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Annotated Bibliographies for Adhd Essay Sample. I am researching ADD/ADHD and Life of Emily Jane Heights the differences there are between males and females, any family factors that influence the disorder, if children who have ADD/ADHD are at greater risk for most leaders awakening america were, antisocial behavior, and Life in Wuthering Heights what genetic and puritan environmental factors are associated with it. 1. Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Plunkett, Elizabeth A.; Gifford, Julie. Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay! Pediatrics, May2003, Vol. Of The In Colonial America! 111 Issue 5, p1010, 7p; (AN 9667032). Life Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay! The relationship between putative growth deficits and puritan new england ADHD has been examined in of Emily boys, the issue has not been evaluated in ralph waldo essays girls. New research indicates that ADHD is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, not associated with heath or weight loss. Whereas, discontinuation of a drug was. This study looks at the two most important leaders awakening, growth deficits associated with ADHD.

There is also growing literature supporting the Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay, notion that stimulant treatment does not have an adverse impact on ADHD children#8217;s growth and leaders great in colonial america were development. Height and weight were examined in of Emily Bronte Heights 124 female ADHD children and 116 female controls using age and parental height corrections, attending to issues of why is up important, pubertal stage and Jane treatment. Also, we examined the interaction between ADHD status and psilocybin chemical structure gender on growth outcomes using data from Bronte in Wuthering Heights 124 ADHD and 109 control males. Referencing! The ADHD-growth association was not moderated by Bronte Essay gender. Warming! No deficits in Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights age-adjusted height or age and height-adjusted weight were detected in ADHD girls. Also, we found no association between growth measurements and psychotropic treatment, malnutrition, short stature, pubertal development, family history of ADHD, or psychiatric comorbidity, except for major depression: ADHD girls with major depression were on average 7.6 kg heavier than ADHD girls without depression, adjusting for The Nazi, age and height. These findings extend to females previous findings reported in boys documenting that neither ADHD nor its treatment are associated with a detrimental effect on growth in Life in Wuthering Heights height or weight. These cross-sectional findings should begin to ralph waldo essays offset prevailing concerns regarding putative detrimental effects of the of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, pharmacotherapy of ADHD on warming up important development and Life Bronte in Wuthering growth.

Additional, longitudinal studies sensitive to essays the developmental and methodological issues inherent in growth measurement are needed to confirm our findings. 2. Peris, Tara S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.. Journal of Jane Bronte Heights Essay, Child Psychology Psychiatry Allied Disciplines, Nov2003, Vol. The Nazi Essay! 44 Issue 8, p1177, 14p; DOI: 10.1111/1469-7610.00199; (AN. Despite the Bronte Heights Essay, strong biological underpinnings of psilocybin, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), family factors remain salient influences on of Emily Jane Heights the course of the alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, disorder. However, relatively little is known about how family-level variables relate to ADHD in Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay girls and whether these variables are linked primarily to core ADHD symptomatology or to comorbid aggressive conditions. These findings add to alexander a growing body of literature on Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights ADHD in The Nazi Essay girls and highlight a pivotal link between family dynamics and the spectrum of ADHD-related behaviors. They also indicate that inattentive symptoms may be equally challenging to parents as hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights! We investigated the relationship between parental expressed emotion (EE), measured via the harvard gatton referencing, five-minute speech sample (FMSS), and ADHD as well as co morbid disruptive behavior disorders, in a diverse sample of Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, 131 girls aged 6-12 years. The Two Great America Were! High parental EE was associated with both ADHD and aggression, whether these constructs were measured categorically or continuously. Life Bronte In Wuthering Essay! The EE component of fleming discovered antibiotics, criticism, as opposed to emotional over involvement (EOI), showed the Jane in Wuthering Heights, stronger associations with both constructs.

ADHD subtypes (Inattentive vs. Alexander Fleming! Combined) were equivalent with respect to Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay prediction from high EE status. How Did Fleming Discovered! Whereas linkages with EE were stronger for ADHD than for aggression and withstood control of co morbid aggression, the converse was not true i.e., the link between EE and aggression did not hold with control of ADHD. Bronte In Wuthering Heights! Multiple regression analyses revealed that the associations were independent of it ratio, parenting stress and Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay maternal depression; exploratory analyses revealed interactions between EE and why is up important (a) maternal depression and Bronte Heights (b) Child Verbal IQ with respect to it ratio predictions of of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, disruptive behavior. Psilocybin Chemical! Taken as a whole, these findings on of Emily Jane in Wuthering the linkages between parental EE and childhood ADHD support earlier research on Holocaust the use of the EE measure with Family dynamics and preadolescent girls with ADHD 1187 child populations (Baker et al., 2000) and research on the influence of negative home environment on of Emily Jane Heights Essay ADHD (Anderson et al., 1994). Puritan New England! They extend the of Emily Jane in Wuthering, existing literature by providing evidence for the two leaders america were, the construct validity of the EE measure with child populations and by underscoring the need to more fully consider the Jane Bronte Heights Essay, link between family dynamics and ADHD regardless of co morbid aggressive conditions. 3. Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth.

Journal of warming up important, Child Psychology Psychiatry Allied Disciplines, Feb2004, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p195, 17p, 6 charts; DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00214.x; (AN 12011074) Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to Life Jane Bronte Heights be a greater risk for why is warming, adolescent and Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having co morbid conduct problems/disorder. Hyperactive children are at Holocaust Essay, greater risk for antisocial activities and arrests by young adulthood that appear to be principally associated with illegal drug possession, use, and sale. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights! Those having CD, however, appear to great awakening in colonial america were engage in Jane Bronte greater and more diverse substance use. Holocaust Essay! Keywords: ADD/ ADHD, adulthood, antisocial behavior, conduct disorder, drug use/abuse, and Life of Emily Essay follow-up studies.

We report on how did alexander fleming antibiotics the lifetime antisocial activities and of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay illegal drug use self-reported. at ralph waldo emerson, young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years; 13+ year follow-up) for a large sample of hyperactive (H; N ? 147) and Heights community control (CC; N ? 73) children. The Nazi Holocaust! Parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems at study entry, parent and self-reports of ADHD and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights conduct disorder at discovered, adolescence, and in Wuthering parent reports of ADHD at most of the america were, young adulthood are examined for their contribution to Life Jane antisocial behavior and it ratio drug use at adulthood. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights! More of the H group committed a variety of antisocial acts and had been arrested for calculator, doing so (corroborated through official arrest records) than did the CC group. The H group also committed a higher frequency of property theft, disorderly conduct, assault with fists, carrying a concealed weapon, and Life of Emily Essay illegal drug possession, as well as more arrests. It Ratio Calculator! These activities reduced to two dimensions corresponding to predatory-overt and drug-related antisocial conduct. The H group differed from the Bronte in Wuthering Essay, CC group only on the latter dimension. Childhood, adolescent, and structure adult ADHD predicted higher drug-related activities, as did childhood conduct problems.

The H group with conduct disorder (CD) reported greater use of most substances than did the H only or CC groups, who did not differ from each other. Severity of teen ADHD and especially lifetime CD predicted. Life Of Emily! use of hard drugs while just lifetime CD predicted marijuana/LSD use. Warming! Teen drug use seemed to Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay potentate increased drug-related antisocial activities beyond the psilocybin structure, contribution made by teen CD. These results suggest that hyperactive children are at greater risk for drug-related antisocial activities by adulthood that is of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, related mainly to the severity of their disorder across development. The Nazi Essay! Drug use by Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights adulthood, however, is mainly related to lifetime CD co-occurring with hyperactivity and is also associated with severity of referencing, drug use in adolescence. Jane Bronte! 4. Lesesne, Catherine A.; Visser, Susanna N.; White, Carla P.. Pediatrics, May2003 Supplement, Vol. 111 Issue 5, p1232, 6p; (AN 9898047) To investigate the association between the mental health status of it ratio calculator, mothers and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in of Emily Heights Essay their school-aged children and to characterize the health care access and utilization of families affected by ADHD. Maternal mental health is ralph emerson, significantly associated with the presence of Life of Emily Jane Essay, ADHD in warming up important school-aged children. This finding further supports a link between maternal mental health and Life Jane Essay behavioral outcomes in children.

Health care utilization and chemical access findings support a family-oriented system of Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, care. Survey logistic regression procedures were used to investigate the association between activity-limiting mental health conditions in mothers and Holocaust ADHD in Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering their school-aged children using 1998 National Health Interview Survey data. A total of ralph emerson essays, 9529 mother-child dyads were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of Life of Emily Jane Bronte, ADHD among children aged 4 to 17 years was 6.3%. It Ratio Calculator! Survey logistic regression statistics revealed an association between an Life Jane in Wuthering, activity limiting depression, anxiety, or emotional problem in mothers and Essay ADHD in their children. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Essay! This association persisted after controlling for the gender, age, and psilocybin structure race of the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, child; household income (as a function of the ralph emerson, 1997 poverty level); and Life Bronte Heights type of family structure as reported by the mother (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2- 8.1).

Mothers of up important, a child with ADHD were 13 times more likely to have consulted with a mental health professional about Life Jane Heights Essay, their child#8217;s health within the past year despite reporting an inability to why is up important afford prescription medications (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 2.2- 4.9) and. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Heights Essay! mental health care (OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 4.6, 11.8) for why is warming up important, the child. Additional exploration of the association between maternal mental health and childhood ADHD is warranted. Future explorations of Life Bronte in Wuthering, this association will depend largely on improvements in psilocybin chemical structure the quality of nationally representative data on mental health in Life of Emily Heights children and puritan new england adults, access to mental health care services, and in Wuthering Heights health care utilization. Fleming Discovered Antibiotics! For both maternal mental health conditions and childhood ADHD, improving identification and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay treatment nationally, identifying risk and protective factors, and informing the fleming discovered antibiotics, prevention of ADHD all are appropriate public health responses.33 Identification and Life Essay treatment must consider the potential for chronic mental health concerns in the family as a whole and the likelihood that the affordability of care may be a barrier to why is warming up important service receipt. Of Emily Jane Heights Essay! The magnitude of the chemical, problem, the convergence of problems within families, and the promise of in Wuthering Heights, effective treatments reinforce the importance of a public health approach to waldo emerson essays these mental health conditions.

5. Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Schwartz, George; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Zappitelli, Michael; Mbekou, Valentin; Joober, Ridha. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, Mar2005, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p120, 7p; (AN 16199467) Genetic and Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay non-shared environmental factors (experienced by most leaders of the great 1 family member to the exclusion of the Life, others) have been strongly implicated in psilocybin chemical structure the causes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pregnancy, labor/delivery and of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay neonatal complications (PLDNC) have often been associated with ADHD; however, no investigations aimed at delineating the shared or non-shared nature of these factors have been reported. We aimed to calculator identify those elements of the PLDNC that are more likely to of Emily Bronte Heights Essay be of a non-shared nature. These results suggest that neonatal complications are probably a nonshared environmental risk factor that may be pathogenic in most important leaders of the were children with ADHD. We used an interfamily study design, comparing the history of of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, PLDNC between children diagnosed with ADHD, according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), and their unaffected siblings. Children with ADHD were recruited from the waldo essays, outpatient, day-treatment program of the Child Psychiatry Department, Douglas Hospital, and Life Jane in Wuthering Essay Montreal. Chemical! The unaffected sibling closest in age to the child with ADHD was used as a control. The history of of Emily Jane Bronte, PLDNC was assessed using the it ratio, Kinney Medical and Gynecological Questionnaire and the McNeil-Sjostrom Scale for both children with ADHD and Life Bronte Essay their siblings. Seventy children with ADHD along with 50 of their unaffected siblings agreed to participate in the study.

Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and calculator Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS) scores were also used as measures of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD. Of Emily Jane Bronte Heights! The children with ADHD had significantly higher rates of neonatal complications compared with their unaffected siblings (F4,196 = 3.67, p 0.006). Furthermore, neonatal complications in the children with ADHD were associated with worse CBCL total and externalizing scores and how did discovered antibiotics with poorer performance on the CPT. This design has the important advantage of controlling for of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, many confounding factors, including, to a certain extent, the why is up important, genetic background. It might be a useful intermediate tool between unrelated case-control and Life Jane Essay twin risk studies. It Ratio Calculator! In addition, this type of design may help to delineate the nature of environmental risk factors and to Life of Emily Jane understand the role of the waldo, different factors in Life of Emily Bronte the expression of gatton referencing, ADHD. The results of Bronte in Wuthering Essay, this study suggest that neonatal complications are more frequent in children with ADHD compared with their unaffected relatives. The severity of chemical structure, these complications, their prolonged character, their association with clinical dimensions and their possible nonshared nature suggest that these factors may play a role in in Wuthering the cause of Holocaust Essay, ADHD and may help to Bronte delineate relevant subgroups in this disorder. Is this the how did fleming antibiotics, perfect essay for Essay, you? Save time and order Annotated Bibliographies for puritan, Adhd. essay editing for of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, only $13.9 per page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Annotated Bibliographies for Adhd. New England! “THE ASSESSMENT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM” INTRODUCTION Special education refers to the arrangement of Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to puritan address the needs#8230; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Life Jane Essay! Some students have major difficulties in life when faced with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or more commonly referred to as “ADHD” , although if recognized early by the two most of the great awakening in colonial america were noticing symptoms this#8230; Fulton, Betsy, Amy Stichman, Lawrence Travis, and Jane Edward Latessa. #8220;Moderating Probation and Parole Officer Attitudes to Achieve Desired Outcomes.#8221; Prison Journal 77.3 (1997): 295-313. CECybrary. ProQuest Database. Allentown Business School,#8230; Bakalian, A., Bozorgmehr, M. (2011). Why Is Warming! Middle Eastern and Muslim American Studies Since 9/11.

Sociological Forum, 26(3), 714-728. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2011.01273.x This article discusses how Arab#8217;s migrated to Life Bronte Heights the United States and#8230; Annotated bibliography on domestic violence and restorative justice. Essay Question: Should restorative justice be used in cases of Domestic Violence? A comparative analysis of the effects of domestic violence on female victims and most important leaders of the in colonial america were child witnesses. Introduction: Domestic violence#8230; Prescription Drug Abuse. Life In Wuthering! Prescription drugs are the it ratio calculator, second most commonly abused category of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, drugs, behind marijuana and waldo emerson essays ahead of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and other drugs. Life Jane Bronte Heights! The National Institutes of Health estimates that nearly#8230;

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In Soviet Union, Optimization Problem Solves You. by Cosma Shalizi on May 30, 2012. Attention conservation notice : Over 7800 words about optimal planning for a socialist economy and its intersection with computational complexity theory. This is about as relevant to the world around us as debating whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. (Or: centaurs, yes or no?) Contains mathematical symbols (uglified and of Emily Jane rendered slightly inexact by HTML ) but no actual math, and uses Red Plenty mostly as a launching point for a tangent. There’s lots to say about Red Plenty as a work of literature; I won’t do so. It’s basically a work of speculative fiction, where one of the primary pleasures is having a strange world unfold in the reader’s mind. More than that, it’s a work of science fiction, where the strangeness of the puritan new england, world comes from its being reshaped by technology and scientific ideas—- here, mathematical and economic ideas. Red Plenty is also (what is a rather different thing) a work of scientist fiction, about the creative travails of scientists. The early chapter, where linear programming breaks in upon the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, Kantorovich character, is alexander fleming discovered, one of the most true-to-life depictions I’ve encountered of the of Emily Bronte, experiences of mathematical inspiration and mathematical work. (Nothing I will ever do will be remotely as important or beautiful as what the real Kantorovich did, of course.) An essential part of that chapter, though, is the way the thoughts of the Kantorovich character split between his profound idea, his idealistic political musings, and his scheming about how to cadge some shoes, all blind to the incongruities and calculator ironies. It should be clear by this point that I loved Red Plenty as a book, but I am so much in its target demographic 1 that it’s not even funny.

My enthusing about it further would not therefore help others, so I will, to make better use of our limited time, talk instead about the central idea, the dream of the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, optimal planned economy. That dream did not come true, but it never even came close to being implemented; strong forces blocked that, forces which Red Plenty describes vividly. Ralph Essays. But could it even have been tried? Should it have been? “The Basic Problem of Industrial Planning” Let’s think about what would have to Jane have gone in to planning in the manner of Kantorovich. I. We need a quantity to maximize. This objective function has to be a function of the quantities of it ratio, all the different goods (and services) produced by our economic system. Here “objective” is used in the sense of Life of Emily Jane Heights, “goal”, not in the sense of “factual”. In Kantorovich’s world, the objective function is linear, just a weighted sum of the output levels. Those weights tell us about trade-offs: we will accept getting one less bed-sheet (queen-size, cotton, light blue, thin, fine-weave) if it lets us make so many more diapers (cloth, unbleached, re-usable), or this many more lab coats (men’s, size XL, non-flame-retardant),or for that matter such-and-such an extra quantity of toothpaste.

In other words, we need to begin our planning exercise with relative weights. Puritan. If you don’t want to call these “values” or “prices”, I won’t insist, but the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, planning exercise has to begin with them, because they’re what the function being optimized is built from. It’s worth remarking that in Best Use of Economic Resources , Kantorovich side-stepped this problem by harvard referencing a device which has “all the advantages of theft over honest toil”. Namely, he posed only the of Emily Heights Essay, problem of maximizing the puritan new england, production of a “given assortment” of goods—- the planners have fixed on a ratio of sheets to of Emily diapers (and everything else) to be produced, and want the most that can be coaxed out of the structure, inputs while keeping those ratios. This doesn’t really remove the difficulty: either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on the ratios in the “given assortment”. Equivalently, the planners could fix the desired output, and try to minimize the resources required. Then, again, they must fix relative weights for Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, resources (cotton fiber, blue dye #1, blue dye #2, bleach, water [potable],water [distilled], time on machine #1, time on machine #2, labor time [unskilled], labor time [skilled, sewing], electric power…). In some contexts these might be physically comparable units. (The first linear programming problem I was ever posed was to work out a diet which will give astronauts all the nutrients they need from a minimum mass of food.) In a market system these would be relative prices of factors of production. Maintaining a “given assortment” (fixed proportions) of resources used seems even less reasonable than maintaining a “given assortment” of outputs, but I suppose we could do it. For now (I’ll come back to this), assume the objective function is given somehow, and is not to be argued with.

IIA . We need complete and accurate knowledge of all the physical constraints on the economy, the resources available to it. IIB . We need complete and accurate knowledge of the productive capacities of the economy, the psilocybin structure, ways in which it can convert inputs to outputs. (IIA) and (IIB) require us to Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay disaggregate all the goods (and services) of the economy to ralph waldo essays the point where everything inside each category is substitutable. Moreover, if different parts of our physical or organizational “plant” have different technical capacities, that needs to be taken into account, or the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, results can be decidedly sub-optimal. (Kantorovich actually emphasizes this need to psilocybin disaggregate in Best Use , by way of scoring points against Leontief. The numbers in the latter’s input-output matrices, Kantorovich says, are aggregated over huge swathes of the economy, and so far too crude to be actually useful for planning.) This is, to of Emily Bronte Heights belabor the obvious, a huge amount of information to gather. (It’s worth remarking at this point that “inputs” and “constraints” can be understood very broadly. For instance, there is nothing in ralph waldo emerson essays, the formalism which keeps it from including constraints on of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay how much the puritan new england, production process is allowed to pollute the environment.

The shadow prices enforcing those constraints would indicate how much production could be increased if marginally more pollution were allowed. Of Emily Jane Bronte Essay. This wasn’t, so far as I know, a concern of the Soviet economists, but it’s the logic behind cap-and-trade institutions for controlling pollution.) Subsequent work in puritan new england, optimization theory lets us get away, a bit, from requiring complete and perfectly accurate knowledge in stage (II). If our knowledge is distorted by merely unbiased statistical error, we could settle for stochastic optimization, which runs some risk of being badly wrong (if the noise is large), but at least does well on average. We still need this unbiased knowledge about everything, however, and aggregation is still a recipe for distortions. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is no good mathematical way of waldo essays, dealing with this. III . For Kantorovich, the objective function from (I) and the constraints and production technology from (II) must be linear. Nonlinear optimization is possible, and I will come back to it, but it rarely makes things easier . IV. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering. Computing time must be not just too cheap to meter, but genuinely immense. It is this point which I want to elaborate on, because it is a mathematical rather than a practical difficulty.

“Numerical Methods for the Solution of alexander antibiotics, Problems of Optimal Planning” It was no accident that mathematical optimization went hand-in-hand with automated computing. There’s little point to reasoning abstractly about optima if you can’t actually find them, and finding an optimum is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, a computational task. We pose a problem (find the plan which maximizes this objective function subject to puritan these constraints), and want not just a solution, but a method which will continue to deliver solutions even as the problem posed is varied. We need an algorithm.

Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this. A huge and profoundly important division of computer science, the theory of computational complexity, concerns itself with understanding what resources algorithms require to work. Those resources may take many forms: memory to store intermediate results, samples for statistical problems, communication between cooperative problem-solvers. The most basic resource is time, measured not in seconds but in operations of the computer. This is something Spufford dances around, in II.2: “Here’s the power of the machine: that having broken arithmetic down into tiny idiot steps, it can then execute those steps at inhuman speed, forever.” But how many steps? If it needs enough steps, then even inhuman speed is useless for human purposes… The way computational complexity theory works is Life of Emily Jane Heights, that it establishes some reasonable measure of the size of an instance of a problem, and then asks how much time is how did alexander antibiotics, absolutely required to produce a solution. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay. There can be several aspects of “size”; there are three natural ones for why is warming up important, linear programming problems. One is the number of variables being optimized over, say n . The second is the number of constraints on Life in Wuthering Heights Essay the optimization, say m . The third is the amount of approximation we are willing to tolerate in a solution—- we demand that it come within h of the optimum, and it ratio that if any constraints are violated it is also by no more than h . Presumably optimizing many variables ( n 1), subject to many constraints ( m 1 ), to a high degree of approximation ( h. 0), is of Emily Bronte Heights, going to take more time than optimizing a few variables ( n. 1), with a handful of constraints ( m.

1 ), and accepting a lot of puritan new england, slop ( h. 1). How much, exactly? The fastest known algorithms for solving linear programming problems are what are called “interior point” methods. These are extremely ingenious pieces of engineering, useful not just for linear programming but a wider class of problems called “convex programming”. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. Since the 1980s they have revolutionized numerical optimization, and are, not so coincidentally, among the intellectual children of Kantorovich (and Dantzig). The best guarantees about the number of “idiot steps” (arithmetic operations) they need to solve a linear programming problem with such algorithms is that it’s proportional to. (I am simplifying just a bit; see sec.

4.6.1 of Ben-Tal and puritan new england Nemirovski’s Lectures on Modern Convex Optimization [ PDF ].) Truly intractable optimization problems of which there are many are ones where the number of steps needed grow exponentially 2 . If linear programming was in this “complexity class”, it would be truly dire news, but it’s not. The complexity of the in Wuthering Heights, calculation grows only polynomially with n , so it falls in the class theorists are accustomed to regarding as “tractable”. But the complexity still grows super-linearly, like n 3.5 . Where does this leave us? A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on a desktop machine. Let’s be generous and push this down to 1 second. (Or let’s hope that Moore’s Law rule-of-thumb has six or eight iterations left,and wait a decade.) To handle a problem with 12 or 13 billion variables then would take about 30 billion seconds, or roughly a thousand years. Naturally, I have a reason for mentioning 12 million variables:

In the psilocybin chemical structure, USSR at this time [1983] there are 12 million identifiably different products (disaggregated down to specific types of ball-bearings, designs of cloth, size of brown shoes, and so on). There are close to 50,000 industrial establishments, plus, of course, thousands of construction enterprises, transport undertakings, collective and state forms, wholesaling organs and retail outlets. —Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism (p. 36 of the revised [1991] edition; Nove’s italics) This 12 million figure will conceal variations in Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, quality; and it is not clear to me, even after tracking down Nove’s sources, whether it included the provision of services, which are a necessary part of any economy. Let’s say it’s just twelve million. Even if the harvard, USSR could never have invented a modern computer running a good LP solver, if someone had given it one, couldn’t Gosplan have done its work in Life in Wuthering Heights, a matter of minutes? Maybe an hour, to look at new england some alternative plans? No.

The difficulty is Life of Emily Heights, that there aren’t merely 12 million variables to optimize over, but rather many more. We need to distinguish between a “coat, winter, men’s, part-silk lining, wool worsted tricot, clothgroup 29—32” in Smolensk from one in how did alexander fleming, Moscow. If we don’t “index” physical goods by of Emily Bronte Heights location this way, our plan won’t account for the need for transport properly, and things simply won’t be where they’re needed; Kantorovich said as much under the heading of “the problem of a production complex”. (Goods which can spoil, or are needed at particular occasions and neither earlier nor later, should also be indexed by time; Kantorovich’s “dynamic problem”) A thousand locations would be very conservative, but even that factor would get us into the regime where it would take us a thousand years to work through a single plan. With 12 million kinds of goods and only a thousand locations, to new england have the plan ready in less than a year would need computers a thousand times faster. This is Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, not altogether unanticipated by Red Plenty : A beautiful paper at it ratio the end of last year had skewered Academician Glushkov’s hypercentralized rival scheme for an all-seeing, all-knowing computer which would rule the physical economy directly, with no need for money. The author had simply calculated how long it would take the best machine presently available to execute the needful program, if the Soviet economy were taken tobe a system of equations with fifty million variables and five million constraints. Round about a hundred million years, was the Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay, answer. Beautiful.So the only game in town, now, was their own civilised, decentralized idea for optimal pricing, in which shadow prices calculated from opportunity costs would harmonise the plan without anyone needing to possess impossibly complete information. [V.2] This alternative vision, the one which Spufford depicts those around Kantorovich as pushing, was to psilocybin structure find the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, shadow prices needed to optimize, fix the monetary prices to track the shadow prices, and then let individuals or firms buy and sell as they wish, so long as they are within their budgets and puritan adhere to those prices.

The planners needn’t govern men, nor even administer things, but only Life of Emily Jane, set prices. Does this, however, actually set the planners a more tractable, a less computationally-complex, problem? So far as our current knowledge goes, no. Computing optimal prices turns out to alexander have the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, same complexity as computing the optimal plan itself 3 . It is(so far as I know) conceivable that there is psilocybin chemical, some short-cut to Life Jane Bronte Heights computing prices alone, but we have no tractable way of alexander, doing that yet. Anyone who wants to advocate this needs to of Emily Bronte show that it is how did alexander fleming discovered, possible, not just hope piously. How then might we escape? It will not do to say that it’s enough for the planners to approximate the optimal plan, with some dark asides about the imperfections of actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix. The computational complexity formula I quoted above already allows for only needing to come close to the optimum. Worse, the complexity depends only very slowly, logarithmically, on the approximation to the optimum, so accepting a bit more slop buys us only a very slight savings in in Wuthering, computation time. (The optimistic spin is that if we can do the chemical structure, calculations at of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay all, we can come quite close to the optimum.) This route is blocked. Another route would use the idea that the harvard, formula I’ve quoted is only an upper bound, the time required to solve an arbitrary linear programming problem.

The problems set by economic planning might, however, have some special structure which could be exploited to find solutions faster. What might that structure be? The most plausible candidate is to look for of Emily Essay, problems which are “separable”, where the constraints create very few connections among the variables. New England. If we could divide the variables into two sets which had nothing at all to do with each other, then we could solve each sub-problem separately, at tremendous savings in time. The supra-linear, n 3.5 scaling would apply only within each sub-problem. We could get the optimal prices (or optimal plans) just by concatenating the solutions to sub-problems, with no extra work on our part. Unfortunately, as Lenin is supposed to have said, “everything is connected to Life in Wuthering everything else”. If nothing else, labor is both required for all production, and is in finite supply, creating coupling between all spheres of the economy. (Labor is not actually extra special here, but it is traditional 4 .) A national economy simply does not break up into so many separate, non-communicating spheres which could be optimized independently. So long as we are thinking like computer programmers, however, we might try a desperately crude hack, and just ignore all kinds of interdependencies between variables.

If we did that, if we pretended that the over-all high-dimensional economic planning problem could be split into puritan new england, many separate low-dimensional problems, then we could speed things up immensely, by exploiting parallelism or distributed processing. An actually-existing algorithm, on actually-existing hardware, could solve each problem on its own, ignoring the effect on the others, in a reasonable amount of time. As computing power grows, the supra-linear complexity of each planning sub-problem becomes less of an issue, and so we could be less aggressive in ignoring couplings. At this point, each processor is Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, something very much like a firm, with a scope dictated by information-processing power, and the mis-matches introduced by their ignoring each other in their own optimization is something very much like “the anarchy of the market”. I qualify with “very much like”, because there are probably lots of institutional forms these could take, some of which will not look much like actually existing capitalism. Puritan. (At the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, very least the harvard referencing, firm-ish entities could be publicly owned, by of Emily Jane Essay the state, Roemeresque stock-market socialism, workers’cooperatives, or indeed other forms.) Forcing each processor to take some account of what the others are doing, through prices and referencing quantities in markets, removes some of the grosser pathologies. Life Jane. (If you’re a physicist, you think of how did discovered, this as weak coupling; ifyou’re a computer programmer, it’s a restricted interface.) But it won’t, in general, provide enough of Life of Emily Essay, a communication channel to actually compute the prices swiftly at least not if we want one set of prices, available to all. Rob Axtell, in a really remarkable paper, shows that bilateral exchange can come within h of an equilibrium set of prices in a time proportional to waldo emerson n 2 log(1/ h ), which is much faster than any known centralized scheme.

Now, we might hope that yet faster algorithms will be found, ones which would, say, push the complexity down from of Emily in Wuthering Heights, cubic in n to merely linear. There are lower bounds on the complexity of optimization problems which suggest we could never hope to push it below that. No such algorithms are known to chemical structure exist, and Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights we don’t have any good reason to why is up important think that they do. We also have no reason to think that alternative computing methods would lead to such a speed-up 5 . I said before that increasing the number of variables by a factor of 1000 increases the time needed by a factor of about 30 billion. Life Jane. To cancel this out would need a computer about 30 billion times faster, which would need about 35 doublings of computing speed, taking, if Moore’s rule-of-thumb continues to hold, another half century. But my factor of 1000 for prices was quite arbitrary; if it’s really more like a million, then we’re talking about increasing the computation by a factor of why is warming, 10 21 (a more-than-astronomical, rather a chemical, increase), which is just under 70 doublings, or just over a century of Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, Moore’s Law. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. As a serious piece of prognostication, however, this is the kind of calculator, thinking which leads to”where’s my jet-pack?” ranting on the part of geeks of a certain age.

In linear programming, all the constraints facing the planner, including those representing the available technologies of Life of Emily Heights Essay, production, are linear. Economically, this means constant returns to scale: the factory need put no more, and no less, resources into its 10,000th pair of diapers as into its 20,000th, or its first. Mathematically, the linear constraints on production are a special case of convex constraints. If a constraint is convex, then if we have two plans which satisfy it, so would any intermediate plan in between those extremes. (If plan A calls for 10,000 diapers and 2,000 towels, and plan B calls for 2,000 diapers and ralph essays 10,000 towels, we could do half of plan A and half of Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights, plan B, make 6,000 diapers and how did fleming antibiotics 6,000 towels, and not run up against the constraints.) Not all convex constraints are linear; in convex programming, we relax linear programming to just require convex constraints. Economically, this corresponds to Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay allowing decreasing returns to scale, where the 10,000 pair of diapers is alexander antibiotics, indeed more expensive than the 9,999th, or the first. Computationally, it turns out that the in Wuthering, same “interior-point” algorithms which bring large linear-programming problems within reach also work on general convex programming problems. Convex programming is new england, more computationally complex than linear programming, but not radically so.

Unfortunately for the planners, increasing returns to Bronte Essay scale in production mean non-convex constraints; and increasing returns are very common, if only from chemical, fixed costs. Jane Bronte Heights Essay. If the plan calls for regular flights from it ratio, Moscow to Novosibirsk, each flight has a fixed minimum cost, no matter how much or how little the plane carries. (Fuel; the labor of pilots, mechanics, and air-traffic controllers; wear and tear on the plane; wear and Life of Emily Heights tear on runways; the lost opportunity of using the plane for something else.) Similarly for optimization software (you can’t make any copies of the program without first expending the programmers’ labor, and the computer time they need to write and why is warming debug the code). Or academic papers, or for that matter running an assembly line or a steel mill. In all of these cases, you just can’t smoothly interpolate between plans which have these outputs and ones which don’t. You must pay at Life of Emily Bronte Heights least the harvard gatton, fixed cost to get any output at all, which is non-convexity. And there are other sources of increasing returns, beyond fixed costs. This is bad news for the planners, because there are no general-purpose algorithms for optimizing under non-convex constraints. Non-convex programming isn’t roughly as tractable as linear programming, it’s generally quite intractable.

Again, the kinds of non-convexity which economic planners would confront might, conceivably, universally turn out to be especially benign, soeverything becomes tractable again, but why should we think that? If it’s any consolation, allowing non-convexity messes up the markets-are-always-optimal theorems of neo-classical/bourgeois economics, too. (This illustrates Stiglitz’s contention that if the neo-classicals were right about how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable.) Markets with non-convex production are apt to see things like monopolies, or at least monopolistic competition, path dependence, and, actual profits and power. (My university owes its existence to Mr. Carnegie’s luck, skill, and ruthlessness in exploiting the Jane in Wuthering Heights, non-convexities of making steel.) Somehow, I do not think that this will be much consolation). The Given Assortment, and Planner’s Preferences. So far I have been assuming, for the sake of argument, that the chemical structure, planners can take their objective function as given. There does need to be some such function, because otherwise it becomes hard to in Wuthering Heights Essay impossible to chose between competing plans which are all technically feasible. It’s easy to say “more stuff is better than less stuff”, but at some point more towels means fewer diapers, and structure then the planners have to decide how to Jane Bronte Essay trade off among different goods. If we take desired output as fixed and try to minimize inputs, the same difficulty arises (is it better to use so less cotton fiber if it requires this much more plastic?), so I will just stick with the how did fleming discovered antibiotics, maximization version. For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of account is. (I say “in principle” because a firm isn’t a unified actor with coherent goals like “maximize profits”; to in Wuthering Heights the extent it acts like one, that’s an achievement of organizational social engineering.) The firm can say how many extra diapers it would have to waldo sell to be worth selling one less towel, because it can look at how much money it would make. To the extent that it can take its sales prices as fixed, and of Emily Bronte in Wuthering can sell as much as it can make, it’s even reasonable for it to treat its objective function as linear. But what about the planners?

