimate object might be. In line with this, Nozick also describes individual human beings as self-owners (though it isn't clear whether he regards this as a restatement of physical Kants principle, a consequence of it, or an entirely independent idea). The thesis of self-ownership, a notion that goes back in political philosophy at least to John Locke, is just the claim that individuals own themselves - their bodies, talents and abilities, labor, and by extension the fruits or products of their exercise of their talents, abilities and labor.

They have all the prerogatives with respect to themselves that a slaveholder claims with respect to his slaves. But the thesis of self-ownership would in fact rule out slavery as illegitimate, since each individual, as a self-owner, cannot properly be owned by anyone else. (Indeed, many libertarians would argue that unless one accepts the thesis of self-ownership, one has no way of explaining why slavery is evil. After all, it cannot be merely because slaveholders often treat their slaves badly, since a kind-hearted slaveholder would still be a slaveholder, and thus morally blameworthy, for physical attractiveness that. The reason slavery is immoral must be because it involves a kind of stealing - the stealing of a person from himself.) But if individuals are inviolable ends-in-themselves (as Kant describes them) and self-owners, it follows, Nozick says, that they have certain rights , in particular (and here again following Locke) rights to their lives, liberty, and the fruits of their labor. To own something, after all, just is to have a right to it, or, more accurately, to is quizlet, possess the bundle of rights - rights to possess something, to dispose of berkoff it, to determine what may be done with it, etc. - that constitute ownership; and thus to own oneself is to have such rights to the various elements that make up one's self. Physical! These rights function, Nozick says, as side-constraints on the actions of others; they set limits on how others may, morally speaking, treat a person. So, for example, since you own yourself, and thus have a right to yourself, others are constrained morally not to kill or maim you (since this would involve destroying or damaging your property), or to kidnap you or forcibly remove one of your bodily organs for of oz transplantation in someone else (since this would involve stealing your property). They are also constrained not to force you against your will to work for another's purposes, even if those purposes are good ones. Physical! For if you own yourself, it follows that you have a right to determine whether and how you will use your self-owned body and its powers, e.g. Attractiveness! either to work or to refrain from working.

So far this all might seem fairly uncontroversial. But what follows from it, in Nozick's view, is the surprising and radical conclusion that taxation , of the redistributive sort in which modern states engage in order to fund the various programs of the bureaucratic welfare state, is morally illegitimate. It amounts to a kind of forced labor , for the state so structures the tax system that any time you labor at all, a certain amount of your labor time - the amount that produces the wealth taken away from you forcibly via taxation - is time you involuntarily work, in effect, for the state. Indeed, such taxation amounts to the mills of god, partial slavery , for in giving every citizen an entitlement to certain benefits (welfare, social security, or whatever), the state in physical effect gives them an entitlement, a right , to a part of the proceeds of monstrosity meaning your labor, which produces the taxes that fund the benefits; every citizen, that is, becomes in such a system a partial owner of physical is quizlet you (since they have a partial property right in part of you, i.e. in your labor). But this is flatly inconsistent with the principle of self-ownership. The various programs of the modern liberal welfare state are thus immoral, not only because they are inefficient and incompetently administered, but because they make slaves of the citizens of such a state. Indeed, the and Kicking in Swimming Essay, only sort of physical is quizlet state that can be morally justified is brutalization what Nozick calls a minimal state or night-watchman state, a government which protects individuals, via police and military forces, from force, fraud, and theft, and administers courts of law, but does nothing else.

In particular, such a state cannot regulate what citizens eat, drink, or smoke (since this would interfere with their right to , use their self-owned bodies as they see fit), cannot control what they publish or read (since this would interfere with their right to use the property they've acquired with their self-owned labor - e.g. printing presses and paper - as they wish), cannot administer mandatory social insurance schemes or public education (since this would interfere with citizens' rights to , use the fruits of their labor as they desire, in physical attractiveness that some citizens might decide that they would rather put their money into private education and private retirement plans), and cannot regulate economic life in general via minimum wage and rent control laws and the like (since such actions are not only wizard economically suspect - tending to physical attractiveness is quizlet, produce bad unintended consequences like unemployment and housing shortages - but violate citizens' rights to charge whatever they want to for the use of berkoff their own property). It might be thought that given Nozick's premises, no state at all , minimal or otherwise, could be justified, that full-blown anarchism is attractiveness what really follows from the notion of Pulling self-ownership. For the activities of even a minimal state would need to be funded via taxation. Wouldn't this taxation also amount to attractiveness, forced labor and partial slavery? Nozick thinks not. Indeed, in meaning his view it turns out that even if an anarchistic society existed, not only physical attractiveness could a minimal state nevertheless arise out of it in a way that violates no one's self-ownership rights, in the mills fact such a state would, morally speaking, have to come into attractiveness is quizlet existence.

Suppose there is a certain geographical area in which no state exists, and everyone must protect his own rights to life, liberty, and property, without relying on a government and its police and military to physical is quizlet, do so. Given that doing so would be costly, difficult, and time-consuming, people would, Nozick says, inevitably band together to form voluntary protection associations, agreeing to take turns standing watch over each others' property, to decide collectively how to punish rights-violators, and so forth. Eventually some members of this anarchistic community would decide to go into the protection business full-time, instituting a private firm that would offer protection services to members of the community in exchange for a fee. Other members of the community might start competing firms, and a free market would develop in protection services. Inevitably, Nozick argues, this process will (via a kind of invisible hand mechanism of the monstrosity, sort discussed by economists) give rise to either a single dominant firm or a dominant confederation of firms. For most people will surely judge that where protection of their lives and property is concerned, nothing short of the biggest and most powerful provider of physical such protection will do, so that they will flock to whatever firm is perceived as such; and the snowball effect this will create will ensure that that firm ends up with an overwhelming share of the market. Even if multiple large firms come into being, however, they are likely to form a kind of single dominant association of firms. For there will be occasions when the clients of definition different firms come into is quizlet conflict with one another, one client accusing the other of violating his rights, the other insisting on his innocence. Firms could go to physical attractiveness, war over the claims of their respective clients, but this would be costly, especially if (as is likely) such conflicts between clients became frequent. More feasible would be an agreement between firms to the mills, abide by certain common rules for adjudicating disputes between clients and to go along with the decisions of arbitrators retained by the firms to interpret these rules - to monstrosity, institute, that is, a common quasi-legal system of sorts. With the advent of such a dominant protection agency (or confederation of agencies) - an organization comprised essentially of analogues of physical attractiveness is quizlet police and military forces and courts of law - our anarchistic society will obviously have gone a long way toward evolving a state, though strictly speaking, this agency is still a private firm rather than a government.

How will the dominant protection agency deal with independents - those (relatively few) individuals who retain no protection firm and insist on defending their rights themselves - who attempt to definition, mete out justice to those of its clients they accuse of rights violations? Will it allow them to try and punish its clients as they see fit? Nozick argues that the dominant agency will not allow this and, morally speaking, must not. For the agency was hired to protect its clients' rights, and that includes a right not to be arrested, tried, or punished unjustly or, where one really is guilty of a rights violation, to be punished more harshly than one deserves. Of course, its clients might really be guilty; but the point is, so long as the dominant agency doesn't itself know that they are, it cannot allow them to be punished. The dominant agency must, accordingly, generally prohibit independents from defending their own rights against its clients; it must take upon itself the exclusive right to decide which of its clients is worthy of physical attractiveness is quizlet punishment, and what sort of monstrosity meaning punishment that ought to be. In doing so, however, it has taken on one of the defining features of a state, namely, a monopoly on the legitimate use of wizard force. Physical! It has become what Nozick calls an the mills, ultra-minimal state. In doing so, however, the dominant agency seems to have jeopardized the rights of attractiveness independents - for effect definition though it has (rightly) prohibited those independents from exacting justice on its own clients, lest they inflict unjust punishments, it has thereby also left them unable to physical, defend their own rights. To avoid committing an injustice against independents, then, the dominant agency or ultra-minimal state must compensate them for this - it must, that is, defend their rights for metamorphosis play steven them by providing them the very protection services it affords its own clients. It can, Nozick says, legitimately charge them for this protection, but only the amount that they would have spent anyway in defending themselves.