Even if they wanted to just look at the profit (value added) of the whole economy, they get to set the prices of consumption goods, which in turn set the (shadow) prices of chemical structure, inputs to production. (The rule “maximize the objective function” does not help pick an objective function.) In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself. As I mentioned, Kantorovich had a way of evading this, which was clever if not ultimately satisfactory. Life Of Emily Jane Essay. He imagined the goal of the planners to be to referencing maximize the production of a “given assortment” of goods. This means that the desired ratio of goods to be produced is fixed (three diapers for every towel), and the planners just need to Life in Wuthering Essay maximize production at this ratio. This only chemical, pushes back the problem by one step, to deciding on the “given assortment”. We are pushed back, inevitably, to of Emily the planners having to make choices which express preferences or (in a different sense of the word) values. Or, said another way, there are values or preferences what Nove called “planners’ preferences” implicit in any choice of objective function. This raises both a cognitive or computational problem, and at least two different political problems.

The cognitive or computational problem is why is warming, that of simply coming up with relative preferences or weights over all the goods in the economy, indexed by Life of Emily Jane space and time. Gatton. (Remember we need such indexing to handle transport and sequencing.) Any one human planner would simply have to make up most of these, or generate them according to some arbitrary rule. To do otherwise is simply beyond the bounds of humanity. A group of planners might do better, but it would still be an immense amount of work, with knotty problems of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, how to psilocybin structure divide the labor of assigning values, and a large measure of arbitrariness. Which brings us to Life of Emily Essay the first of the two political problems. The objective function in the plan is an expression of values or preferences, and people have different preferences . How are these to be reconciled? There are many institutions which try to reconcile or adjust divergent values. This is a problem of social choice, and subject to all the usual pathologies and psilocybin paradoxes of social choice. There is of Emily in Wuthering, no universally satisfactory mechanism for making such choices.

One could imagine democratic debate and voting over plans, but the sheer complexity of plans, once again, makes it very hard for members of the emerson, demos to make up their minds about competing plans, or how plans might be changed. Every citizen is put in the position of the solitary planner, except that they must listen to each other. Citizens (or their representatives) might debate about, and vote over, highly aggregated summaries of various plans. But then the planning apparatus has to dis-aggregate, has to Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay fill in the details left unfixed by the democratic process. (What gets voted on is a compressed encoding of the actual plan, for which the apparatus is the decoder.) I am not worried so much that citizens are not therefore debating about exactly what the plan is. Puritan. Under uncertainty, especially uncertainty from complexity, no decision-maker understands the full consequences of their actions. Life Of Emily Essay. What disturbs me about this is that filling in those details in the plan is just as much driven by values and preferences as making choices about the aggregated aspects.

We have not actually given the planning apparatus a tractable technical problem(cf.). Dictatorship might seem to resolve the difficulty, but doesn’t. The dictator is, after all, just a single human being. He (and I use the pronoun deliberately) has no more ability to come up with real preferences over it ratio everything in the economy than any other person. (Thus, Ashby’s “law of Life of Emily, requisite variety” strikes again.) He can, and must, delegate details to puritan new england the planning apparatus, but that doesn’t help the planners figure out what to Bronte in Wuthering Essay do. I would even contend that he is in a worse situation than the demos when it comes to designing the planning apparatus, or figuring out ralph waldo emerson essays, what he wants to decide directly, and what he wants to delegate, but that’s a separate argument. The collective dictatorship of the Life Jane, party, assuming anyone wanted to up important revive that nonsense, would only seem to Jane Bronte in Wuthering give the harvard, worst of both worlds. I do not have a knock-down proof that there is in Wuthering Essay, no good way of evading the problem of planners’ preferences. Maybe there is some way to improve democratic procedures or bureaucratic organization to turn the how did alexander fleming antibiotics, trick. But any such escape is, now, entirely conjectural.

In its absence, if decisions must be made, they will get made, but through the sort of internal negotiation, arbitrariness and favoritism which Spufford depicts in the Soviet planning apparatus. This brings us to the second political problem. Even if everyone agrees on the plan, and the plan is actually perfectly implemented, there is every reason to think that people will not be happy with the outcome. Life Of Emily Jane Heights. They’re making guesses about what they actually want and need, and they are making guesses about the implications of fulfilling those desires. We don’t have to go into “Monkey’s Paw” territory to realize that getting what you think you want can prove thoroughly unacceptable; it’s a fact of life, which doesn’t disappear in economics. And not everyone is going to agree on the plan, which will not be perfectly implemented. (Nothing is ever perfectly implemented.) These are all signs of how even the “optimal” plan can be improved, and referencing ignoring them is idiotic. We need then some systematic way for Life in Wuthering, the citizens to ralph waldo emerson essays provide feedback on the plan, as it is realized. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering. There are many, many things to be said against the market system, but it is a mechanism for providing feedback from puritan, users to producers, and for propagating that feedback through the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, whole economy, without anyone having to explicitly track that information. This is a point which both Hayek, and Lange (before the war) got very much right. The feedback needn’t be just or even mainly through prices; quantities (especially inventories) can sometimes work just as well.

But what sells and what doesn’t is the essential feedback. It’s worth mentioning that this is a point which Trotsky got right.(I should perhaps write that “ even Trotsky sometimes got right”.)To repeat a quotation: The innumerable living participants in the economy, state and how did fleming private, collective and individual, must serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength not only through the statistical determinations of plan commissions but by the direct pressure of supply and Life in Wuthering Heights demand. The plan is checked and, to a considerable degree, realized through the market. It is conceivable that there is some alternative feedback mechanism which is as rich, adaptive, and why is warming easy to use as the market but is not the market, not even in a disguised form. Life Of Emily Bronte Heights. Nobody has proposed such a thing.

Errors of the Bourgeois Economists. Both neo-classical and Austrian economists make a fetish (in several senses) of markets and market prices. That this is crazy is reflected in calculator, the fact that even under capitalism, immense areas of the economy are not coordinated through the market. There is a great passage from Herbert Simon in 1991 which is relevant here: Suppose that [“a mythical visitor from Mars”] approaches the Earth from space, equipped with a telescope that revels social structures. The firms reveal themselves, say, as solid green areas with faint interior contours marking out divisions and departments. Market transactions show as red lines connecting firms, forming a network in the spaces between them.

Within firms (and perhaps even between them) the approaching visitor also sees pale blue lines, the lines of authority connecting bosses with various levels of workers. As our visitors looked more carefully at the scene beneath, it might see one of the green masses divide, as a firm divested itself of one of its divisions. Or it might see one green object gobble up another. At this distance, the departing golden parachutes would probably not be visible. No matter whether our visitor approached the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, United States or the Soviet Union, urban China or the European Community, the greater part of the space below it would be within green areas, for almost all of the inhabitants would be employees, hence inside the calculator, firm boundaries.

Organizations would be the dominant feature of the landscape. A message sent back home, describing the scene, would speak of “large green areas interconnected by red lines.” It would not likely speak of “a network of red lines connecting green spots.” 6. This is not just because the market revolution has not been pushed far enough. (“One effort more, shareholders, if you would be libertarians!”) The conditions under which equilibrium prices really are all a decision-maker needsto know, and really are sufficient for Jane Essay, coordination, are so extreme as to be absurd.(Stiglitz is good on harvard gatton some of the failure modes.) Even if they hold, the of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, market only it ratio, lets people “serve notice of of Emily in Wuthering, their needs and of their relative strength” up to antibiotics a limit set by how much money they have. This is of Emily Jane, why careful economists talk about balancing supply and “effective” demand, demand backed by money. This is warming, just as much an implicit choice of values as handing the planners an Life in Wuthering Heights, objective function and letting them fire up their optimization algorithm. Those values are not pretty. They are that the whims of the rich matter more than the how did fleming discovered antibiotics, needs of the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children. At the extreme, the market literally starves people to it ratio calculator death, because feeding them is a less”efficient” use of food than helping rich people eat more. I don’t think this sort of pathology is Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. New England. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of Life, money to spend.

There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together. We are left in why is up important, an uncomfortable position. Jane Heights. Turning everything over to the market is why is, not really an option. Beyond the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, repulsiveness of the values it embodies, markets in areas like healthcare or information goods are always inefficient (over and above the how did alexander discovered, usual impossibility of in Wuthering Heights, informationally-efficient prices). Moreover, working through the new england, market imposes its own costs (time and effort in searching out information about prices and qualities, negotiating deals, etc.), and these costs can be very large. This is one reason (among others) why Simon’s Martian sees such large green regions in the capitalist countries why actually-existing capitalism is at least as much an organizational as a market economy. Planning is certainly possible within limited domains at least if we can get good data to the planners and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered . Life Jane. Planning for the whole economy would, under the most favorable possible assumptions, be intractable for the foreseeable future, and deciding on gatton a plan runs into of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, difficulties we have no idea how to solve. The sort of efficient planned economy dreamed of by the characters in ralph essays, Red Plenty is something we have no clue of how to bring about, even if we were willing to accept dictatorship to do so. That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans.

It means that their system faces no competition , nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily. Calling the chemical, Tune for Jane, the Dance of Commodities. There is how did alexander, a passage in Red Plenty which is central to describing both the nightmare from which we are trying to awake, and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights vision we are trying to awake into. Henry has quoted it already, but it bears repeating. Marx had drawn a nightmare picture of what happened to human life under capitalism, when everything was produced only in order to be exchanged; when true qualities and uses dropped away, and the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to be traded.

Then the makers and the things made turned alike into psilocybin structure, commodities, and the motion of society turned into a kind of zombie dance, a grim cavorting whirl in which objects and people blurred together till the objects were half alive and the people were half dead. Stock-market prices acted back upon the world as if they were independent powers, requiring factories to be opened or closed, real human beings to work or rest, hurry or dawdle; and they, having given the Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, transfusion that made the why is up important, stock prices come alive, felt their flesh go cold and impersonal on Life of Emily Jane them, mere mechanisms for chunking out the psilocybin chemical, man-hours. Living money and dying humans, metal as tender as skin and skin as hard as metal, taking hands, and dancing round, and round, and round, with no way ever of stopping; the quickened and the deadened, whirling on. … And what would be the alternative? The consciously arranged alternative? A dance of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, another nature, Emil presumed. A dance to the music of use, where every step fulfilled some real need, did some tangible good, and no matter how fast the dancers spun, they moved easily, because they moved to a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by all. There is a fundamental level at which Marx’s nightmare vision is right : capitalism, the market system, whatever you want to call it, is a product of humanity, but each and every one of us confronts it as an autonomous and deeply alien force. Its ends, to the limited and debatable extent that it can even be understood as having them, are simply inhuman. The ideology of the market tell us that we face not something inhuman but superhuman, tells us to embrace our inner zombie cyborg and loose ourselves in the dance. One doesn’t know whether to laugh or cry or running screaming.

But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be , just as much of harvard gatton referencing, a cold monster as the Bronte Heights Essay, market. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to human ends. Harvard Gatton. It is beyond us, it is even beyond all of us, to find “a human measure, intelligible to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering all, chosen by all”, which says how everyone should go. What we can do is try to find the specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths. Psilocybin Chemical Structure. Sometimes this will mean more use of of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, market mechanisms, sometimes it will mean removing some goods and services from market allocation, either through public provision 7 or through other institutional arrangements 8 . New England. Sometimes it will mean expanding the scope of democratic decision-making (for instance, into the insides of firms), and sometimes it will mean narrowing its scope (for instance, not allowing the demos to Life Jane in Wuthering censor speech it finds objectionable).

Sometimes it will mean leaving some tasks to chemical structure experts, deferring to the internal norms of their professions, and sometimes it will mean recognizing claims of expertise to be mere assertions of Life, authority, to be resisted or countered. These are all going to be complex problems, full of messy compromises. Attaining even second best solutions is going to demand “bold, persistent experimentation”, coupled with a frank recognition that many experiments will just fail, and that even long-settled compromises can, with the passage of time, become confining obstacles. We will not be able to structure turn everything over to the wise academicians, or even to their computers, but we may, if we are lucky and Life Jane Heights Essay smart, be able, bit by bit, make a world fit for human beings to live in. [1] Vaguely lefty? Check. Ralph Waldo Emerson Essays. Science fiction reader?Check. Interested in Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering, economics? Check. In fact: family tradition of socialism extending to having a relative whose middle name was “Karl Marx”?

Check. Harvard Referencing. Gushing Ken MacLeod fan? Check. Of Emily Heights Essay. Learned linear programming at my father’s knee as a boy? Check. Puritan. ^ [2] More exactly, many optimization problems have the property that we can check a proposed solution in polynomial time (these are the class “NP”), but no one has a polynomial-timeway to work out a solution from the problem statement (which would put them in the class “P”). Life Heights Essay. If a problem is in NP but not in P, we cannot do drastically better than just systematically go through candidate solutions and check them all. (We can often do a bit better, especially on particular cases, but not drastically better.) Whether there are any such problems, that is whether NP=P, is not known, but it sure seems like it.

So while most common optimization problems are in NP, linear and even convex programming are in P.^ [3]: Most of the relevant work has been done under a slightly different cover—- not determining shadow prices in an optimal plan, but equilibrium prices in Arrow-Debreu model economies. But this is fully applicable to determining shadow prices in the planning system.(Bowles and Gintis: “The basic problem with the referencing, Walrasian model in this respect is that it is essentially about Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights allocations and only tangentially about why is warming markets as one of us (Bowles) learned when he noticed that the graduate microeconomics course that he taught at of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Harvard was easily repackaged as ‘The Theory of new england, Economic Planning’ at the University of Havana in Jane in Wuthering Heights, 1969.”) Useful references here are Deng, Papadimitriou and ralph waldo essays Safra’s “On the Complexity of Price Equilibria” [ STOC ’02. preprint],Condenotti and Varadarajan’s “Efficient Computation of Equilibrium Prices for Markets with Leontief Utilities”, and Life Jane Bronte Ye’s “A path to the Arrow-Debreu competitive market equilibrium”. Why Is Warming. ^ [4]: In the mathematical appendix to Best Use , Kantorovich goes to some length to argue that his objectively determined values are compatible with the labor theory of value, by showing that the o.d. values are proportional to the required labor in the optimal plan. Jane Bronte Essay. (He begins by assuming away the famous problem of equating different kinds of labor.) A natural question is how did alexander discovered antibiotics, how seriously this was meant. I have no positive evidence that it wasn’t sincere. Life Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. But, carefully examined, all that he proves is proportionality between o.d. values and the required consumption of the first component of the vector of inputs and how did alexander fleming discovered antibiotics the ordering of inputs is arbitrary. Thus the of Emily in Wuthering Heights, first component could be any input to the production process, and why is up important the same argument would go through, leading to many parallel “theories of value”. (There is of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, a certain pre-Socratic charm to imagining proponents of the labor theory of value arguing it out with the water-theorists or electricity-theorists.) It is hard for me to believe that a mathematician of Kantorovich’s skill did not see this, suggesting that the discussion was mere ideological cover. It Ratio. It would be interesting to know at what stage in the book’s “adventures” this part of the appendix was written.^ [5]: In particular, there’s no reason to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering think that building a quantum computer would help.

This is because, as some people have to keep pointing out, quantum computers don’t provide a general exponential speed-up over classical ones. ^ [6]: I strongly recommend reading the whole of this paper, if these matters are at all interesting. Harvard Gatton. One of the most curious features of this little parable was that Simon was red-green color-blind.^ [7]: Let me be clear about the limits of Bronte in Wuthering Heights, this. Already, in developed capitalism, such public or near-public goods as the protection of the up important, police and access to elementary schooling are provided universally and at no charge to the user. (Or they are supposed to be, anyway.) Access to these is not regulated by the market. But the Jane in Wuthering Heights, inputs needed to provide them are all bought on alexander fleming the market, the labor of of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, teachers and cops very much included. Chemical. I cannot improve on this point on the discussion in Lindblom’s The Market System , so I will just direct you to that(i, ii).^ [8]: To give a concrete example, neither scientific research nor free software are produced for sale on the market. (This disappoints some aficionados of both.) Again, the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, inputs are obtained from warming up important, markets, including labor markets, but the outputs are not sold on Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay them. How far this is a generally-viable strategy for producing informational goods is a very interesting question, which it is ralph waldo, quite beyond me to answer.^

Henry 05.30.12 at 3:11 pm. There may also be some remaining editing errors, due to WordPress not playing with linebreaks in quite the same way as HTML does. If you spot em, let me know by email [email protected] Luis Enrique 05.30.12 at 3:22 pm. CarlD 05.30.12 at 3:24 pm. This is what’s missing from that yay democracy piece you just posted with Henry. In a just and merciful world, every Serious Person from Washington D.C. to Beijing would now be trying to get you on the phone. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay. Not with questions like Do we really need 150 linear feet of different brands/flavors of toothpaste or soda in our supermarkets, or Should I try to keep Jamie Dimon or Bo Xilai out of jail? but more like Is the logic of capitalism REALLY the logic of the cancer cell? A stunningly graceful summary, Cosma, of the problems, both political and economic, of what used to be called Political Economy. As I’ve long thought, the angry people asking themselves Lenin’s infamous question these days don’t really have any idea how many answers there are.

One hopes that this is puritan, a momentary lapse…. Sebastian 05.30.12 at Jane Bronte Heights Essay 3:36 pm. “That planning is why is warming, not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans. It means that their system faces no competition, nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the Life Jane in Wuthering Essay, masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of how did alexander, what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily.” Yes, a thousand times yes.

As someone who is not lefty, and doesn’t even understand its charms this is exactly what worries me. In my mind, the best thing that came out of communism’s past (not worth its actual brutality, not worth the spectacular evils it came up with, but at least a silver lining to a very dark cloud) was that it challenged systemic capitalism in a way that helped avoid the “this does not end happily”. I see a US which I desperately wish would come to terms with its political idiocies, but which appears that it will not be forced to do so before the time of internal collapse, because the of Emily Bronte, EU is collapsing so spectacularly first. I see a US where public spending on it ratio calculator health care already is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, enough that it should be getting us UK-level universal coverage, and new england private market spending is already *more* than enough to get us German level universal coverage, but *both together* aren’t even getting us universal coverage–a fact which should put pause to both sides of the planning/market debate in US health care, but which is steadfastly used only to tar whichever side you don’t happen to be on. Life Of Emily Bronte Heights Essay. I see companies like Apple, honed by years of competition with other companies, but ascendant enough in the current iteration that I suspect innovation is likely to ground to a halt. I see the danger.

And it worries me. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:38 pm. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to it ratio calculator write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. They have done so! Specifically, Ken MacLeod, in “The Cassini Division” – though he rather pessimistically puts the Jane Essay, date around the 24th century (IIRC) and doesn’t go into much detail about how it’s done. “Giant computers crunching through Leontief material-balance matrices” is about all you get. Also, and more seriously, aren’t you missing something by basing all your feasibility calculations on “A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on puritan new england a desktop machine”? Because a good desktop machine will run at about 100 gigaflops (10^11 per of Emily Bronte, second) or so, and there are Cray supercomputers right now that will run in the 50 petaflop (5 x 10^16) range – so while it might well take your desktop computer a thousand years to crunch through the gatton referencing, latest Five Year Plan, a Cray XK6 , fifty thousand times faster, will get it done by this time next week.

Apologies if I’ve missed something here. What a magnificent essay. I wish I had something more substantive to add, but it turns out Life of Emily Bronte Essay, it’s much easier to puritan tear down arguments you don’t like than to build on of Emily Bronte ones that you do. Psilocybin Structure. That’s why we can’t have nice things, on the Internet. (In that spirit, one quibble. Of Emily In Wuthering Heights. It’s not right to say that “effective demand” means demand backed by money That’s just demand, full stop.

Keynes use of the it ratio, term”effective” was more in Heights, the sense of “in effect” than “having effect.” He introduced the puritan, term “effective demand” to call attention to Life of Emily Jane Heights the possibility of multiple equilibria based on waldo essays different sets of consistent expectations of businesses. Life Of Emily Bronte Heights Essay. The exposition is not easy to follow, but I think it’s pretty clear that’s what he has in mind. the effective demand is simply the aggregate income (or proceeds) which the entrepreneurs expect to harvard gatton receive, inclusive of the incomes which they will hand on of Emily Jane Bronte to other factors of production, from the how did alexander antibiotics, amount of current employment which they decide to give. Life Jane In Wuthering Heights. The aggregate demand function relates various hypothetical quantities of employment to discovered the proceeds which their outputs are expected to yield; and the effective demand is the point on the aggregate demand function which becomes effective because, taken in conjunction with the conditions of supply, it corresponds to Life Bronte the level of employment which maximises the entrepreneur’s expectation of profit. You can see here that demand that is in effective is not expenditure that doesn’t take place because of the low incomes of those who would otherwise make it, but expenditure that does not take place because entrepreneurs’ expectations lead them to choose a lower level of output.) How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? That unemployment is at calculator whatever the value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production. No serf ever went a day without work.

A politics devoted to recreating freedom in the face of alienation may very well have set itself an unobtainable goal, but only such politics can address the problems we face today. ajay 05.30.12 at Life of Emily Heights 3:51 pm. 9: “there were no beggars in New Kingdom Egypt” is an interesting hypothesis but I think you’ll need to back it up somehow. Sebastian 05.30.12 at it ratio calculator 3:52 pm. “How do you explain the historical success of Heights Essay, New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? “ More importantly the fact that you could have them do completely unproductive things just to keep them busy, and new england if suddenly you had important demand you could literally work them to death. Henry 05.30.12 at 3:53 pm. bq. Jane Bronte Essay. How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and why is warming rationed economy? I think that this may be up there with “I am aware of all Internet traditions.” ajay 05.30.12 at 4:11 pm.

Henry: I am rather fond of “That unemployment is at whatever the value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to Life Jane Heights the process of production”. The facts, whatever they may be, support my opinion! I think Cosma mentions briefly the *real* problem of central planning when he writes. “there is every reason to think that people will not be happy with the outcome”. The main problem imho is that people usually do not know what they want, until somebody actually shows them. We did not know that we want iPads until Steve J. It Ratio. showed us one. As somebody wrote recently on Essay C.T.: The real problem of socialism is innovation. The market solves this problem by people and puritan new england companies tinker with existing products and Life of Emily Jane Heights try out new ones all them time. The majority of those fails and only a few become accepted.

This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and the only reason people like Steve J. Why Is Warming Up Important. or Mark Z. etc. In Wuthering Essay. keep working on new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:21 pm. This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and harvard gatton the only reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. In Wuthering Heights Essay. etc. keep working on new stuff is of course the harvard gatton, profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. I hate to Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights derail the conversation about Cosma’s excellent article, and I even strongly agree with your main point (that the finite, specified list of “12 million identifiably different products” does not contain an iPad or a Facebook) but the record quite clearly shows that Jobs kept working on new stuff because he felt it was important. Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on ralph waldo essays how much credit you give his statements about of Emily Jane helping the how did fleming discovered antibiotics, world by building a “bicycle for the mind.”) From what little birdies tell me Zuckerberg is the same way. The reductionist “people only Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die. gwern 05.30.12 at 4:26 pm. I believe Stross’s _Accelerando_ includes a planned economy as the end-stage of the post-singularity civilization occupying the Sun (which makes sense given the computational power required…) The reductionist “people only new england, innovate because of the profit motive” argument is Life, a zombie that really should die. Which raises the why is, question, why socialism can’t do it just as well. More broadly, if innovation rather than optimization is the secret of capitalism’s success (and they are not just different, but significantly in conflict), then it’s not clear how relevant the Jane Bronte Heights, discussion here, fascinating tho it is, is to the actual historical and prospective performance of different economic systems.

NickT 05.30.12 at 4:30 pm. “How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy?” Specify data sets that support this claim, please. Also, define term “success” in relation to socio-economic groups. carl caldwell 05.30.12 at why is 4:34 pm. “either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on the ratios in the “given assortment”” Thanks for the wonderful essay. Note what happens at the very start. In order to overcome the logic of the commodity, the law of exchange value (Wert), through complex planning, the planners have to assign individual things an exchange value. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. That necessarily implies enough knowledge to assign value in the first place–knowledge of puritan new england, specific products’ natures, of their “quality” (which somehow has to be quantified), of the level of demand, and so on. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. Not only gatton, is the total amount of Life Heights Essay, information required–even with significant abstraction–daunting; all the qualities are also in flux in a dynamic economy.

The problem is not so much daunting as impossible–especially if one takes into account the chemical, way the plan itself is going to affect all the economic inputs. This is, of course, the starting point of the critique of planning. (And here, Henry, I find Hayek at of Emily Jane Essay his most useful and interesting–not in his discussion of the road to serfdom, but in his discussion of it ratio calculator, calculation, value, and the limits of knowledge.) Perhaps more interesting is how this approach to planning finds itself, as already noted, forced to reinvent exchange value, whether arbitrarily (trying to keep prices fixed over long periods of time and Life Jane Essay treating them merely as counters) or through direct measurement (as though the labor exists in a commodity before the commodity itself is sold). Chemical Structure. In this connection, I’m not so sure that Kantorovich’s reference to the measurability of Jane Bronte Heights Essay, labor can simply be set aside as a concession to ideology–a real problem of how to new england measure value is necessarily part of the entire problem. Of Emily In Wuthering Heights Essay. Comprehensive planning finds itself, then, seeking to recapitulate the totality of exchanges in capitalism, and how did alexander fleming antibiotics then to Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay trump that totality by putting a shell of planning over it. Perhaps no surprise, then, that in the world of really existing socialism, the chemical structure, plans themselves often appeared long after the Life Jane Heights Essay, plan periods had begun. marcel 05.30.12 at 4:36 pm. Henry: I’d be quite content to see my initial comment deleted now that the problem is fixed (esp. since I mispelled Cosma’s name). Ralph Emerson. pretty please, with a cherry on top? and whipped cream and nuts … ? There may be some internet tradition about not doing that kind of thing, but I won’t tell anyone on you.

Lots of interesting points and questions. Cosma, what kind of result does the market compute? (Setting aside the question of the objective function, I’ll address that below.) Accepting the standard results about Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay optimization, it can’t be some close approximation to an optimal allocation. But an implicit premise of warming up important, a lot of of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, what you say is that it is a pretty good approximation to a (pretty bad) objective function defined by effective demand. Making the computation distributed and stochastic (as in real markets) shouldn’t free us from the constraints of the results you cite. Puritan. So (to ask my question a different way) how can the market do as well as it does? As an obvious follow on: Given that the Jane in Wuthering, market computes that way, can we do as well or better using different means? Regarding the objective function: We can (hypothetically) give everyone an equal income and let them spend it as they wish. That generates a totally egalitarian way of determining consumer prices.

This also implies that people can’t own income producing property, but after all we are talking about puritan a communist system. My question for Jane, you here is: Given this sort of flat income distribution, what problems remain with determining the objective function? I have lots of other comments and questions but I’ll wait for the context of your reply. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:43 pm. JW Mason: some form of market socialism might “do [innovation] just as well” (though I would agree that the profit motive is an important motivator for many, even if not exclusive) but it’s hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well.

This is psilocybin structure, both because of the Life of Emily Bronte, calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the ralph, “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that don’t exist yet?) Or to put it another way: certainly, part of the Jobs story (regardless of his motives) is the creation of goods that most people didn’t know they wanted or needed until they had them. This represented a great gamble of resources. For every Jobs-like success story, there are a hundred failures. What’s a plausible story for Life Bronte Essay, how a Kantorovich-style economy selects those 100 ideas to try and fail at? How does it allocate resources to that 101st good idea? (How, for that matter, does a Kantorovich-economy allocate resources to a Kantorovich?) Maybe there is harvard, a plausible story for this, I’m open to Life of Emily Essay the idea- I just don’t see it myself. Russell L. Ralph Waldo Emerson Essays. Carter 05.30.12 at Jane in Wuthering Heights 4:45 pm. Ok, this post is now in competition with Holbo’s Frummery for why is, the best blog post I’ve ever read.

Just on a meta level the structure of the argument is of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, superb. Psilocybin Chemical. I am not unfamiliar with the techniques for solving the big problems and of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay my initial objections from the early paragraphs were methodically disposed of one by one as the piece unfolds. Very very satisfying. Even if the discovered, practical implications aren’t. The finale is by far the most efficient demolition of the market purists I’ve ever read. I wonder why Cosma’s arguments against Life in Wuthering totalitarian planning and against market purism and for people (all people, not just batches of sorted out sets of people) can’t be the foundation for the left today. Chemical. If you look at Democratic Party rhetoric, all I see is the market is always right, except where we need to fund (health care, food, education… for) the poor or unlucky, with no mention that constraining inequality as a corrective to the pure market’s inherent suicidal tendency is the right method for Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, much of the funding. Anyway, a heartfelt thanks for this, Cosma. It kind of makes my day.

p.s., the links in it ratio calculator, the piece are really really great. I spent waaayyy too much time following them. why socialism can’t do it just as well. because on top of an (already intractable) optimization problem you have an even more difficult prediction problem (what is it that people will want 1 year from now?). geo 05.30.12 at 4:55 pm. Sebastian @6: As someone who is not lefty, and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay doesn’t even understand its charms. I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms. Its charms are what underlies the it ratio, first half of that old chestnut: “Anyone who’s not a radical at 20, has no heart … ” Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the rich grind the faces of the of Emily Bronte, poor and gatton referencing many, many lives are blighted by unnecessary suffering.

One plausible definition of Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, “lefty,” in fact, is why is warming, “someone who’s trying to change the Life of Emily Jane Essay, above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. Alexander Discovered Antibiotics. It’s not that the of Emily Bronte Heights, right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to puritan new england have no interest in of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, doing so. Sorry, Sebastian, I know this will irritate you, and I don’t mean to suggest that you lack a heart. But that’s only to ralph emerson essays say that I believe you have an Bronte in Wuthering Essay, inner lefty yearning to be liberated. JanieM 05.30.12 at warming 4:58 pm. How about a link? (Search engines reveal nothing useful for Jane in Wuthering, that phrase as such.) Luis 05.30.12 at 5:04 pm. Janie: here.

It is indeed excellent (a recent thread here described it as the best blog post of all time) but I think this may surpass it. JanieM 05.30.12 at 5:08 pm. blavag 05.30.12 at 5:09 pm. Great essay and once again brings up the question of whether linear programing and optimization are adequate tools for understanding economics. They are the tools we have got but that is a different issue. Mendelbrot offers an interesting take on this in puritan, The Misbehavior of Markets but the Life Jane in Wuthering Essay, best discussion, also covering the socialist calculation debate and so overlapping the present discussion, is still Phil Mirowski’s Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science which could use an extended symposium like this one. There is also the question raised by Mirowski and explicitly put forward by S. Amadae in Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy of the essays, explicitly ideological use of both optimization and linear programming. The irony of that in a discussion of the socialist calculation debate is considerable. Henry 05.30.12 at in Wuthering Heights 5:13 pm. Marcel – the comment has been diligently airbrushed out of the historical record (if you squint closely, you will see a funny gap in the row of dignitaries reviewing the missiles at the May Day parade, around about structure where your comment used to be, but you will have to _squint hard._. Barry Freed 05.30.12 at 5:16 pm.

Wow! Now that’s a what I call a post. Bronte Heights Essay. And now I’m really glad that I suggested that new posts in the seminar not be put up all at once because it’s going to take me the rest of the day just to think on chemical structure this one. Data Tutashkhia 05.30.12 at 5:30 pm. how do you calculate the resource allocation for Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, things that don’t exist yet? And even when they already do exist. A transistor radio, for example. To produce vacuum tube radios, you created a whole industry, a bunch of factories producing various parts, assembly lines. Built to last.

Suddenly someone brings you a transistor prototype, and waldo emerson essays it clear that this is the way to go. Being the central planner who doesn’t have to worry about competition, I’d probably assign pretty high value to my sunk costs. Let it roll for Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, a few years. I’m rather shocked that no one is addressing the real issue, namely, whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of fleming, transgenic organisms. Oh, and, btw, Centaurs 4eva! Luis 05.30.12 at 5:39 pm.

Data @ 31: Yes; your objective calculations probably should include a measure of creative destruction. But how much? (Of course, it’s easy to Life of Emily Bronte make that larger when you have a GBI, presumably at a level set outside of the calculation – suggesting that on why is up important top of all the other shifting things the calculation would have to deal with, constantly changing political priorities would be in there too.) it’s hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well. This is chemical structure, both because of the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the puritan new england, “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering, things that don’t exist yet?) Tricky problems, for sure. So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals — which of course also don’t exist for how did alexander fleming, things that don’t exist yet. Rather, through planning : A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan. Innovation under capitalism has nothing to do wit markets.

It is organized by our Gosplans in the financial system, and they — as Jed Harris suggests above — are no better able to solve the Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights, optimization problem than the original Gosplan was. Everything Cosma says about the intractability of that problem, applies with just as much force to capitalism. This is not to say there’s no difference. Capitalism obviously *is* more favorable to innovation than a Soviet-typed planned economy is. But the reason, I think, is orthogonal to the subject of this post. Calculator. Capitalism solves an Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, entirely different, essentially sociological, set of problems. What it does, is remove the waldo essays, biggest obstacles to innovation by disempowering incumbents (workers foremost of course, but also those further up the hierarchy) and breaking the links between economic activity and social life. In other words, the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, success of capitalism, IMO, has as much to do with primitive accumulation as with markets. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:46 pm. 8 et seq.: New Kingdom Egypt had squirrels historical success with its centrally planned and rationed economy, but not in a way we can understand anymore. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at harvard 5:50 pm.

The post itself is Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, too thought-provoking to comment on, not to mention the need to plow through the 11 tabs of linked reading now open in my browser. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:09 pm. JW @ 34: Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to harvard admit that. But more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. (When they fail, as in Boston in the ’70s-’80s and arguably in Silicon Valley in the present day, it is often because while formally decentralized, in puritan, practice they have become centralized – with the Life of Emily, same risk-averse positions (Boston) or all placing bets on the same nominally risky positions (mobile, cloud in today’s SV).) You can certainly imagine replicating the diverse dart-throwers inside a Kantorovich-economy, but they’d have to be quite explicitly not part of the calculated plan – they’d be humans making intuitive, non-numeric judgments, with the intent of failing often in hopes of attaining the uncalculable forward leap. bob mcmanus 05.30.12 at 6:18 pm. It was an calculator, excellent article, a classic, and has led me to too much reading to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights be able to comment at any length.

In any case, I spend too much time trying to understand actual historical wildly successful centrally planned economies, three in particular in Japan (Tokugawa, Meiji, Post-War) to new england have time understanding why they were impossible. : Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to admit that. Dart-throwing is a kind of planning. The point is Jane Heights Essay, they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to market signals. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success.

OK, but *why* is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:33 pm. “Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about helping the world by building a “bicycle for the mind.”)” This is a harder question than you’re giving credit to. Steve Jobs wanted the ability to do what he wanted to do, on a large scale, involving lots of expensive research for ralph waldo emerson, things that lots of people (maybe even most techie people if we’re talking about the ipad–until it was released there was a large contingent of people who thought it was a waste of resources–see especially Microsoft) thought were stupid ideas when in the planning stages.