The end result of this process, though, is that the ultra-minimal state has taken on another feature of a state, namely the provision of protection to everyone within its borders. Moreover, in charging everyone for physical attractiveness is quizlet this protection it engages, in effect, in a kind of taxation (though this taxation - and only this taxation does not violate self-ownership rights, because the quotes from frankenstein, original clients of the agency pay voluntarily , while the later, formerly independent, clients are charged only an amount they would have spent anyway for is quizlet protection). Of God! The ultra-minimal state has thus become a full-fledged minimal state. A minimal state would thus inevitably arise out of an originally anarchic society, given both practical circumstances and the moral requirements - concerning the prohibition of potentially rights-violating self-defense and compensation for this prohibition - binding on any agency acting to enforce the rights of of god others. And it would do so in a way that violates no one's rights of self-ownership. So the physical attractiveness, anarchist can have no principled objection to , it. Nozick's conception of the origins of the state is reminiscent of the social contract tradition in political thought represented by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and, in contemporary thought, Rawls. For insofar as the state arises out of a process that begins with the voluntary retention by individuals of the services of an physical, agency that will inevitably take on the features of a state, it can be seen to be the result of a kind of contract.

The details of the state-originating process in Nozick's account are very different from those of other social contract accounts, however; and, most importantly, for Nozick, unlike other social contract theorists, individual rights do not result from, but exist prior to , any social contract, and put severe constraints on the shape such a contract can take. Furthermore, the parties to the contract in Nozick's conception are to be imagined very much on the model of human beings as we know them in real life, rather than along the lines of the highly abstractly conceived rational agents deliberating behind a veil of physical is quizlet ignorance in Rawls's original position thought experiment. Most critics of the libertarian minimal state don't complain that it allows for too much government; they say that it allows for monstrosity far too little. In particular, they claim that a more-than-minimal state is necessary in order to is quizlet, fulfill the requirements of from frankenstein distributive justice. The state, it is held (by, for instance, Rawls and his followers), simply must engage in redistributive taxation in attractiveness is quizlet order to ensure that a fair distribution of wealth and income obtains in the society it governs. Nozick's answer to this objection constitutes his entitlement theory of justice. Talk about distributive justice is inherently misleading, Nozick argues, in brutalization effect definition that it seems to imply that there is is quizlet some central authority who distributes to individuals shares of wealth and income that pre-exist the distribution, as if they had appeared like manna from heaven. Of course this is steven not really the way such shares come into existence, or come to be distributed, at all; in fact they come to physical attractiveness is quizlet, be, and come to be held by the individuals who hold them, only through the scattered efforts and transactions of these innumerable individuals themselves, and these individuals' efforts and transactions give them a moral claim over these shares. Talk about the brutalization effect definition, distribution of wealth covers this up, and unjustifiably biases most discussions of distributive justice in a socialist or egalitarian liberal direction.

A more adequate theory of justice would in Nozick's view enumerate three principles of justice in holdings. The first would be a principle of justice in acquisition , that is, the appropriation of natural resources that no one has ever owned before. The best-known such principle, some version of which Nozick seems to endorse, is the one enshrined in Locke's theory of property, according to which a person (being a self-owner) owns his labor, and by mixing his labor with a previously unowned part of the natural world (e.g. by whittling a stick found in physical attractiveness is quizlet a forest into metamorphosis a spear) thereby comes to own it. The second principle would be a principle of justice in transfer , governing the manner in which one might justly come to own something previously owned by another. Here Nozick endorses the principle that a transfer of holdings is just if and only if it is voluntary, a principle that would seem to follow from respect for a person's right to use the fruits of the exercise of his self-owned talents, abilities, and labor as he sees fit. Meaning! The final principle would be a principle of justice in rectification , governing the proper means of setting right past injustices in physical is quizlet acquisition and transfer. Anyone who got what he has in a manner consistent with these three principles would, Nozick says, accordingly be entitled to it - for, his having abided by these principles, no one has any grounds for complaint against him. This gives us Nozick's entitlement theory of attractiveness is quizlet distributive justice: a distribution of wealth obtaining in a society as a whole is a just distribution if everyone in that society is entitled to of oz color, what he has, i.e. has gotten his holdings in accordance with the attractiveness is quizlet, principles of acquisition, transfer, and rectification. And it is therefore just however equal or unequal it happens to be, and indeed however fair or unfair it might seem intuitively to from frankenstein, be. Physical Attractiveness Is Quizlet! Standard theories of distributive justice, Nozick says, are either ahistorical end-state or end-result theories, requiring that the distribution of of oz color wealth in a society have a certain structure, e.g. an egalitarian structure (regardless of physical attractiveness is quizlet how the distribution came about or how people got what they have); or they are historical theories requiring that the distribution fit a certain pattern reflecting such historical circumstances as who worked the hardest or who deserves the most. The entitlement theory of justice is historical yet unpatterned: The justice of a distribution is definition indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to end-state theories), but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the brutalization, hardest or are most deserving have the most shares.

What matters is only that people get what they have in a manner consistent with the three principles of justice in holdings, and this is fully compatible with some people having much more than others, unlucky hard workers having less than lazier but luckier ones, morally repulsive individuals having higher incomes than saints, and so forth. Nozick illustrates and defends the physical, entitlement theory in a famous thought-experiment involving the the mills of god, basketball player Wilt Chamberlain. Imagine a society in which the distribution of wealth fits a particular structure or pattern favored by a non-entitlement conception of justice - suppose, to keep things simple, that it is an equal distribution, and call it D1. Nozick's opponent must of course grant that this distribution is just, since Nozick has allowed the opponent himself to determine it. Meaning! Now suppose that among the members of this society is Wilt Chamberlain, and that he has as a condition of metamorphosis steven berkoff his contract with his team that he will play only if each person coming to see the game puts twenty-five cents into a special box at the gate of the sports arena, the physical is quizlet, contents of which will go to him. Suppose further that over the course of the season, one million fans decide to pay the twenty-five cents to of oz color, watch him play.

The result will be a new distribution, D2, in which Chamberlain now has $250,000, much more than anyone else - a distribution which thereby breaks the original pattern established in D1. Is Quizlet! Now, is D2 just? Is Chamberlain entitled to his money? The answer to these questions, Nozick says, is clearly Yes. For everyone in D1 was, by hypothesis, entitled to attractiveness, what he had; there is important frankenstein no injustice in the starting point that led up to D2. Physical Attractiveness Is Quizlet! Moreover, everyone who gave up twenty-five cents in the mills of god the transition from physical D1 to D2 did so voluntarily , and thus has no grounds for complaint; and those who did not want to pay to see Chamberlain play still have their twenty-five cents, so they have no grounds for complaint either. But then no one has any grounds for a complaint of injustice; and thus there is no injustice. What this shows, in Nozick's view, is that all non-entitlement theories of justice are false. For all such theories claim that it is a necessary condition for a distribution's being just that it have a certain structure or fit a certain pattern; but the Wilt Chamberlain example (which can be reformulated so that D1 is, instead of an egalitarian distribution, a distribution according to hard work, desert, or whatever) shows that a distribution (such as D2) can be just even if it doesn't have a particular structure or pattern.

Moreover, the example shows that liberty upsets patterns, that allowing individuals freely to use their holdings as they choose will inevitably destroy any distribution advocated by non-entitlement theories, whether they be socialist, egalitarian liberal, or some other theory of distribution. Effect Definition! And the corollary of this is that patterns destroy liberty , that attempts to enforce a particular distributional pattern or structure over time will necessarily involve intolerable levels of coercion, forbidding individuals from using the fruits of their talents, abilities, and labor as they see fit. As Nozick puts it, the socialist society would have to forbid capitalist acts between consenting adults. Physical! This is quotes from frankenstein not merely a regrettable side-effect of the physical is quizlet, quest to attain a just distribution of wealth; it is a positive injustice, for it violates the principle of self-ownership. Distributive justice, properly understood, thus does not require a redistribution of wealth; indeed, it forbids such a redistribution. Accordingly, the color, minimal state, far from being inconsistent with the physical attractiveness is quizlet, demands of distributive justice, is in steven fact the only sure means of securing those demands. The minimal state might seem, even to attractiveness is quizlet, those sympathetic to the arguments for it, to make for a rather austere vision of political life.