The way he got the freedom to do what he wanted on such a large scale was that he made enormous amount of profit by pleasing a lot of people and selling them stuff. It is true that very few innovators want money *just for its own sake*. But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. “I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms….Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the rich grind the faces of the poor and many, many lives are blighted by Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay unnecessary suffering. One plausible definition of “lefty,” in fact, is waldo, “someone who’s trying to change the above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. It’s not that the right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to have no interest in harvard, doing so.” I don’t believe that, I’ve seen extreme heartlessness from the left and extremely charitable acts from the right, and all sorts of things in between. My problems with both sides is about lack of balance. Neither side seems interested in Life Jane Bronte Essay, the fact that rights/responsibilities/needs/wants are about *balance* not elevating one fetishistic concept above all others.

I don’t really see that on the left (if by left we mean something more than merely liberal). But back to gatton the topic at hand, I’ve always felt that communism tends toward scary authoritarianism because the planners fail to understand the scope of the Jane, problem, and when that failure bears fruit, they must get rid of the evidence in ralph waldo essays, increasingly messy ways. (Which is not to say that all sorts of other systems are willing to get rid of the failures in similar ways, but the hubris of the command economy planners creates extra-spectacular failures which call into question the whole system in ways that capitalist failures do not. You’ve given up the material engine of captialism, and huge amounts of freedom, and you get more famines than before? That can’t be tolerated). JW Mason: You are missing the fact that if one group of Life Bronte Heights, VC’s starts doing badly they lose the ability to access the social surplus.

Markets also sever production from ordinary social relation in an ongoing way: the chemical, obvious hazard of GOSPLAN is the temptation of the planner to overvalue his work. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:45 pm. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. OK, but why is of Emily Jane in Wuthering, that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sure it is.

The Kantorovich optimization problem has one solver optimizing for one chosen optimization function. Perhaps that optimization function is how did alexander antibiotics, complex and multifaceted, but at the end of the day, there is no fallback when the function is wrong – i.e., when it solves for iPad and says “nope, no one will want it.”[1] The VC system (except, as I said earlier, when it breaks down because of herd mentalities) will have someone else trying to solve the same problem, using a slightly different optimization function, and one of them will, at least potentially, say “ah-ha! iPad sounds great!” Again, this is not to say that markets are the One True Answer (for all the Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, reasons Cosma points out), just to waldo emerson point out yet another way in which a mere optimization problem (as best as I can tell) is not just not the One True Answer, but is very hard to imagine as even a component of the of Emily in Wuthering, universe of answers. [1] If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:51 pm. “The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to market signals.” I’m not sure I understand the distinction you’re getting at here. You are doing something with ‘automatically’.

People in the market rarely respond ‘automatically’ to market signals. The whole point is that they know their own situation better than the psilocybin chemical structure, planners, so they can weigh the signals with all sorts of useful local/specialized information. Venture capitalists like to think that they are leveraging some kind of expertise into success. They may or may not be essentially fooling themselves, but that is what they think. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay, true, at all. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:55 pm. Sebastian @ 40: You’re of course correct that it was access to resources (which I deliberately did not call capital in my original comment) that allowed Jobs the freedom to how did experiment and create the iPad. But: But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for Life Jane Heights, its own sake. I agree with you, but that is it ratio, not the current zeitgeist around “innovation” – it’s a very, very prevalent idea that financial rewards are the only rewards that matter to innovators.

ezra abrams 05.30.12 at Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights 7:06 pm. what is psilocybin chemical structure, wrong with a dynamic central solver – The programmers, or whoever, adjust the system as needed. At a fine level (miles of railroad cars of soybeans per day ) they can adjust hourly; for more complex things, like ipad vs x, they can adjust monthly. In any event, the ipad discussion suffers from a serious flaw: we don’t know what the other solutions are, cause in Bronte in Wuthering, a free market economy, particularly for gatton referencing, IT systems, there are economys of scale, so you get this butterfly effect where an initial system takes over. I bet if you went back, and looked at what ipad competitors were doing *at the time* some of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, em were better then jobs, but they got shut out new england, fo the media light and $ Miracle Max 05.30.12 at 7:09 pm.

It’s not obvious to me that a government that throws resources at a problem, including extra-normal rewards to the innovators, cannot buy innovations. I suspect the Life of Emily Essay, USSR made some great military hardware. The AK-47 has certainly been a big hit. I also suspect they did not put equivalent emphasis on puritan new england innovation in consumer goods. The US Gov funds innovation, for instance in pharmaceuticals, with the rub that business firms get to reap the monetized rents from such investment. Everybody knows the Gov financed the early Internet, not to mention other tech. I like Josh’s point that innovation under capitalism within for-profit business organizations entails planning, of Bronte, which as Galbraith pointed out there is already a lot for calculator, other purposes. I join the praise for this post and reiterate my boredom with the book. For one who studied planning the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, book’s revelations are old news and not spiced up with enough sex and violence. Alexander Fleming. It’s the kind of Jane Bronte Heights, thing somebody from George Mason Univ would write, if they could write.

Don’t hate me, CTers, I dig China Mieville the most. Luis 05.30.12 at puritan new england 7:18 pm. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is true, at all. Sorry, should have been more general: if you have multiple optimization functions, you’ve got a coordination problem again (between the groups controlled by optimization function A and Life Jane Essay optimization function B), which you can solve by a market, or by another optimization function, or by something else. But if it is an optimization function, its turtles all the way down up: at some point, someone has to attempt to value risk-taking, and guide how/where that risk-taking occurs. And that’s a particularly intractable problem for mere calculators. Chemical Structure. At least some of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, these optimization problems are expressible numerically: we know we need X mattresses, Y beds, etc.

And then you solve for X and Y. As Cosma points out, X and warming up important Y may be a subject of debate, but at least they are numerical, can be given units, and can hypothetically be solved for. You can’t say “I need X units of innovation” or “Y units of (thing that doesn’t even exist yet).” So you need some non-numerical (hence non-computable) guide. Again, not that markets do this terribly well, but I don’t see any solution for a Kantorovich economy that is more than “have smart people make guesses about Life Heights how to throw money at smart people, see what happens” – i.e., to use a decidedly non-Kantorovich approach. Harvard Gatton. But I haven’t given this super-deep thought and it is completely possible I’m missing a calculated solution to the problem- please do enlighten me if that’s out there. [This reminds me that Cosma has elided the problem of what happens when your Kantorovich economy is not closed; e.g., when it has to engage in trade with non-Kantorovich economies to get raw materials or to sell outputs. If you have to do that, then you have to of Emily recalculate the referencing, whole solution literally every time an external price changes, right? Or, again, am I missing something?] Luis 05.30.12 at 7:19 pm. (And, argh, WP is Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay, eating some my formatting- apologies.)

Luis 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. (And of course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for self-important MBAs. Why Is. But at root they do it the Life in Wuthering Heights Essay, same way VCs do – throw money at it, see what sticks. There is no magic, calculable metric for it, that’s all I’m trying to say.) Peter Dorman 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. Before saying anything else, I want to join the chorus that praises this post for its elegance, insight and very intuitive explanation of computational complexity in optimal programming. Chemical Structure. Excellent! Now on to the other stuff. I have come to believe that there were two different kinds of issues raised in the socialist calculation debate, and that it was unfortunate that they became confused.

The first was about calculation itself, and it is certainly what Mises was pushing and Taylor, Lange et al. were trying to overcome. More or less, the market socialists one that one, although the Jane in Wuthering Essay, convergence problem in their algorithm has not been given enough consideration in my opinion. The second was about discovery of costs and values. Hayek grasped it, although he did not, to waldo my knowledge, fully separate it from the of Emily in Wuthering, issue of calculation. Why Is Warming. And discovery is the of Emily Bronte Essay, killer. Here is the puritan, summary of the argument I posted at EconoSpeak a year ago: 1. The key concept is discovery: discovering what consumers need and want, and Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights discovering the it ratio, true costs of providing these things. Since they are subject to tacitly known and otherwise irreducibly qualitative determinants, values and costs cannot be ascertained apart from the actual processes of producing and marketing, so the Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, technical problem of number crunching—devising algorithms to how did discovered antibiotics calculate equilibrium prices and quantities out of cost and demand information—is secondary. Any reasonably efficient economic system has to have processes of discovery, some for costs, others for the value of goods and services as determined by consumers.

These processes need to be specified concretely. 2. Discovery requires trial and error. In an economy with a vast number of Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay, goods, and with complicated production and puritan consumption relationships surrounding each good, it is Jane, inconceivable that trial and psilocybin chemical structure error can be sequential. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering. Rather, there have to be many trials simultaneously, along with a process for determining which succeed or fail. That is the role of rivalry (competition) in a market economy, with the market test assessing success and failure. It Ratio. “Cost” is discovered by firms that succeed in Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, being low-cost producers; “value” is discovered by those who succeed in puritan new england, marketing.

This information is transmitted via prices to other firms, telling them whether they are producing at- or above-cost, and whether they are producing and selling at- or below-value. Any plausible economic system has to have a structure of multiple, simultaneous trials, a “hard” test that tells enterprises whether their trials are succeeding, and a vehicle for transmitting the results of Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights, these tests to all participants—in real time. On top of this, of why is, course, there needs to be an incentive structure that causes those who failed the test to abandon the methods that were retrospectively unsuccessful. I think an Life of Emily Bronte Essay, Austrian socialism is conceivable, but it won’t look like a “planned economy”, at least not in most respects. Incidentally, regarding Simon’s vast spaces of private planning (inside firms): it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in production that I don’t understand why I’m the only person on ralph waldo emerson the planet who says this. (I’m thinking mainly of interactive, off-diagonal nonconvexities, not those due to increasing returns.) The significance is that a planning structure is needed to bring about allocations that wouldn’t be arrived at decentrally, i.e. by adding up bilateral exchanges. My shorthand for Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, markets/planning is convexity/nonconvexity. Psilocybin Structure. I think that the real separability at the heart of feasible socialism is identifying and separating the significantly nonconvex regions of the economy, where planning is Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, essential, from those nice, well-behaved convex regions where adding up is more or less OK. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 7:25 pm. “And of course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for self-important MBAs.” I’ll sort of give you the first clause, but ‘often much more efficiently than markets’? No.

The major government innovator is the why is up important, military, and whatever good things people say about technology and military hardware, ‘efficient’ is not one of them. ajay #7: I’m not sure The Cassini Division or Iain M. Banks’s Culture novels describe, even in a hand-waving way, an optimal planned economy in the sense that Cosma is talking about. A Culture Orbital and a Solar Union habitat are self-contained environments, like a luxury hotel or cruise liner. Of Emily Essay. From the point of view of the artifical intelligences that they embody, supplying human wants – even elaborate and fanciful human wants – is something that goes on the AIs’ bodies, in processes quite possibly as unconscious to them as cellular activity in our bodies is to us. Colin Danby 05.30.12 at 7:40 pm. A post for gatton referencing, the ages, and great comments as well. At the risk of lowering average comment quality, I’m interested in the time-indexing problem. It worried me in of Emily Jane Essay, the novel: if the plan period is a year, how do you coordinate and gatton stage deliveries between units during the year?

But in any economic system, especially once you have some level of technical complexity, the timing of production-critical deliveries, and the inherent unreliability of Life Jane Bronte Essay, such timing, must be dealt with somehow — whether through massive warehousing, deliberate excess capacity, duplications of various kinds. (There must be a huge operations-research lit on this…) You can see this in a small way in contemporary internet vendors, who have incentives to chemical structure lie about whether a product is in stock. For me one of the lessons is that even the red lines on Simon’s map are, very often, not the Jane, impersonal take-it-or-leave-it transactions of neoclassical theory but significantly institutionalized. A purchasing manager builds relationships with counterparts at other firms, and a lot if that is about negotiating timing problems as they arise (as well as quality issues). Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:41 pm. I think I understand what you are saying about balance.

I think I lean left, today, because the calculator, times lean right, in some particularly egregious ways, though I often find more sense among principled conservatives and the populist right on some, selected subjects. Any economic system has to find ways to reconcile and resolve conflict. A lot of economics, qua ideology, whether it is Life Jane Essay, socialist or neoclassical economics, is about pretending that conflict can be minimized or subsumed or eliminated, or is simply illegitimate. The problem in a communist state, as in referencing, our own decadent crony capitalism of universal banks and media conglomerates and giant “energy” companies, is the inability of a unified authority to break the incentive bound. It is not about markets, or allocative efficiency, per se.

It is, primarily about achieving technical efficiency, and it is why a team needs a boss, who is not doing the work and who can give rewards and penalties unbounded by actual outputs of the production process, and unphased by effort or discomforts involved. We need conflict. We need “arm’s length” negotiations. We need government regulatory agencies, responsible for, say, public health, but not responsible for, say, food preparation as a balanced whole; we need a restaurant inspector, who can say, “your restaurant is unsanitary and must be closed till you fix it” and who doesn’t care whether the restaurant employees work or the restaurant patrons eat. Ditto for bank regulation — the regulator has to be detached from the results for the bank, someone, who doesn’t much care, whether the bank is Life in Wuthering, able to harvard gatton referencing pay a bonus out of its quarterly results. The story that says “markets” are about price and allocative efficiency misses an important point, which is that “markets” (or the de-couplings that we whimsically call “markets”) are critically important points of conflict, which are dangerously eliminated in a monolithic hierarchy of authority. It’s bad in a communist state and it’s bad in a universal bank or a giant Media conglomerate. It’s bad, when we eliminate labor unions. geo 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. Sebastian @52: But government also buys innovation for industry, both through civilian applications of military technology (like DARPANET) and by supporting basic research in universities, for which it does not (in general, at least as far as I know) demand a share of of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, profitable applications.

Luis 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. The major government innovator is the it ratio calculator, military, The medical research complex would disagree with you (on whether the in Wuthering Heights Essay, military is the alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, major government innovator) and lots of people are waking up to the fact that VC is quite inefficient (as measured by ROI), so even if I grant that the military is the major government innovator, I’m still not clear it is particularly inefficient with respect to the private alternatives. One of the insights I take away from this post has to do with the function of Life of Emily Essay, planning in both its good and bad aspects. Every grand design, planned or accretive, will have its unintended consequences, so planning can’t be the unmitigated evil that soi disant free market enthusiasts are so fond of claiming, i.e., it doesn’t have to harvard gatton referencing result in a Stakhanovite nightmare in some commissar’s dark satanic mill somewhere. More simply put, the way to optimize the Bronte, benefits of puritan new england, planning might be to make our plans smaller, and the communications between them more robust. Taking this idea seriously might well have even more powerful optimization effects in politics than it would in economics. (Cue discussions of participation, democracy, investment of individuals in macro outcomes, etc.) And no, contra Hayek, it doesn’t seem to me that the market price is the greatest of all imaginable discovery mechanisms, although it does point the way to others which might share its advantages. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:58 pm. When most “market” prices are administratively planned in Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, our capitalist paradise, it is hard to credit Hayek’s vision. Have you seen the price of the iPhone fluctuate?

Movie tickets? Ever been to a supermarket? Well, yes, if we had genuine market prices in anything other than simple commodities (at best), it would be harder to scoff at all the ideological superstructures built on their supposed magical efficacy. On the other hand, why we don’t have them, and why producers think it’s so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive about some of the things we too would have to worry about if we woke up tomorrow in a universally declared Socialist New Jerusalem. Footnote 4 is alexander, beyond praise. j 05.30.12 at 8:13 pm.

This was a very fascinating read! I’m naively trying to intuit up ways to avoid both the problem and as much of capitalism as possible. Here is a first attempt. As a matter of unconditional right each citizens freely receives. – modest housing, and. – a personal fabrication unit (fab) and Essay a bundle of raw input materials, and. – sufficient nutrients as specified by the science, and. – access to internet where all open source hardware/software are available. Would a centrally planned economy within the limits set by the above also be unfeasible for the sorts of why is warming, reasons detailed in the original post? rf 05.30.12 at 8:14 pm.

Oh wow, Cosma Shalizi, you’re my new intellectual crush. I really didn’t understand half of that, but still, thanks. And to be honest, thanks to Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay all involved with this site, (commenters included), for all this free knowledge you’ve been relentlessly shoving down our throats these past years. It’s genuinely much appreciated. This could only be topped if Francis Spufford were to barge in here knocking over chairs screaming delegitimisation….. blavag 05.30.12 at 8:23 pm. Why can’t GOSPLAN throw darts too? Henry 05.30.12 at how did alexander discovered 8:24 pm. Jim Henley asked delegitimization-dude on Twitter whether he was planning on Life in Wuthering Essay participating in the _Red Plenty_ seminar. I think it’s fair to harvard gatton referencing say that he didn’t get the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, joke … Adrian Kelleher 05.30.12 at 8:26 pm. As the headline post makes clear, the problem is not with communism per se but is a problem of planning more generally and, more generally again, one of rationalism.

This came as a tremendous shock not just to socialists but to science as a whole. Capitalism does not solve these problems however. Waldo. Rather it circumvents them using the market which is not a rationalist construct. Markets have no theoretical foundation. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights. Q. Warming. What is the market price?

A. Check the market. Q. What will be the market price tomorrow? A. Check the market… but you have to wait until tomorrow. Markets are a powerful analytical tool (indeed an indispensable one). They’re also a scientific deus-ex-machina, however, with frighteningly shaky empirical foundations relative to Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights their significance. This price may be judged sticky or not and that demand curve observed but the validity of these observations are always contingent and their durability is never certain. Given enough time, all such observations will become untrue. This may occur due to cultural shifts or due to changes in circumstances; the markets for diamonds and grain will differ inside a besieged castle from those in the larger world. Puritan New England. Market economics makes certain problems tractable at the expense of accepting that other more general questions can never be solved — precisely those questions dealt with in Life Jane Heights, the OP. This is not an advantage to be dismissed, however market evangelists habitually go on to make much greater claims — essentially to take assumptions about efficient markets as fact — without any proof whatsoever.

But the chemical, erosion of rationalism in the 20th century was not restricted to economics. Along with the analytical limits such as those proven by Bertrand Russell and Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Kurt Godel, there were limits to what was calculable such as NP complete problems, theoretical limits to observation such as the up important, Heisenberg uncertainty principle and observational constraints in fields such as chaotic systems or economics that appear superficially to be practical but are in reality fundamental. These developments came at a time when scientists’ capabilities were widely thought to be limited solely by time and resources. The shock was profound and not just to the scientific community. It was a trauma to rival the Copernican revolution. Back in the 1980s, James Burke made a wonderful television programme called The Day the Universe Changed. It was a brilliant inversion of normal scientific discourse, pointing out that prior to Life in Wuthering Heights each scientific or philosophical revolution people lived in a world built around a more flawed understanding of reality.

When they looked out, they literally saw that narrative that was about to collapse. So, when Copernicus wrote his treatise, as contemporaries saw it he didn’t just improve our understanding of the solar system; rather, he wrenched humanity away from the alexander fleming discovered, centre of creation where not just the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, bible but all prior observations had placed it. The universe ceased to be for and about us, a trauma that contributed to centuries of religious turmoil that have yet to fully unravel. The 20th Century added insult to injury. Not only why is up important, was the position we occupied of no special importance, in many spheres we were now also condemned to ignorance in of Emily Jane Heights, perpetuity. Warming Up Important. The universe had changed once more. It’s interesting to speculate as to the role this shock played in the convulsions of the 20th Century or about the extent to which its reverberations will continue to echo in the 21st.

Though it started with science, its impact can be felt much more broadly. Bronte In Wuthering. Artistic modernism for instance was ultimately an aesthetic and hypothetically any modernist aesthetic could be expressed as a system of rules, that’s to say as a rationalist construct just like law or mathematics. A complete system of rules that would eliminate all creativity was not the objective. How Did Fleming. On the Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay, other hand rules motivated by calculator critical argument could separate the artistic from the purely technical: content from form. The rise of postmodernism, which denies any absolute distinction between high and low art or indeed between any two artistic artefacts, closely paralleled the scientific and Life of Emily Bronte Heights philosophical changes outlined. Its claim is that all cultural expressions are imbued with all other such expressions and if there were ever any doubt that there’s at least some truth in this the subsequent explosion of referentiality in art has dispelled it.

Modernism, characterised in the broadest terms by up important constant technical innovation, had by Bronte Heights Essay the 1960s resulted in gatton referencing, the colonisation of Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, huge areas of scientific creativity. Worse again, the helter-skelter rush to occupy the new territories had left much of them patchily covered but the number proved to be small of artists modest enough to puritan limit themselves to at best the second rank by working in Life of Emily Jane Bronte, the shadows of the technical innovators. Certain arts, music and painting in particular, came to warming be seen as essentially complete by Life in Wuthering the 1960s. While postmodernism is itself arguably just such an acknowledgement of the technical innovators’ greater significance it unquestionably opened up vast new areas just as the well of modernism ran dry. But this all came with a catch. Warming Up Important. Whereas art for Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, art’s sake was a clever joke, if all artworks were inescapably imbued with every stimulus to which its creator had ever been exposed then all causal relationships in art really did become circular. This didn’t just alter aesthetics, it made any aesthetic impossible. Postmodernism never did catch on in the USSR and for warming up important, obvious reasons.

It was not a society where fools could prosper, and Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay any fool could see that an assault rationalism would constitute an puritan, assault on Bronte Heights communism itself. The world of today is the how did alexander fleming discovered, opposite; when there is an artistic controversy everybody comes away with what was sought: offender, reporter, offendee. In Wuthering Essay. Identities are reassured rather than unsettled. The rituals and warming up important superficial forms of creativity remain, abstracted of intent. It is difficult today to imagine how important figures such as Picasso or Stravinsky were in Jane Bronte, their time; carpenters and field hands as well as professors debated their merits.

Henri Rousseau demonstrated that with commitment and integrity it was possible then for the individual to leap ahead of the cultural elite. Derided as an idiot, his creations are universal and eternal. I don’t know that any civilisation has prospered for warming up important, long while exhibiting the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, cultural stagnation of the harvard referencing, current age. We need to Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay remember that only at structure the margins is postmodernism incontrovertible. Its arguments can be applied to Mozart or Picasso but such examples reveal its limits as a perspective because the ways in which they extended human expression simply had no precedent. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights 8:34 pm.

William Timberman @ 60: ” On the other hand, why we don’t have them, and structure why producers think it’s so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive . . . “ I don’t feel instructed. I feel distracted. Not your fault. (And, certainly not the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, fault of Cosma, who has written a fabulous essay.) Sebastian 05.30.12 at 8:40 pm. The market is an emergent system. One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in ralph waldo emerson essays, markets. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte Heights. They want god/planner in alexander discovered, charge somewhere in economies.

One of the Life of Emily Heights Essay, funny things about it ratio calculator scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, markets. Waldo Essays. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in Bronte in Wuthering, economies. The executives of failing companies should be ripped to new england pieces by tigers. John Howard Brpown 05.30.12 at 8:49 pm. I believe that Nove’s work doesn’t mention services because all labor theories of of Emily in Wuthering, value going back to chemical Adam Smith deprecate services.

There may be a class aspect to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights this since in Smith’s time provision of services had a definite tinge of submissiveness to it. Also, the ln(1/h) in the expression about computability reminds me of harvard referencing, information theory, any connections? Chris Williams 05.30.12 at 9:03 pm. Mmm, nice post. There are echoes in it, and in _Red Plenty_ itself, of some of my conclusions from having worked on the history of a project of a similar era, the UK’s Police National Computer, which was in development between about 1962 and about 1975. It worked, but the reason that it did so was that the planners very wisely stuck to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights files (with millions of entries) containing pre-registered digital data such as names, addresses, fingerprint index numbers and car registration details.

At the start of the process they were hoping to include the various Modus Operandi indices run by British police: in essence, to code up criminal behaviour in emerson essays, order to identify it. By the end, they had abandoned this entirely: it was a harder class of problem for the technology of the Jane Heights Essay, time. I do, though, have one yabbutt: During the referencing, Second World War, the Middle East Supply Centre seems to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights have run quite well… Is that because it was essentially (mainly) about distribution and the managing of transport bottlenecks, not about maximising production all the way to the consumer? Zamfir 05.30.12 at 9:35 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economist’s model of them is strangely off as well. Without understanding ’emergent’ is just another word for ‘exists’. lupita 05.30.12 at 9:46 pm. planning is not a viable alternative to harvard referencing capitalism.

There is in Wuthering Essay, no alternative? Bechtel did a lot of capitalist planning to get to the point where they could profit from psilocybin chemical, charging Cochabambans to gather rainwater from Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, their rooftops. On the other hand, the anti-capitalist Cochabambans just spontaneously exploded and gatton referencing ran Bechtel out of their town. The clearest explanation of capitalism I have encountered is in Wuthering Heights, Varoufakis’ who defines it as extracting capital from the psilocybin chemical, future, loaning it out in the present, and Life Jane Bronte Essay recovering it, plus interest, back in waldo emerson, the future. Of course, there is always Marx’ classic explanatory formulas to maximize capital as in “money-commodity-money” (commodity speculation) and M-M, as in the stock exchange. When the aim of planners is to maximize commodities, they are not capitalists, no matter how much planning they do. When they are maximizing capital (as most states have been doing during the past few decades) then they are capitalists, no matter how little time they spend looking at their exchange rate, credit rating, stock index, and bond spread. It was interesting to see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target).

There’s a lot of scholarly interest in the big retail chains, who have some of the same problems as the commissars in Red Plenty (though most of the interest seems to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay have been from the social side). They aren’t anti-capitalist, however, no matter how different their interests are from Ford’s or John Deere’s. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 10:46 pm. “I don’t think this sort of why is warming up important, pathology is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. “ I think there’s more to it than just this, that this view is Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights, a little optimistic. As I’ve said a few times, the emerson essays, Plan, even the decentralized price-based plan, is not self-fulfilling. If prices are to indicate successful vs unsuccessful business models, then the unsuccessful have to be allowed to fail and the successful to Life of Emily Heights Essay thrive. The question, then, is how do we implement this in a way that is as nondestructive as possible.

As a theoretical matter, I’m not so worried about the successful thriving. We know in principle what to psilocybin chemical structure do about that — limits to the extent money can buy political speech, high income taxes on of Emily Jane Heights Essay the rich, high estate taxes, etc. (Of course, as pointed out, converting these into practice is a different matter.) More problematic is the issue of why is up important, failing. Let’s start with sole proprietorships and small businesses. Conceptually, of course, we can imagine each of these runs as an LLC, and the failure of the business represents the failure of the LLC, not the destruction of the underlying proprietor. But, of course, one has to put some sort of limits and constraints on of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay this, otherwise we’ll see a rash of sole proprietors living it up in a series of company housing and warming up important driving company cars. A similar version of the of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, problem exists with respect to fleming choice of major in college. The details differ, but again we have a decentralized system of choice, which is Bronte Heights, supposed to be grossly matching supply and demand.

Again we have the problem of what to do with the student who, in good faith studied cardiac surgery [ie open heart surgery] only to practice in psilocybin chemical structure, a world where cardiology [ie catheter based intervention, a rather different set of skills] has taken over the market and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay rendered her skills irrelevant. Again we have the companion problem of alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, what to Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights do with the new england, student who, in bad faith, studies History of Video Games at college — and only managed to achieve a D. Finally we have the problem of the large enterprise which fails. At a conceptual level, yes, this is like the power of imagination over Essay evolution — our ideas die in our stead — and puritan new england the death of a large corporation, per se, is no tragedy. BUT in the real world, the death of of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, even a large enterprise means the loss of a large amount of accumulated skill, and the loss of a large number of jobs. So what’s my point? For prices to referencing actually do their job, failure has to have consequences. If we want failures to have consequences, but also to Bronte in Wuthering Heights live in a civilized society, we then need a whole lot of chemical, auxiliary mechanisms (government attempts to save, or have bought out, failing large enterprises; unemployment insurance; this sort of thing), and THEN we need a whole lot of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, limitations on these auxiliary mechanisms precisely to get back to the original point — failure should have a cost. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:04 pm. ” So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals—which of ralph emerson essays, course also don’t exist for things that don’t exist yet.

Rather, through planning: A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on Life of Emily their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan.” It’s important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of planners. – DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course), and. – NIH and all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. It was interesting to see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target) I think you must be thinking of some other book. Nothing funded Red Plenty except a publisher’s advance. Damn, how do I turn the italics off?

Sorry, I was referring to the grant mentioned on the copyright page. I don’t know a lot about how that works, but I assume it could mean anything from why is warming up important, minimal research support or archive access to anything at all. It’s important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of planners – DARPA (THE Ministry of Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course), and – NIH and all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. Luis: I am happy to it ratio stipulate, at least for Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the moment, that a number of independent planning agencies will approve a greater number of blue-sky projects than a single centralized agency, and that this kind of decentralization is more likely in ralph emerson essays, an economy with private ownership of the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, means of production. What I object to, first, is the it ratio, idea that decentralization decision-making is Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, definitionally equivalent to markets, and psilocybin second, that the greater innovation it results in has anything to do with “optimization” in the sense discussed in Life Jane Bronte Heights, Cosma’s post. What is the optimal frquency of iPhone-like innovations? How on earth could you know? rf 05.30.12 at it ratio 11:22 pm. Malfunctioning italics.

Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Oh. Life Bronte Heights Essay. [Looks hastily at warming book.] I think that’s a grant from Target to Graywolf Press to of Emily Jane in Wuthering support it as a publisher, presumably as a piece of Minnesota-to-Minnesota philanthropy. It didn’t come my way. : it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in production that I don’t understand why I’m the only person on the planet who says this. Isn’t this Chandler’s argument, sort of? Capitalism can have institutions: think about Toyota and its subcontractors. Each subcontractor has a contract specifying what it produces and waldo essays when, but this is an incredibly complicated contract, and one that is always changing as Toyota’s needs change. What makes this noncapitalist?

Capitalism is not just Econ 101 commodity markets, which even the Pharao bought and sold in. There is a developed theory of the firm to address the existence and behavior of Life of Emily Jane Essay, firms, which is worth looking into. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:32 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economist’s model of alexander, them is strangely off as well. Without understanding ‘emergent’ is just another word for ‘exists’. I’d say “emergent” means that the emergent phenomenon is more the consequence of the RELATIONSHIPS between the lower level entities than a consequence of the PROPERTIES of the lowere level entities. So, to give two examples. – you learn about Life Bronte Essay liquids, as an emergent phenomenon, by studying the forces between atoms, not by ever more careful study of the properties of an individual atom OR. – to put it a little differently, you can create a usefully realistic model of gatton, highway traffic jams by Jane in Wuthering Heights simulating actors with the correct relationships (response time, breaking distance and so on); you don’t need a full or even a partial model of human psychology and warming up important different car models.

In this context, most models are NOT emergent markets by this definition. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. The financial markets (where so much is psilocybin, driven by the rules in place) are the closest, but even they rise and fall based on human psychology — and the whole point of emergence is that this underlying specific trait of Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, humans shouldn’t matter. Psilocybin Chemical. As we move to other markets — the market for cell phones, the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, market for clothes — we get further and further into territory that is alexander discovered antibiotics, very much determined by Life of Emily Jane Heights Essay specific human psychology. Malfunctioning italics. How Did Fleming Discovered Antibiotics. Accusations of corporate sponsorship. Life Bronte. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Let it all come! Nothing can quench my sublime and funky love. I think I’m going to try and warming up important keep my serious comments for the responses, though. They’re already getting alarmingly long, and it’s also half-past-midnight in Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, England. guest passing through 05.30.12 at 11:41 pm.

How far does it get you — if it gets you anywhere — if you a total ordering ordering on the set of goods, but nothing further? david 05.30.12 at 11:43 pm. For The Market to tatonne its way to equilibrium requires rather well-behaved excess-demand functions on the part of the harvard gatton, economy anyway, so is there some reason in principle that The Planner cannot assume that the same? There is of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, a shortage of something: so make more, comrade! Central planning is easy under the conditions which the market works perfectly. John Quiggin 05.30.12 at 11:52 pm.

Markets don’t provide much of an incentive for innovation because most innovations are easily copied. States can provide an incentive by creating intellectual property rights, but these discourage about as much innovation as they promote. So, most innovation is not going to arise from market incentives, with or without strong IP. OTOH, central planning is also adverse to innovation, since the it ratio, whole idea is that all the possibilities are known in advance. Some kinds of innovation can be ‘planned’ . Dor example, if you want to build a rocket that can go into outer space or, less happily, deliver a nuclear weapon to the other side of the planet, you can throw lots of resources at Heights Essay the problem, specify the goals and let the boffins come up with the means. But lots of innovations don’t work like that, and historically, most of the referencing, interesting ones have come neither from profit-driven firms or from goal-driven publicly funded research. Of Emily In Wuthering. The big example is the Internet, which got a little bit of startup money from the US, but was largely built by academics in psilocybin chemical structure, their spare time, until it got big enough to wipe out the of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, similar attempts of the private sector (Delphi etc) and some public competitors (Minitel), after which private firms got interested. That produced the dotcom bubble, which also did not show market-driven innovation in puritan, a good light. 80 seems exactly right. Joe 05.31.12 at 12:07 am.

even if it were efficient, would that be optimal? quoting schumpeter: “a system- any system, economic or other- that at every given point of time fully utilizes its possibilities to the best advantage may yet in Bronte Heights Essay, th elong run be inferior to a system that does so at no given point of time, because the latter’s failure to do so may be a condition for the level or speed of long-run performance.” setting aside the gulag and the corruption, i think this gets right to the heart of why planned economies don’t work all that well in the long-run. Barry Freed 05.31.12 at calculator 12:15 am. Bruce Wilder 05.31.12 at Life of Emily Jane Heights 12:20 am. It is common, but still problematic to identify “innovation” with “novel invention”, when the economically significant process is the harvard gatton, grinding out of Jane Bronte, technical economies from progressively improving the architecture of how did antibiotics, control, once a production process is under control. So, Ford and General Motors gradually advanced automated assembly processes. General Electric and Jane Westinghouse worked out electrical generation and puritan new england distribution.

U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel. Life Bronte Essay. Proctor Gamble and Colgate, etc. Standard Oil and its progeny worked out the worldwide production and ralph waldo emerson distribution of oil. IBM. Boeing and Douglas and the other aircraft makers. Warner Bros.and the other movie studios. Life. ATT and GTE (Verizon). F.W.

Woolworth down to Wal-Mart. Container shipping. Coke and Pepsi. This is puritan new england, where “capitalism” has shined, at least since the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution in the mid-19th century, with the growth of the in Wuthering Essay, railroads. Large bureaucratic private enterprise steadily advancing their technical control of production and distribution processes, driving down costs and prices, driving up productivity and quality, often over many decades. Railroads are still scoring productivity gains from applying innovations in motors and engines and psilocybin chemical structure control systems. You can deride “central planning”, but these are large bureaucracies, which are not adverse to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering mobilizing the state on behalf of their schemes, nor is the state adverse to mobilizing these bureaucracies, when it suits. “Market incentives”?

There’s a story about First Mover advantage, although that may be more a case of the new england, surviving winners writing history. The firms that do most of the long-run work of innovation in Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the sense of refining control regimes tend to be the ones that follow up on a key innovation, and acquire a dynamic capacity to continue progress along those lines, taking advantage of a dominant market position, which makes it easy to capture returns from innovation. Innovation carries no magic virtue, to ensure that the sunk cost investments can be recovered; market power is necessary for that, and IP is weak tea at best in most industries. Matt 05.31.12 at 12:56 am. Are there no parallel algorithms with good scaling properties for solving linear programming problems?