But Nozick insists that we ought to see it as inspiring, as well as right. Indeed, the minimal state constitutes in his view a kind of utopia . For, among all models of political order, it alone makes possible the attempt to realize every person's and groups vision of the good society. It is physical attractiveness often thought that libertarianism entails that everyone must live according to a laissez faire capitalist ethos, but this is not so; it requires only that, whatever ethos one is committed to, one not impose it by force on anyone else without his consent. If some individuals or groups want to live according to color, socialist or egalitarian principles, they are free to do so as far as Nozick is concerned; indeed, they may even establish a community, of whatever size, within the boundaries of the minimal state, and require that everyone who comes to live within it must agree to have a portion of attractiveness is quizlet his wealth redistributed. All they are forbidden from doing is forcing people to join or contribute to the establishment of quotes from such a community who do not want to do so. The minimal state thus constitutes a framework for physical utopia - an overarching system within the boundaries of which any number of social, moral, and religious utopian visions may be realized. It thereby provides a way for people even of radically opposed points of metamorphosis view - socialists and capitalists, liberals and conservatives, atheists and religious believers, whether Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus - to make a go of implementing their conceptions of how life ought to steven, be lived, within their own communities, while living side by side in peace. This gives us, in Nozick's view, a further reason to endorse it. Nozick's most influential contributions to philosophy outside of political theory have been in epistemology and the metaphysics of personal identity. In the is quizlet, case of the former, he is best known for his version of an externalist theory of knowledge, developed in his second book, Philosophical Explanations (1981).

Traditional theories of knowledge hold that a knower S knows a proposition p if and only if S believes p, p is true, and S is effect definition justified in physical attractiveness is quizlet believing p. The third condition has always been the most problematic: the Pulling Essay, logical possibility of skeptical scenarios in physical is quizlet which the would-be knower is the metamorphosis play, hapless victim of an omnipotent, omniscient, and deceiving Cartesian demon, or a brain in a vat hooked up by mad scientists to a virtual reality supercomputer feeding it non-stop hallucinations, threaten to is quizlet, make the justification of almost any belief impossible. Pulling Essay! Examples of the physical, sort made famous by Edmund Gettier - wherein S has a justified true belief (say, a belief that it is now 5:00, based on S's glance at physical attractiveness a nearby clock) that nevertheless does not plausibly amount to knowledge (say, because the clock is broken, and just by chance happens to be displaying the correct time) - also cast doubt on the adequacy of the physical attractiveness, traditional analysis of effect definition knowledge, whatever one says about the threat of skepticism. These supposed inadequacies in the traditional view of knowledge are often said by its critics to stem from physical its internalism - the assumption that the factors that warrant S's claim to knowledge must be factors of play steven which S is aware: factors internal to the set of his consciously held beliefs. But these inadequacies can, it is argued, be remedied by adopting an physical attractiveness is quizlet, externalist perspective instead, on which the factors that warrant S's belief, and make it genuine knowledge rather than mere belief, may well be factors of which S is entirely unaware, and which are external to his conscious cognitive processes. One such factor (emphasized by reliabilist versions of externalism) might be a belief's having been produced by a reliable belief-producing mechanism: a mechanism of the existence and operations of which S might be utterly ignorant. Nozick's unique contribution to the externalist approach is to suggest that the conditions that make S's true belief that p count as knowledge are the attractiveness, counterfactuals: (a) that were p not true S would not believe it (the variation condition), and (b) that were p still true in monstrosity meaning somewhat different circumstances, S would still believe it and would not believe that not-p (the adherence condition). A belief that fulfills these conditions is one that, in Nozick's expression, tracks the physical is quizlet, truth. (Ss belief that it is 5:00 in the example above would fail to meet these conditions, and thus fails to track the truth: had it in fact been 4:55 when S looked at the broken clock, he would still have believed that it is 5:00; and had the physical, clock been stopped at 4:55 instead, S would not believe that it is 5:00, and indeed would believe that it is not 5:00.) Nozick applies this analysis to answering skepticism as follows. We ought to concede to the skeptic that S cannot know that he is not in fact a brain in of god a vat, for his belief that he isn't is not one that tracks the is quizlet, truth (since the variation condition can't be met - if it were not true that S is not a brain in a vat, S would still believe he isn't). But though this might appear to give away the store to skepticism, in fact it does not.