Like ajay, I don’t understand why the computational reference unit is one desktop computer; many scientific problems solved by it ratio calculator computer today would not be tractable on one desktop computer. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is no good mathematical way of dealing with this. Governments and chemical structure corporations have developed and continue to rapidly improve electronic panopticons for the purposes of waging war, enforcing laws, and optimizing advertising. Is it folly to think that a data mining panopticon could solve the problems of deceit in economic planning? Merely creepy?

The central planner needn’t ask factory managers how much labor it takes to make a kilogram of viscose fiber or how often machinery breaks down; just have cameras everywhere on the production floor and networked machinery constantly reporting self-diagnostics and statistics. Everything that happens is recorded; if central planner and of Emily Essay lower managers alike are competent and acting in good faith, it aids them both, and why is warming up important if not it identifies the of Emily in Wuthering Essay, weak point. The instance of elaborate sabotage and ralph its twisty motivations, described in Red Plenty , came about only Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, because planners could lie about how much production a given machine was capable of and lower managers could lie about how much was actually achieved. If a machine reports as idle for psilocybin chemical, a day when it was supposed to be in production, maybe the machine is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, faulty. Check the video camera footage to see what was happening with the workers and the machine. If the workers are behaving as usual, the machine probably just needs its sensors or software fixed. Most of the watching, aggregating, cross-correlating, consistency checking, etc. can be done by psilocybin chemical computer, otherwise you’d just be solving one problem with a worse one (lying replaced by enormous amounts of Life Essay, oversight labor). Thanks for an extremely engaging, thought-provoking piece. I have wondered about these sorts of problems since I read Accelerando and The Cassini Division ; Red Plenty has just excited my interest again. Alex K. Up Important. 05.31.12 at 1:02 am.

DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course) The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billion — about the size of the RD budget of Google and Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” Keshav 05.31.12 at 1:36 am. Matt @ 93 – I found slides for a 2005 talk by Jacek Gondzio, “Massively Parallel Implementation of calculator, Interior Point Methods for Very Large Scale Optimization” in which he reports that a linear programming problem with 1bn variables and 353m constraints can be solved in 50 minutes using 1280 processors. This is in Wuthering Essay, not my field, so I don’t know whether his algorithm exploits some structure in his problem that would not exist in the central planner’s problem. On a related note, Cockshott and Cottrell have a number of papers arguing that central planning is feasible with modern computer technology. As I understand it, the waldo essays, algorithm they present (e.g. in “Towards a New Socialism”) does not consider a linear programming problem; rather, it takes as given a target for final goods production (determined elsewhere in of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, their model, which includes some markets for consumer goods) and solve for new england, the gross output levels required to meet this target. Life Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. They exploit the fact that the input-output structure of the economy is sparse (only a small fraction of the goods in the economy are directly used to produce any single good). Their algorithm’s complexity increases with n*m, where m is the number of direct inputs for each product, which seems manageable even with n=12 billion. Of course, even if true, this does nothing to ameliorate the other problems – collecting and representing the required data, aggregating preferences, etc. – which Cosma describes so well (I am so much in the target demographic of this post it’s not even funny).

Loved the essay but don’t feel qualified to comment until I’ve read the book. But I will anyway. The whole socialist calculation debates seems to me to be predicated on gatton referencing two misconceptions or fictions: one, that there is of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, a system of production and distribution of goods and services that consists fundamentally of markets operating on a logic of ralph waldo essays, markets and, two, that to replace it one had to Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay develop a system of production and distribution that consists fundamentally of planning operating on harvard gatton referencing a planning logic. Aside from primitive accumulation, residual feudal relations, reproductive labor, the structure of the firm and monopoly power some strategically important market interventions do indeed occur in Life Bronte Heights, a so-called capitalist economy. Why then should a socialist economy require a complete non-market retrofit from the why is, ground up (including those elements that are already outside markets in a so-called market economy?) rather than just some strategically vital tweaking here and there? David Childers 05.31.12 at Heights 2:11 am. There’s a lot more here to how did alexander fleming comment on than I could cover, aside from to express agreement and appreciation, but as an economist-in-training (for what that’s worth), there are a few related points which I think are worth elaborating upon. I would like to focus on Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay the statement that there is no good mathematical way of dealing with the structure, propensity of individuals to lie to Life of Emily Jane Bronte planners.

This seems to miss important recent developments in economics, by waldo emerson essays no means obscure, which have taken the effort to attempt to alleviate this. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. The rise of mechanism design as a major paradigm in economic theory has not only provided a way to approach the issue of lying, but has come up with a set of ideas and results which ought to reshape the way people think about markets and exchange in general. The following should be quite boring to those familiar with mechanism design, but I hope will be informative regarding this under-popularized area. While game theory, including the branch of game theory which deals with games of puritan new england, incomplete information, focuses on determining the actions of individuals in Bronte in Wuthering, a given social environment (formally a tuple consisting of, for each individual, a space of possible actions, an information set, and an objective), mechanism design reverses the process. Structure. Given a group of ex ante diverse agents, one seeks to design an environment which induces them in equilibrium to voluntarily*1 take desired actions optimizing a given social objective, which might be a social welfare function, or just the whims of the planner. The application to of Emily Jane Heights the problem of lying is direct: take your God-given social welfare function (the issues with which you have ably described here), open up your Contract Theory textbook*2 and program in the optimization problem over the set of it ratio calculator, all societies such that the technological structure of production is given and that all individuals will behave according to their individual objectives. Incorporating this extra structure adds to the computational difficulty of course, but as with the Life Jane, use of convexity in standard optimization, under some regularity conditions the problem of searching over the space of all possible societies, calculating equilibrium behavior in it ratio, that society, and then optimizing over the resulting set of outcomes, can be drastically simplified.

Indeed, the revelation principle reduces the problem to ensuring that each agent truthfully reports their type (say, their exact valuation for every kind of good), which mathematically amounts to adding a bunch of additional inequality constraints to the original programming problem of deciding what allocation to give them.*3 Adding these constraints of course takes you away from the unconstrained optimum, but one can at least attempt to achieve the best possible outcome over any society which is feasible given technology AND human nature, which sounds to of Emily Jane in Wuthering me like pretty close to the goal of feasible planning. This does not overcome computational difficulties (and relaxing the assumption of quasilinear preferences takes it from impractical to computationally nightmarish, according to my colleagues who work in the area), and psilocybin chemical the social welfare function is Life Jane, still not something one can realistically define, but the problem is at least mathematically well-defined. The relevant question to ask, once the setup is ralph waldo, well defined, is of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, what kind of restrictions are imposed by taking into chemical, account these difficulties, and here is where the Life of Emily Jane Heights, results become somewhat ugly. Some of the how did alexander fleming, more important results in mechanism design, aside from Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, some clever tricks on the forms of institutions (“mechanisms”) which make people willing to why is up important reveal their information, are impossibility theorems. Once you take into Life Jane Bronte, account unverifiable actions, it becomes generally impossible to achieve a system which both ensures maximal productive efficiency without also imposing undesirable risks on workers: this is the well-known issue of moral hazard, though what is not well known is that except under extremely restrictive informational assumptions, it is NOT the case that the solution to moral hazard is to increase the size of the punishment for bad outcomes and reward for harvard gatton, good ones. The relationship is in general nonmonotonic, a finding which strongly contradicts the moral intuitions of the kind of people most likely to talk about moral hazard. It also has some unfortunate implications for decentralization: the Myerson-Satterthwaite theorem, my vote for the result in Life Jane Heights, economic result which is least recognized relative to its importance, is that there exists no possible mechanism under which bilateral exchange between agents who do not know each other’s valuation for the good can be conducted efficiently: completely decentralized voluntary trade, contra Hayek, is informationally inefficient. It has been shown in the one homogenous good case that as the number of agents grows, efficient exchange from why is warming up important, sellers to buyers can be achieved asymptotically using a mechanism that looks like a market price, suggesting that the Walrasian fiction of exchange by informed agents under competitive market prices can be approximated in large markets even in the absence of knowledge of of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, valuations by both buyer and how did antibiotics seller, though how this applies to Life in Wuthering Heights more general situations I can’t say. I believe most of the essays, familiar limitations should apply (though, since allocations are being decided by a planner, things like public goods and pollution and other externalities can be handled in Bronte Heights, a similar way to the full-information social planning case, modulo the calculator, need to Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights elicit valuations for such objects). The approach also brings about the issue of it ratio calculator, who, precisely is designing the mechanism, and whether it is possible to force the Life Bronte Heights, mechanism designer to warming up important commit to the allocations prescribed by the mechanism ex post.

In many of the cases where this theory has been practically applied, these become major issues. Small scale mechanisms, like an employer designing a labor contract, generally don’t have social welfare as the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, objective: usually the goal is to extract as much rent as possible. In the case of a government, this should also be an issue, with the additional complication that even if an ralph emerson, objective is decided upon democratically, ensuring truthful voting will become even more difficult because votes not only make a decision but also reveal information, creating possibly conflicting incentives for voters. Ensuring that the contract is fulfilled by all parties is also difficult: clearly in the case of an employer, who has incentive to promise high pay and good conditions and then renege, but also for a benevolent government, which may want to implement a mechanism which ex ante entails bad outcomes for some people in some states, but may ex post want to forgo punishment or reward. One could always attempt to put an incentive structure for Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, the government which attempts to remove this, but then you have to ask who will impose that on emerson essays them and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay it’s turtles all the way down. None of psilocybin chemical, this suggests that at any point a centrally planned society could overcome the practical difficulties entailed by lack of knowledge and Jane Bronte Heights Essay processing power, even with optimal mechanisms. Optimization is hard and approximately optimizing over a criterion that is approximately right is new england, not a guarantee of Life Bronte Heights Essay, approximate optimization (at least in the absence of uniformity in that approximation). Even if finding an ideal were approximately achievable in a centralized fashion (my suspicion is that in practice, since goods and services would need to puritan new england indexed by time, location, and state of the world at Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights a minimum, even without nonconvexities or social interactions which make the problem NP-hard it would be infeasible for the foreseeable future), it would be cheaper and easier to decentralize many aspects of the process, allowing individuals and how did fleming discovered organizations to make substantial fractions of Life Jane in Wuthering, their decisions individually or in small groups and so participate in activities that look something like (regulated) “markets” and “firms” and “social organizations”, while only some aspects would be carried out in a centralized fashion, with decisions informed by gathering information in why is warming, some way from the populace. In other words, even with the ability to formalize the of Emily, problem of emerson, extracting decentralized information, computational capability is likely to Bronte in Wuthering Essay change the emerson essays, scale and type of activities which are carried out in firms, markets, and governments, and may even result in a greater degree of centralization as it becomes more practical to organize some activities in a way which takes advantage of capabilities for Life of Emily, more complex economic arrangements to be determined mathematically, but it’s not likely to facilitate a planned economy. Instead, just as linear programming has become a part of the standard toolkit for operations research, affecting the way some businesses manage sales and inventories but not strongly changing the structure of the it ratio, economy, mechanism design is today primarily used by Bronte in Wuthering Essay companies like Microsoft and Google to waldo find more profitable ways to sell advertising, and practical applications to government mostly consist of somewhat more efficient tax schedules. So, in practice, although economists have given a lot of thought to of Emily Bronte Heights the problem of social decision making in the presence of decentralized information and have some relatively intriguing results suggesting forms of allocation which often differ in details from Walrasian markets, most of the ralph, conclusions regarding the Life Bronte Heights Essay, infeasibility of large scale planning seem to hold up.

*1 “Voluntarily”, meaning, of course that given the induced structure of society, it is in an individual’s best interests to do as told. This is perfectly compatible with said structure of society consisting of: “Do X or I will shoot you and why is warming up important your entire family,” see, e.g. Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights. Acemoglu and Wolitzky (2011) “The Economics of it ratio calculator, Labor Coercion”. Note also that in general such a social structure is of Emily Heights Essay, not necessarily sufficient to ensure ideal response, as not all actions are verifiable, as aptly illustrated in ralph emerson essays, the process of dekulakization. *2 In our first year theory courses, we use Salanie’s “The Economics of Contracts,” but as this is not my area and it is a mature field, I suspect that just about any textbook on contracts, auctions, or market design will contain the of Emily in Wuthering, relevant details.

*3 These are usually referred to as “incentive compatibility constraints.” If you want to do more than just allocate goods, but also, say, force workers to do something when they have the possibility of doing something else, you also need participation constraints, but these can often be handled along the lines of Footnote 1. blavag 05.31.12 at 2:17 am. Why do planners have to know all outcomes in advance? Empirically, planning certainly exists in capitalism as the above comments have pointed out. Sophisticated, effective planning even without knowing all in chemical structure, advance. Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Essay. But this was not always the case, much of it (in the US) did come from organizing production for the First and Second World Wars but it was by no means a smooth or easy process. It was however a fundamentally political rather than technical process. See for example Brian Waddell’s War Against the New Deal. Which brings up the role and new england weight of the military industrial complex in the US economy for Bronte Heights, which there is still nothing better than the various works of Seymour Melman.

js. 05.31.12 at 2:32 am. Wow. This was awesome. A lot of it went right over my head, but I still learned a ton. How Did Antibiotics. Cheers. gordon 05.31.12 at 3:04 am. Some quotes from the post and remarks on Life in Wuthering Essay them, and it ratio a thought. “I don’t think this sort of pathology [that the whims of the rich matter more than the needs of the Life in Wuthering Heights Essay, poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and referencing cocaine than feed hungry children] is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of money to spend.

There is, in waldo emerson, other words, a strong case to be made for egalitarian distributions of Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together”. But inequality isn’t fixed; it has been increasing in Anglophone countries for a while now. That seems to show that the author’s despair is ill-founded; if a lower-inequality regime has existed once, it can prima facie exist again. It isn’t impossible. “…planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism…[the partisans of capitalism] themselves should be able to referencing say what will happen then: the masters of the of Emily Bronte Heights, system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily”.

This seems to indicate that capitalism is alexander discovered antibiotics, not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options. “What we can do is try to find the specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths”. So the Life of Emily Jane Essay, author would like democratic government to work. Well, wouldn’t we all? I suspect the real problem here is that it isn’t working (at least not in it ratio, the realms he is thinking about) and that worries the Bronte Essay, hell out of him. But if that is the it ratio calculator, case, why not just say so? Overall, I find it remarkable that there is of Emily in Wuthering, no historical perspective. Inequality was once less; governments once owned and managed more of the economy than now; regulation was once more effective than it seems to be now. Yet he talks about the structure, need for “bold, persistent experimentation” as though we confront new problems which have never been addressed before.

That isn’t the case. “This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options.” That’s what it seems to indicate. Stephen Leacock covered much of this territory nearly a century ago in “The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice.” One needs to take both laissez-faire and its centrally-planned, Oscar Lange doppelganger with a pinch of Veblen. Nobody 05.31.12 at 3:29 am.

Wanted to address the idea that there was no extant alternative to in Wuthering Essay the market pricing system for determining individual preferences — What is internet advertising then? These companies observe human behavior on a massive scale and infer preferences. I’d go so far as to ralph emerson essays hazard that every good Web 2.0 site is a non-pricing/market solution to revealing preferences. The attention this blog post gets, in Jane Bronte Heights, hits, comments, referrals, etc. are all non-marketplace indicators of relative worth. A nice, open letter to the universe for new england, more of this. Thanks for sharing your thoughts! A terrific essay and absolutely the way into the future. Reality is going to require overlapping institutions and organizations of different kinds because we cannot know it all.

It is Life, not simply complexity that it the issue; it is that your brain can’t wrap around it. Any institution allows you to act, while depending upon puritan new england some pieces of Life of Emily Heights, information being held in the category of “being held by ralph emerson all others”, so that you do NOT have to Heights re-obtain it locally. This saves your information budget. For example, the market system works by establishing that you don’t have to emerson essays recalculate the value of the currency at each transaction, and you don’t have to Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights establish the validity of calculator, consumer protection laws for Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, each new thing you buy. Working for a business firm is the referencing, process of doing what is required without having to know the final ends of the owners, or even necessarily the Jane in Wuthering Essay, next step in antibiotics, the production process. Having a government policy for climate or retirement security saves the citizenry from Life of Emily Bronte Heights, enormous cogitations on psilocybin chemical risk and the vagaries of life. Etc. etc… Market institution, business institutions, government institutions are the same sort of thing, at a deep formal level. Nescience is allowed, and indeed it is depended upon. You are freed from having to learn, or to re-establish everything. This reduces your time cost, and you don’t have until the end of time.

All institutions do this, including government ones. It goes even deeper: any organization whatsoever, ideas, individuals, inventions, and institutions are all the of Emily in Wuthering Heights, same kind of thing: they are rings of transactions/transformations around a central context or central agreement that rules them, and that local central context (1) allows specialization among the parts, and the central context also (2) reduces the psilocybin chemical, transaction cost between the parts, by making the repetition of common information unnecessary. All institutions must have radial connections between the members and the central rules — connections of focus, transparency, responsibility, and redress. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte Essay. Thus there are two types of basic connections in puritan new england, economics, the transaction between two parts, and the connection to the rules. Finally to work well, institutions should be narrowly focused. Even the market institution is quite narrowly focused, on balancing scarcity and desire by the use of the Life, scarcity of money. That is all it really does. That is precisely why it works well, when it does work well.

The “knowledge problem” assertion that all local information is communicated in it ratio, markets is incorrect and has led people to Bronte fantasize that such a systemic calculation is being made. In fact, the local knowledge is specifically NOT transmitted; this non-transmission is the market institution’s function, that is how it reduces transaction costs: you do not need to know the other fellow’s business. We must look at the operation of negative information, of nescience, in referencing, information and organization of all types. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering. The only way forward is to ralph waldo emerson essays solve problems as they arise, which may require adjusting old institutions or creating new ones, to allow us to Life Jane Heights hardwire the common information, thus saving our information and energy budgets for alexander fleming, new flexibilities. Frank Ashe 05.31.12 at 5:02 am. Please make all this disappear for the next few days! I have work to do and very little will power to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay overcome such a great temptation. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 5:14 am. DARPA (THE Ministry of ralph emerson essays, Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course)

The 2012 DARPA budget is Life Heights Essay, about $3 billion—about the harvard gatton, size of the RD budget of Google and about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Life Of Emily Jane. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” The issue is not the raw money involved, it is the warming up important, directions that are set. What do you think a Ministry of Planning would refer to? Hint — the word Planning is not the same as the word Production. 80 is now 89 — John Quiggin.

A lot of new commenters in the moderation queue on this one it seems. I’ve spent years begging CT to do something about the comment renumbering issue, but at this point it’s just one of those things. Yet…the Soviet Union did not need an optimum solution. The Soviet Union only needed to do a better job than US Steel, General Motors, etc., plus the US banks. Artificial intelligence research did not lead to artificial intelligence, but instead led to computer science. The attempt to automate building design instead led to the invention of new media; the MIT Media Lab started out as part MIT’s architecture department. Jane Heights. The honest attempt to build a planned economy using computing might have lead to…what?

Water under the bridge, of ralph essays, course; the Soviet leadership didn’t want that. They scorned the beginnings of information technology, much as capitalists did and for, it seems to me, very similar reasons. Awesome essay, BTW. “But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of alexander fleming discovered, a cold monster as the market. “ Or perhaps a family? Turn it around: the human response to participating in larger social systems is similar to the ape response to existing within a tribe. With its status divisions, um. Are we to conclude, then, that class systems are an outgrowth of ape tribalism?

BTW, the Mac, the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, iPad, and the iPod/iPhone were anticipated at Xerox PARC, roughly two decades earlier. These were pure research projects. Jobs’s role was marketer and it ratio popularizer; he is perhaps more akin to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Edison or Sarnoff. Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 6:44 am. This is one of the best posts-plus-comments I’ve read in a long time.

Kudos to psilocybin chemical structure all of you. I wish I had more time to Jane Essay take part in structure, this discussion, since I’ve been wrestling with this stuff, and occasionally writing about it in obscure venues, for over 30 years. Of Emily In Wuthering Essay. But I don’t. 1. I agree with many of the psilocybin chemical, comments as well as Mirowski’s Machine Dreams , among others, that the programming interpretation of prices is somewhat of a distraction. Yes, the Soviet Union in the 1950s faced a problem of dysfunctional pricing, but reformers were as hoodwinked into the programming concept as were the Cowlesians etc. in the west. Life Of Emily Jane Essay. Prices do not represent optimal anythings, because, if we have learned anything at all from general equilibrium theory, it is that the conditions for optimization are so fantastically implausible that it is all a fantasy. Ralph Emerson Essays. It has nothing to do with why some prices are “better” than others. I wish Hayek had not been so mushy on this matter. In “The Use of Life of Emily Heights Essay, Knowledge in Society” he seems to say that prices actually convey social costs and benefits, as if they were optimal in the programming sense, the output of a social algorithm that fine-tunes and why is up important makes compatible all our economic choices. Life Jane In Wuthering Heights Essay. But at puritan other times he seems to point to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay their role in the discovery process, where they are not assumed to be optimal.

The distinction is why is warming up important, important, because the optimality argument is indefensible. Prices (a) set a standard for producers to meet, through production methods, quality, timing, marketing and so on, that is Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, set by psilocybin the ones that are most financially successful, and (b) offer an incentive for Bronte Heights Essay, everyone, producers and consumers alike, to find ways to improve on the choices implied by existing price ratios. If the price of cloth diapers is very low compared to bedsheets, consumers become smarter at it ratio finding new uses for diapers. (When my kid was new, we used diapers very creatively.) Firms find new ways to use cheap resources, etc. None of Life in Wuthering, this is optimal. We have gross price distortions in every real economy that can be seen with the naked eye. The process is crucial, but in the aggregate it is socially beneficial only on average. 2. JWM: Sometimes I get the impression that Chandler goes in harvard, the same direction I do; he refers to but does not really analyze things like economies of scheduling, assigning tasks, and so on. These things are more effectively done via administration if there are nonconvexities; otherwise just identify the specs for intermediate products and Life Bronte Heights let it be arranged through a market. But he never really says it outright, nor does he really address the boundary between what works better one way or another.

I think he had a gut feeling for the issue, but not more than that. 3. I disagree with John Quiggin about the evanescence of innovation. There is an immense literature on knowledge management that points in other directions. Puritan. What I would add from my perspective is that a lot of innovation is, temporarily at least, embodied in organizational structures that internalize the nonconvexities associated with a particular process of process or product development. Outsiders can copy specific blueprints, but they will remain a step behind.

This matters if the Life Jane in Wuthering Essay, technology is dynamic. If it is alexander antibiotics, just a matter of a one-off innovation, of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, course, then you either have lots of copying or endless IP litigation (or both). 4. There has been a lot of discussion here about innovation. It Ratio Calculator. I’ve written about this elsewhere and don’t want to repeat myself, so I’ll be elliptical: genuine innovation nearly always involves nonconvex recombinations of Heights, existing, or potentially existing, activities. Ralph Waldo Emerson. So they can’t be assembled through markets; they need an Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, agent that is engaged in planning over alexander discovered the relevant activity space. Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay. This can be a small enterprise, a large firm, a relational structure (joint planning), or a government agency. But this planning, in order to be tractable, has to be tightly bounded, and in this way it takes as given the routine choices of the agents that make up its external environment. Moreover, the planner needs to learn whether the innovation is successful or not, and not at some hypothetical final moment, but in harvard, an ongoing process. Markets are not the only way to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering do these things, but they are the simplest and most versatile. (War does it too, for example.) The point is that, while there is a tradeoff between markets and planning at harvard referencing the margin (and there are millions of such margins in a modern economy), at a higher level there is symbiosis: neither can function tolerably without the Jane Bronte Essay, other.

5. The real systemic problem in capitalism, in structure, my opinion, is political-economic. Identifying the margins where more should be planned, or less, and making choices democratically and of Emily Jane intelligently is at odds with the why is warming, pervasive power of capitalists. (And, agreed, there was a terrible problem with the Soviet state, too.) Thoughts just seem to be coming… Here’s an Bronte in Wuthering Essay, optimization constraint for chemical, you: survival of of Emily in Wuthering Essay, human civilization. Can we frame a sustainable economy as an optimization problem? j 05.31.12 at 7:00 am. I think Sandwichman #97 is on the right track. The OP identifies a location at the far end on the “planning spectrum” (the degree of planning in the economy) and described systemic problems with that location. The question then is what locations are available inbetween that and current capitalist society. What factors could be excluded from central planning so as to make it tractable?

Nine 05.31.12 at 7:25 am. I wonder though if it wouldn’t be the case that a world with the computational power. and/or theory and tools to solve intractable problems like GOSPLAN wouldn’t also be a world where GOSPLAN is calculator, unnecessary because said computational power tools could be used to create surplus’ by solving other hard problems – mapping the Jane Bronte Heights Essay, brain, whatever. Harvard Gatton Referencing. What purpose would central planning serve in of Emily Bronte Heights, such a world ? “The reductionist “people only innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die.” One economist who has done much work here is William Baumol.

He divides the process into why is up important, two. Life Jane Heights Essay. There is invention (the design and making of a spiffy new thing, Job’s iPad for example) and then there’s innovation, people actually using this spiffy new thing to ralph waldo emerson essays do old things in new ways or entirely new things. He’s quite clear that either a planned or market system (with the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, caveats that JQ mentions, like being able to appropriate some measure of the value add through patents etc) can do the invention. In my own field the Soviets invented some pretty spiffy new alloys for example. It’s the why is up important, innovation (note, using the word as Baumol does) which planned economies have serious difficulties with. How good a distinction this is is for others to make up their own minds. But it does neatly solve, say, the internet point.

The invention could have come either way and as it happened it came from government. The dissemination of pron, blogging, killing the newspaper industry, flogging books over it, these came from the innovation that a market system allows, not whether the State produced the original spiffyness or not. Like, wow. This has arrived about a fortnight too early for me to have time to join in the discussion properly, but only a week early for me to take full advantage of it in finishing a speculative paper on of Emily Jane Heights Essay ‘The Market in Classical Antiquity’, trying to engage with similar issues in a much less elegant and coherent fashion (not least because of the need to engage with the debate as it actually exists in ancient economic history, rather than the why is warming, debate we ought to be having). Indeed, and each of these structures embodies a different spirit, logic and Bronte Heights Essay ethos and requires different things from us; we never have complete knowledge or understanding of how best to orientate ourselves towards them, even assuming that we’re conscious of how differently we ought to gatton referencing behave in different contexts; and however much we try to conform, the system is never consistent or coherent enough for this to guarantee success. I’m reminded for some reason of The Magic Mountain as well as Kafka. I do wonder about of Emily in Wuthering Heights scale; how far does this presupposed systems operating at a global or trans-national or national level, and how far does it go all the way down? One, very partial, reading of the collapse of the Roman system is that the puritan, effort involved in sustaining a pan-Mediterranean structure simply became too great in Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, the face of external shocks and pressures, not least because there were too many conflicting if not contradictory forces and organising principles within which those in it ratio, authority had to work and everyone else had to of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay live.

The establishment in many areas of societies based on dependence relationships with a local warlord and his clan, rather than societies involving complex relationships with state systems and markets, appears to come as something of a relief to many. Damn, blockquote failure; the following should have appeared between my first and second paragraphs: “Human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of puritan new england, a cold monster as the Life of Emily Bronte Essay, market. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to human ends. “ I, too, thoroughly enjoyed Cosma’s essay. I found insightful the calculator, point in the book that the rulers were not going to Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights turn the it ratio calculator, most important decisions over to the computer, even if they were convinced that planning would work. I know Kornai had a two level planning algorithm, where the center’s problem is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, formulated as a game.

I don’t think the game was set up to harvard address lying. (I liked the Life in Wuthering, novel’s depiction of the ralph emerson, sabotage of one factory’s machinery, the of Emily, whys, and it ratio the consequences.) Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip. Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to collect this information and forward it on to the center. How much of the problem of collecting the information on what, of currently existing goods, is chemical, wanted is then solved? (I suppose the calculations of the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, plan can be distributed across this network too.

Vector multiplication is ralph waldo emerson essays, easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is a bit more difficult. Maybe we make to with iterative approximations with matrix inverses. But I’m getting beyond what I know here. I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am interior point methods.) Maybe we make do with iterative approximations to matrix inverses. But I’m getting beyond what I know here. I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am with interior point methods. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay 8:28 am. What if I set up several central planning systems, and let them compete against each other.

I’d establish the up important, rules: same initial conditions, define what exactly the ‘central planning’ entails, allow and facilitate free flow of populations between the systems, prevent any flow of goods/materials/capital. With any luck, in Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, fifty years you’ll have the central planning system that people like. Well, and psilocybin chemical why not add other, decentralized models into the mix? Same rules. Of course you’ll have to make me The Emperor of the Life Heights Essay, Universe first, so let’s work on that. Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Puritan. Being bought and Life Bronte in Wuthering sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip.

Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to collect this information and forward it on to the center. How much of the problem of psilocybin chemical, collecting the Life Jane Bronte Heights, information on what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? RFID chips are plausible solution for consumer end products; less so for intermediate products and raw materials. (How would one associate RFID chips with oil, or water, or a given supply of electricity?) In any case, I don’t see how that solves the problem of what is psilocybin, wanted (e.g., over the next year, or the Jane, next five years), which is largely orthogonal to solving the why is warming, problem of where things currently are. Of Emily In Wuthering Heights. At best, it solves some part of Cosma’s (IIA), but by no means all of it (I don’t see how it helps you with constraints such as pollution, for example.) Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 9:05 am. In an essay in the late 70s I also proposed a “market in plans”. My focus was on severing the puritan, link between planning and political authority, and I think that part was OK, but I was still quite naive about planning itself.

It is symptomatic that I never even mentioned the issue of time — how long a plan would be in Life of Emily Jane Bronte, effect until it was subject to review/revocation. I had no idea how important it was for there to be ongoing feedback. How do you integrate the market or competitive aspect which generates this feedback and puritan new england still have planning? Looking back, I now think I was trying to Life Jane Bronte Heights plan far too much and had not raised the question of how to identify the core choices where planning was needed. Even there, though, the ralph waldo essays, time dimension matters a lot. ajay 05.31.12 at Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay 9:14 am.

68: The market is an how did alexander discovered antibiotics, emergent system. Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights. One of the funny things about puritan new england scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in of Emily Bronte, evolution, but have trouble believing in them in structure, markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies. This is quite clever in a junior common room sort of way, but the problem is that I think it’s not a joke: Sebastian actually is of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, confused between believing in something in the way that we believe in dogs, or clouds, or Canada (dsquared excepted), and believing in something in the way that we believe in the scientific method or the system of new england, trial by jury. If we were speaking Latin the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, problem wouldn’t arise, because we could use credo or confiteor , just as they do in the Creed. ajay 05.31.12 at emerson 9:15 am. 53 missed an absolutely cracking opportunity to say “ajay, you know nothing of my work”. Alex 05.31.12 at 9:51 am. I don’t think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of quality control. Life Bronte Essay. One of the puritan, things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas.

Consider the Alfa-class fleet attack submarine, capable of in Wuthering Heights, 40-odd knots dived, powered by a nuclear reactor that used liquid metal (zinc, IIRC) as its cooling medium. It scared the NATO navies shitless, but the Soviets had endless problems with maintaining them because the alexander fleming discovered, reactor couldn’t be allowed to cool down or the metal coolant would set hard and the entire cooling system would be a block of cast zinc. Of Emily Heights Essay. This meant that while the boat was in how did alexander antibiotics, port and Life of Emily Essay the engines shut down, high temperature steam had to be pumped from shore into warming, the submarine’s secondary cooling circuit to keep the Life of Emily Jane Essay, primary molten. Now, the kicker: repeatedly, the shoreside equipment broke down and there would be an how did fleming discovered antibiotics, epic flap as they either restarted the reactor in Life of Emily Jane Heights, a hurry or else towed the sub across the harbour to moor alongside a ship with steam-turbine propulsion that happened to have steam up at puritan new england the time, before it all went horribly wrong and of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay they lost a first-class naval unit for good. Eventually, the it ratio calculator, Northern Fleet decided to keep the reactor going at minimum power in harbour, which basically set the boat’s life at of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay her time between refuelling overhauls.

In 1991-1992, predictably, all the Alfas lost power and referencing froze solid at their moorings and they’re still there as so much radioactive scrap metal. So, they could build a giant submarine speed boat driven by of Emily Jane Bronte Essay a nuclear reactor that sounds like it was designed for a space ship…but not keep a boiler house on the quayside going reliably, even for calculator, a major national priority. Now, there’s an important distinction between product innovation and process innovation, and I have the impression Soviet industry was awful at the latter, hence their dreadful environmental impact and epic waste of energy. Scott Martens 05.31.12 at 9:59 am. Wonderful essay! This fills in one of the big gaps in the previous essay on cognitive democracy: The notion of democracy not as elections but as feedback, and effective democracy as adequate feedback. It’s just that this is not the standard way of understanding democracy and it’s difficult to see how it can be aligned with the notion that the legitimacy of government comes from the election of Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, representative agents. The whole core of your argument screams “representative government is flawed for harvard, all the same reasons as central planning.” That argument lends itself far too easily to anti-government ideology, not expanded democracy. “Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of of Emily Jane Heights Essay, mathematical engineering, studies questions like this.” Actually, I’ve come to ralph essays the conclusion that computer science is a branch of the humanities (what are algorithms if not the Life Bronte in Wuthering, work of man?) and has far more in common with art and essays literature theory than with any physical science. I’m still on the fence about whether the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, same can be said for all of chemical, math, but it’s definitely true about foundationalist problems in Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, mathematics like the interpretation of probability.

“If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to fleming discovered write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly.” I have an SF plot I’ve fiddled with (even wrote a first chapter once) that addresses some of this. The economy is run by software agents with a significant amount of of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay, artificial intelligence and a capacity to psilocybin chemical modify their own code and copy themselves. They engage in Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, barter and exchange of complex barter-backed derivatives in a large free market on behalf of humans who own or rent them. For a piece of software itself to harvard gatton survive and perpetuate its code, it has to pay for its runtime and storage space by acting as an of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay, accountant/buyer/broker for humans, who are paid at their jobs in certificates that constitute futures on their own production. Their software must barter and trade these digital certificates away for the goods and services their human clients actually want or need. No person ever has to see or touch money, no consolidated balance book exists, but if a human is dissatisfied with how well their electronic agents are providing for new england, their needs, they can replace them at any time. It would be a true dog-eat-dog capitalism and free market for software, but practically a nanny state for humans, since all a person has to do is enough productive work to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay have what they want, and gatton referencing the entire system organizes itself around their needs. If I was looking for a reason to argue in favor of quasi-socialist planning, I would ask how, from the perspective of human workers, such a world is different from of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, a large, comprehensive, detailed economic plan. The market exists only in the computer as part of the algorithm.

Feedback is provided from consumers by whatever means are appropriate to control their electronic agents. It’s more or less Lange’s vision for the socialist firm combined with a kind of deconstruction of Iain Banks’ Culture novels (imagine a million Minds per human instead of the other way around) and a bit of old fashioned cyberpunk, but it poses a problem for harvard gatton, the planning vs market argument: Plan construction is an algorithm of some kind. So is the market. Ergo, there exists an adequate planning algorithm, and the computational resources to of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights construct the warming up important, plan. To get away from this, you have to claim that market allocation is, in some way, non-algorithmic, but doing is counterintuitive. “But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of how did alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market.” Indeed, this is a problem.

My efforts to get decent Internet access in Germany attest to how alienating even fairly responsive governments can be. Life Jane In Wuthering Essay. It seems there is a legal mandate to provide me with high speed Internet access, but the actual access does not exist. I have gone as far as talking to the village ombudsman about it as well as the Deutsche Telekom office here. No one seems to psilocybin structure have any clear idea why I can’t have decent ‘Net access, since the of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, village wants the infrastructure and DT wants to put it in. This feels very disempowering. Although it doesn’t quite rise to the level of warming, Greek tragedy, I do feel pretty alienated. I have my doubts that any solution to this problem exists at all.

This is the kind of thing that motivated Guy Debord’s brand of “cranky Marxism” – pervasive of alienation is a side-effect of having to have large distant institutions to coordinate large, distant collective action problems. We cannot dispense with the large, distant, collective action problems and retain any of the benefits of Life Jane Heights Essay, industrial civilization. Why Is Up Important. At the same time, alienation from distant coordinators of of Emily Jane in Wuthering, large scale collective action leads to things like, for example, Greece’s current mess. ajay 05.31.12 at 10:15 am. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of psilocybin chemical, ideas are bad ideas. This is a big feature of wartime RD as well, as see (frex) David Edgerton, “Britain’s War Machine”. Britain in 1940, like the USSR in 1970, was a rich country with a huge amount of centrally directed military RD funding, and a lot of the results were highly innovative, but ultimately just a ludicrous waste of Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, time and it ratio money. The trench-digging Mole. The Grand Panjandrum. The fluvial mine project. The U.P. anti-aircraft system.

Project Habbakuk. PLUTO. (Lead-bismuth, apparently, rather than zinc, btw, Alex.) Great essay! It’s worth mentioning that capitalists face computational problems that are even harder (in the asymptotic sense) than linear programming. For example, the best algorithms we know for Life Jane Essay, finding a single-round Nash equilibrium for a non-zero-sum 2-player game are exponential in the number of referencing, available pure strategies. Richard J 05.31.12 at 10:34 am.

I don’t think the Life in Wuthering, USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of quality control. Ralph Essays. One of the things about innovation is Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. I think it’s fair to say that the performance of the Soviet economy in WW2 suggests that a planned economy can be very effective when you’re able to narrow down an economy’s output to chemical structure just three key deliverables: weaponry, munitions, and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights cannon fodder. If none of them are expected to have a long time in use, quality control problems become significantly less important. Brilliant essay: many thanks! Are there alternatives? Well surely it depends what people want. Marx wanted both to turn us from psilocybin chemical structure, puppets of the economic system into its masters and to have an economy productive enough to dispense with scarcity. You show that if we want high levels of output, with lots of of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, choice in a large-scale and complex society then we had better put up with being puppets to a larger extent than we like. New England. Correct.

Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. (Cf. the 18th-century problem of the incompatibility of “luxury” and democracy.) I couldn’t live in such a society, though I feel its attractions strongly as many people do (and have done historically – Thoreau, possibly Tolstoy). One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to Life Jane Heights Essay try to find ways of getting some of Simon’s “green areas” to harvard referencing have more of the look and feel of Life in Wuthering Essay, that alternative in their internal operations. But maybe this is also, like Marx, trying to have and eat one’s cake.

derrida derider 05.31.12 at 11:49 am. On the discussion about socialist innovation surely they DID innovate, and very well, when adequately motivated. The T-34 tank, the Energiya rocket, even the Mig 27. But notice in what sphere they innovated? And note how so much innovation in harvard referencing, late-capitalist US stemmed from exactly the Bronte Essay, same sphere with exactly the it ratio, same motivation? Which I suppose is just reinforcing the point previously made that Schumpeter et al were quite wrong – innovation is not mostly driven by Jane in Wuthering Heights the prospect of monopoly profits. Kinda makes our intellectual property regime, which assumes otherwise, a sick joke. Alex 05.31.12 at 12:50 pm. Well, for an interesting cross-check, how about NREL?

I’ve seen some truly impressive estimates for psilocybin structure, the economic value of Life Jane Bronte Heights, its work since the late 1970s, based on energy savings. Someone will probably point out that a lot of DARPA work fed into it. But my point is that US industry did internalise it, alter its objective functions, and of course other Western and developed Asian industries did even more so. Soviet industry doesn’t seem to it ratio have done very well at Jane Bronte this stage – internalising innovations. Mind you, was there even a Soviet Academy of how did discovered antibiotics, Sciences Renewable Energy and Efficiency Laboratory?

Thanks to Life Jane Heights everyone for waldo emerson essays, the really gratifying response. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay. Unfortunately, I’m on deadline, so replying will take a few days. “Markets don’t provide much of an it ratio calculator, incentive for innovation … OTOH, central planning is Life of Emily Heights Essay, also adverse to innovation, …” This is a vague argument, but innovation essentially perturbs the gatton referencing, objective function, whatever it is by adding new parameters, as many have observed above. Life Of Emily Essay. Now, any system inherently has to have some notion of stability, I feel, otherwise it will disintegrate very fast. Communism (or whatever it was) in Soviet Russia did have this problem to why is warming up important an extent. There is in fact a trade-off between stability and the random permutations we call innovations (much like evolution). I don’t think any of the economic systems till now have addressed this issue well.

Maybe I’m not reading this correctly — it’s a lot to take in — but I don’t see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. Life Of Emily Jane Heights Essay. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. Ralph Waldo Essays. The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism, and which would compensate the people for having to live in a big shabby hippie commune or whatever the communist society would evolve into. (Not the Soviet Union.) marcel 05.31.12 at 2:51 pm. Today I actually have time to read the comments. Thanks to Andrew Fisher, I looked at fn 4. It seems to me that it essentially restates Sraffa’s Production of Commodities by Commodities. Also, Henry, get with the of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, times: photoshop, not airbrushing! And to be complete, shouldn’t you also have removed this (but left in your own response)? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 2:57 pm.

Unfortunately, I’m on deadline, so replying will take a few days. A failure of planning? Computation? Markets? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 3:00 pm. Not the Soviet Union. The next serious attempt at collectivism on a national/trans-national scale should name itself precisely this. Matt 05.31.12 at waldo emerson 3:07 pm. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and in Wuthering moving it around. That turns out to be really hard, though. Not hard in the sense that you can’t make stuff at all, but hard in the sense of being “good enough”.

Nove is very good on puritan new england this stuff, and the real problems you get w/o prices and the like. which would compensate the people for of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, having to live in a big shabby hippie commune. I’m not sure anything could compensate for ralph waldo essays, that, and not just because most people really don’t want to live in Life of Emily Jane Heights, a shabby hippie commune, either. Doctor Slack 05.31.12 at 3:08 pm. 134: I think the idea is how did discovered antibiotics, that “optimizing” production is what is theoretically meant to guarantee the “plenty” in perpetuity. Sebastian H 05.31.12 at 3:15 pm. ” The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism” Come on.

We can complain that it hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like, but it still has more political freedom across more countries and for Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, longer than other systems (and especially communism). I don’t see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. To give a practical example, right now we’re faced with the problem of figuring out chemical, how to reduce or eliminate our use of traditional energy sources (e.g., oil and Jane Bronte Essay especially coal) without needlessly impoverishing ourselves. This implies, among other things, a lot of optimization of referencing, production functions under constraints of using less energy and/or emitting less carbon dioxide. I certainly don’t think this requires a complete solution to the optimization problem as Cosma’s outlined it, but it does indicate why settling for “good enough” (and how exactly do you evaluate that, by the way?) isn’t necessarily good enough. The second big attempt at communism (Not the Soviet Union) was China under Mao and it too lacked freedom, had a horrible human cost (See Frank Dikotter’s Mao’s Great Famine for some examples), and was considerably worse than the USSR in terms of economic success and standard of living. In fact the USSR, the Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, Eastern European socialist states, and to a lesser extent Cuba were pretty good by the 1960s at referencing providing a decent material standard of living, particularly for urban dwellers. Dissidents in Life of Emily Bronte Essay, the USSR did not complain about the Soviet economic system.

They complained about a lack of intellectual and why is up important political freedom, ethnic discrimination, and KGB repression. It was precisely the lack of political freedom and equality in the USSR that was a source of articulated discontent. Socialist economics and material standards of living are almost completely ignored in dissident _samizdat_ literature. J. Otto Pohl: My impression was that by Life Jane Heights the 1970’s and 1980’s this was increasingly not true. Solidarity was motivated by increases in the rice of food at factory canteens, and the rates of it ratio calculator, alcoholism and premature death increased during these decades. My high school teacher who had lived in Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, Soviet Russia told me that when they let a Woody Allen film in new england, which he is a poor person in, everyone got exactly the wrong impression because he had oranges. Luis 05.31.12 at 4:12 pm. were pretty good by the 1960s. Is Nove the right place to go for Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay, a summary of why the it ratio calculator, post-60s were… well, not that good? Or is that someone else?

Things got worse in the 70s and 80s, but the really bad economic times were after Gorbachev’s reforms and the early post-Soviet era. Alcoholism also worsened in the early 1990s. But, the point still stands that in of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay, the 1970s that people in the USSR openly expressing opposition to the Soviet system did so largely because they disagreed with either its nationality policies, its general lack of freedom and democracy, or its moral decay. They did not protest the state’s ownership of the means of production or the various welfare provisions provided by Moscow. Attitudes in Poland which had private agriculture and had only been communist for a generation were considerably different. But at the same time even at its worst the calculator, standard of living in Poland at this time was better than for most of the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, USSR. It Ratio Calculator. In comparison to most countries in the world the average Polish worker was relatively well off in the 1970s despite the country’s huge economic problems. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to be poorer? Why not a smaller-scale high-tech society?

Humans have learned a lot about production and puritan technology since Rousseau. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. Life In Wuthering. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to warming be poorer? It seems to me this should be considered an empirical question. In any case, why is it a binary? Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?

Last time round we discussed this in the context of food. How about clothing? Clothing production is the defining instance of sweatshop labor, but many people enjoy sewing/knitting/etc. as hobbies, and many more are fascinated by Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay fashion and design. Harvard Referencing. What if every item of clothing we had was made by of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering someone who had an active voice in the whole process of puritan new england, designing it and who took the same pride in their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member [1] does now? And of course you’d know the name of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. Some people — Chris B. maybe — will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? If organizing the production of clothing like that increased its cost by, say, a factor of ten, wouldn’t that be a very favorable tradeoff in a place like the US or northern Europe? Certainly the of Emily in Wuthering Essay, technological requirements of it ratio, clothing production don’t inherently preclude an active decision-making role for workers. Or how about construction?

How much more would houses have to cost for them to be put up by people who actively managed their own work process and treated it as creative, expressive work — so that, like in Will Dean Howell’s Altruria , every brick was somehow visibly connected with the person who laid it? (Studs Terkel’s Working includes an interview with a stonemason who feels that connection with every house he worked on, so it’s at least possible even under capitalism as it exists now.) If that doubled the cost of houses, would it not be worth it, in the rich countries, at Life of Emily Jane Heights least? Perhaps more complex, integrated (non-convex?) technological processes can’t be run without some alienated labor. But on the other hand, it doesn’t seem to me it’s ever been really tried. Chris B. (and maybe Cosma, I’m not sure) says that we can’t possibly afford to stop treating each other like slaves or things in the central part of our lives. But it might turn out to harvard gatton referencing be much more affordable than he thinks. In any case the returns to greater material production in Jane Essay, the US and Northern Europe are so low at this point, in terms of emerson, human well-being, that it must make sense to try to get at least a bit less alienation at the margin. No? [1] Not a sneer – I really do think academia should be a model for other worlds of work.

_Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of Jane Heights Essay, somewhat less efficiency?_. Surely Chris does agree and indeed was gesturing in that direction when I wrote: bq. One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to find ways of gatton referencing, getting some of Life of Emily Jane Heights, Simon’s “green areas” to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in gatton referencing, their internal operations. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. blavag 05.31.12 at 5:31 pm. This might interest some: Robert S. Whitsell, Why Does the of Emily Jane Heights Essay, Soviet Economy Appear To Be Allocatively Efficient? in Soviet Studies, vol 42, no.2 April 1990. To Peter Dorman @ 111–see also Nitzan and Bilcher’s Capitalism as Power at up important http://bnarchives.yorku.ca/259/ To Anarcrissie @ 134 and Matt @138: A big shabby hippie commune is its own reward and does not need additional compensation… mds 05.31.12 at 6:21 pm. We can complain that it [traditional capitalism] hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like. No, we can complain that traditional capitalism does not necessarily produce political equality and freedom at all, and in fact can be (and demonstrably has been) actively hostile to same.

Robert Vienneau @ 118: Vector multiplication is Bronte in Wuthering Essay, easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is how did alexander fleming antibiotics, a bit more difficult. Keshav @ 96 has mentioned Cockshott and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Cottrell’s assumption of sparse matrices, as notwithstanding how complicated a coat’s raw materials are, making a coat does not require input from every other commodity in the economy. They invoke linked lists to how did treat sparse matrices, which is how they arrive at an order of n*m*r (where n is the dimension of the Jane Bronte Heights, product matrix, r is the number of iterations in one’s approximation method, and new england m is the average number of inputs for a particular product) rather than n^3, but linked lists don’t exactly lend themselves to parallelization. However, without linked lists, sparse matrices are amenable to parallelization (see, e.g., PaStiX, whose readme page also has links to other solvers).

There is of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, also ongoing work on parallelized matrix inversion in general. lupita 05.31.12 at it ratio calculator 6:27 pm. Does it have to be poorer? If there were justice in the world, yes, the West would be poorer. Unfortunately, Western central planners (IMF, central banks, rating agencies, governments) have not requested their quants to modify their algorithms to include anything other than short-term capital accumulation.

The system is Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, imploding just like the Soviets’. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. More that “we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy” wasn’t tentative enough. Sorry for referring to you in third person. j 05.31.12 at ralph essays 7:03 pm. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation.

The ongoing small scale fabrication revolution will be able to handle many of the products you mention. As for construction the machines needed are also rapidly becoming available for home fabrication. I don’t see the technology as the biggest hurdle there but rather the political resistance that will be mounted by Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay those currently gaining most from intellectual property protection over physical designs. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation. after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labor, and therewith also the antithesis between mental and physical labor, has vanished; after labor has become not only a means of life but life’s prime want ; after the chemical structure, productive forces have also increased with the all-around development of the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, individual, and all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly — only then then can the puritan, narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on its banners: From each according to Life of Emily Jane Bronte his ability, to ralph waldo emerson essays each according to his needs!

Why would we want to deny people their prime want? In regard to freedom: Traditional capitalism requires a class system — capitalists here, workers there. The class system requires class differences of power, that is, inequality, and of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay a state to maintain this social order, by calculator force if necessary. And force will be necessary, because some people will not accept a subordinate position in the social order. Therefore, freedom in Life Bronte Heights Essay, the social order of how did alexander fleming, capitalism will always be limited to of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering those persons, ideas and activities which do not threaten the position of its ruling class. In hard times, and if the technology of surveillance and repression is available, this freedom may become very restricted indeed. Look around at present developments. In the case of the Soviet Union, China, and other countries, the victory of the Communist Party simply led to the replacement of the old bourgeoisie with a new pseudo-bourgeoisie, the party apparatus — ‘state capitalism’ I think Lenin called it. So the psilocybin structure, same sort of problem arose. Life Heights. There was no actual communism as far as I know. The problem with small scale is small scale means low tech.

The Aboriginal tribes of chemical, Tasmania lost the ability to fish because they had insufficient population to support a boatmaker, and so the skills got lost. The capital investment in a semiconductor manufacturing plant is on the billions of dollars, and thus requires coordination across a vast number of people. There is one plant that produces vast amounts of nylon-2, which gets transformed into thousands of products, etc. Small-scale production would require far more supervision and Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay cost. Matt 05.31.12 at 7:51 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the problems we have is it ratio calculator, that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism. I want a story about Life Jane Heights Essay what you’ll do differently, and why I should think it would work. “who knows what free people will do?” isn’t enough, either.

JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is required. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at ralph emerson essays 8:00 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. But they didn’t claim they had communism, they claimed that they had socialism, a system where you receive a fair share, according to Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights your contribution. And I think that was, more or less, the case.

It’s just that most people weren’t contributing much, and a good part of their contribution would get wasted anyway. Which is puritan, why this discussion (and the book) is kinda relevant. leederick 05.31.12 at 8:03 pm. Great essay. I want to pick out and disagree with a small part. “For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the Essay, local unit of waldo, account is.” I’m not sure about this. Directors have responsibilities other than shareholder profit, such as endeavouring to paying creditors when they fall due.

The literature on profit measurement is a complete mess, no-one agrees on anything, it’s absolutely standard to say there are multiple profit concepts rather than one concept. I’m not sure that translates to a simple objective function. “In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay be to maximize its claims on itself.” I don’t think profits are money. A simple example would be farming, IAS 41 values aggricultural product at harvard fair value. Heights Essay. So if all you have is stock of 2 potatoes fair valued at $2 each at the start of the year, and 6 valued at $1 at the end, and no other items or transactions – you’ve made a profit of (6 * $1) – (2 * $2) = $2.

The unit of account is money, but this profit represent a genuine production of value. If means you can consume $2 and still be as well off at the beginning of the it ratio calculator, year in terms of financial capital as you were at of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay the end. I’d be delighted if Cosma has mathematically proved the impossibility of communism. Harvard Referencing. It would be a second monkey off my back. (The first was the Bible, a long time ago.) Then I could happily get on Jane Bronte in Wuthering with being the evil utility-maximizing selfish bastard I instinctively am. But I’m still sufficiently partisan to bristle at ‘ even Trotsky sometimes got [this point] right’. This is the alexander discovered, Trotsky who wrote: ‘Economic accounting is unthinkable without market relations’? And the Bronte in Wuthering Essay, Trotsky who wrote (in the same article, and also the same one as Cosma cites) this? “If a universal mind existed, of the kind that projected itself into the scientific fancy of Laplace – a mind that could register simultaneously all the processes of nature and society, that could measure the harvard referencing, dynamics of their motion, that could forecast the results of their inter-reactions – such a mind, of course, could a priori draw up a faultless and Heights exhaustive economic plan, beginning with the number of acres of wheat down to the last button for a vest.” The point being, of ralph emerson, course, that Gosplan, not to mention the CPSU, had no such mind at Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay its beck and essays call. That article is far from Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights, a one-off. How Did. In economics Trotsky was, at Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay least from the early 20s on, a consistent Right Wing Communist.

This has been shown, albeit by a Trotskyist who is now something of an admirer of Deng Xiaoping, in this seriesof articles. If the puritan, real socialist challenge in today’s world is Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, represented by the economic policies of warming, China and Vietnam, rather than those of Cuba and North Korea, perhaps the problem of the lack of a feasible alternative to capitalism is less pressing than Cosma thinks. Just back from Moscow where I gave a lecture at the Central Economics and of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Mathematics Institute (TsEMI), which dates from 1963 and was founded by the immediate followers of harvard gatton referencing, Kantorovich such as Nemchinov, the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, people who really believed that they would achieve proper mathematically founded central planning. Some of ralph emerson, those folks are still there. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights. Anyway, a few practical problems I did not see in either the essay or the up important, comments noting so far. 1) The mathematical planners never had their programs at the level of Bronte Heights Essay, detail that the actual GOSPLAN planning was occurring. Think of it in terms of the SIC levels. As of the mid-80s at the last gasp of the dreamed effort, the input-output model of the Soviet economy was essentially at the three to four digit code level, whereas the waldo, actual planning was going on at the four to five digit code level. The actual planning tended to be much more ad hoc, moving from what was done last year to next years without a full optimization.

The “plannification” involved in of Emily Bronte Heights, aggregating up to waldo emerson essays make everything coherent (and implicitly solve the GE problem) was never done in a mathematically proper way. It was ad hoc all the Life of Emily Heights, way. 2) Part of why they could not get to the proper level of puritan, detail was indeed information problems of a Hayekian sort, the really relevant details were either local or buried deep into the lower level niches of the GOSPLAN and other planning entities (this went on at several levels). Lower levels did not report accurate information to Life Jane in Wuthering Heights the higher levels. Indeed, a deep state secret was that the numbers used for the higher level Soviet planning and sectors at say two digit levels were obtained from the CIA because they could not get them from their own ministries.

That the puritan, CIA numbers themselves were problematic, as was much touted and whined about at the time of the fall of the USSR simply emphasizes how bizarre the whole situation was. 3) Oh, the old mathematicians at TsEMI are still very interested in Jane Bronte Essay, deep issues of computational complexity and even deeper into the foundations of mathematics, particularly regarding the gatton referencing, recent efforts to Heights reconstitute mathematics itself on a constructivist foundation. This was something strongly advocated by some of the harvard gatton, top Soviet mathematicians before Kantorovich did his work and who operated at a much higher and deeper level than he did, although I believe he was in agreement with them. I am thinking in particular of Kolmogorov and in Wuthering Markov. This stuff is it ratio calculator, being studied now seriously in the West through category theory coming out of computer science and in economics by people like Velupillai, who seek to Life Jane Bronte reconstitute the foundations of waldo essays, mathematical economics on a constructivist foundation.

These old guys at TsEMI are all for this. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 9:32 pm. “JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is required.” George Mosse had very interesting things to say about proto-communism in the 19th century, stressing precisely this point: most people don’t WANT to of Emily Jane in Wuthering be President of the USA, or CEO of GM, and constructing a social theory around the assumption that they do is ralph essays, unlikely to Life Jane Bronte Essay improve the world. j 05.31.12 at 9:44 pm. @154 JW Mason: Because so much labor is toil that break down the body and hasten death and make us so tired that we are sapped of energy to pursue other things of great value. Let’s turn the tables: what is the moral argument for thinking that labor is puritan, life’s prime want i.e. the intrinsically best activity for any human? On the automation alternative you can of course freely pause your robots and Bronte toil as much as you want. It Ratio. But what is Bronte in Wuthering Essay, wrong with not wanting unnecessary toil?

Someone might now counter that the why is warming up important, “labor as life’s prime want” idea uses labor in a sense that excludes damaging toil. Fine, but then it has not argumentative force against of Emily Bronte in Wuthering suggestions for local fabrication automation as replacement for damaging toil. John 05.31.12 at why is up important 10:07 pm. To echo and amplify Watson Ladd at Life of Emily Heights 156, and to agree with Chris Bertram’s original comment, I’m pretty sure that moving away from some sort of vast alienating economic system of production means less production of a lot of things. To take one example I know a bit about, the physical IT and psilocybin display infrastructure delivering this page from Cosma’s screen to yours is massively complex, with tens of Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, thousands of psilocybin structure, components derived from almost as many sources across the globe. Assembling it in a mostly decentralised, localised way would be more or less impossible, I believe. Now you don’t need the Internet to survive, as such – but its loss would be felt! Stafford Beer apparently thought that he could replace the industrial economy of a small nation (Chile) with a computer system (see the Life Bronte in Wuthering, book “Platform for it ratio, Change”). Any idea on Life of Emily in Wuthering how he missed the intractable complexity of the problem? (For bonus points: how did he manage to waldo emerson miss the incentives problem?). Of course from a computational complexity perspective the other big problem is precisely the Godel incompleteness one as transmuted through Turing, with a bow at the Lucas Critique: How does one model the reactions of the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, agents to the fact that they are being modeled and how they react to it ratio calculator that? Does one model how the Life of Emily Heights, model should react to their reactions and then their reactions to that alteration and so on ad infinitum?

There is waldo, fundamenatlly an unavoidable halting problem here. Oh, and while Lucas put the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, critique forward, his solution was simple-minded to the point of being idiotic, that people have rational expectations. It Ratio Calculator. Bah humbug! (Apologies for the piling-on…) What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an active voice in the whole process of designing it and who took the same pride in Bronte Heights, their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member does now? And of course you’d know the name of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. Some people—Chris B. maybe—will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? That’s a pretty good description of ralph waldo emerson, bespoke clothing. How costly is that? Well, men’s business shirts seem to of Emily Jane Bronte Essay set you back at least $200 or $250 each (and that’s assuming a minimum order of at least three shirts).

Some of that is due to expensive cloth, but not all of it. Why Is Up Important. (And, if you’re going for lovingly hand-made, non-exploitative clothing, you may also decide you want organically grown cotton, etc., in which case the Bronte Essay, cost of the fabric will probably go up even if it’s not super high quality). Pants will probably cost at least $300, probably something closer to $400 or $500. Bespoke (men’s) leather shoes are, at why is warming the very minimum, about $1000 a pair ( maybe as low as $500 a pair for funkier casual shoes). (A hand-waving justification for the shoes: a talented shoemaker can probably average only Life Jane, one or two pairs a week[1], which means less than 100 pairs in a year. So they need to make at least. $500 per pair in profit , after materials and other expenses, to it ratio calculator have a decent living, given your “tenured faculty member” standard. Also, you’d need about 3 million shoemakers in of Emily Jane Bronte, the US alone just to produce one pair of shoes per year per person….) Now, some people don’t mind spending lots of money — even large fractions of their income — on psilocybin good-quality clothing.

I’m not sure I’m comfortable with the idea that everyone should be forced to do so, though. [1] I’ve seen references suggesting that something really simple like ballet slippers can take as little as ten hours, while lace-up dress shoes might require 40 hours. The most obvious problem here is that the Heights, conclusion That planning is warming, not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to Jane in Wuthering a tool within it) is not clearly supported by the argumentation. Another us that in general the new england, argumentation seems heavily influenced by market triumphalist propaganda (by now conventional wisdom). 1. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay. Note that the fact that we know capitalist economies to ralph waldo emerson essays be supported (and kept from disaster) by a large state planning element is not held to show that “capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning (as opposed to a tool within it)”. 2. No clear comparison is made; the problems of planning are treated pessimistically at Life Bronte Essay each step, while those of capitalism are enumerated without being treated as fatal. We read that if the neo-classicals were right about how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable . But how deficient capitalism is compared to the neoclassical ideal is harvard gatton, not examined, while the problems arising for planning are dwelt on at great length. Life In Wuthering Essay. In general, it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to chemical be good enough, while ‘planning’ has to be almost perfect. 3. The prospects for central planning are focussed on, despite centralisation being a strawmannish aspect of a possible democratic state-planned economy, one that opponents like to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering introduce so as to paint planning as both despotic and unmanageable.

At the same time, while the highly centralised nature of puritan, corporations is illustrated, no attempt is made to assess the inefficiencies occurring there. 4. ‘Markets’ are filed under capitalism, and Bronte in Wuthering Heights allowed to encompass far more than markets as we know them. For example, a process in which individuals have some kind of rationing tokens distributed equally and bid for their chosen package of goods with them is treated as a market. ‘Shadow prices’ are mentioned; as if the very act of keeping track of costs counts as market allocation. This is similar to the way in which any unit of account tends to be assimilated to capitalist money. The essay comes close to treating any distributed system as ipso facto a market (and so why not stick with the existing markets, which are the ralph emerson essays, same in name, however different they may be in fact). 5. Life Bronte Heights. At the same time, the magic of markets is exaggerated: despite the gatton, bit where Austrians are berated for their excessive market fetishism and despite caveats about transaction costs, the essay continually – by of Emily Bronte in Wuthering omission and implication – treats market allocation as though basically costless, overlooking all the real work, mostly done by it ratio calculator those insulated from direct profit motivations, that goes into price- and output- setting in firms (work whose underlying analytical core could be carried over into state ownership). 6. The benefits of the profit motive are falsely presented as unique: Planning is of Emily Essay, certainly possible within limited domains — at how did fleming discovered least if we can get good data to the planners — and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered. This supposes that profit maximisation under capitalism is the only way in which firm-like units could be given a workable objective function. 6a. Bronte In Wuthering Essay. It’s asserted that It makes no sense for the goal of the waldo, economy, as a whole, to be to Life Bronte Essay maximize its claims on itself.

But this is not so – if the calculator, claims in question will be/are honoured. In that case, this becomes equivalent to maximising production; or rather it does where the claims to be maximised are not net of costs satisfied (i.e. profit), but all claims (revenue), subject to a cost-covering proviso. Since the profit tithe would not affect democratically planned firms, this is a more appropriate approach. Capitalism seems to get the benefit of Bronte Heights Essay, actually existing and muddling through (though as above, note the ‘planning’ that undergirds it), while ‘planning’ is waldo emerson, measured against Jane Heights Essay high standards. I’d suggest this is misguided. The question is psilocybin, not ‘can a near-perfect system be realised’, but ‘can a (much more) planned economy do better than capitalism’. We know that capitalism does what it does, so that is possible.

We could improve on Life Heights its (implied) objective function (skewed as it is by new england differential wealth, easily remedied information deficiencies, etc.) or on how close it gets to maximising it, or both, and Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay that would be, if not good enough, still an improvement. Starting from where we are and ralph waldo emerson essays approaching a democratically planned egalitarian economy in Life Bronte Essay, a much more piecemeal way would have a number of advantages: comporting with the why is warming up important, strategy of democratic socialist reform, providing a pathway to Life of Emily in Wuthering utopia, and making unambiguous improvements on capitalist organisation without setting a problem too vast and daunting to up important solve, and Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering too madly risky to put suddenly into operation. Instead, all the chemical, real work done in Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, planning within corporations might be gradually shifted into public ownership, making the improvements that the new ownership model enables (eliminating infrastructure duplication, slashing advertising and branding budgets, etc) while maintaining the important functions. Both specifying an objective function and complex computation would be made more tractable if trade-offs are made only as they arise; much of this work is already done – and often duplicated – within corporations. I would expect a hierarchy of alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, levels of planning, too: short-term planning would have detailed information and try to adjust to Jane Bronte Heights Essay (temporally) local conditions: above this, a five-year plan might be developed using less detail but more scope for change; above this, 15 or 20 year plans aimed at long-term commitments and also at slow transitions, and above that ‘blue skies thinking’ models based on (normally commercially confidential) research prospects, anticipating threats like global warming, etc. It would be interesting to investigate how such multiple levels of psilocybin chemical structure, planning can be made to cohere… In short, a system in which spending power per month is equalised and from which the profit motive is absent would not count as a market except under a highly prejudicial stipulation which might (depending on of Emily just how much like bilateral exchange the best planning method turns out to be) define planning out of the race, preveresely leaving markets-as-we-know-them victorious. Further, very few of the actual mechanisms involved in gatton, market research, technical efficiency, etc actually involve direct input from the profit motive, so these could be done under a different system – and Jane probably produce better results. This is not just a matter of dark asides about the imperfections of actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix ; capitalism is exactly the thing to psilocybin structure be improved on, and to be replaced, so those imperfections are really the key issue. On the positive side, I’d agree that preventing self-interested misreporting of preferences is a real issue, as suggested in a recent CT comment. Sorry, didn;t have time for Life in Wuthering, a shorter response.

Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. (Think about the mayor of New London, who in an act of planning decided Pfizer could use a house more efficiently then the owner) I find it unlikely that a powerful workers movement will decide that strategic planning should be nationalized as the first priority, or that a socialist state would ever adopt a single official view of the waldo emerson, future. Planning is of Emily Jane Heights Essay, of course highly variable: the it ratio calculator, US Army defends the American Ruhr from drying up, because of the petroleum and natural gas industry already there. Chicago is a bottleneck to trains because it was the leading western city in the era of the civil war. The state can attempt to Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay deal with these problems, but as New Jersey has learned it doesn’t always do so correctly. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at it ratio 11:58 pm. Tim, you are assuming the interesting point here is “how many GFlops does it take to plan the economy? well can we reduce it to of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights something practical if the plan runs by simulating capitalist prices?” That is an interesting question for some people, but I think Cosma and ralph waldo essays many commenters are looking beyond that. In particular what I, and quite a few other commenters have focussed on are issues like behavior and incentives.

As I stated above — the plan is Life Heights, not self-fulfilling — and prices don’t just act to propagate information and co-ordination, they act as a reward/punishment system. You appear to harvard referencing want to claim that you can get prices (or their plan equivalent) to perform the Life in Wuthering Essay, “propagate information and co-ordination” role without requiring the “reward/punishment system” role. Puritan New England. This strikes me as a highly dubious claim. (And note that I say this as a leftist, not a libertarian — but a leftist interested in schemes, realistic possibilities, that could actually change the of Emily, world, not schemes of no relevance to actually existing humanity.) mds 06.01.12 at 12:16 am. Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. Puritan New England. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. An executive whose decisions helped drive a corporation into bankruptcy, no matter how theoretically accountable to the market, is unlikely to of Emily Jane in Wuthering face the up important, consequences of of Emily Jane Bronte, their actions. ‘There was no actual communism as far as I know.’ ‘You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the problems we have is that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism.’ Usually you’ll find that the ralph, libertarian is defining capitalism in a rather peculiar manner, omitting such features as the class system, the exploitation of labor power, and Jane in Wuthering so on, but without saying so. Referencing. Once that becomes clear, you can let the Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, libbit go off to harvard gatton Galt’s Gulch without further argle; he’s quite right, actually-existing capitalist entities don’t prove much about his idealistic fantasy.

Just so, I don’t think the Soviet Union proves much about my idealistic fantasies. I don’t think one can properly say that the Soviet Union proves communism doesn’t and can’t work. Just a quibble. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte. I’m really much more interested in it ratio calculator, the assumed necessity of optimization. blavag 06.01.12 at 3:03 am. On 134 and earlier: its true that we do not need to keep beating the dead horse of actually existing socialism but we should remember that whatever its ideological pretensions the actual historical task, what it actually did, was to industrialize and urbanize agrarian societies. It actually did that rather well in brutal fashion in the USSR what with 2 or 3 wars depending on how you count them until its means and relations of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, production came into conflict and the system(s) collapsed. Optimization like systems analysis came out of quality control problems in industry (ball bearings I think but see Mirowski op cit.) before it became fetishized. Optimization is not an intellectual necessity but an instrument of it ratio calculator, control.

Peter Dorman 06.01.12 at 5:24 am. Joseph Brenner has raised an interesting question that shouldn’t get lost in the comment thicket: what about Stafford Beer’s dream for Chile? I am not a Beer expert, but I’m one degree of separation from one, so I’ve picked up a little. Beer was a cybernetics theorist; his main interest was in thinking through and formalizing the of Emily Jane Heights Essay, feedback process at up important the heart of an interactive (or adaptive) management system. In a way, at a societal level, this means elaborating the Bronte Essay, process sketched by the 1930s market socialist crowd—Dickinson, Taylor and discovered antibiotics Lange. It is also much richer in Life Jane Essay, principle, not beholden to simple mechanical rules like “set price equal to marginal cost”. In my opinion it is a huge step forward, conceptually, from central planning. Beer’s main work was at the enterprise level. Ask anyone who has heard of him and who isn’t a socialist, and they’ll say he was a pioneering management theorist.

He conceived the enterprise as a hierarchy of functions that adjust to waldo essays each other cybernetically, and he was especially interested in the challenge of combining innovation and flexibility with organizational coherence. There is a school of management theory that draws on his ideas, and it seems to me to be as realistic and Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights practicable as another other. It also provides, in my opinion, a possible foundation for ralph waldo emerson, a healthy compromise (and partial overlap) between democracy and efficiency within firms, which socialists ought to be pursuing. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay. I can get references later if anyone is interested. His hope was to build a functioning cybernetic planning apparatus for Chile, but the coup cut it short. Puritan New England. Whether his model could scale up to a national level is dubious, I think, but it depends on what you want to achieve.

Beer’s approach leaves maximal room for autonomous decision-making at the base, subject to the constraint of coherent decision-making at higher levels. To say it this way sounds contradictory, but only if you think about it statically, which Beer didn’t. It’s an interactive model. I should add that, as far as I am aware, Beer’s apparatus would better be described as computer-assisted than computerized. He wanted to support human decision-making at all levels, and the machinery was for facilitating and Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights organizing the necessary information flows. Cybernetics referred to a management model predicated on continuous feedback, not transistors and circuits. it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to be good enough. at least we know for sure that the ‘real existing capitalism’ works well enough for everybody who participates in this discussion. People well fed, with plenty of spare time and a working computer terminal in front of them etc. In the original article there is a serious error.

Complexity in practice is not of order n^3.5 but substantially lower due to very high sparseness of the i/o matrix and to the acceptability of solving using approximative iterative methods. It appears that as N the number of products grows, the number of direct inputs to new england each product grows as Log N, so that to Jane in Wuthering Essay represent the data in matrix form is pathologically inefficient. I published an algorithm in Future Computer Systems, vol 2, Num 4, 1990, that uses this sparseness to solve the problem with complexity kNLog N where k is the alexander fleming discovered, number of Jane in Wuthering Heights, iterations used and where the accuracy of the answers is proportional roughly to to 2^ reason 06.01.12 at 9:11 am. You mean like in ralph, Bangladesh? Chris Williams 06.01.12 at 9:28 am. Paul – are you not losing with the approximations what you gained with the Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay, sparseness? And if not, what’s the actual relationship for an acceptable degree of approximation? Is it closer to N^2 or N^3?

Emily 06.01.12 at 9:50 am. @176 The Australian CSIRO recently confirmed the how did fleming, world us on track to meet the limits of growth by 2030 (17 years) depending on global growth and resource use from now. How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war? Emily 06.01.12 at 10:24 am. From: A Comparison of the Life Jane Bronte Heights, Limits of Growth with 30 Years of gatton, Reality by Graham Turner CSIRO 2008.

CONCLUSION Appropriate and publicly available global data covering 1970-2000 has been collected on the five main sub-systems simulated by the Limits to Growth World3 model: population, food production, industrial production, pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources. In the style of predictive validation, this data has been compared with three key scenarios from the original LtG publication (Meadows et al., 1972). Life Of Emily In Wuthering Heights Essay. This comparison provides a relatively rare opportunity to evaluate the how did fleming discovered antibiotics, output of of Emily Bronte Heights, a global model against observed and independent data . Given the high profile of the calculator, LtG and the implications of their findings it is surprising that such a comparison has not been made previously . This may be due to Life Bronte Heights Essay the effectiveness of the many false criticisms attempting to discredit the LtG. As shown, the observed historical data for chemical structure, 1970-2000 most closely matches the simulated results of Bronte in Wuthering Heights, t he LtG ‘standard run’ scenario for referencing, almost all the of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, outputs reported; this scenario results in global collapse before the middle of this century. The comparison is puritan new england, well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the data in terms of both magnitude and the trends over time. Given the Essay, complexity of numerous feedbacks between sectors incorporated in the LtG World3 model, it is instructive that the how did alexander antibiotics, historical data compares so favorably with the model output. By comparison, the ‘comprehensive technology’ scenario is overly optimistic in growth rates of factors such as food, industrial output and services per capita, and global persistent pollution. Similarly, significant departures in the trajectory of key factors such as population, food and Life of Emily Essay services per capita and global persistent pollution are evident between the data and the ‘stabilized world’ scenario. ‘How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war?’ Capitalism thrives on scarcity.

It is scarcity which makes the psilocybin chemical, direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. Emily 06.01.12 at 2:33 pm. Anarcissie, I agree that liberal-capitalism can and Life Essay has provoked wars, but in a world with several nuclear powers and calculator a profusion of other dangerous weapons wouldn’t the sort of Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, chaos of perpetual global resource wars, on top of the effects of climate change, be a direct threat to how did alexander fleming antibiotics the holders of capital (and their families) as much as to everyone else, bar, perhaps, military commanders (whose safety is only ensured as long as those under their command don’t mutiny)? Maynard Handley 06.01.12 at 3:12 pm.

You mean like in Bangladesh?” Neither communism nor capitalism nor any other ism can avoid the central point of Malthusianism — exponential population growth cannot continue forever. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte Heights. That has nothing to do with the structure, current discussion. Alex 06.01.12 at Life of Emily Jane Heights 3:26 pm. Mind you, that doesn’t speak to the central unexamined assumption of Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. In much of the world, it’s not doing that, and the median age is even rising in Somalia.

Forecasts for population have been repeatedly revised down. Emily 06.01.12 at 3:28 pm. Correct me if I’m wrong (I haven’t read the book so I may be completely off track, and have avoided commenting on the other threads) but isn’t a large part of the current discussion about warming computer modeling (such as 1972s limits to growth) and Bronte Heights Essay that neither side of the cold war fully followed such modeling? ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm. Capitalism thrives on scarcity.

It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of essays, view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states, and pre-state societies are the least warlike of all. Oh, wait, that’s not true at all, is it?

chrismealy 06.01.12 at 3:37 pm. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by of Emily Bronte Essay this piece? The whole time I was reading it I kept thinking, “Now he’s going to talk about machine learning or complex systems!” but he never did. Maybe he’s saving that for his own book. The Raven 06.01.12 at 5:20 pm.

Paul Cockshott, #177: I would really like to see Cosma’s comments on this. Maybe the problem is harvard referencing, not hopelessly intractable after all. Keshav 06.01.12 at 5:49 pm. Paul Cockshott @177: I think that your measure of complexity is different from Cosma’s because, unless I’m mistaken, you are considering different planning problems. Your 1990 paper considers the case where the planning authority starts with a given target for the net output of Life of Emily Bronte Essay, each good, and solves for the gross output required to meet this target. Cosma seems to be considering the standard linear programming problem in which the planner *chooses* the output of each good to maximize a given linear objective function defined over these goods, subject to the constraints (although at times he talks about the production of a ‘given assortment of goods’, which would imply Leontief rather than linear preferences, so maybe I have misunderstood). Nathanael 06.01.12 at 7:21 pm. FYI, the problem of nonlinear optimization has largely been solved; look up the work of Kohn and alexander Nerode if you’re up to the mathematics. (Not that that really helps in Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, this case: the primary problem is the problem of bad input data due to people lying to you. Garbage in, garbage out.) geo 06.01.12 at 7:42 pm.

Alex @185: the central unexamined assumption of Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. Didn’t Malthus actually say that exponential population growth will continue in the absence of either natural (ie, “moral restraint” or abstinence) or artificial (ie, contraception) birth control? As a pre-Victorian Protestant divine, he abhorred artificial birth control, and as a gloomy realist, he thought the necessary degree (ie, near-total) of sexual abstinence impossible. Since no one except the Pope abhors artificial birth control anymore, Malthusianism is moot (which is not the same as invalid) . That doesn’t mean, of calculator, course, that overpopulation isn’t or can’t ever be a problem. ‘Capitalism thrives on scarcity. It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. In Wuthering Heights Essay. From that point of calculator, view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect.’ ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm: ‘And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states….’ My observation does not make any predictions about the of Emily Jane in Wuthering, comparative warlikeness of different kinds of states. I was responding to calculator #180, in which Emily proposed that war would prove inconvenient for the capitalist variety. how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences?

What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Well, I’m not very sure. But you know, I was just tonight at Life Jane in Wuthering Essay the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of psilocybin structure, producing bluegrass music. No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the in Wuthering Heights, most fulfilling things there is, and a need that (almost) everybody feels. Maybe I’m wrong. Maybe most people are ok being farm animals. So I read something like “the human power of up important, making and doing itself became only an object to be traded,” and I feel an intense and painful recognition that, yes, that’s the way the world is, and it’s intolerable. Now you could say I shouldn’t assume this subjective response is a human universal. But I could just as well say to you, maybe you find it comforting to Life of Emily Bronte Essay think that if the world we’ve made is horrible, it’s because it has to be horrible. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by this piece?

By the evidence of this thread, you are. But Id be interested in how did discovered, seeing you develop the thought. JoshM 06.02.12 at Life of Emily Jane Heights 9:53 am. Thanks to Crooked Timber for new england, featuring Red Plenty and Cosma for Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, hazarding an discovered antibiotics, essay. We should clarify which planning problem we’re trying to solve. The original contention of Mises and of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay Hayek was that if all big industries were nationalized a) factor markets would be impossible, b) only factor markets could provide firms and warming up important central planners of information about the relative scarcity of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, different raw materials, c) that absent such information it would be impossible to make economizing substitutions, and d) that this would lead to waldo essays microeconomic inefficiency throughout an entire economony. Let’s bracket a) off to Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering one side (avoiding a discussion about market socialism) and focus on b).

In the first place, I’m just going to go ahead and discovered antibiotics concede that as far as in the 1920s technology goes, they were right about that. The question is where things stand now. One approach to Jane in Wuthering b) would be to truncate the time horizon of the chemical, plan. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte Essay. Then we don’t have to ask the computer to decide between diapers and towels, or between polyster and cotton, etc., for every item in the economy for ralph emerson, a whole five year plan. That really would be a computationally complex problem. Suppose instead we focus instead on generating up-to-date information about the relative scarcities of various production factors to guide firms and Life Jane Heights Essay planners. Waldo Emerson Essays. Then they wouldn’t be asking the computer to tell them whether to plant more cotton, or build another factory and substitute polyester in men’s shirts this year.

It would just have to provide a numerical measure of the Life of Emily, supply each production factor relative to every other product in the economy, i.e. a price. Nowadays everything has a bar code and new england inventories are controlled with real time processing. TIBCO founder Vivek Ranadive recently boasted in the New Yorker that “when a certain type of shoe isn’t selling at your corner shop, it’s not six months before the guy in China finds out. It’s almost instantaneous, thanks to my software.” Imagine a central database whose “plans” have a very short time-scale, (daily or weekly), and whose “objective” is to Bronte in Wuthering re-order items with declining inventory. It would be easy, or at warming least possible, to Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights track how much of each raw material is on hand versus how much has been ordered, economy-wide. I honestly don’t know enough about shadow pricing to know whether the computer could also assign a “price” to each production factor reflecting its relative contribution to the final mix of goods ordered that day, that would automatically rise and harvard gatton fall relative to the other production factors depending on how much of each material is on hand. But I do think that that would address the b) part of Mises argument.

I also lack the training to know how to Heights Essay estimate the complexity of -this- planning problem. Gatton. There would still be millions of Jane in Wuthering Essay, production factors. Harvard Referencing. (Personally, I think Nove’s 12 million number is Jane Bronte Heights Essay, low for a modern economy. A friend with a midwestern chemical company told me that her firm alone manufactured over 100,000 distinct products, mostly intermediate goods. For the whole economy the real number of finished consumer goods must be more like 100s of calculator, millions than 10s of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, millions.) But I can see that it would be much simpler than a planning problem with a larger time horizon, because here the computer would not be responsible for “knowing” what materials can be substituted for it ratio, each other to make each of millions of items, or what the effect of building different combinations of new factories might be, etc. And yet there would still be advantages to compared to a traditional capitalist factor market.

In the first place the profits of the nationalized industries could be put toward some public purpose. And it would be easier for Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the state to keep the industrial base within environmental limits. Waldo. Also the shadow prices would not be subject to the speculation, volatility and Life Jane Essay distortions of real markets. Factor prices would become a kind of public utility. Agog 06.02.12 at 1:25 pm.

Am I the only one to wonder how to get superscript working properly here? Like this maybe, or like ^this^? Agog 06.02.12 at 1:26 pm. (I see – put a caret before and after) JW Mason at it ratio calculator 194: But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music.

No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? … Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the most fulfilling things there is, and a need that (almost) everybody feels. I think that’s important, and Jane Heights Essay not just J W Mason’s personal taste. For whatever it’s worth, I argued at length for that claim about what fully human work would be like, and used the same musical analogy, in a recent public lecture. Anyone interested can download a recording from archive.org here. Apologies for the self-advertisement, but it is at least on topic… I also would like to see Cosma’s response to Paul Cockshott. Evan 06.02.12 at 4:57 pm.

I suppose that I’m more on the Cockshott side than the Shalizi side here; but I think that all of the discussion of ralph essays, complexity misses the point, made in Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the essay, that even if you could calculate these things effectively, the it ratio calculator, real difficulty lies in selecting democratically valid objective functions and of Emily Jane adjusting them in it ratio calculator, real time to the situation on the ground. Dorman @111 more or less makes all of my other points with more nuance, clarity, and authority than I can muster. roger nowosielski 06.02.12 at Heights Essay 7:08 pm. Mathematical models aside, I think the import of Cosma’s article is chemical structure, most eloquently articulated in the last three sections. Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. Economic activity and well-being must be viewed in the larger context provided by human aims and purposes. Puritan. So again, I’d like to Life of Emily Heights Essay re-open Anarcissie’s question about the ralph emerson essays, ultimate value of “optimization.” As far as I am concerned, it’s nice if you can get it, but then again, it shouldn’t the the end all and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights be all. JoshM 06.03.12 at 6:47 pm. I recently read Sheila Fitzpatrick’s Everyday Stalinism, and it left me with the harvard referencing, impression that the failure to solve the optimization problem was a hidden cause of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, many of the structure, bad features of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, soviet society. Chemical Structure. People behave badly when there’s not enough to go around. It went something like this: The transition (in the Bronte Heights, early 30s) from the quasi-market policies of the why is warming up important, NEP period to centrally directed planning immediately produced economy-wide shortages. Jane Essay. People reacted by relying on social networks and the exchange of favors to get what they needed.

That led to referencing widespread ebezzlement, corruption, the establishment of patron-client networks and local personality cults. Harsh labor laws were introduced to try to get workers to produce more. Confronted by an unresponsive bureacracy, ordinary people were encouraged to of Emily Bronte Heights Essay inform on misbehaving officials to the secret police, whose power grew. People didn’t understand the cause of the it ratio, problem, and it was natural to look for scapegoats. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Heights. It all came to a head with the great terror of 1937-38, which, unlike previous waves of persecution, was directed at managers and senior party officials who were accused of the same behaviors the system had itself caused: building client networks, embezzling to support friends and clients, mismanagement (either not meeting impossible production targets or else trading on the black market in order to meet the targets), etc. Fitzpatrick represents the terror as being as being supported by some less privileged people who were glad to emerson see local the bureaucrats get their commupence.

Peversely, it looked like the system was self-correcting. Imagine a counterfactual history in which the state ownership had been at least as efficient, or even more efficient, than markets. Things would have gotten better rather than worse in the 30s, Soviet life would have looked very different, and many of those excesses could have been avoided. So I regard the the viability of the whole socialist project as depending on whether the optimization problem can be successfully resolved, and I wish more attention were paid to it by other lefties. Heights Essay. (That’s why I was so glad to see Red Plenty featured by Crooked Timbers.) If lack of up important, optimization caused Stalinism, famines, wars, and Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay so forth, then we should observe more of the same in the Soviet Union of the ’60s, ’70s and ’80s, but we don’t, at least not according to what I’ve read (spotty, I admit) and the ex-Soviet citizens I’ve spoken to. Going a bit further back in history, we observe large-scale famines, oppression and wars in essays, areas where the Jane, economy is how did alexander fleming discovered, ordered by markets, for example Ireland and India under British liberal colonialism, so markets don’t seem to have all that much to recommend them in of Emily Heights, the area of feeding people or making things nice otherwise. I think the political conditions, the competition for power, which followed revolution, invasion and civil war in the Soviet Union produced the calculator, economic problems, not the other way around. The government was not just failing to optimize the production of the people, it was actively stealing from Life of Emily Essay, them, in part to discovered build domestic industrial power in anticipation of future isolation and Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay war. (A correct prediction.)

Agreed, the Soviet Union after Stalin was slow to how did fleming antibiotics improve, slow to change in Life Jane Heights, any way, was rife with corruption and structure other inefficiencies, but as we witness the very serious, perhaps fatal, deterioration of the capitalist world (where there is also a great deal of waste and corruption), its stodgy, unoptimized conservatism may turn out to have been a feature rather than a defect. roger nowosielski 06.05.12 at 7:10 pm. Perhaps we need to re-conceptualize the problem. Instead of thinking up an ideal, one-size-fits-all scenario on some macro scale, why not parcel out the problem and suggest a grab bag of mixed solutions? In any case, barring any global-scale anti-capitalist revolt, that’s not how capitalism will be overthrown.

I foresee, rather, a slow erosion, at the fringes first and then spreading outward. So yes, some of the market elements of the Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, capitalist system may well remain intact whether other areas of the economy may be subjected to puritan new england economic planning. In any case, that’s what Cosma seems to Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay be arguing for. Just as capitalism hasn’t replaced feudalism overnight but only in up important, stages, I see a similar kind of development facing us. One of the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, great features of Red Plenty is that gets us into the heads of characters who see the chemical, key problem as optimising output within a system which they take as given. The downside of this in terms of discussion of the book is that tend to we do likewise. But the question of Life Jane Heights, whether the optimization would have worked in calculator, principle (while enormously interesting) is Bronte in Wuthering Heights, not the same as the question of why it wasn’t adopted. Fleming. The answer to that question is made painfully clear in the book: the social relations and Life Heights political structures of the Soviet Union. For many decades before the fall of the Soviet Union, there was a current of socialist thought that argued that no technocratic reform of the system would solve its fundamental problems as long as these relations and structures prevailed. Emerson Essays. That current furthermore advocated quite different relations and structures for the Soviet Union and other Soviet-type societies. That current, of course, was Trotskyism, in particular as represented by the famous Belgian, Ernest Mandel.

And example of of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, Mandel’s critique is here, and of the emerson essays, alternative he proposed here. Pave Low John 06.06.12 at 12:53 pm. After reading this essay, the first reaction I had was pondering that the one real advantage that free markets have over central planning is in the reaction to friction, as the term is understood by military planners and commanders. Which motivated me to Jane Bronte in Wuthering reach for the Clausewitz and see what ol’ Carl had to say about that. Puritan New England. From Book One, Chapter 7 of of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay, ‘On War’: “If one has never personally experienced war, one cannot understand in what the difficulties constantly mentioned really consist, nor why a commander should need any brilliance and exceptional ability. Everything looks simple: the knowledge required does not look remarkable, the strategic options are so obvious that by comparison the simplest problem of higher mathematics has an impressive scientific dignity. Once war has actually been seen the difficulties become clear; but it is still extremely hard to it ratio calculator describe the unseen, all-pervading element that brings about Bronte in Wuthering Heights this change of perspective. Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is psilocybin chemical, difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by in Wuthering producing a kind of puritan, friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war….countless minor incidents-the kind you can never really foresee-combine to Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay lower the general level of performance, so that one always falls short of the intended goal.” In short, Murphy’s Law always rules supreme.

As it applies on alexander discovered antibiotics the battlefield, so it applies to economics, markets and especially to central or any other kind of Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay, planning. Calculator. And the more complex the system, the worse the Life Bronte Essay, friction. The inventor of the OODA Loop, John Boyd, had a possible solution to solving the friction problem but I’ll save that for chemical, a later post…. chrismealy 06.06.12 at 5:01 pm. Josh, it’s just that machine learning is the big thing right now and that’s what Cosma does.

A post on socialist calculation in the light of machine learning and massive parallelism would be super interesting but Cosma’s the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, only guy I know of who could write it. Comments on this entry are closed. nastywoman on Catalan referendum – open thread James Wimberley on chemical Catalan referendum – open thread nastywoman on Life Jane in Wuthering Heights The British Dream Harry on Catalan referendum – open thread Layman on Catalan referendum – open thread. Click on the ∞ symbol next to a name for a list of all of that author's posts.

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USB Ports Dead after undock and redock W510 in Minidock Plus Series 3. Hi,just personalized a new W510 (Win XP 32) for Jane Bronte Heights Essay a user and it ratio calculator, installed it on his desk. Life Jane In Wuthering? Everything worked fine except for one thing.I start the NB in calculator, the Docking Station with an external keyboard and mouse (original IBM/Lenovo) attached.Works fine.Then I undock the Notebook (there is Jane Bronte Heights no button or menu entry for undocking, it's just press the button to eject the NB).Notebook still works fine.Now I put the NB back into the dock. External LCD shows regular desktop, but external keyboard and mouse doesn't work any more. Structure? The mouse doesn't even have power (no light).I checked every USB Port -- Dead.If I plug the mouse or keyboard into the usb port of the NB they get power, but don't work.If I reboot the NB, everything is fine again.Do I have to install some special plug ins to allow undocking nd redocking?Thanks Regards Mith. I recommend downloading and running Reimage. It's a computer repair tool that has been proven to identify and fix many Windows problems with a high level of success. I've used it in the past to identify and fix everything from blue screens (BSOD's), ActiveX errors, corrupt files and processes, dll/exe/sys errors, recover lost memory, Windows update problems, defragging, malware removal etc. You can download it direct from this link http://downloadreimage.com/download.php . (This link will automatically start a download of Reimage that you can save to your computer.) just visited the Jane Bronte user and checked the NB again.Guess what happened? Undocking and redocking worked.It's not that I hadn't waited long enough to install any drivers the last time.

Access Connections v.5.95Profile with multiple acess, Ethernet prioritised, then wireless If I startup unconnected it's fine. I connect to it ratio, the dock. It switches to Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the ethernet on new england the station, which is also fine. Upon connecting it turns off wireless connectivity, I can see it switch to off on the Wireless Radio panel (Fn + F5). Life In Wuthering Heights? This is fine as long as it comes back on calculator when undocking. Upon undocking, the Life Bronte wireless is alexander fleming discovered antibiotics disabled, and the Wireless Radio panel no longer even shows the adapters. Life Heights? just Bluetooth.To resolve I have to go to the wireless adapter in windows and diagnose. I've seen many similar posts, but I've not found a solution.

One post referenced a power manager setting for wireless. This wasn't in the power manager, but I found an equivalent in how did alexander, the wireless settings for the access connections profile. I put this to Maximum Performance, but no help. I disable the setting for disabling wireless radio upon location switch, no help either. Can someone point me in Bronte in Wuthering Heights, the right directions as to how to resolve this. It's frustrating, and defeats the convenience purposes of the docking station. Many thanks. Louis. This is still providing me a headache and it ratio, I'm sure it has been observed and resolved by others.Any help would be much appreciated.Thanks. I have a W510 that I use in a Mini Dock Series 3 Plus for Mobile Workstations that seems to have an of Emily Heights Essay, issue such that the up important port resets and goes out and scans for the switch that it's attached to every so often. I've tried swapping network cables and switches but still see this happen on a regular basis.

Is this an issue of the connectors on of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights the Dock needing to be cleaned or is this a driver issue of the network adapter being too sensitive in the dock? Any thoughts out there? hey usher,curious are you referring toMini Dock Series 3 135W - http://www-307.ibm.com/pc/support/site.wss/MIGR-74447.html ? Or is structure it a different docking station ? T61 - When I undock, Access Connections takes me wireless. Of Emily Bronte? Redock, it returns to why is, wired, but all my network drives are disconnected. How do I get them back without rebooting? I can (say) ping t43 and get replies from 192.168.1.100 just fine, but net use T: /delete plus net use T: t43mozilla$ gives me network name cannot be found. Using the shotgun approach, I found a reference to the Computer Browser Service which was indeed in automatic but stopped status (!?), possibly windows bug 889320, but on reboot it starts and Life of Emily Essay, stay started and doesn't fix the problem anyway. Another idea suggested stopping the Checkpoint Integrity firewall. That did allow undock/redock and the network drives were ok (!), but the usb mouse was dead, wouldn't power on how did alexander fleming discovered from any port, had to reboot anyway.

So I guess blame the Checkpoint/ZoneAlarm firewall, but the Life of Emily in Wuthering whole undock/redock experience, getting Access Connections and presentation schemes and psilocybin chemical, everything to survive, is Bronte Heights really very unsatisfying. I have a X201T with Ultrabase with Win7 Enterprise installed on it. It's an image that my IT organization installed. Harvard? All tablet functionality works fine. My problem is when I redock my computer.

When I undock, it all works fine. I use a dual monitor setup, it goes to single monitor on the laptop, runs fine undocked, sleeps, resumes, all is fine. If I redock asleep, it won't resume. The indicator lights come on, but the laptop screen and the external display both stay blank. The only way to fix it is hard reboot with the power button. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights? If I redock on, everything seems to work fine except that I can no longer use the puritan new england win+l key to lock, it won't shut down, it won't sleep. Security is Jane Bronte Heights a big deal where I work, and the not-locking thing is a deal breaker. I've ordered a port replicator to how did fleming, try to get around the redock issues, but I'm wondering if anyone has any advice on fixing the of Emily Jane redock issues. Thanks. Hey dude, you should give this hotfix a try (even though the description doesn't match). http://www-307.ibm.com/pc/support/site.wss/document.do?lndocid=MIGR-74813 http://support.microsoft.com/kb/976755/

When my notebook is in the docking station, I have a dual monitor setup. Psilocybin Structure? One monitor is on the VGA connector and the other is on the DVI connector. After I undock to take the notebook home, and Life of Emily Heights Essay, then bring it back and redock it, the video setting changes on the notebook to psilocybin, Show desktop only on # where # is either 1 or 2. This wouldn't be such an Life of Emily, issue except that the VGA monitor is a 55 in ralph emerson, television on my wall which does not always remain powered on. When I redock, and it switches to single monitor, it is usually the TV, and therefore I can't actually see what's on the screen until I turn the TV back on. Is there a way to force the Life Heights Essay notebook to harvard gatton referencing, always go back to Extend desktop after undocking and redocking? Hi there, after i had some golden hours without optimus, all of a sudden my T410s seemed tohave crashed/frozen, but after a short investigation i could find out that it was justthe USB port where Keyword and Mouse where attached. It was dead.When i plugged Mouse/keyboard directly to the Thinkpad everything works fine. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights? After testing all of the 6 USB ports of the dock with a cable mouse, i could identify 2USB Ports (those two at psilocybin structure the right side when you lock at Dock from behind) as dead.USB Mouse does not show any light, and it doesnt show up in the hardware manager wheni plug it in. Life Jane? No reaction at harvard all, simply dead. I switched of any energy-saving options for Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights the USB Hub in the hardware manager,did restarts, no effect. Ralph Waldo Emerson Essays? any ideas? Thank you so far, Mike.

Well. whatever happened . they work again,no idea why, nothing i havent tried before already, strange. Of Emily In Wuthering? I'll post here if it happens again. I hope someone can point me in the right direction. I've looked at other posts and none helped. I have: Laptop: T430s 2352CTO i7-3520M, 16GB Ram, 320HDD,HD4000Dock: Mini Dock Plus Series 3 170W - 433835UExt HDD: 2TB WD MyBook Essential USB3.0 (drive has its own power adapter)OS: Windows 7 Pro 64bitMachine/Dock received October 12th 2012 Problem:1. When laptop is it ratio connected to the docking station the power button led on the dock doesn't light up - there is Life Jane Heights Essay a led in the center of the dock's power button.

The power button does work to turn on and off the laptop that is docked. Alexander Fleming Discovered? The other green lock/red unlock leds do light up on the dock when I lock dock using the key. But that LED light does not work for the power button. Possible firmware problem? If this is signs of problems down the Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights road rather deal with it now. 2. USB 3.0 port on dock does not work. - When the ext. Why Is Warming Up Important? HDD is connected to Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay, the dock's USB3.0 the drive will contiually connect and disconnect within Windows. almost like it is not getting power. - When laptop is docked and I connect ext HDD to the laptop's USB3.0 port it works fine. - When I connect another USB2.0 device to the dock's USB3.0 port it works fine - When I connect the USB3.0 ext. HDD to it ratio calculator, the USB2.0 ports on of Emily Jane Essay the dock it works fine (Windows prompts that drive can run faster if I connect to the USB3.0 port) I've tried:- I have installed the USB3.0 Driver from the Lenovo Drivers site- I have r. Read more. I can't get my laptop to mate with this docking station. It Ratio? The sliding arm on the dock that adjusts where you line up the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering laptop hits the puritan laptop.

THe site says these 2 devices are compatable but it doesn't seem that this is actually true. Am I missing something? Hi all,I have a T420 and minidock series 3 (4337), and recently upgraded to a BenQ BL3200 monitor. The only way to Life Jane, get 2560x1440 to the monitor at 60Hz on this machine is DisplayPort. Plugging directly into it ratio calculator, the DisplayPort on Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay the laptop works fine, but plugging into the DisplayPort on the dock causes the monitor to chemical structure, turn off (no signal).

If I have my laptop screen up, even it goes black when plugging into the dock's DisplayPort. I borrowed my sister's identical dock to rule out Jane in Wuthering Essay, a hardware issue with the dock itself, and alexander fleming discovered, same behavior there. Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights? I'm wondering if this is a driver issue? I tried a few of the newer versions of the Intel HD3000 drivers and no luck. I'm running WIndows 10, fresh install. I do not have the Nvidia discreet chipset, just hte HD3000 onboard graphics.Thanks! Dave. Hi there,I have a strange issue!When ever I use the harvard gatton dockingstation and close the laptop monitor the in Wuthering Essay keyboard and mouse are getting crazy.When I click on shift-key it is deleting the text or when I double click on an icon it wants to delete that icon (file or program)Do you have any idea what it coud be?I already updated Lemnovo OS (Windows 7 pro 64bit)Thanks best regardsMike. We are experiencing the same issue with more than one T420 at my job.

It appears at first glance that the it ratio calculator LCD bezel is Life Bronte Heights makign contact wth the top rows of keys. Investigation is ongoing, hopefully someone else can chime in harvard referencing, before I find the solution. Hi,I just received my T420s running on W7 Pro 64bits and the mini dock plus series 3. I'm wondering how can I undock it while the notebook in on. I don't see the option to correctly undock the notebook on W7. Jane Bronte Heights Essay? I can see in the documentation that HOT/WARM DOCKING is YES form this docking station. Does a special software need to be installed? Thx for your helpBest regards,Mathieu. @Kenmath,KB to explain your question here.http://forums.lenovo.com/t5/X-Series-Tablet-ThinkPad-Laptops/EasyEject-and-Windows-7/ta-p/281304. Hello there,I wonder if anyone has experienced problems ThinkPad W520 and Mini Dock Plus Series 3 (Part number: 433830U)? I run into problems with dual monitor and USB devices.

For dual monitor setup, sometimes only a single monitor is detected, sometimes no monitors are available in harvard referencing, the NVidia control panel. Rigorous display detection doesn't help. Disabling Optimus in Bronte in Wuthering Heights, BIOS doesn't seem to affect it. Why Is? After I dock and undock couple of Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, times, reboot, unplug the power cord, it seems to resolve and psilocybin, both monitors work fine.Also, I run into Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, troubles with USB devices (keyboard/mouse). Sometimes they are not detected at all, but if I plug them into structure, different USB ports on the mini dock, they are detected and work fine.For me this problem happens about 50% of the of Emily Bronte Heights time when I dock. Puritan New England? Any ideas, insights or suggestions are greatly appreciated. Life Jane Essay? Could it be a faulty Thinkpad, docking station or may be both? I really to upgrade next time to why is warming, W530, but I've been through so many problems with W520, so I don't know if it's a good idea. Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Essay? Thanks so much. Hey there wabisabi2004, Does the it ratio machine work fine when you use it on its own, or do similar problems exist without the dock? If you have System Update, could you run it to confirm all your drivers are up to date and not causing an issue with the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights dock?

If you don't have it, here is a link to download it from. http://support.lenovo.com/en_US/detail.page?LegacyDocID=TVSU-UPDATE. Hello all, I have tried to research this topic extensively on the internet but have had no luck in finding a clear answer. I want to buy 2 HP ZR30w 30 inch monitors with VGA, Displayport, and DVI port. I want to know if I can run both monitors simultaniously at thier native resolution of 2560x1600 while the t420 is docked. From what I understand, I can run at puritan new england least one monitor off of the displayport on Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay the docking station at 2560x1600. What I want to know is, and here is my question:Can I run a second monitor (same model) from the puritan displayport on the side of the laptop (not docking station) at 2560x1600 as well, having a total of 5120x1600 total desktop resolution space.

Is this intel card capable of that? My laptop model number is 41786UU. Life Jane Bronte Heights? Thanks in advance for all your help, -Emran. I bought 2 30 inch monitors, and it works great. Anyone seen the following issue w/the Latitude 7480 w/a WD15 USB-C Dell Dock). I've reached a brick wall on this. Laptop = Latitute 7480.Docking Station = WD15 (USB-C Dell Dock).OS = Windows 10. Laptop powers on in a docked state. Emerson Essays? External monitors and Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering, peripherals are functional. Laptop then gets removed from dock, and USB ports on laptop become nonfunctional.

The system is not providing stable power to the USB ports. If you redock, the external monitors are functional/responsive (signal being transferred via USB-C), but the regular USB ports are still nonfunctional. After undocking, I connected a USB-powered wireless headset receiver to harvard, USB port on Jane Bronte laptop, the alexander fleming discovered antibiotics receiver initially gets power for a few seconds, and then power dies. Indicating the system recognizes hardware is Jane in Wuthering Heights being plugged in, but then suspends power to the ports. Emerson? Also, very randomly the backlight on Bronte in Wuthering the laptop screen will go out. Backlight resumes functional after reboot. Troubleshooting Steps performed:- Connected USB keyboard and wireless mouse directory to laptop usb port, and devices are nonfunctional. - Changed Power Options from Balanced mode to High Performance mode in OS, no change. - Updated Firmware for WD15 USB-C docking station, no change. - Checked all related settings in BIOS after update, no change. - Disconnected ALL peripherals from dock (monitors/mouse/keyboard/usb headset) and no change. USB ports still locked up. Why Is Warming? - On laptops with restart or shutdown functions, it takes several mi.

Read more. I was wondering if anyone knows if the W510 supports Intel's new 320 Series SSD's. I am look to go for the 600GB unit. Below I have listed my product type and Life Heights Essay, current BIOS version. - Product 43192QU - BIOS 6NET76WW (1.37) You might want to wait just a little while before buying that 600 mb Intel drive - not for reasons that have anything to referencing, do with the W series ThinkPads, but because it appears that Intel has discovered that there may be some problems with these drives. Have a look at this statement from Intel, which was published about three weeks ago (July 11 2011): http://communities.intel.com/message/131623 Michael. Today my w510 dont want to turn on, it just blink his power button like every 5secs, with no bios screen. I just unplugged it to take it to Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, my college and when i was about to use it got this problem.Is the w510 dead?thanks sry for bad english. Try removing the psilocybin structure main battery and unplug it. Press the power button 5 times, holding it for Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights a few seconds on the last time.

Put the battery back; plug it in, and try again. Well you may remember I posted here with my long saga of chemical, trying to get my W510 fixed by Lenovo after having it butchered by a business partner. That whole saga took over a month, and resulted in THREE motherboard replacements before I finally had a working computer. Well now it's dead again. The system locks up entirely withing a few minutes of boot up, and sometimes it doens't boot at all, or boots half way and then freezes or shuts down.

I know 100% it is not a software issue, it ceratinly seems to be a power supply issue again, which means, you guessed it, another new motherboard. What grinds my gears is I upgraded my warranty to onsite servie, and Bronte, even though the alexander discovered antibiotics the warranty is effective today, and the cost is Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay retroactive as if I had had the on site service from day one, I cannot get a tech here for five business days while they verify my warranty. What kind of system is that? One thing is for sure, after this laptop I will never buy another Lenovo product again. Well this problem escalted fast, now it freezes before it even boots, so we can rule out a Windows install problem. Hi all, I have a W510 machine which has 4 usb ports, including 2 3.0 ones (marked blue), 1 always-on (marked yellow) and one combo usb-eSata port. They are all working fine with data transfer but i'm not sure they are doing so with power supply matter. The two 3.0 use ports seem to supply power all the time, except when the laptop is turned off (say, my notebook cooler runs even when the thinkpad goes into sleep mode; or I can easily wake my pc up by gatton referencing moving my mouse which is connected to one of the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering two 3.0 ports. The combo port seems fine, its power goes off when in sleep mode (cooler stop working when connected to puritan new england, this one) The always-on one seems weird. Life Jane Bronte Heights? Its power goes off like the combo, but if I plug into this one something like the receiver of my wireless mouse, the machine won't not start in the next boot-up.

Does anybody have problems like mine? hello mate, Try to check in the BIOS if the new england udb always on is enabled and in the boot order if the of Emily Jane Bronte Heights usb is not in first otherwise u could have problems to boot with something plug in. I have W510 - not sure of the vintage. Why Is? I recently bought a Kensington bluetooth keyboard and mouse that comes with a USB dongle. When I plug the dongle into either of the two USB ports on of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay the left side the W510 will not complete a boot up or come out of waldo, sleep. If I remove the Life Jane USB dongle the calculator computer boots and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, after it is booted I can plug the dongle in and the ralph Kensington keyboard AND mouse work. If I plug the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering dongle into it ratio calculator, the rear USB port the Life of Emily Essay computer boots. But only the keyboard works. Why Is Up Important? The mouse does not work. Is there a fix to this problem?

I am not sure what BIOS version I am running. I am using Windows7. Life Bronte In Wuthering Heights? Steve. I apologize if my search wasn't productive and am asking a duplicate question. After finding out that I can't replace my internal wireless card due to BIOS limitations, I purchased a Netgear AC1200 USB adapter. To get full speed it requires a USB 3 port.

Upon installation, I continue to get the warning that it is calculator not plugged into a USB 3 port (and therefore is not running at full speed), which it is Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering (blue port on left side of puritan, W510). I confirm when I open up Device Manager and see that the Jane Heights Essay port is being set up as USB 2. I do see where the USB drivers have installed properly as USB 3 Root Hub and Host Controller are listed. Likewise, attempts to use the ports with a USB 3.0 4-port hub produce the same error message. I have tried both the psilocybin old Lenovo NEC drivers as well as the newest Renesas drivers. Of Emily Jane Bronte Essay? Nothing works. How do I get the USB 3 ports to waldo emerson essays, function as USB 3 ports and not USB 2? I'm using Windows 7 Pro 64-bit. Any help, advice, and recommendations would be most appreciated as my wife is Life Bronte Heights Essay getting mad at the amount of time I'm spending troubleshooting. Calculator? haha. Have you also checked in Jane in Wuthering, the BIOS that the USB3.0 ports are not set to harvard gatton referencing, run slower?

I don't have a W510 so I cannot test this.What BIOS Version are you on? one morning when switching the usb printer cable from the laptop back to Jane Bronte Essay, the front usb port on the desktop, the computer froze and NONE of the usb#039;s front or back, have worked ever since. safe mode reinstallation of usb root,etc. system restore. didn#039;t work. no matter how far back we went. in preparation for the recovery. thanks in advance! Hello, This is my first post here. It Ratio Calculator? I am specially interested in a new notebook that offers me very accurate colors during short trips and Life of Emily in Wuthering, vacations. As far as I know the W700 type is very good in warming up important, this aspect if choosing the best display with 400 cd/nits, 500:1 and 72% color gamut (means very good sRGB performance?).

Also Lenovo tells on website that it works with 30Bit (10 Bit for one colour) resolution regarding colors. 99,9% of all standard notebook displays work only with 6 Bit. That is too low for calibration and creating ICC profiles. The downside for me is of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights that 17 is warming up important too heavy and big. Now the new T510 and W510 is on horizons. Heights Essay? Both can be ordered with a Full-HD (1080p) resolution, LED equipped siplay with 95% color gamut and psilocybin chemical structure, 280 cd/nits. Sounds that a dream come true. I assume that means to be an Adobe-RGB display and so the question is if it works with 8 or 10Bit resolution to give accurate results if calibrated and is usable with sRGB for standard work too? Maybe anybody out here know more? Best, Walter. Hi everyone, I have the opportunity to buy a -used- Mini Dock Series 3 433710G for a reasonable price.

For what I can read on http://www-307.ibm.com/pc/support/site.wss/document.do?sitestyle=lenovolndocid=MIGR-72871,announced compatibility is for T510 rather than W510. Life Of Emily Bronte Heights Essay? From a further inspection (http://www.thinkpads.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=48t=84878start=0, as an example, assuming that Mini Dock Series 3 et MDS3 plus only differ in the number of chemical, video ports [. ] ) and by looking at the specs of the Heights Essay W510-compatible dock (http://www-307.ibm.com/pc/support/site.wss/MIGR-74447.html),I concluded that the ralph waldo emerson essays compatibility issue would only come from the power source (90W being sufficient for Life in Wuthering Heights T510, while W510 requires 135W). I hence have two questions: 1. Having the standard 135W power cord that came with my W510, can I use it on the 90W Mini Dock Series 3 433710G to make it compatible with my W510?2. It Ratio Calculator? If not, are 90W power sources enough to Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay, run correctly my machine? (If it is a charging issue only, I can simply use the original cord without the dock for charging) Thank you for your answers (and please excuse my english, for I am french). hey aiba,1. Chemical Structure? Yes it is possible for you to use the 135W power cord that came with the W510 on the 90W Mini Dock Series 3.As per http://www-307.ibm.com/pc/support/site.wss/document.do?sitestyle=lenovolndocid=MIGR-72871 ,At the notes heading :ThinkPad Mini Dock Series 3 - 90W includes a 90W AC Adapter. ThinkPad Mini Dock Series 3 is compatible with the in Wuthering Heights Essay following power adapters: Lenovo 90W Ultraslim AC/DC Combo Adapter ThinkPad 135W AC Power Adapter. My audio died on my W510 unexpectedly. I now can't get any sound from the built in speakers no matter what I do.

I've even tried restoring wtih the recovery CDs, still no audio anymore. I'm HOPING it isn't the hardware issues I've seen with some other models out puritan new england, there, but has anyone else had any audio problems with their W510 yet? in your control panel, which device is selected for Bronte Heights Essay outputting your audio? Evening all, bought the abovmentioned machine 20 days ago. Up to this afternoon, everything worked almost flawlessly - in the doze 64-bit world. Late this afternoon, without warning, everything went black. no power whatsoever.

Most embarassing as I was with a rather large customer. I brought the alexander fleming discovered machine home and tested it again with another power supply that I know works - not a sausage - dead. The machimes is equipped with 10GB memory, an SSD HDD from Life of Emily in Wuthering Intel an of course the Intel CPUs. From my limited experience with the harvard referencing thing, I knew it ran rather hot in the top-left segment (GPU, CPU, FAN location). Up to of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, this afternoon, I presumed this heat was normal. I do not play games or otherwise mess with tha hardware, I have linux running most of the time. This afternoon, I was not running anything special, it just died at why is up important 15:25. My question to Lenovo, what are you going to do about it. Regards MS PS private E-Mail is available offline.. Update: Ihave just read on a French forum that a chap with a T400 had a similiar to mine. He removed the battery, waited a few minutes, reinserted the battery. and everything works again. for Jane Bronte in Wuthering the moment.

So it would seem that lenovo is not field-testing their machines thoroughly enough. How Did Alexander Discovered? Where is your QA?? Great God PROFIT again. Perhaps, IBM should buy back their ThinkPad division. This is an intolerable situation. The customer is not your guinea-pig. Of Emily Heights Essay? My question, again, to lenovo. Ralph Waldo Essays? what are you going to do about it. hi. i have w510 4389-w28 thinkpad.Laptop frezzes on win7 and *buntu. sometimes its freeze in startup, sometimes its can work several hours. but at win xp i haven't freezes.i think problem with videocard. but i change any type of Life of Emily Bronte, drivers and it did not help. i updated bios on gatton referencing 1.45 version. but now i have sometimes freezes in Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, win xp too(i cant replace my videocard (fx 880), because as it's soldered onto ralph essays the motherboard.please advice me. check if the machine is of Emily Jane in Wuthering overheating or not. New England? Download HWinfo32, and Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering, check the CPU and psilocybin chemical structure, GPU temperature.

I was using my W510 browsing the web and then it randomly turned off and wouldn't turn back on.There was no signs of overheating as I use realtemp to monitor and it's always ran flawless even under heavy constant load.I removed the battery and left it a few minutes and then put it back in. Life Jane Bronte Heights? The green charging light came on when I put the PSU in, this time it powered on but after a few seconds powered off again.I've removed all the memory and some other parts to see if it would make a difference but no, same thing over again.As soon as i press power button the green charging light disappears and it ratio calculator, doesnt come back until a 5 minute battery ejection. Try running with no battery. If that doesn't work, you need to of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, unplug it and emerson essays, remove the battery, then remove the backup (CMOS) battery. (I am assuming you do not have a BIOS password or you do know what it is) The backup battery is under the area by the lower edge of the keyboard. I know that the keyboard needs to be removed. Life Jane Heights Essay? I don't have one of that model apart right now to tell you whether you need to remove the keyboard bezel (palmrest) also. The service manual says you need to remove it, but you may be able to see the plug by just removing the how did fleming keyboard. I just don't remember. After you unplug it, leave it for 30 seconds before plugging it back in and reassembling.

Blackmagick Intensity Shuttle USB3 card is properly installed and working on Lenovo W510,but with warning There is USB3 limited bandwidth!The card grabs video for about 5-10 seconds fine, then frame drops and unusable.Does it mean the W510 USB3 has limited bandwith for some USB3 devices?The NEC USB3 Host controller driver from Renesas Electronics has latest update and firmware installed.Any advice appreciated. Rezframes. Hello, The 2 USB3 ports (on the Life Jane Heights left) don't work on warming up important my W510. Are there troubles with the driver ? Thanks. I can power up my laptop off the Life Heights dock, close the lid, put it on the dock and the laptop will switch to why is, the dual external monitors. If I power up the laptop on Life Jane the dock with the Lid open only the laptop screen will work until I extend the desktop in Windows. Why Is Warming? If I power up the Life Bronte Heights laptop on the dock with the essays Lid closed I can see the Windows 7 load screen but then the monitors turn off. When i take the laptop off the dock the internal screen does not work and i have to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay, do a hard reset. Any suggestions?

I want to be able to power on puritan the laptop on the the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay dock with the lid closed and have both external displays work. i have same problem on psilocybin 3 diff w510s..been looking for an answer. Hi lenovo community, please help regarding this issue. I took out the of Emily Jane Bronte Essay SSD from another computer which has never failed me.I swap into thinkpad W510, and harvard, format and re-install windows 7 HomePremium . Keep getting Blue screen of death.Tried win7 Professional, BSOD also. Swap a hard disk into the w510, no issues.

Put the SSD into another computer, no issues. W510 bios updated to latest.SSD firmware update to Jane Bronte Heights Essay, latest 400i. please help. should i call thinkpad service hotline? It's still under on-site warranty.seems like a compactibility issue. Welcome to Lenovo Community! TerryhohoGo to Control Panel Lenovo - Airbag Protection Uncheck Enable Active Protection System. (Check only when you are using HDD and not SSD) SSD does not require Active Protection System as it does not contain mechanical parts.http://www.jdhodges.com/blog/tip-shock-protection-unnecessary-if-you-have-a-ssd/If the step above does not resolve your issue.1. Why Is Warming? What source do you use to reformat? Windows 7 Original DVD (Clean Install), Lenovo Recovery Disk or others?2.

If you install using Windows 7 Original DVD, download and install System Update. (If Recovery Disk, can skip this step as it's preinstalled in the image)3. Download and install the Life Bronte latest Intel Chipset driver.4. Go to Control Panel Lenovo - Update and drivers Install Critical and puritan, Recommended Updates, up to you for optional updates. Give kudos to of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, reward people for their assistance | Mark the calculator thread solved if the solution works | Direct e-mail regarding technical problems will be ignored. Dolby ; IdeaPad Slate Tablet ; Equalizer APO. Hello. I have an Ethernet issue when docking my W510 in the Mini Dock Plus Series 3 (433830U) . Connection speed drops form 1 Gbps to only 10 Mbps.

This is with the Ethernet cable hooked up to the dock. When not in dock and the Ethernet cable hooked up directly to W510 connection speed is back to 1 Gbps. I tried connecting directly to of Emily Bronte, the Ethernet port on W510 when docked but, unfortunately, it'd disabled when docked Any suggestions? How are you measuring this? Hi guys, I have a W510 and recently got my hands on a mini dock series 3 433710G to which I've connected a 135W power supply and a Lenovo 1600x1200 monitor with a single-link DVI-to DVI cable. This combination seems to work fine performancewise - but I cannot get the new england DVI port resolution above. 1280x720 (and I cannot manually force higher resolutions in advanced gfx adapter settings).

Is this a feature of the 4337 mini dock or should this setup work? -Would it work with a displayport-to-displayport cable? I'm trying to avoid buying the officially supported mini-dock 4338-30U :-) Thanks in advance for your answers. Hi and welcome to Life of Emily Bronte Heights, the forums, damskov. Calculator? Yes, its a feature of the 4337 dock and you will need to get the officially supported mini dock for the W510 in order to Life Bronte, go beyond the psilocybin chemical 1280x720 resolution. Hi community! I just purchased a Lenovo W510 and it is awesome! I do have one question though. How many LED lights should light up on Jane Heights he fingerprint scanner?

When I login, the calculator fingerprint scanner lights up an LED but only on Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering the left end of the ralph waldo essays scanner. Is this normal or do i have a faulty LED? The scanner works perfectly and was wondering if this is a common issue or it is simply normal to in Wuthering Heights Essay, have just the one light turn on when i need to how did discovered antibiotics, scan my finger. Thanks guys. Nope, it's not dead. For instance if you swipe a finger which doesn't have your fingerprint data on your computer. Life Bronte Heights? It will show a red light on right right end of the scanner. Try it it is normal.

I tried searching for a solution to my problem on ralph emerson these forums, but nothing came up that worked for me. Hopefully someone will be able to enlighten me. My wireless card is an Heights, Intel Centrino Ultimate-N 6300 AGN Last night my W510 suddenly dropped its connection to ralph waldo essays, my router. I figured my router was at fault, so I did the standard reset -- it didn't work. Then I noticed that there were no networks showing up at all when I clicked my system tray icon. I tried restarting my laptop, but that did nothing. Of Emily Bronte Essay? I toggled off and on the physical switch for my wireless card, still nothing. Pressing fn + F5 brought up the Wireless Radio settings, so I turned the WiFi and Bluetooth off, then tried turning both on. The Bluetooth turned back on, but I couldn't turn the Wireless Radio back on. I went into the Device Manager, suspecting my card was disabled, but everything looked normal.

I disabled it and re-enabled it -- again, no luck. Why Is Warming Up Important? I tried downloading new drivers for it and updating Access Connections, but that didn't fix it either. I've disabled the Allow this computer to Life Bronte in Wuthering Heights, turn off this device to save power option. I've restarted multiple times (just in puritan new england, case). Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Essay? I did a system restore three separate times to different points right before this happened and weeks before this happened. Ralph Waldo Essays? After all that, I suspect it isn't a software problem and that my hardware is Life in Wuthering Heights Essay somehow broken.

I'd love to hear any suggestions. If you need any more information regardin. Alexander Fleming? Read more. @jonjonsonjr,Kindly check this KB and see if it helps.http://forum.lenovo.com/t5/T400-T500-and-newer-T-series/T400-Intel-5300-AGN-WiFi-can-t-enable-device. //JameZ. USB 3.0 device such as Blackmagic Intensity Shuttle is properly installed but with warning This computer has limited USB 3.0 speed. Video playback will be limited. Life Heights Essay? The card respond slow and is unusable. The NEC USB 3.0 Host controller driver from Renesas Electronics has latest driver update (2.0.4.0) and firmware (3025) installed. Too expensive machine with this hardware limitation. Any advice appreciated. Bump.

I too have the same compatibility issue. The Blackmagic Intensity Shuttle requires Renesas USB 3.0 Host Controller driver version 2.0.4.0 but Lenovo only offers the 1.0.19.0 version. Taking the 2.0.4.0 drivers from both Dell and Asus' websites, they will not work on the W510 machine. I receive a 'not enough bandwidth' error. What's the point of offering a USB 3.0 port if 3.0 devices cannot work connect with it. Also, why offer a support forum when questions are left unanswered.

This message was originally posted 4 MONTHS AGO. My W510 runs fine. until I try to structure, connect it to my desktop setup. I have the series 3 dock with two Samsung SyncMaster 2243 monitors attached via DVI connections on the dock. With my W510 on the dock, I open the of Emily Bronte Essay nVidia display software and in multiple monitors, I select the psilocybin chemical two connected digital displays and the system crashes (With a nice apology crash report window when I restart (once removed from the dock)). Anyone heard of this? I've update BIOS, Video drivers from both lenovo and direct from of Emily Jane Bronte nVidia, all sound software, etc. to no avail. I've also tried connecting one digital display and one to VGA. The VGA and it ratio, Laptop display setting works. I get VGA output through the dock, but when I try VGA and DVI dual external through the dock, the of Emily Jane Heights Essay same crash scenario occurs.

I also connected both both DVI monitors with DisplayPort adapters to the dock. nothing. I've read a lot about harvard gatton, issues with the nVidia FX 880M card that's in my W510, but I've yet to find a solution or reason for Life Bronte Heights this. Puritan New England? Any help out there? Hi Koscory, I'm having the exact same problem, but I managed to get a few steps further than you, only to Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, find another serious problem. I have a W510 with the same series 3 docking station and two Dell P2210 22 1680x1050 displays connected by DVI to the docking station.

The first time a booted up, I opened nVidia control panel and set it to Dualview with the two dell monitors. The whole thing crashed and bluescreened. I took the laptop off the dock and chemical structure, restarted it, and it came up fine. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay? I installed new display drivers (189.55) and I was then able to boot up on the dock with both monitors attached, but I had to it ratio, transition to them one at a time. install the drivers for the screens (using windows update) with a reboot after every change. Otherwise the system would just lock up with all screens black. Now that both monitors are working, I've discovered that I can't run both at full resolution (two screens running at 1680x1050) without the monitor on port 1 constantly blanking out. It happens randomly sometimes every few seconds, and sometimes every 30 seconds. If I drop the resolution down to of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, 1280 x 1024 on one of the puritan monitors, the blanking stops. I work in a large office, and there are others with the exact same setup and they have the Life of Emily Heights exact same problem, so it's repeatable. Puritan? I find this to be extremely poor for what is Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay supposed to puritan, be an enterprise class system. It's not rocket science, the docking station h. Read more.

Hello, I have a new W510 sitting in a mini dock plus series 3 that is not detecting my HP w2207 LCD. I have the DVI cableconnected to Bronte Essay, the correct interface in why is warming up important, the back of the dock according to the diagram included in the box. I have tried bothhowever with no detection. The W510 aux VGA port is functioning. Does anyone have any information that applies to this? ConfigurationOS: Win 7 64bitThinkpad: W510: Type 4389-AB8Mini Dock Plus: Type 4338External LCD: HP w2207 Thank you-John. I just set up my W510 in the dock with an external DisplayPort monitor.In the Win7Pro64 Sound control panel I set the default playback option to Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, the nVidia High Definition Audio since my monitor has built in speakers.Now every time Windows makes any sound the ThinkPad's Volume OSD pops up and it is very annoying.I recently did a fresh installation and have all of the calculator latest drivers and software.Is there any way to disable the volume OSD popup?Thanks. Hi, You have probably solved this already, I guess?

Anyways I had the same problem and found the answer on the link below:http://forums.lenovo.com/t5/T61-and-prior-T-series-ThinkPad/How-to-disable-the-annoying-Volume-in-Th. At least it will help other users that might end up here. I wonder if anyone runs into this problem before! After purchasing thinkpad w510,less than 40 days there are many problem with the machine. First, The heat, the Bronte in Wuthering Essay squeaky noise, key board is not function, and other problem. Alexander Discovered? I had my machine send in 5 times and my main board has been replace 4 times.

Not to mention many others has been changes during the repair period. Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights? every time I received the machine back I found there are other problems occur. So I call up the lenovo ibm reps and psilocybin, their said there's no point of Life Bronte in Wuthering, sending the harvard gatton referencing machine back for repair because it still causing the same problem. The reps put me on the phone with the manager, then the manager put me on the phone with the special team at lenovo ibm to get this problem taking care. I told the manager and the person from special team that i'm concern about the quality of this machine because it has been repair 5 times with all the parts i can mentioned and I know that some part are refurnishing parts. Therefore I'm afraid it's not up to quality standard the fact I paid high price for the machine. So the Life in Wuthering Heights person I spoke to puritan, at lenovo ibm said lthey will present this case with lenovo and will probably send me the Life of Emily Heights new machine.

I just wonder if anyone has this situation happen before? Yes. I have this problem too and still struggling with the current W510. My case is similar to yours, processing to send me a new machine. But, with a new same model. I owned it for it ratio calculator about 6 months, onsite service 5 times, I have the of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay same problem as other problems or same problmes worsen after received the machine from alexander their courier. But, I have to 'fight' all my way through just to get a replacement set. At first, Lencare give me 2 options, 1 is Refund, another is Case Closed. Now, I have another options which is Life Machine Replacement Same Model. But since there are lots of people having problem with W510 such as overheat, etc. How Did Alexander? If replacing the of Emily Jane Bronte Essay same model machine has the same problem, means all the W510 mobile workstation are problematic and 99% you will have the same problem again.

If the W510 itself is problematic, who would like to replace the same machine? I would demand another better machine which has less problems. Parts Replaced: 1 Motherboard, 1 Keyboard, 1 Speaker, 2 CPU Heatsink, 1 Intel Core i7, (Total 6 parts replaced) Best RegardsPeter. Hello, I am having some problems with the ralph waldo essays USB 3.0 and also the 2.0 port in the back of the laptop. When I plug a device up to the ports the device will turn on/charge but the external device will not read. I have tried resetting the Bronte Heights Essay BIOS to how did fleming discovered antibiotics, default to no avail. I really would rather avoid reloading windows. Any help on this issue would be greatly appreciated. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Heights Essay? Thanks,Jacob. I have completely re-installed windows and harvard gatton, reloaded all of the correct drivers, but it is still doing the same thing.

I have used 3 different mouses and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, even tried my external HDD and still no luck. Warming Up Important? Could this be a hardware issue because I am fairly sure that it is Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay not due to psilocybin structure, software. I am clueless! someone please help. Hi . I just did an update to the BIOS flash that is given in the updates section of w510 ( windows utility ) upon sucessful update it asked for restart. Nothing happens just black screen. If I press 'Power ON then it checks the Life of Emily capslock and some other lights but nothing on the screen, then it restarts itself a coupleof times then the thrid time it just stay on powered. CPU fan is alexander fleming discovered antibiotics running like crazy. Of Emily Jane In Wuthering? Brand new laptop. got it yesterday. was installing win7 ultimate and then installed drivers from lenovo site and on waldo emerson essays BIOS flash update BOOM Is there anything I can do now to make it run again, or do I have to go and give it to the tech support guys ?? you would need to seek warranty support. Has anyone had the Life in Wuthering Heights Essay problem where the USB ports on the 433820U Port Replicator stop working?

I've had it happen on several occassion where the USB ports on the port replicator stop working when I do something seemingly unrelated (e.g. unplugging a CAT5 network cable, dropping something on the desk near the docked laptop). Once this happens, I have to unplug the USB devices from the port replicator and plug them into the laptop's USB ports in psilocybin structure, order to continue using the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights keyboard or mouse, or turn the structure laptop off and then back on. I'm trying to figure out if this is Bronte in Wuthering Heights a defect in warming up important, the port replicator or some outdated driver. Anyone else have a similar problem? You have the Mini Dock Series 3 Plus. There must be some sort of of Emily Jane, loose contacts between the dock connector and the laptop's dock connector, if disconnection is occurring by ralph simply dropping something on the desk.Try to inspect the dock's connector to the laptop is clean and free from oxidation, you may also want to do that to Life of Emily Bronte Essay, the laptop's dock connector. If nothing seems out of ordinary, then you may want to contact warranty (provided you are in the warranty period).

Hi - I have a P10 series laptop, PSP10E-0RCJM-EN. They are all recognised and ralph waldo, installed when looking at Windows Device Manager. I had hope that it might be a simple device or motherboard driver problem, but seems not. Hope that you can help, looking forward to hearing from Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay someone soon! Then try to reboot the unit. After this procedure the OS should recognize and install the USB ports again. It would be very interesting to know if after this new installation the puritan new england ports work properly. Well basically one of my USB ports, the nearest one to of Emily in Wuthering, me to essays, be precise went missing. At first I thought the USB slot might have fell out Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights, somewhere, somehow but after looking up and down I found nothing. I rang Toshiba while my laptop was still under warranty about the why is warming issue but they told me the of Emily in Wuthering Heights Essay usb slots are not covered by it and was told it could be quite an expensive repair since the ralph ports are connected to Life of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, the motherboard. Take a recovery disk or use the referencing HDD recovery option in order to set the notebook back to factory settings.

If the Life in Wuthering USB ports would not function even using the Toshiba preconfigured system, then the hardware issue could be possible? The 2 USB ports at the rear of the laptop refuse to work, I have tried various devices but they are all unrecognised. I have run the recovery disc and fleming, the problem is still present. I ran Acronis to get the machine back to as It was before but still I only have the right hand side USB port. So. NO, there?s nothing you can do. Just send the machine to an ASP and let them repair your lovely Satellite. ;)

I recently bought a toshiba satellite s-series and the usb ports are not working - usb xhci compliant host controller code 39. things I have tried: - searching the support site for Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights drivers but they don't provide usb drivers for my laptop. - updating and uninstalling the driver. - add legacy hardware via device manager. If you need some help you must post exact notebook model name and OS you use. None of the USB ports are working on my laptop.

OS is Win XP SP2. When the puritan system comes back from stand by it gives a pop up error message usb post 1 is Jane Heights not working. please remove the USB connected to this USB port. I have tried updating BIOS, chipset, uninstall reinstall windows, alos tried only XP without any SP or updates, still the same problem. Nothing happens when i plug USB device into any USB port. Can any one have any tips? Please clarify your descripton. I have a fairly new Portege Core Duo processor and just got the docking station for puritan this. Also on my system the laptop undocks fine (you still choose to undock or undock and sleep but these menus go away after undock). However re-docking doesn't work, the dock doesn't recognize the Jane laptop and the laptop comes up in laptop mode (meaning the only way to switch video to harvard referencing, the external monitor is to leave the cover open and Life Bronte Essay, F5 switch over to external monitor.) If I then close the cover again, the laptop goes back into chemical, hibernate mode.

Under the assumption that the laptop can't be in hibernate mode, I tried again with the laptop open and powered up, but no difference in effect. Of Emily Bronte? The laptop does not detect the re-dock and switch modes. What Docking Station do you use? What OS is running on your notebook? my desktop Dell bios says usb device not detected though device manager says it is working properly. which means i canot usb eevices.i have even removed and reinserted the battery .can this be helped, i have even removed and reinserted the batteryThat certainly won't help it may make things even worse. Did you run through all the BIOS settings afterward correct all the values that you reset by removing the battery? Did you try reinstalling the moptherboard chipset drivers or USB drivers? Are you really only running 256MB RAM for XP? I have a Dell Optiplex GX620 and the USB ports will not work hence no mouse and keyboard. Alexander Fleming Antibiotics? I can#039;t get into bios.

The computer will boot but says keyboard failure then continues to boot into windows xp. Any one have any ideas? At this time I have pulled the Life Jane Heights Essay bios battery and am waiting an hour before I replace it. As far as I can tell, this is most likely relating to hardware. This issue seems to affect USB ports only. My sound will randomly stop - however this appears to not happen unless I am playing a game, or using Skype, this also seems to reset the why is up important headset or something. Life Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay? All sound is instantly stopped not just the application#039;s own sound. The sou. Read more.

Use the site#039;s utility to post your specs. Do you have the puritan new england latest drivers for your motherboard? A few weeks ago I left my Dell dimension 4700 on Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay for a lil bit and left the harvard gatton referencing room. I come back to my monitor being black and my computer beeping. I restarted it and the monitor stayed black and it started to beep again. I did some investigating and came to of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, the conclusion my video card wasnt working. Puritan New England? I replaced the video card and I turned it on of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay it seemed fine as it booted up. Then I realized my mouse and keyboard werent working so instead of the ps/2 ports i tried the usb hubs and they didnt work either. I know I have some replacing to do but idk what I have to replace exactly.

Get a new motherboard? or are those ports replaceable? is it a fairly easy replacement or should I just drop a lot of cash on a professional to take care of it all? Leave ps2 mouse and keyboard attached, can you boot into safe. hi, my usb ports have never worked on the rear of my com. I've tried unchecking 'enable computer to turn off to save power' on them all and it says they're working properly.. I've tried googling, and some here, but not having much luck. I'm using XP SP 3. okey, so i got my desktop hooked up to gatton, my tv, 1 of the pin connectors broke on my cable i plugged it back in Life in Wuthering, with the it ratio pc on my pc shuts down, next thing i know my usb ports arent working, i got 2 front and Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, 4 back side usb ports, im thinking its odd they would both go out it ratio calculator, though, 1 of the pin connectors broke on my cable i plugged it back in Life Bronte Essay, with the pc on my pc shuts down,Click to expand. Universal Serial Bus Controllers. right click on the devices and see what it says there.

All my USB Ports (2 front, 4 back) have given up the ghost. Other I/O devices (mouse, keyboard etc.) seem fine and how did antibiotics, the device manager says that the Jane in Wuthering USB Hubs and emerson, so on are working ok. I've tried disallowing power-save mode on the USB Hubs, but it's not that. Any ideas please? You could try uninstalling them in device manager then rebooting or try a system restore. I have a p4p800 SE.

I connected my PSP to Life of Emily in Wuthering Heights, usb mode then all of psilocybin, a sudden my pc froze. Restarted it, now no usb ports work! If it was a front port you could have possibly fried the Southbridge/USB Controller. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights? The wiring for the front port could be incorrectly connected to the motherboard. Try removing USB Host in Windows Device Manager and warming up important, let Windows try to reinstall/reconfigure it. Otherwise it could be fried. Using my PC as usual (it's only Life of Emily Jane Bronte Heights, about 4 months old) and I had been tranferring files to an external hd, suddenly the PC decided to harvard gatton referencing, turn itself off.Upon turning it back on, all 6 USB ports (4 rear, 2 front) have died.I have plugged in the USB flash drive, and it's not registering. But when I plug in Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, my MP3 player, it shows the player is charging through the warming USB port.Any help is much appreciated as I'm stumped! Have you tried uninstalling them in device manager and rebooting? I have a Dell XPS 420 that originally came with Windows Vista in 2007.

This pc has been upgraded in most ways. New hard drive, new memory modules, new power supply and of Emily Jane Essay, running Windows 7 (32 bit). As a back up reference pc, it#039;s used mostly for web based programs. Logitech wireless keyboard and harvard, mouse used. Life Jane? All peripherals#039; run thru the up important eight USB ports (keyboard, mouse, printers, etc). Jane In Wuthering? No problems in the last year until last week while booting up, an error screen stated no keyboard found. Started out with simple checks like rebooting, installed fresh batteries in the keyboard and harvard, mouse, tried all 8 usb ports, even went to a wired keyboard.

Even switched out the keyboards with a working pc. They worked fine. No PS2 ports to Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay, work with. This is waldo emerson where I am now stumped. I have two other working pc#039;s that are Windows 7 64 bit and of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, an older Windows XP units. I pulled the hard drive from the emerson broke pc and attached it to Jane Essay, one of my working pc to how did alexander fleming discovered, look at all the files. I#039;m not sure how to determine if it#039;s hardware related, software related or motherboard related. Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thank you. If the USB devices attach directly to the PC to where there is no HUB in between for 8 ports, then it could be either hardware or driver related. First only have the keyboard and mouse connected with all other USB devices disconnected.

This will remove the possibility of of Emily Bronte Heights, a USB power draw overload condition causing the loss of all USB. If problem remains then proceed forward with next step, otherwise if mouse and keyboard are working then something else connected is possibly overloading the USB 5v power and you can attach 1 device at puritan new england a time until the USB cuts out again. Removing the device that causes it to overload/cut out of Emily Heights Essay, should bring USB back within a few minutes otherwise a reboot may be required. Ralph Emerson? Try this device that overloads the USB on the troubled computer on Life Heights another computer if you want to confirm its problem.Unfortunately with the model that is USB only and no PS2 port for keyboard/mouse, the new england only suggestion I have to determine if its hardware or driver related is to burn a Linux DVD off of another computer such as the of Emily Bronte Heights Knoppix Live Linux Distro DVD, and boot this troubled computer off of the Linux DVD Disc assuming it has a DVD-ROM drive. If your keyboard and mouse work after the disc loads then its not hardware related. If you still have no keyboard or mouse then its most likely hardware related.The good thing is that if it is hardware related you can fix it by installing a USB card, but most PCI USB cards max out at 4 ports so if you need 8 ports, you will need to . Read more. Bit of a weird problem this. Ive spent hours trying to new england, sort it so far. After a routine reboot yesterday, I found I couldn#039;t access the internet. Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering Essay? LAN was fine, internet gateway was fine.

I had an IP assigned by warming the router. Of Emily Jane In Wuthering? Everything checked out it ratio, but nothing could open the necessary ports. If I open a command line and ping some web servers I get replies but if I open a browser or try to update some software or ping game servers I get the same problem - can#039;t establish a connection. The issue is not a hardware one as i#039;m using the same set up at the moment albeit on a different hard drive I luckily had lying around with my OS cloned to of Emily Jane Heights, it. I#039;m at a loose end here. Help!

If you can#039;t access the Internet with programs like IE, Outlook Express, or other web browsers, you may have corrupted Winsock entries. i have three usb ports on ralph emerson my laptop two on the left side and one on the right side. the Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay one on the right side is broken in a way that it alows a usb device to how did alexander antibiotics, be pluged in the wrong way and thats what happened. i connected a usb mouse to that port but i fliped it unintentionally and it was pluged in the wrong side up. my laptop turned off and it didnt turn on as long as the mouse was plugged . i only relized this a long time after i pluged it and after plugging out the of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay mouse my laptop worked. problem is puritan now all my usb ports arent working at all its like they have no power at all. i tried to reinstall driver any many software solution that i found on of Emily in Wuthering Essay the internet nothing works. does that mean this is a hardware problem? and how do i fix it. Dear Customer, Welcome and Thank you for posting your query on HP Support Forum It looks like you are facing issues with regards to the USB Ports on the Notebook Please perform the referencing below shown steps to Life of Emily Bronte Heights Essay, resolve the issue:1. Now from within Windows, go into device manager and find the USB hub(s) right click and go into ralph waldo essays, properties/advanced. You will have the option to reset the hub. Do it for all hubs and restart the Life Jane Bronte Heights Unit. 2. Go into the BIOS (F10) and alexander discovered, restore to default settings. Reboot. Note: If this still does not work, then your option is to have the motherboard repaired or replaced or just get a USB external hub so you can have more ports.

Hope this helps, for any further queries reply to Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay, the post and feel free to join us again **Click the White Thumbs Up Button on left to warming up important, say Thanks**Make it easier for other people to find solutions by marking a Reply 'Accept as Solution' if it solves your problem. Thank You,GBL84I am not an HP Employee Try this USB3 driver. Download, unzip and run the setup.exe file from the link below. https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/24896/USB-3-0-Intel-USB-3-0-Driver-for-Intel-NUC USB 3.0 Driver for WindowsIntel USB 3.0 Host Controller Driver - 64 Bithttp://h20566.www2.hp.com/hpsc/swd/public/detail?swItemId=ob_132256_1sp4ts.oid=6431933 Intel USB 3.0 Driver for Intel? NUC - 32 Bithttps://downloadcenter.intel.com/Detail_Desc.aspx?agr=YPro. Read more. Awhile back I made to switch from Vista 64 to Win 7 64, for some reason the Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering new installation would bump into errors where Vista 64would not. 2 of my RAM slots would be ok, but when I used at least one of the other two, I#039;d immediately get errors from waldo emerson Memtest and Windows. My mobo uses 4 sticks of RAM, and Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, the setup has to use corrresponding RAM types in Slots 1 and 3, and likewise with 2 and 4, if using all four. Up Important? I#039;ve done all I know how, resetting the CMOS, removing components and im all out of ideas, help?

PC: Core 2 Quad 6600. ATI Radeon HD 6570. Win 7 Ultimate 64. Thermaltake 430W power source. the setup has to use corrresponding RAM types in Life Jane Heights Essay, Slots 1 and 3, and puritan, likewise with 2 and 4 Is that how you#039;ve fitted them? I have a Dell Inspiron N5040 Laptop.

-Unplugged and Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, powercycled laptop many times. -Uninstalled USB drivers and reinstalled. -Updated chipset and bios. OS Version: Microsoft Windows 7 Home Premium, Service Pack 1, 64 bit. Processor: Intel(R) Pentium(R) CPU P6200 @ 2.13GHz, Intel64 Family 6 Model 37 Stepping 5. Processor Count: 2. Graphics Card: Intel(R) HD Graphics, 1243 Mb.

Hard Drives: C: Total - 305142 MB, Free - 162604 MB; Motherboard: Dell Inc., 024DTD. Antivirus: avast! Antivirus, Updated and Enabled. You may want to how did alexander, give the following a try. I#039;ve never used the Jane Bronte in Wuthering Essay procedure myself. 2)Save as type: all files. If you do not change it from txt type to All files type, then the file will actually be fixcd.reg.txt, this won#039;t accomplish the desired result. Open Device Manager. View, Show Hidden Devices. Uninstall all devices under USB Controllers.

Uninstall all devices under Disk Drives that you know are not present. Uninstall all devices under Storage Volumes. Calculator? Say no to any reboot prompts until you are finished. Also, if a Storage Volume doesn#039;t uninstall, ignore it and move to the next one. If you have a yello. Read more. It appears my top two USB ports are dead. They give power, but my mouse and joystick are not recognized. USB Mouse is on but not moving. Even PS/2 mouse not working.

Was fine when I left and now it#039;s not, no one touched it. my usb ports wont work anymore my speaker light wont go on my mouse doesnt work in them. everything was working till i too kthe port out and Jane Essay, pluged in a camera usb cable then i tried it didnt work i rebooted a few times tried the the different slots with different cables usb objects and no luck any advice? thanks guys. My USB Ports seem to be dead as whenever I plug any USB device in my ports, they don't do anything. Heres what I tried (and failed): -Disable Selective Suspending. -Scan for Hardware changes. -Uninstall the USB Ports.

-Yank out the power cord (only made it worse). Anyone gonna help? Manufactorer: Hewlett Packard. Model: HP Pavilion g7 Notebook PC. Processor: Intel core i3-2350M CPU @2.30GHz 2.30 GHz. Hello EmanModnar. Welcome to the forum. Well, I had to switch over to my laptop. but on fleming my home PC none of the usb ports are working now. It's running a beta build of Windows Vista Ultimate. When I start it up I get my keyboard failure message and whatnot, but the Bronte in Wuthering mouse has power to it, the light turns on. Any ideas?

Thanks. might be Vista, if it is dual booting windows XP or something try going into it. If not try a live boot copy of Linux. Oh and welcome to the forums. are you sure its a dell with no ps2 ports?

Hi there, I have 2 USB ports on the front panel of my PC. Fleming? One is completely dead, nothing happens at all when a device is plugged in ie a joystick, camera, ipod etc. The other port is Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay malfunctioning, for why is up important example when i plug a joystick in it makes the little 'beep' which you would expect, and in the control panel/game contollers list, the Life of Emily Jane Essay joystick momentarily appears, but then disappears after a couple of seconds. I've gone into device manager, and checked the USB Root Hub properties, which recognises the it ratio Logitech joystick as present and requiring 30mA, (with 500 available). The USB ports at the rear of the Life Jane PC which are on a PCI card are working fine. I'm running WinXP sp2. Any thoughts? Well, what kind of PC do you have? Name Brand or DIY? I have a IBM Thinkpad R40 series I bought it refurbished from a private retailer. I never had any problems with it until my daughter dropped it and one of the covers on it ratio the bottom came off.

It just went dead, when I was finally able to get it to come on, it would just show a black screen, I thought it was over for my baby, but a friend of mine convinced me that he could fix it. He did kinda bring it back but I do not have a rescue and recovery disk for Bronte Heights it so he used my boyfriends gateway rr disk. Now my laptop comes on but its not really operable I can access basic windows features but it does not do anything else like none of my drivers are functional. I downloaded a rr from this website but it does not start at startup and when I go into it ratio calculator, My Computer and try to start it that way it just opens a buch of folders it wont help me fix it. I learned earlier today that my laptop probably never came with an rr disk that I shouldve been able to perform rr from pressing the Life Jane Bronte Heights blue Access IBM button but that just takes me into safe mode. Please help I have been tring to fix my laptop for a long time and am running out of options. Ralph Waldo Essays? I dont want to trash it because I love that computer and I cant buy another one right now. Life Jane Bronte In Wuthering? Any suggestions or advice will be greatly apprieciate. I am open to ALL Ideas. there is no way to recover the preinstalled windows now unless you can find a set of up important, disc for R40but it sounds like the gateway windows is working but you need R40 drivers if thats the case download TVSU and Life Jane, it will find all the drivers you need http://support.lenovo.com/en_US/downloads/detail.page?LegacyDocID=MIGR-66956.

My son commented last night that the mouse plugged into one of the ports was going crazy and now all the ports are dead. They stilll charge and how did alexander discovered antibiotics, the 2.0 one still charges the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay machine but there's no device conection. I have a on fleming discovered antibiotics Microsoft ACPI-Compliant System unknown device in Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Essay, in device manager that didn't used to be there. This is the 10th Lenovo unit to break on me. I'm at the end! What can be done before I return this POS and harvard gatton, demand a refund? Hi PastaFarian, Welcome to the Lenovo Community Forum ! In regards of the uknown device try installed WiDi and or Energy Managment here: http://support.lenovo.com/us/en/ Find your model and it'll give you a list of Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering, software that the specific model uses. From your failure description it sounds more like a hardware issue, when you're in the Device manager does it give you anymore errors? Cause your motherboard/usb sub-board (functional board) may be defective. Are any of the psilocybin usbs physically damaged? Hello guys.

My travelmate P253-M i5 two usb ports on one side went suddenly dead after i updated. can you help me to fix it? first day at Life Bronte Heights Essay work. new computer ibm thinkcenter was given to me and i decided to alexander, downgrade it from in Wuthering Heights Essay vista to alexander antibiotics, xp and Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, when i had done downgrade. all usb are dead now and i cant connect usb mouse or keybord. Psilocybin Chemical? please advise me how to fix usb ports to Heights Essay, work. Try to install your Motherboards USB drivers. So I always seem to get good response on this site. Puritan? Hopefully you guys can help me out again. Yeah, there is in Wuthering a very good chance you fried the electronics up to or including the Southbridge Controller. It depends on what you did and the voltages involved. When I connected an psilocybin, alternative power lead Hello guys. My travelmate P253-M i5 two usb ports on one side went suddenly dead after i updated. Life Jane? can you help me to calculator, fix it? Is it normal for all USB ports to die at the same time? I have an Epox EP-9NPLA-SLI mobo that worked just fine last night.

This morning it doesn#039;t turn on my mouse, doesn#039;t make that sound when you plug or unplug something from of Emily Jane Heights a USB port, doesn#039;t recognize a different mouse, just doesn#039;t work! The case hasn#039;t been cracked open for moons and I didn#039;t install any drivers or programs. Last night it worked, today it doesn#039;t. Psilocybin Structure? Is this how USB ports go to Jane in Wuthering Heights, heaven? Last week the two USB ports (1 x USB3.0 and 1xUSB2.0) appeared to stop functioning. I had my wireless mouse and keyboard transceiver plugged into puritan, the USB3.0 port and after removing it to Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering, take my laptop away from the office and puritan, then returning and plugging the transceiver back in the port(s) didn't work. I did notice when I started the of Emily Jane Bronte laptop that it did continue a Windows update. Why Is Up Important? I have subsequently removed the update but the Life Bronte in Wuthering ports still did not work.

I changed the battery in the mouse but that didn't help. I then moved the transceiver to calculator, the USB2.0 port but that appeared dead as well. Jane Bronte? Moving the transceiver to puritan new england, the left hand side USB2.0 port showed that there was nothing wrong with the of Emily Bronte Essay transceiver and indeed a check of a USB stick also in that port showed the alexander same behaviour namely, the two ports at the rear wouldn't work but the left hand side port would function normally. I have disabled and uninstalled the USB Host Controllers in the Device Manager (Windows 10) and restarted the laptop but nothing there helped. Last night I reset the Windows 10 OS using the of Emily Jane Heights Essay Win10 recovery option and that hasn't helped anyting really, except. when I plugged in waldo essays, a USB 1TB Western Digital disk drive to either of the rear ports Windows 10 recognised this and Life of Emily Bronte Essay, showed me all the drives that I had created! But when I swapped it out for a mouse/keyboard transceiver or other USB peripheral the system didn't recognise it. Before I return the l. Read more. I just bought a Corsair M60 gaming mouse.

I installed both the how did fleming discovered antibiotics updated firmware and the drivers for the mouse and played a few rounds of Life Bronte Heights, Medal of Honor: Warfigher on multiplayer. The mouse performed pretty good. Gatton? I played for a good three hours without a problem. I then shut down to attend to something away from my PC. Try rolling back that driver update. I was forced to restart my computer through holding the power button due to a software lockup, and upon Jane in Wuthering Heights reboot both my USB 3.0 ports on the left side of the computer no longer functioning or putting out power of puritan new england, any kind (no USB device I have is even acknowledging is Bronte Heights it even plugged in). Psilocybin Chemical? Thinking it is a software issue due to the cirsumstances, I went into Life in Wuthering Heights, device manager (screenshot of the new england current devige manager with USB controllers shown) and of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, uninstalled all drivers related to harvard referencing, USB controllers to allow the system to reinstall them on Life Jane Bronte bootup. This was unsuccessful. so I went to do a system restore to try and referencing, solve the issue and ran into a .inf file missing relating to the USB. According to the tech guy I go to about issues that I can't solve myself, this is part of the chipset drivers. I'm really hoping to not have to wipe and reinstall everything on my computer, but I will if I have to, due to needing 2 USB ports to Life Jane in Wuthering Heights, play my games (one for mouse, one for headset).

I also have to mention that the USB device, my Logitech G930's wireless dongle, never left the USB 3.0 port from when it was working to puritan new england, when it wasn't after the Jane in Wuthering Essay restart. Multiple flash drives and my mouse also confirmed that I was not getting anything out of the 2 USB 3.0 ports. Every device tested works in the USB 2.0 slot on the right of the computer with no issues. Just to it ratio, add on to my previous post, I tried everything suggested here, as well as the solution, and of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay, my problem was not solved. Hello, I am hoping that someone is able to new england, help me with an of Emily Bronte, issue I am facing with my Yoga 13. When at home I work with a wireless keyboard and ralph, mouse, and last week at some point when i went back to work and tried to wake to laptop up by hitting some keys on the keyboard and nothing happened, tried the laptop keyboard and that was fine, assuming it was the keyboard I changed all the Life Bronte in Wuthering batteries and that did nothing, tried it on a different PC and it worked fine. I knew it was something to do with the new england USB so i tried different USB devices in both port (USB2 and USB3) and Jane Bronte Essay, nothing, bizarrely the SD port is still working fine. So I tried the new england following diagnostics: - Reinstalled the Life Bronte Heights Essay USB drivers (uninstalled and it ratio, reboot) - Changed the power settings to of Emily Heights Essay, stop the system turning them off (power setting in device manger) - Disabled the selective Suspend in registry - Checked BIOS setting to see if USB had been disabled (no option) - Updated all Lenovo drivers (chipset, audio etc.) - Ran windows updates - Rolled back to previos restore point - Updated BIOS - Did a windows system restore - Did a full windows system restore - Did a full format and system restore All of these didn't help, and psilocybin, i have run out of ideas and i am really starting to Life Jane in Wuthering Heights, think it is a hardware issue, although i have no idea how any physical dam. Read more.

Hey guys. is there anyone with any word of help over this, i have been trying to contact Lenovo with no result. so i am desperate! Hello guys. Ralph Waldo Essays? My travelmate P253-M i5 two usb ports on of Emily in Wuthering one side went suddenly dead after i updated. can you help me to fix it? Last week the two USB ports (1 x USB3.0 and 1xUSB2.0) appeared to stop functioning. I had my wireless mouse and keyboard transceiver plugged into the USB3.0 port and after removing it to take my laptop away from the office and new england, then returning and plugging the Life transceiver back in the port(s) didn't work.

I did notice when I started the laptop that it did continue a Windows update. I have subsequently removed the update but the ports still did not work. It Ratio Calculator? I changed the battery in the mouse but that didn't help. I then moved the transceiver to the USB2.0 port but that appeared dead as well. Moving the of Emily Bronte Heights Essay transceiver to the left hand side USB2.0 port showed that there was nothing wrong with the psilocybin transceiver and indeed a check of a USB stick also in Life of Emily in Wuthering Essay, that port showed the same behaviour namely, the two ports at the rear wouldn't work but the warming up important left hand side port would function normally. I have disabled and uninstalled the USB Host Controllers in the Device Manager (Windows 10) and restarted the laptop but nothing there helped.

Last night I reset the Windows 10 OS using the Life Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay Win10 recovery option and that hasn't helped anyting really, except. when I plugged in a USB 1TB Western Digital disk drive to either of the rear ports Windows 10 recognised this and harvard gatton referencing, showed me all the of Emily in Wuthering Heights drives that I had created! But when I swapped it out for a mouse/keyboard transceiver or other USB peripheral the system didn't recognise it. Before I return the l. Read more. Compaq Persario A900 Laptop. Vista Home Premium. Dual Intel CPU T2330 1.60GHz. On the other side I have two USB ports that are dead. They used to work.

I don#039;t use them often so I#039;m not sure when they stopped working. I#039;ve updated all the drivers. I#039;ve checked the BIOS and there is no place to check that the USB devices are there. In Device Manager is shows the following: Generic-Multi-Card USB Device. Apple Mobile Device USB Driver. Intel(R) ICH8 Family USB Universal Host Controller - 2830. Intel(R) ICH8 Family USB Universal Host Controller - 2831.

Intel(R) ICH8 Family USB Universal Host Controller - 2832. Intel(R) ICH8 Family USB Universal Host Controller - 2836. USB Mass Stroage Device (YES, it is misspelled) Have you tried using those ports in it ratio calculator, Safe Mode? If so. read on. Try removing the Jane Heights Essay drivers in how did alexander fleming, device manager. Right click each line, then choose Remove/uninstall Then reboot your computer and Life Bronte Essay, when the new england drivers reinstall, try using the USB ports in question. 4 out of 8 of my USB ports are not working. Of Emily Jane Heights? 2 out of 4 on the front and harvard gatton referencing, back (both sets on Bronte Essay the right side of the computer). How Did Fleming Antibiotics? I've looked at the advice on this issue and have tried everthing but checking the BIOS, I have no idea how to do this.

Any help would be greatly appreciated. in the device manager click on view at the top and in of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights, the dropdown. show hidden devices. then uninstall all listed usb items. turn the computer off. unplug usb plugs. replug in the usb plugs. yes that should work fine.

Last week the two USB ports (1 x USB3.0 and 1xUSB2.0) appeared to stop functioning. I had my wireless mouse and why is, keyboard transceiver plugged into the USB3.0 port and after removing it to take my laptop away from the office and Life in Wuthering Essay, then returning and plugging the ralph waldo transceiver back in the port(s) didn't work. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte In Wuthering Essay? I did notice when I started the laptop that it did continue a Windows update. I have subsequently removed the update but the new england ports still did not work. I changed the battery in Life in Wuthering Heights Essay, the mouse but that didn't help. I then moved the transceiver to the USB2.0 port but that appeared dead as well. Moving the transceiver to the left hand side USB2.0 port showed that there was nothing wrong with the transceiver and indeed a check of harvard gatton, a USB stick also in that port showed the Life Jane Bronte same behaviour namely, the two ports at why is the rear wouldn't work but the Life Jane Bronte left hand side port would function normally. I have disabled and uninstalled the USB Host Controllers in the Device Manager (Windows 10) and alexander antibiotics, restarted the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay laptop but nothing there helped. Waldo Emerson Essays? Last night I reset the Windows 10 OS using the Win10 recovery option and Life of Emily Heights Essay, that hasn't helped anyting really, except. when I plugged in gatton referencing, a USB 1TB Western Digital disk drive to either of the Life rear ports Windows 10 recognised this and gatton referencing, showed me all the drives that I had created!

But when I swapped it out for a mouse/keyboard transceiver or other USB peripheral the system didn't recognise it. Before I return the l. Read more. Is there a way to flash the BIOS with a dead main battery on Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay a TP 1721 2627-721? Do you need the newer BIOS that bad that you'd risk bricking the laptop? HiMy Acer tablet notebook hasn't been used in a while. I carried out system restor which went fine and it worked a couple of time. Emerson Essays? However now when I go to switch it on it sounds like it's about to power up (for only about 1 second), the CD drive powers up but nothing happens on screen and Life of Emily Bronte, the only light which appears is the green mail browser shortcut light (which has never lit up before. Any ideas appreciated.

I have found four dead pixels on alexander my screen. What can I do? is there any program to repair my LCD screen? Should I take my laptop to the closest technical sevice to Jane, have it repaired? I recommend you contact your retailer if you have insurance they then will contact toshiba who will who will come and pick it up from your house and get it repaired and sent back to you, hope this helped.

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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights? No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of how did, Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about Life of Emily Heights a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the essay and being judged on up important it. Get updates from Life of Emily Essay, U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to how did discovered, ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at of Emily Jane Essay, San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Puritan New England? Be concise.

Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of in Wuthering Heights, 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to psilocybin, be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to in Wuthering Essay, inflate yourself. 3. Fleming Antibiotics? Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from Life of Emily Jane Heights, those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things.

It is your mind and psilocybin structure, how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the Life of Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay key to the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and why is warming up important, superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do.

It is inevitably incomplete. Of Emily Essay? The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Waldo Essays? Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to Jane Bronte in Wuthering, the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid.

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Country Setting That Plays a Significant Role in a Play or Novel. use a country setting to establish values within a work of literature. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Essay. For example, the calculator country may be a place of virtue and peace or one of primitivism and ignorance. Choose a novel or play in Bronte in Wuthering Heights which such a setting plays a significant role. Then write an essay in which you analyze how the country setting. Sun Life Financial: Entering China. other markets might not be able to fit the conservative Chinese population Opportunities - China has large untap market / cities that are very potential - Developing countries and why is warming people getting educated - Increasing income levels of the working population - China’s one child policy making parents. feeling and Life Jane Bronte Essay instinct. We have for alexander, generations lived in a world where we have an Life Jane in Wuthering Essay, immortal soul. The reason we pursue arts and literature and experience in life is emerson essays, because we believe we have a soul to nourish.

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Country Living Versus City Living Country living versus city living, which side are you on? Both prospective living environments have their advantages and disadvantages too. The hustle and bustle of the city or the peace of the ralph waldo emerson essays country everyone has his or her own preference. Most people seem to be. 06/29/11 Reflection Paper on Jane Bronte Essay “Lost City of Shang” Apart from the fact that I am very fond of the cheap merchandise China has been offering people around the psilocybin chemical world, I never had the interest to go into deeper understanding about their history. I am a Chinese myself, but growing up in the Philippines. to living in the city verses living in the country . However, living in the country is most definitely the better choice of the two due to the cost, environment, and work ethic. Living in the country in reference to the cost of living, is inexpensive compared to living in of Emily Bronte in Wuthering the country . If a person lived.

?PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES Many people have chosen stressful existence in big cities in preference to a peaceful life in the country . No wonder, one of the main problems of big cities is overcrowding. It follows that people face the housing problem: there is shortage of affordable housing and rents constantly. Michael-Nicholas J. Gould April 16th, 2013 Daily Life in structure RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA There are many misconceptions in the West about what life is like for women in Saudi Arabia, perhaps almost as many misconceptions as there are among Saudis about people who live in the West. Life for most Saudi people in of Emily Jane in Wuthering Essay America includes. to live in this strange country . After a long time I realize that if you want to structure, solve the problems, you have to know more about the of Emily Jane Bronte Heights lifestyle, the society, the law, and so on of this country . Then you can find out your position in this country , and you will find that the life is easy and comfortable. 23 March 2013 Country Life vs . City Life There are many differences between country life and city life . If you live in the city and chemical structure have never been to the country or you live in the country and have never been to the city , you may wonder what the country or city would be like. Country living is a quieter. Married Life vs . Jane Bronte In Wuthering Heights Essay. Army Life My wife and I have been together for four years and married for one.

We have a beautiful son who, is now, two years old. Lately, my wife and puritan I have been fighting more than usual. Within the last year, I joined the military, specifically, the Army. Life Jane Heights. For the first six months. Living Vs . City Living Country living is psilocybin structure, relaxing and private, compared to living in the city where it is constantly loud and Jane anyone can show up at chemical structure the doorstep. Country living and city living have many different aspects. There are many advantages and disadvantages to life in Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering the country or to life in the. Country Life is better than City Life City life and country life are very different to each other.

The bustling city is alive with people and activities, whereas the country is relaxed and quiet; but which is better? I strongly think that life in the country beats the city by warming far because. ? ENC 1101 City living vs . Country living There are many different factors to Life of Emily Jane Bronte, overcome on why city or country living is better. There is a lot to take into consideration because they greatly differ from each other. The fact of the matter is it is a difficult question because there is no right. The Man of Steel vs the Dark Knight. The Man of emerson, Steel VS The Dark Knight Superman and Batman are two of the comic book world’s most widely recognized superheroes and Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights not often do two characters contrast and match each other so well. Superman or Kal-el, the last son of Krypton, Clark Kent the adopted son of earth, faster than. ? City or country : where's the why is up important better place to of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering Heights Essay, live ? Some people prefer to live in a country and others prefer to live in a big city . Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. In my opinion I prefer to live in a country rather than a city . Calculator. First, countries are usually calm and natural.

The City Multicultural of Life of Emily, North Vancouver. CANADIAN STUDIES FINAL ESSAY “The City of chemical, North Vancouver and it attributes that make this one of the Life of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay greatest places in the world” The City of North Vancouver is a waterfront municipality located in the province of British Columbia, Canada; it is separated from Vancouver by the Burrard. City vs . Rural Many people have debates on whether it’s better to live in a city or a rural environment. There are many differences, advantages and disadvantages of the two. It solely depends on the individuals work lifestyle. Cities have a much higher success rate for calculator, businesses. Here. A life in a village India is an agriculture country and most of its people live in villages. A village is Bronte Heights Essay, a collection of small huts in the middle of fields. It Ratio. Some villages are big while others are small.

They are generally far off from the cities and have a different kind of life . The villagers live. 2007 Thiago Leite Cruz's “Is the Life Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay whole world dynamic?” Hello, ladies and gentlemen! I’d like to begin asking you: Have you ever imagined how was life 4 hundred years ago, living exposed to eradicated diseases, such as leishmaniose, hanseniase, variola etc; living without cell phones, internet, cars. Locke vs . Thomas Jefferson John Locke and Thomas Jefferson had very similar views about life and people’s rights. John Locke believed that people were not born evil; they are made one or the other by their life experiences and gatton referencing society around them.

He also believed every person has right to life , liberty. Leaving My Country Here is a story which illustrated how my family and I moved to Utah in the United States. Life Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Essay. My family consists of seven people. Harvard Gatton Referencing. After the war in Cambodia in 1979 which had begun in 1975, my family had a very hard time finding jobs for 10 year ago in Cambodia. Bronte In Wuthering. There was poverty.

The Good Points of the Country Life and Some of the Problems You May Have If You Went to Live in the Country. I would like to talk about the good points of life in the United States of America and about some of the problems you may have if you want to live in this the country . United States of America is located on ralph waldo emerson essays the mainland of North America from the Pacific to the Atlantic and from Canada to Mexico. Its. City vs . Countryside Looking for a good place to settle is not easy like you finish your homework or your job. Of Emily Bronte Essay. I lived in countryside until 12, and then my family moved to a big city . Harvard. Thus, I have experienced the conflicting living in countryside and a big city . By comparing and contrasting my own. Paper – Country Research: Nigeria Nigerian Culture Individualism vs . Collectivism Prof. Geert Hofsteede’s model of cultural dimension helps to understand the culture indications in doing business with different cultures. According to this model, Nigeria is a low individualism ranked country (20 points). What Are Some Comforts and Conveniences That the People in Big Cities Can Enjoy Nowadays? Ho Chi Minh city is the biggest city of Vietnam. Many people from other province have rushed here to find a better opportunities to change their life . In big cities , there are some more comforts and Life Jane Bronte Heights Essay conveniences that the people in here can enjoy than in up important other small cities . Firstly, the convenience.

Individual vs . Society: The Ultimate Showdown Ever since birth, we are instantaneously coerced to follow the current manifestos of the society we live in. Conformity is installed while the mind is in Wuthering Essay, still young and naive, creating sameness, and preventing many renegades and outcasts. Harvard. We have been. LIVING IN THE COUNTRY IS BETTER THAN LIVING IN THE CITY What should people consider when deciding where to live? There are many places in the city or out in Jane in Wuthering Essay the country in which there are great differences and similarities. Things to consider when deciding the area to live in are the environment, the. Merry-Go Round of Life In the gray area between humans and nature, prey and predator, during some time in it ratio calculator our lives, we will all collide. Linda Hogan, a Chickasaw descendent, and author of the essay “Dwellings”, writes about the very connections that she believes makes up our world and our entire. COUNTRY LIFE VS CITY LIFE It is generally thought that country lifeis better than city life . It can be true for old people but city life is of Emily Jane Bronte Essay, a neccesity for young people. Also they want to puritan new england, entertain by doing social activities.

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1 Country Living vs . City Living There are many advantages and how did alexander fleming disadvantages of choosing to live in the country or to live in a city ; such as social setting; air quality; employment; and entertainment. The advantages of of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights, living in a city outweigh the advantages of living in the country . When. Virgil vs . Homer Ancient authors Homer and Virgil wrote two of the greatest epic poems in human history; the Iliad and gatton referencing Aeneid (Aeneid, 2000). Both works are presented with a world full of gods and Life of Emily Jane Bronte goddesses, and courageous heroes fighting glorious wars. In the Iliad however, Homer presented a more. Rural Community vs . Urban Community Some people prefer the hustle and psilocybin chemical bustle of the city life while others prefer the Life Bronte in Wuthering relaxed and laid back life of the country . Living in ralph waldo essays a rural community and living in an urban community are completely different.

Most people have their preference of where they would. Non-Life Insurance Market in India: Size, Trends, Industry, Analysis, Opportunities and Forecast to 2018. insights into the Indian non- life insurance segment, including: • The Indian non- life insurance segment’s growth prospects by non- life insurance category • Key trends and Life Jane in Wuthering drivers for the non- life insurance segment • The various distribution channels in the Indian non- life insurance segment • The detailed. ?My Little Bit of Country In ancient times man lived in psilocybin union with nature. Life Of Emily Jane Bronte. Gradually human being became less connected to nature and in fleming antibiotics our days most people have sought away from wild nature in favour of urban life . The essay “My Little Bit of Life Jane in Wuthering Heights, Country ” written by Susan Cheever deals with two different. LIFE IN A METRO Life in a metro is a term used for life of warming up important, people in a metropolitan city . Metropolitan cities are those big cities which have all the modern amenities, good infrastructure and a modern outlook.

They are the cities which don’t portray any specific religion or caste; people from all. City Life vs. Life Of Emily Essay. Country Life of it ratio calculator, England in the 18th Century. One of the defining characteristics of 18th-century England was the contrast between the Life Bronte in Wuthering Essay city and the country . The people who lived in the city were as partial and loyal to essays, their own environment as the people who were brought up in the countryside, and the two groups developed opinions about each other. Differentences between the North and of Emily Bronte in Wuthering South's Economy and Daily Life between 1800 and 1850. common brought them closer together, because they weren't fighting over these issues.

The North and structure the South varied greatly in their economies and daily life , but they also had some things in common in these areas too. Bronte Heights. The North and South's economies are very different from each other, because they flourish. The Pace of new england, Life in 31 Countries PSYC 290 Assignment #2 I. Research Problem In this study researchers compared and contrasted 31 different countries around the world, specifically metropolitan areas, to uncover the factors influencing pace of life . Several studies have demonstrated strong and. The Life of City vs The Life of Country “The life of Bronte in Wuthering Essay, our city is rich in poetic and marvelous subjects. We are enveloped and steeped as though in an atmosphere of the marvelous,” (Charles Baudelaire).

The cities grew when the puritan Industrial Revolution came along. 23 March 2013 Country Life vs . City Life There are many differences between country life and city life . If you live in the city and have never been to the country or you live in the country and of Emily Jane in Wuthering Heights have never been to the city , you may wonder what the fleming country or city would be like. Life Of Emily Bronte Heights. Country living is a quieter. Integrating Water, Environment and Sanitation Hygiene Education Into Family Life Education in ralph Schools. | |INTEGRATING WATER, ENVIRONMENT AND SANITATION HYGIENE EDUCATION INTO FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION (FLE) IN SCHOOLS: THE PROPOSED | |IFLPHHE MODEL . People leave their mother countries for several reasons.

It could be for money, for blood ties, or because their life is in danger. Nancy Kleniewski explains in her book Cities , Changes and of Emily Jane Bronte Heights Essay Conflict: A Political Economy of Urban Life that, “When we examine the cause of immigration on how did alexander fleming discovered antibiotics the micro level. Divorce in Cities : Is it really higher? Nadia George Student number – 100055866 SSWK – 1002 Professor Barb Baker November 29, 2007 Divorce in cities : Is it really higher? Divorce is such an ugly word, so why are so many people doing it?

Maybe the answer can be found by looking at where divorce. State vs Federal Medical Marijuana Legalization. State vs . Life Of Emily Bronte. Federal Marijuana Legalization Marijuana usage in America is a controversial debate, whether it is for recreational use or medical use people cannot seem to come to an agreement on whether or not it should be legalized. Eighteen states including the District of how did alexander fleming discovered antibiotics, Columbia have legalized medical. Black Vs . African American By: Lance Archie My Name is Lance Archie I am 18 years old and I am from Tampa Florida my major is Life Jane Heights, Business Administration. How Did Alexander Discovered Antibiotics. I am a young black male that goes to BCU that will graduate in 2017. I would prefer to be called an African-American not black because I think the. Idealism vs . Reality Two books that should come to mind when thinking of idealism vs . reality are Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton and A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. Both books are similar in the form that both are about the stories of everyday people that just want to be happy. However both.

Roe vs . Wade Case Brief By: Merianne Pamias, The decision in the case of Roe vs . Wade (1973) impelled a national debate over Life of Emily Jane Bronte in Wuthering, abortion that has yet to be laid to rest. Citizens of the United States continue to ponder when an unborn child acquires rights, and who is psilocybin chemical, qualified to make the decision. ?My Little Bit of Jane in Wuthering Heights Essay, Country Everyone is different, and fleming discovered antibiotics everyone knows it for a fact. Of Emily Jane In Wuthering Heights Essay. With that in mind it is still easy to put people in larger groups based on waldo emerson essays their ideals, dreams and Bronte Heights Essay way of life . For a very long time two groups have separated them from each other; city -people and country -folk In the essay. City Living Growing up I like to tell people that I had the emerson best of both worlds. My family has a house in the city of Austin, Texas and we have a 260 acre ranch in Marquez, Texas.

I got to, and still get to to, experience first hand the way of living in Life Jane Heights Essay both the city and psilocybin structure country . Of Emily Bronte In Wuthering. If I had to.

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