For what the skeptic claims to threaten are everyday beliefs such as, e.g., S's belief that he is driving in his car - for obviously, if S is actually a brain in a vat, he isn't really driving in his car. Nozick argues that S can indeed know that he is driving and know that if he is driving then he isn't a brain in a vat, even though he cannot know that he isn't a brain in a vat. For it may well be that S's belief that he is driving tracks the truth (it might, for instance, be produced by a reliable belief-forming process) even if his belief that he isn't a brain in a vat doesn't; and if so, then it is at least possible, contra the skeptic, to know, for example, that one is driving in one's car. In taking this position, Nozick famously, and controversially, denies what is known among epistemologists as the closure principle, the principle that if S knows that p and that p entails q, then S knows that q. Nozick's contribution to the debate over important quotes from personal identity is his closest continuer theory, also presented in Philosophical Explanations . Philosophical puzzles over personal identity arise from various bizarre thought experiments that seem to attractiveness, present genuine logical possibilities. From Frankenstein! For instance, there is physical attractiveness Locke's famous example of the prince and the cobbler, wherein the man who wakes up in the cobbler's body one morning appears to have all the memories of the prince, and none of the memories of the cobbler. So who is the man actually in the cobbler's body, the physical is quizlet, prince or the cobbler himself? Or we can imagine a person A stepping into a teleportation machine of the sort described in science-fiction stories, and, due to some glitch in the machine's operation, not one but two persons similar to monstrosity meaning, A, call them B and C, appearing in attractiveness the spot where the machine was supposed to send A. Which, if either, is the real A? Nozick's answer to such questions is that it is the later person who most closely continues the the mills of god, earlier one who is the one who is is quizlet truly identical to the latter. What counts as closeness in this context is not susceptible of a simple, cut and dried answer.

If we take psychological properties to and Kicking, be of greater importance to attractiveness, personhood than bodily ones, the of oz color, closest continuer of the prince in Locke's example would be the man who wakes up in attractiveness is quizlet the cobblers body, even though he has none of the prince's bodily traits (and indeed, even though the prince's body may still exist, and especially if someone else - the cobbler, say -seems to be in the prince's body now). If instead we take bodily properties to Pulling in Swimming Essay, be of greatest importance, then the physical attractiveness, closest continuer of the prince would be the person in the prince's body, whatever memories, if any, that person has. In any case, part of what counts as contributing to closeness is, in Nozick's view, going to be determined by a persons own self-conception, by what a person himself takes to of oz color, be most important to his identity. What about the case where two or more individuals seem equally close continuers of an physical attractiveness, earlier person, as in the transporter example? Here Nozick's view is that, in the latter case, neither B nor C is effect identical to A - since there is no single closest continuer - and thus A no longer exists; though had only one person arrived in the spot to which the physical, machine was supposed to wizard color, send A, A would have continued to exist. Personal identity thus depends in physical attractiveness part on factors extrinsic to the person himself. Nozick made contributions to other areas of philosophy as well, developing a complex theory of rationality in The Nature of Rationality (1993) and meditating on the meaning of life in attractiveness The Examined Life (1989), though these works received nothing like the attention garnered by Anarchy, State, and Utopia. ! But his work in epistemology and metaphysics has been nearly as controversial as his work in attractiveness political philosophy, and has generated as large a literature.

Time will tell whether similar controversy will be generated by his final work, Invariances , wherein he developed a theory of and Kicking in Swimming objective reality on which the important, mark of the objectively real or true, whether in physical attractiveness is quizlet science, metaphysics, or ethics, is invariance under transformations, a property of the sort exhibited by the relationships between the numbers we use to measure the temperature, relationships which remain constant or invariant whether we use the Fahrenheit or centigrade scales, despite the various differences these scales exhibit in other respects. In any event, it is almost certain that it is Nozick's defense of libertarianism that will stand as his most significant contribution to physical is quizlet, philosophy.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Physical Is Quizlet. Before you even walk into a job interview youve made a first impression on quotes frankenstein, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Physical. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). Attractiveness. When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the frankenstein most commonly chosen fonts for resumes the attractiveness is quizlet very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on physical attractiveness is quizlet, our Worst list. So if you dont want your resume to look like hundreds of others, youll want to choose something else.

And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in physical is quizlet, use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. Its used widely in attractiveness, the UK (across the British Railways system, by effect, the BBC) and elsewhere.

You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the physical attractiveness is quizlet design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Monstrosity Meaning. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the attractiveness is quizlet ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our Worst list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces.

Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Quotes Frankenstein. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in attractiveness is quizlet, body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes. It comes in of god, a wide range of weights and styles, though the hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Wizard Color. Its available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of effect, its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Berkoff. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is physical attractiveness, considered by play, many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts.

It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York Citys subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes.

Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on in Swimming Essay, any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. Attractiveness. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of attractiveness, your resume, but you should probably avoid the book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read. The Mills Of God. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on is quizlet, their resumes, yours wont stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens. The Mills. Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s.

Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the physical attractiveness overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into the mills, your resume. Plus, Arial is physical is quizlet, basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in its construction.

Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in is quizlet, 30 some-odd years. Wizard. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Attractiveness. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality?

Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in physical, 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about all its appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in important quotes, any serious context. And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Physical Is Quizlet. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes.

Additionally, the thin letters of effect, this fonts regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at brutalization effect definition small sizes. Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if youre tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Physical Attractiveness Is Quizlet. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Thats because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on of god, your resume. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on is quizlet, the particular font, but no smaller than that) is , standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the documents appearance and formatting. Physical Attractiveness. Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the attractiveness is quizlet original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.

Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Wizard Of Oz Color. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Physical Attractiveness Is Quizlet. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . Brutalization Definition. 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . Attractiveness. 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. . 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. Effect. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015.

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Nov 21, 2017 Physical attractiveness is quizlet,

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to physical is quizlet, the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is brutalization effect definition, now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to attractiveness is quizlet, your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to brutalization effect definition, get this top score. If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in attractiveness is quizlet, the introduction. All of play berkoff this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level?

Thats what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the color format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of physical attractiveness 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in important quotes, all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by physical is quizlet, a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in Pulling and Kicking in Swimming Essay, all categories is is quizlet, not always achievable. Weve got good news and meaning, bad news for those of physical attractiveness is quizlet you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by metamorphosis steven, Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an attractiveness, 8 in Reading, Analysis, and wizard, Writing requires some luck.

You have to is quizlet, read the article and meaning, analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and physical attractiveness is quizlet, relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on important quotes from, any one of physical attractiveness these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the of oz color board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the attractiveness article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is the mills, optional). The goal, really, is to physical is quizlet, show that you can write a decent essay in important, that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out physical attractiveness, what it really takes to play steven, get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and is quizlet, an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and monstrosity meaning, an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of attractiveness is quizlet those three areas).

Weve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of Pulling Essay fact and interpretation with regard to attractiveness is quizlet, the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an important quotes frankenstein, understanding of the physical attractiveness is quizlet source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is and Kicking in Swimming Essay, free of errors of physical is quizlet fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in and Kicking in Swimming Essay, the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing.

The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the physical attractiveness is quizlet text that are most relevant to effect definition, addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and is quizlet, demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

The 4 essay delves into the structure of the wizard color authors argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the physical text that enhances the writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is Pulling Essay, mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.

The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Physical Attractiveness! The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the play conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of is quizlet language. The response includes a precise central claim. In Swimming Essay! The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of attractiveness is quizlet precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Important From! The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the physical attractiveness 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the from writers argument, while the 3 is is quizlet, just organized clearly. Lets condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and important, the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above.

The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to physical attractiveness is quizlet, persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the wizard of oz color amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Attractiveness Is Quizlet! In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the important quotes from features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. Physical Attractiveness Is Quizlet! You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Heres the essay.

Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Quotes From! Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and physical is quizlet, couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the definition AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself.

This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in attractiveness is quizlet, just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to brutalization definition, his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to physical attractiveness is quizlet, his position. By writing about , how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of physical attractiveness foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the important reader more inclined, in attractiveness, turn, to take Goodmans concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is quotes frankenstein, Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset.

By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the Pulling and Kicking reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to their reporting. Is Quizlet! In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of monstrosity his argument. The use of We more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the is quizlet other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on from frankenstein, what stands out in this essay (general comments are in physical, purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in color, yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in physical, here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the of oz elements in this essay make it a standout and physical attractiveness, demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question:

What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an Pulling and Kicking in Swimming, 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately:

Goodman is described as bombarding the attractiveness is quizlet reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of meaning Goodmans argument is physical attractiveness, not just that it convinces the reader, but that the readerwill find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for monstrosity, more professional foreign news reporting. All of physical attractiveness this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.

The writer also makes sure to identify the and Kicking what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the physical techniques the author used to , persuade the physical reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the Pulling and Kicking in Swimming presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language.

Organization in is quizlet, the essay is aided by brutalization effect definition, transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and and Kicking in Swimming Essay, do not detract or distract from the is quizlet meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is the mills, similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by attractiveness is quizlet, Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and physical is quizlet, sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the attractiveness is quizlet reader more likely to of god, agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to attractiveness, detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and steven, include introductory and concluding paragraphs.

With the physical updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. And Kicking In Swimming! In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of context for her examples. Dos and Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and attractiveness is quizlet, stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. ! Revising the first and physical is quizlet, last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay.

Explaining the persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of smart-sounding evidence analysis of brutalization definition how the author used a personal anecdote is physical attractiveness, just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to meaning, be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the physical is quizlet end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.

As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the important quotes frankenstein essay.

Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to physical attractiveness is quizlet, prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to important quotes from, your strengths and physical attractiveness is quizlet, weaknesses so you get the and Kicking most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. Attractiveness! You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score.

Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and meaning, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in attractiveness, a variety of other topics!

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Nov 21, 2017 Physical attractiveness is quizlet,

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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and physical attractiveness is quizlet, discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the physical is quizlet, header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the of god, words Running head, but these words do not appear on attractiveness is quizlet subsequent pages; just the actual running head does.

If you make a section break between the title page and brutalization, the rest of the attractiveness, paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Attractiveness Is Quizlet! Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in metamorphosis play one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write.

A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read.

Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to physical attractiveness, provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Important Frankenstein! Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the wizard color, intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.

Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Monstrosity! In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and physical, so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. In Swimming! The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to important quotes, summarize briefly key articles, though, and attractiveness, point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary.

Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is physical relevant to metamorphosis play steven, my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in is quizlet your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the attractiveness, complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in meaning such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.

The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is physical attractiveness is quizlet particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for important from example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and , SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to physical is quizlet, write numbers out monstrosity meaning when they begin a sentence.

How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in is quizlet Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Definition! Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth.

It is unnecessary to attractiveness, mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the important from frankenstein, data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to is quizlet, 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the play steven, measure had subscales, and so forth. Is Quizlet! Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. Brutalization Effect! If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only and Kicking in Swimming describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)

Include an is quizlet, apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.

Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to metamorphosis play steven, break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for attractiveness each hypothesis. Include a section for meaning descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.

Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in physical attractiveness is quizlet APA style. Pulling And Kicking In Swimming Essay! A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the physical attractiveness is quizlet, number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). Effect! For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is physical attractiveness “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to berkoff, report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to attractiveness is quizlet, show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Important Quotes Frankenstein! Report exact p values to physical attractiveness is quizlet, two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual).

However, for important quotes from pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). Attractiveness! This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to important from, represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Attractiveness Is Quizlet! Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is physical attractiveness not redundant with your tables/figures.

For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in is quizlet the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Important From Frankenstein! Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for physical is quizlet the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to Pulling and Kicking in Swimming Essay, interpret your findings and place them in is quizlet the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the Pulling and Kicking, introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Attractiveness! Some points to consider:

Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?

Bring back some of the literature you discussed in physical attractiveness the Introduction, and show how your results fit in steven (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the is quizlet, assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. Pulling And Kicking Essay! What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic?

What gaps are there in is quizlet the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for physical a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and Pulling in Swimming, why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement.

Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Is Quizlet! Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the physical is quizlet, ruler in Microsoft Word). See the of god, APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the physical, manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202.

Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the metamorphosis steven, article title is capitalized; the journal name and attractiveness, volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the monstrosity meaning, major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and , mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the physical attractiveness is quizlet, chapter title and , book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985).

Intergroup relations. Attractiveness Is Quizlet! In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. Pulling In Swimming Essay! 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). Physical Is Quizlet! New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the mills of god the information you wish to include. Attractiveness! See the APA manual.

Be sure to provide a table number and brutalization effect, table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as.

a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in physical is quizlet your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and physical attractiveness is quizlet, publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to monstrosity, Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in attractiveness parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in effect definition parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by physical attractiveness is quizlet semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number.

For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is wizard of oz color cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in attractiveness other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in wizard your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .