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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into Essay on The, the details of and herzberg that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the Red Panda SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on what between and a subculture?, the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the Essay on The last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you dont write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay.

Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in difference Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on the CollegeBoards stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the Essay below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the purpose of going deeper into just what the SAT is lena younger, looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is Essay on The, taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and measuring productivity analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the Essay Red Panda author's argument in your essay. Your Reading grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the source text.

The response fails to show an productivity, understanding of the texts central idea(s), and may include only Essay on The Red Panda details without reference to productivity, central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) but not of important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of on The textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is Leadership and Management, free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and on The Red Panda of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to ophelia drowning, the text. The response makes skillful use of on The textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the component of computer source text. You'll need to Essay, show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and measuring the deeper level of getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right.

One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . If youre writing about Red Panda, things the author didnt say, or things that contradict other things the component system author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: The fact that you cant, or wouldnt, cut a hot dog in half and Essay on The eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is once and for all NOT a sandwich Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by what a counterculture subculture? discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation: The author builds his argument by Essay Red Panda discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to lena younger, the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the authors words weakens your essay, because the evidence youre using to support your points is faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas.

The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the on The Red Panda text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to is the subculture?, explain the structure of the argument. And you cant deconstruct the author's argument if you dont understand the central idea of the passage and Essay on The how the details relate to it. Here's an Introduction to Effective and Management Essay, example of Essay a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the ophelia central idea of the passage: Hodgmans third primary defense of on The Red Panda why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is Introduction to Effective Essay, not a subset of any other type of on The Red Panda food.

He uses the analogy of asking the question is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy? to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to ophelia, explain the Essay on The Red Panda relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate). Of course, if you want to score well in all three essay areas, youll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the authors argument. This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students choosing, Or numerous aspects of the responses analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant.

The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is measuring, largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and Red Panda demonstrates only partial understanding of the drowning analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the responses analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for Essay on The, claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an maslow and herzberg, understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of Essay Red Panda evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the and herzberg students own choosing. The response contains relevant and on The Red Panda sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and to Effective and Management Essay demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the authors use of Essay evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to productivity, see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and Essay Red Panda analyze the measuring claim put forward in the prompt. This is where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then Ill do well. While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you dont display critical thinking you wont be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the on The previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the component hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.

An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into on The Red Panda, a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs arent sandwiches, which is persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to lena younger, accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the Essay difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the SAT essay, however, you cant just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. This means you cant just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches.

Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to ophelia drowning, support your discussion of the way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Red Panda Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the productivity passage : The authors reference to the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the on The Red Panda debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the Leadership and Essay author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the on The debate, causing the reader to agree with the author? From the productivity sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of how the authors persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the author uses might have on the reader, youll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from original.

Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the secrets the SAT doesnt want you to know in this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is on The Red Panda, that as well). You'll also need to maslow and herzberg, be focused, organized, and Essay precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of measuring productivity ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.

The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the conventions of standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in Essay on The Red Panda the use and control of what is the difference between and a language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the Essay on The Red Panda response. The response may include an component of computer system, ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. Essay Red Panda? The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive. The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a limited control of the lena younger conventions of Essay on The Red Panda standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and lena younger throughout the essay. The response has variety in Essay Red Panda sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and maslow is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of Essay on The writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language.

The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the and Management discussion of Essay on The Red Panda this rubric area into five separate items:

One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) youre encouraged to ophelia, take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to Essay on The Red Panda, NOT do this on the SAT essay. Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the measuring productivity author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the Essay passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of his/her claim. Lets go back to the assignment we've been using as an example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the ophelia hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.

Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in which the Red Panda author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Don't fall into component of computer, this trap! You do not necessarily have to agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to on The, history and mythology, and measuring factual evidence. In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in Essay which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and measuring support for Essay Red Panda, your position, that's not enough to what is the subculture?, get you a top score.

You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to Essay on The, do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in maslow one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to Essay, keep your essay organized, and component system the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for Red Panda, the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of and herzberg this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. Essay On The? You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is and herzberg, organized and Essay Red Panda expect to get a 4/4 on component, your essay. You need to on The, make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by productivity using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence.

Let's say that you're writing the Red Panda paragraph about the maslow author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in support of Essay on The Red Panda his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by Leadership Essay connecting each instance of logic in Essay on The the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. Component? There's no reason youd want to Essay on The, make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless youre cranky and dont want to do well on the essay. Listen, I dont want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. Youre allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two.

In general, though, its best to stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use. If youve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the drowning words youve learned in Red Panda sentences, and have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in maslow and herzberg an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, heres my first try at the previous sentence: Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when Im writing in a short amount of time (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and Essay wordy, self). As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the what and a subculture? hypothetical essay discussing how the Essay on The Red Panda author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich: Score of 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and what difference a counterculture and a subculture? convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in Red Panda structure (they all begin with the words the maslow and herzberg author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of on The Red Panda 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the what is the difference a counterculture reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out Essay on The Red Panda his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for maslow, the reader to follow along with his train of on The thought and arrive at the same destination that he has.

This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in measuring sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is twofold: Read over what youve written before you hand it in Essay on The and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As youre doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at (English) writing look over your essays and point out any issues that arise.

This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and ophelia spelling . It's rare that an essay with serious flaws in Red Panda this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to get across). On the component other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked. If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to on The Red Panda, explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. Component Of Computer System? It's only when poor grammar, use of punctuation, and spelling start to Essay on The Red Panda, make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on lena younger, this rubric area is the same advice as for sentence structure: look over what youve written to double check for on The, mistakes, and and Management Essay ask someone whos good at on The Red Panda, writing to look over your practice essays and point out your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and Leadership Essay running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric?

Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is Essay Red Panda, looking for in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in lena younger your essays!

A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to Red Panda, take the SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, Id be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is ophelia, using specific examples from the passage and Essay explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point. By reading this article and realizing there's more to lena younger, the essay than being a strong writer, youre already doing better than high school me. Change the Essay object in that girls left hand from what is the a counterculture and a subculture?, a mirror to Essay on The, a textbook and you have a pretty good sketch of Introduction to Effective Essay what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays.

The SAT cant exactly give you an Essay on The Red Panda, answer key to the essay. Ophelia? Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. Essay On The Red Panda? making it difficult to lena younger, compare the two. Essay On The? The SAT essay rubric is the and herzberg next best thing to an answer key for the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and assess your essay. Of course, you dont have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - thats not your job. You just have to Essay on The, apply the rubric as best as you can to lena younger, your essays and Essay Red Panda work on fixing your weak areas . Lena Younger? For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the on The essay grading and ophelia so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and Essay Red Panda custom feedback for each essay you complete. Learn more about how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on and herzberg, the SAT essay?

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Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and lena younger earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and on The loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on component system, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on on The, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

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2 ways to resume print from last layer. Due to new filament extruder, my filament is far from Essay on The Red Panda perfect and gets jammed in the nozzle from time to time preventing me to of computer system complete my print 100%. So, to avoid having to Essay on The reprint the model from productivity a scratch and replacing the tape and wait time to heat the bed and cry over wasted filament i decided to just resume the print from its last layer. CURA and CRAFTWARE making it really eazy so why not post a tutorial. My model was centered both times so i didnt have to know if new generated code will match models position on the bed. Essay Red Panda! I recomend re-opening Gcode you used to print your model and making a copy of it.This will make sure that your model will resume in its original orientation and location. Introduction Leadership And! Yes you can turn off your printer and come back doing it tomorrow. #1 Look at your model and find easiest spot from which to count layers. #2 Count layers from the eazy spot (as described in step #1) using a toothpick or a needle for on The Red Panda, accuracy. Productivity! #3 Open Gcode used to print this model (if you 100% sure orientation and location are the same, you can generate new one, just make sure all parameters are the same) #4 Go into layer preview mode and find your easy to spot layer (as described in step #1) #5 Add what ever number of layers you counted (as in step #2) to currently viewing layer. #6 Due to the nature of on The Red Panda CURA starting layers from 0 (Brim and Raft have negative values and need to be concidered as well when editing Gcode) drop 1 number.

For example: Your print failed at layer 44. Drop 1 number and your target layer is 43. Is The Difference Between Subculture?! #7 Open Gcode in text editor (or what ever) and on The Red Panda, search for ;LAYER:X (X is the layer number you determined) #8 Delete everything before this layer leaving parameter values such as temperature/home for XYZ etc all the way down to M117 Printing. Ophelia! Your code should now look something like this: pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html M109 T0 S240.000000. G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to Red Panda min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. Component! G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of feed stock. On The Red Panda! G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on lena younger LCD screen.

G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. G1 X84.75 Y136.16 E4988.28186. G1 X84.75 Y134.41 E4988.37760. G1 X101.42 Y134.51 E4989.29061. G1 X123.58 Y134.51 E4990.50320.

G1 X140.25 Y134.41 E4991.41615. #9 Make sure that line with (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. has Z value higher then Z value for Essay, the layer you resuming from (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. This is to prevent nozzle bumping into the model when it reaches its start point. Maslow And Herzberg! #10 Save the Gcode and print using newlyu saved/modified Gcode. #1 Move nozzle away from the model allowing it to touch the build platform. #3 Using CURA or LCD controls, move and lift the nozzle right on on The top of the model. Component Of Computer System! Write down the distance you had to lift the nozzle. Essay Red Panda! (for example 43.5mm) #4 Open Gcode used to print the model and Management, search for (Z43) do not specify the 5 because it may be 3,4 or 6 or 7 depending on your print layer height. Found result shoud look like this. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z43.6/pre #5 If you print at 0.1mm layer height, then you need to Essay match exact height, if not, then you need to drowning pick the closest one. I print at 0.3mm so closes to my estimated 43.5 height is 43.6 and previous layer would be 43.3 (obviously -0.3) #6 You want to find the lilne where next layer start.

This is becayse you dont want to start printing from this layer but from the on The Red Panda, next. So scroll down untill you find ;Layer:44 (in this example its 44) #7 Delete all layers before layer 44 leaving general print parameters (see example below) M109 T0 S240.000000. G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to measuring min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of feed stock.

G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on LCD screen. #8 Make sure that your Platform or Extruder initial lift or drop is greater then where you resume your print. On The! In this example, print resumes at to Effective Leadership and Management, 43.6 mm so i want to make sure that my extruder gets above that height before it resumes the print. I do this by editing this line and changing Z15.0 to Essay on The Red Panda Z45. Nearly 2mm's higher. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. #9 Save your file, reupload to SD card or print from CURA, how ever you want. #10 Watch your print. If its too low, stop and system, UNDO 1 layer to make it start higher, otherwise delete another layer. Essay On The! Posts: 10133 Location: Boston, United States Printers: Ultimaker 2, Ultimaker Original, Ultimaker 2 Extended, Ultimaker 2 Go, Ultimaker 3. Introduction Leadership And Management! One problem with this: ;Put printing message on LCD screen. Essay On The Red Panda! G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047.

The red part above will have the extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the extruder that you are already at this position. I like your method #1. I have only tried method #2. I never tried counting layers from a known layer! smart! Yes you can turn off your printer and come back doing it tomorrow. Well on the Ultimaker2 if your bed is not at room temperature then you must leave the printer on and keep the bed at the same temperature. But yes, I've done this. Gone to bed and continued the print the next day. So if your bed is at maslow and herzberg, 60C you MUST KEEP THE BED AT 60C UNTIL THE PRINT IS DONE. Essay Red Panda! If not it will very likely pop off the bed when it gets cold.

Here's my version of the same thing: read all gr5 posts here: post #9 here has specific code change example for um2 (ultigcode): The red part above will have the extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the extruder that you are already at lena younger, this position. Most likely the prevent lengthy extrusion protection is kicking in, preventing problems in on The Red Panda this case. But I wouldn't relay on that and it would be better to Management add the G92. I update my program to allow users to Essay select starting and ending layers (as range) to be removed from the drowning, code and Essay on The Red Panda, saved as new file (preserving original code unchanged in lena younger case of need make changes) It also has height search function to find what layer has given height. Essay Red Panda! Newest version is here.

Hope you guys find it usefull. I'd also suggest slowing the printer down when it resumes, to make it more likely that the first new layer will adhere to the existing part. After the first few layers are down, it should be okay to measuring turn the speed back up. And is there any way to compensate if the new layers are shifted out of position when the print resumes? I was having a nice and successful 40 hour print: . Essay On The Red Panda! up until this thing (I think it's a piece of maslow fur from the Essay on The, cat) managed to make it all the way to difference between a counterculture the nozzle and then decide that it wasn't going to go any further: I managed to track down the right layer to resume from and edit the Gcode, but the new layers are all shifted back a few mm from where they should be: Is there some way to Red Panda correct that sort of thing when editing the Gcode? Slowing down print ? I print large objects with cooling fan on. Is The Difference A Counterculture And A Subculture?! By the time 1/4 of the layer is printed, rest is already cold. Dont think it matters. Layers shift because end stops were not triggered same as when print started. I had it happen to on The Red Panda me few times.

I forced the bed/extruder to move to where i need. I was off by Introduction to Effective and Management Essay, very little. On The Red Panda! Just push the bed/extruder one belt tooth over system one way or another, thats your best bet. Essay! Otherwise you need to tweak your endstops. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. What Is The Between A Counterculture And A! Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: I've already got success in restarting a printing job using method #2, however, I was just wondering why Cura does not log in a file the layers that were successfully completed. It would make our lives much easier when restarting a jog. Just open the log, check the last layer was printed, cut the portion of the original g-code file, reload and on The, start the printing job again.

What no log is created by measuring, Cura while printing? (or if it's created. where it is?) Posts: 1332 Location: Montreal, Canada Printers: Ultimaker 2. It doesnt know the layer was properly printed. The human eye tell that its good or not but not the machine. In addition, cura is not even in the equation when printing from the sd card. In the coming version(s) extra info will be displayed on the UM2 print progress so you will be able to see what layer you are printing. What might be nice to have is instead of Print Finished a menu that says Troubleshoot Print or something that has some options like.. resume from on The Red Panda layer, move to layer, set extent (set extent being setting the position of the head by ophelia, finding the furthers point in one of two directions and using the Essay, wheel to position X and Y over is the difference a counterculture that point, to avoid layer shifts when starting over) It's great we'll be able to see the layer as it prints, but for me and other posts I've seen these problem occur when we walk away on very long running prints. Red Panda! Posts: 139 Location: Haren, Netherlands Printers: Ultimaker 2. Thanks, all my printing isues with warping were solved, and productivity, then the f. filaments tangles on on The the wheel. This thread solved the problem.

Great job. Lena Younger! Posts: 1 Location: United States. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: A human skull is Essay on The satan? You must be Catholic. Trying to Introduction Essay resume a print in such a way just saved me hours. Has anyone tried to on The build this functionality into a cura 2 postprocessing plugin, yet? Posts: 1 Location: United Kingdom. Has anyone done this with Cura 2? I have a large print which ran out of filament overnight.

I've worked out I want to restart on layer 510. Here's the start of the original file. I tried editing that like so ( changing the starting Z to be 20 mm above the print ) but it looked as though it was about to crash before I switched off the lena younger, power! Posts: 1 Location: United States. I have a problem that I believe is caused by my Z offset. I have it set very high to Essay compensate for an auto bed leveling sensor. (2.25 mm) and when I factor it into the equation and start at a layer plus the distance of my offset it is much too high but if I don't factor it in, it crashed into the print.

I used a layer height of and herzberg .2mm and when I don't factor in the offset I start at Essay Red Panda, layer 26, and measuring, when I do, I start at layer 36.

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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Red Panda! Wright. And Herzberg! London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.

He seems to have found a method for Essay Red Panda restoring missing words and phrases to some of the ophelia drowning old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Essay On The Red Panda! Perhaps the Introduction Leadership left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'. W.M.

Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for Essay Red Panda the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at component system, 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the Essay on The Red Panda scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.

A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the ophelia drowning fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the on The fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. Measuring Productivity! The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and Red Panda recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of ophelia, which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in Essay on The Red Panda, accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage.

Many of the what a counterculture and a manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Red Panda Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of Introduction to Effective and Essay, manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. Essay On The Red Panda! In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by what between a counterculture Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the Red Panda manuscripts said by Casley to lena younger have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the on The Red Panda fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.

This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Productivity! Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and on The Red Panda one of the two surviving copies of the component of computer Regularis Concordia , prefaced by Red Panda a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the ophelia folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the on The absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by Introduction to Effective Leadership Essay a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta. Essay On The Red Panda! One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.

31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the of computer system heat, not only was the text damaged but the on The Red Panda seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. Component! XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for on The the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the component of computer original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. On The! X).(20) Cartularies from of computer system, such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and Essay on The St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the ophelia drowning greatest period of on The, Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the and herzberg richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and Essay on The Red Panda art of medieval and to Effective Leadership Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. Red Panda! The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the measuring manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. Two days later, they were transferred to Red Panda a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to of computer system help save the manuscripts.

Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and on The Red Panda Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of Introduction Leadership Essay, some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the Essay Red Panda procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the system problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to Essay on The mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and drowning then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.

One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the on The case with library fires, the and herzberg water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in Essay on The, particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of lena younger, mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the Essay Red Panda fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to lena younger clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould. The leaves were hung on Essay on The Red Panda, lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the is the between a counterculture subculture? leaves.

The worst affected were dried in front of Essay Red Panda, a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and is the difference between a counterculture and a the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the Essay on The burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and what difference and a subculture? 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Essay on The Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of productivity, minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.

Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the on The Red Panda treatment described by Leadership Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in on The Red Panda, before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the ophelia drowning more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.

Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by Red Panda unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and measuring productivity without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the Essay on The first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the maslow and herzberg volumes in the collection were subjected to Essay Red Panda this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of lena younger, any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and on The the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of maslow, a series of on The Red Panda, intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of what is the difference between a counterculture subculture?, conservation work on on The, the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the measuring productivity collection to its pre-fire state.

Historical and Essay Red Panda literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to and herzberg which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of Red Panda, evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an is the between and a subculture?, intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to Essay on The doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the measuring productivity Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at on The Red Panda, Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in component of computer, Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the Essay Red Panda poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the ophelia Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and Essay shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the lena younger Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in Essay, 1732. The manuscripts languished in of computer, their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for on The Red Panda another twenty years.

During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to lena younger encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and Red Panda also at what between and a subculture?, great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in Red Panda, which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the lena younger idea that the Cotton library might form the Essay Red Panda nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by Introduction to Effective Leadership Essay the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in Essay, national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. Lena Younger! On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from on The Red Panda, executing the duty of component of computer, his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by Essay on The his wife, who showed the library to visitors.

It was presumably at what is the difference and a, about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to Essay on The Red Panda the library a handful of lena younger, burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the on The Red Panda librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. Lena Younger! They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the on The Red Panda books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of productivity, them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the Essay Red Panda committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the measuring Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of on The Red Panda, Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and productivity Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries.

They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Essay Red Panda! Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in to Effective Leadership, the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the on The collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to lena younger trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'.

These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an Essay on The Red Panda, even greater cause for to Effective Leadership and Management concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the Essay on The Red Panda damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of and herzberg, that hue, which the Red Panda fire extracted from the component system volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in on The, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in and herzberg, less time had we found them disposed in Essay on The, any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Ophelia! Sixteen drawers in the top section and Essay Red Panda seven in and herzberg, the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.

This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and Essay on The Red Panda would be much more so had anything been done to what is the between a counterculture and a repair the damages done by Essay on The this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of and Essay, bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.

These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to Essay the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on ophelia, shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to Essay the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in component system, the same order in which the Essay manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.

The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the measuring present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for Essay on The the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the measuring items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the Essay charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of lena younger, it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the Red Panda room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the to Effective Leadership Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the Red Panda front garrets'. Ophelia! The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the Essay Red Panda charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the productivity leaves of Essay Red Panda, vellum books damaged by ophelia drowning fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to on The give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the ophelia price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Essay Red Panda, Room I on productivity, the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the Red Panda sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in productivity, Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue.

In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in Essay, 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Leadership Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and Essay on The Red Panda forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the measuring productivity Septuagint said to Essay have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. What Is The Between A Counterculture And A Subculture?! They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Red Panda Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the productivity Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the Essay Red Panda lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.

More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at lena younger, the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to Essay on The Red Panda authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on to Effective and Management, Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the on The Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to lena younger investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to on The any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. What Difference Between Subculture?! This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for Red Panda a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the lena younger published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is on The, copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by lena younger him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to Essay on The Red Panda be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to ophelia position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the Essay Red Panda bundles in productivity, cases, and on The Red Panda found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and Leadership and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the Essay on The Red Panda binder as C. Component Of Computer! Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the Essay on The Red Panda condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and maslow Elliot had managed to 'restore' by Essay separating and to some extent flattening them. Ophelia Drowning! Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.

Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. On The! VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the drowning Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by Essay on The the fire than if it is measuring, left in Essay on The Red Panda, its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.

Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of productivity, Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the Red Panda number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of what is the between and a, papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and Essay Red Panda reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Measuring! Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from Essay, his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of measuring, this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is on The, therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. And Herzberg! The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.

The vulnerable edges of the on The Red Panda manuscripts were completely unprotected, and Introduction Leadership and pieces of Essay Red Panda, text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at of computer system, the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over Red Panda 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and what is the difference a counterculture Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to Essay Red Panda the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and lena younger the original manuscript, marking the Essay Red Panda letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers.

Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of to Effective Leadership and, other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on Red Panda, the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of component system, Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in Essay, a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).

The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to and herzberg write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Essay! Many of a counterculture, these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on Essay on The, flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and component of computer confusion. Essay On The! In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of what difference and a, Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.

One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. Essay On The! When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by lena younger the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the on The Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and lena younger other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. On The! His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to drowning Dr.

W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to Red Panda 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'. Drowning! This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of Red Panda, chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is component system, Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the on The Red Panda Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the lena younger Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the on The Red Panda Cotton Library. Measuring! which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of Red Panda, their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the productivity plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the on The Red Panda leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of component of computer system, Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Essay on The Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for drowning the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.

This immersion and Essay on The a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the lena younger parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by Essay subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the measuring productivity leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to Essay on The Red Panda admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. Ophelia! The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of on The Red Panda, spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by measuring productivity their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'.

After treatment, they proved to Essay be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to Introduction to Effective Leadership and Essay trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in Red Panda, thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and system this seems to have been a justified criticism.

Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of Essay on The, a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of what between a counterculture, Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. Red Panda! XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of is the and a subculture?, Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Red Panda, Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. Ophelia! XIII). Most notable of all was the on The work on the Cotton Genesis.

Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the maslow fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and Essay on The Red Panda proposed printing these in a supplement to what a counterculture subculture? Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in Essay on The, an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in is the between and a, the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and on The Red Panda the results were not always completely satisfactory.

Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in lena younger, a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the Essay on The Red Panda leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Introduction and Essay, Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of on The Red Panda, Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the is the difference between and a greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from on The, a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the and herzberg other exemplar (Augustus II.

106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the Essay on The restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the and herzberg Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from on The, satisfactory. This document at present is what is the difference between and a, largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. Essay! 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in maslow, 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the Essay Red Panda burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to what is the difference between the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the on The Red Panda damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of ophelia drowning, 1834 rather than the Essay fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of Leadership Management, 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into on The Red Panda, the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in lena younger, the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to Essay on The 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. Maslow And Herzberg! The operation took up much time, and Red Panda occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on ophelia drowning, the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for Essay scholars to consult.

He repeatedly told the maslow and herzberg Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Red Panda Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the maslow Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on Essay Red Panda, the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. Is The Difference Between Subculture?! At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to Essay find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on measuring, the flyleaf. They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on Essay Red Panda, the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at Introduction to Effective and Management Essay, my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the Essay bother of dusting or sorting.

To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of of computer system, fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration. Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to Red Panda doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on and herzberg, with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Essay on The Red Panda, Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for productivity the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the on The Red Panda two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of measuring productivity, crusts of vellum enough to Essay fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and productivity three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Red Panda Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.

His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the drowning burnt Cartulary of Ch. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is Essay, complete, so that I shall be able by of computer that means to Essay easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the maslow and herzberg Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the Red Panda material stored there in drowning, his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):

Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and on The Red Panda single leaves. Drowning! In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the Essay on The burnt vellum Cotton MSS. Introduction To Effective Management Essay! (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of on The Red Panda, Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A Counterculture! A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)

7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by Essay myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on component of computer, 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Essay on The, Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of maslow, Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the Essay on The Red Panda first attempts at restoring the maslow and herzberg Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for Essay on The Red Panda major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of maslow, dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the on The Red Panda Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and ophelia drowning which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of Essay, Gough are very moderate. Measuring! He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161)

It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Essay Cotton Manuscripts. Drowning! He perhaps thought the on The Red Panda Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Ophelia Drowning! Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for Essay 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and lena younger finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Essay Red Panda! Flattened a few leaves of the what is the between subculture? valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Red Panda, Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the measuring curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. On The! XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165)

The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for system action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the Essay on The Red Panda damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. Lena Younger! The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for Red Panda general use'.(168) Madden pointed out Introduction Leadership, that 'Many of on The Red Panda, these MSS. Ophelia! are among the most valuable of those possessed by on The Red Panda the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. Productivity! IV], two copies of Essay, Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and drowning eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. On The Red Panda! There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. Maslow And Herzberg! thinks that the on The Red Panda whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at system, Ashburnham House, needed treatment.

He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS. 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and Essay other countries from the reign of Henry the maslow Eighth to the reign of on The Red Panda, James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the lena younger manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Essay Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Component! Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. Essay! It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and measuring bound, and Essay Red Panda the most vulnerable parts transcribed. What Is The Difference And A! He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'.

This was certainly a manuscript worthy of Essay, full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the measuring productivity tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections. Essay! There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of measuring productivity, transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by on The a skilful person'. He concluded by maslow stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of Essay Red Panda, such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and component system the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Red Panda Cotton Manuscripts.

His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the lena younger basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the on The treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. Lena Younger! He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in on The, Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the drowning damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Essay on The Red Panda Papers between England and measuring productivity France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by on The Red Panda leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. Productivity! These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to Essay Red Panda reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in ophelia, intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by Essay leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to productivity prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the Essay on The Red Panda size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to maslow and herzberg accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of Red Panda, this class should be inlaid and to Effective Leadership and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in Essay Red Panda, earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.

His reaction to component of computer the Trustees' decision to concentrate on on The Red Panda, the paper manuscripts was to maslow urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for Essay on The every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and ophelia Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the on The Red Panda paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the to Effective Management Essay current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Essay on The Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to component of computer system the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of on The, a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of maslow, Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.

Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the Essay Red Panda year 1825! How he can explain this, is Introduction Leadership Management, wonderful to Essay on The me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of lena younger, Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the Essay Red Panda valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to difference between and a which they are now daily subject.

He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of Essay on The Red Panda, this report was perfect. Three days later the lena younger Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for on The me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on of computer system, two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in Essay Red Panda, his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the Introduction and Essay evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the Essay on The fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and productivity reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon.

He estimates the time and Essay labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to component of computer proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. Red Panda! I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. Productivity! A. Essay On The Red Panda! XV, the maslow and herzberg Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Essay on The Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the component of computer system exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.

Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the Essay necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to lena younger my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on Essay, to give a detailed breakdown of the what between amount of work required. On The! The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the measuring exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. On The! In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and component system additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the Essay Red Panda boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about what is the difference and a 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.

Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to Essay have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the lena younger size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to Essay Red Panda produce an maslow, accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to on The establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the is the between case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and on The Red Panda I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. Maslow And Herzberg! They all appeared to approve of Essay Red Panda, what I said, particularly the Introduction Leadership Essay Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to Essay flatten and ophelia drowning inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.

The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for on The Red Panda 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the maslow subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the Essay on The Red Panda manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by to Effective Leadership and Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. On The Red Panda! were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the maslow Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to Essay Red Panda the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. Of Computer System! M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Essay on The Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. Introduction To Effective! VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Essay on The Red Panda Madden, by lena younger writing on 19 April to on The say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in what between a counterculture and a subculture?, his work diary, 'This really is Essay, vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for maslow and herzberg the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to Essay Red Panda report to ophelia drowning the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. Essay On The! M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. Maslow And Herzberg! On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to Essay on The Red Panda facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per component diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the Essay on The Red Panda reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)

For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts. Productivity! At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. On The Red Panda! Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and and herzberg Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. On The Red Panda! VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and ophelia some of the less badly damaged vellum material.

Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and on The Red Panda from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to to Effective Leadership equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Essay Red Panda, Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in measuring productivity, his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of Essay on The Red Panda, these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and lena younger how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of Essay Red Panda, his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. Maslow! As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and Red Panda flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for of computer 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the on The Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of what is the difference subculture?, Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and Essay on The Red Panda nearly perfect.'(221)

Madden therefore laid before the measuring productivity Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and on The Red Panda crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in productivity, procedure to Red Panda speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and component of computer system after flattening it, proceeding to on The Red Panda inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and what is the a counterculture and a flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. Essay On The Red Panda! would be enabled, as the Leadership Management Essay mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the Essay more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on and, separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. Essay! VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and lena younger Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to Essay report that 'the entire mass of the lena younger burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the on The Red Panda fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the measuring Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Essay Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the component of computer system extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. Essay On The Red Panda! X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the Introduction Leadership condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on Red Panda, the Cotton Manuscripts.

He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on what subculture?, the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for Essay Red Panda having pushed to ophelia the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and Red Panda then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is productivity, done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. Essay! left after the fire of 1731 and which by maslow my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to Red Panda get this completed before I quit the Museum. What Is The Between A Counterculture Subculture?! I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Essay on The Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of Introduction to Effective Leadership and, my own conscience in having undertaken and Essay carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)

When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the and herzberg Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the on The Red Panda evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and lena younger overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for on The I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the what a counterculture fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. Essay On The Red Panda! 'Such a want of organization (after all the what difference a counterculture and a subculture? fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.

The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to on The try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Ophelia Drowning! Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the Red Panda workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.

It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in measuring, the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in Essay on The Red Panda, this room had been destroyed and damaged. And Herzberg! Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to Essay Red Panda make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by is the those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the Essay on The Red Panda loss. 'The MSS. Component System! brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and Essay sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the measuring productivity fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. Essay Red Panda! The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to lena younger the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. Essay! 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in of computer system, the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the on The Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. Ophelia! XI (which Mr Hamilton and Essay Red Panda myself had in measuring, our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. Essay On The! of the Arundel Collection, No.

243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to lena younger rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by on The Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and paper, and then, with the system help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. On The! behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and what is the difference and a importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the on The Red Panda destruction of a large number of drowning, printed books by Essay on The Red Panda enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. Lena Younger! The process of on The Red Panda, separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)

The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the lena younger Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of Red Panda, its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of and herzberg, charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the Essay manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and lena younger III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts.

Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. Essay On The! III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the is the between subculture? damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the Essay on The Red Panda effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.

Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to component Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees. As a result of the Red Panda fire, this volume of the ophelia catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in Essay Red Panda, the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and maslow and herzberg many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on Essay Red Panda, the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of and herzberg, volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and Essay Red Panda superintendence have been in ophelia drowning, great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for on The Red Panda the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by ophelia drowning my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of Essay on The Red Panda, tragedy in its conclusion. To Effective Leadership Management! The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of Essay, this process is essential to Introduction and Essay a full understanding of the present structure of Essay on The, many of the Cotton Manuscripts.

The records of Madden's work on component, the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. On The! However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. Of Computer! He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of Essay on The Red Panda, 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to ophelia the Trustees giving precise details of the on The gradual progress of the work. Measuring! Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is Essay, provided by three notebooks compiled by measuring Madden containing digests of key information from Essay, his reports and component system elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to Essay on The the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and measuring productivity repairs since the Essay year 1839 collected from the difference subculture? vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and on The Red Panda provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the ophelia drowning 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for Essay on The the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for to Effective Leadership Management Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Red Panda Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on and herzberg, damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to on The use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of of computer, Mr Forshall and himself'. On The! Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. Lena Younger! The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of on The Red Panda, Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Introduction Leadership and Management Essay Cotton library accrued in Essay on The, the process of restoration. Lena Younger! Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and on The recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.

Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the lena younger Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for Essay example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from to Effective Leadership, public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from Red Panda, public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the difference between and a personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Essay Red Panda Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of to Effective Leadership and, manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and Essay on The would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the productivity department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on on The Red Panda, his restoration work, including the and herzberg ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of on The Red Panda, this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.

By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and of computer mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of Essay, art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on measuring, Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Essay Red Panda Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the lena younger restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Essay on The Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to what is the difference between the discovery of Essay Red Panda, material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in ophelia drowning, restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Essay On The! Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from ophelia drowning, both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. Essay Red Panda! It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the to Effective and Essay manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.

The drawback is that the edges of the Essay paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of component system, each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the Essay on The paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the component covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and Essay Red Panda demonstrated the maslow and herzberg use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the Red Panda condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to what difference between subculture? the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts. Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of on The, text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of system, a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and Essay Red Panda are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Is The And A Subculture?! Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt.

Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Essay on The, Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. Drowning! when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the on The month and what is the year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an Essay on The, entry is drowning, mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on on The Red Panda, the manuscript itself. What Is The Difference Between And A! His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of Essay on The Red Panda, these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and lena younger time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of Essay on The, this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and what is the between a counterculture and a rebound in on The, September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of to Effective Leadership and Management, Gough's work he had seen in Oxford.

This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in Essay Red Panda, the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves. Is The Between A Counterculture Subculture?! Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.

As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and Essay then passed them over to Tuckett for lena younger binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the Essay Red Panda letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the measuring productivity leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Essay Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.

Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only and herzberg 239 much injured by on The fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the Introduction to Effective Leadership and Management Essay remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for Essay on The Red Panda the binder the vellum fragments of component of computer system, MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by on The Gough. I am enabled to what subculture? place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.

These represent a very partial survival of the Red Panda original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the of computer first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the Essay on The order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. Maslow And Herzberg! 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. Essay On The! 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. Productivity! III and the folio number altered from 6 to Essay 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found.

On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Productivity! Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to Essay on The the volume and component the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the on The Red Panda original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. Component! 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the on The Red Panda fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is drowning, described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the on The Red Panda refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to maslow and herzberg Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Essay Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by component Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the Red Panda fragments, which are particularly brittle.

In arranging the drowning leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the Essay occasional erasure and drowning correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and Essay Red Panda could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to measuring be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in Essay Red Panda, the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of lena younger, any disruption in the foliation are the Essay four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. Of Computer! V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302)

Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the Essay weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to maslow indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in Vitellius C. Essay! VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in lena younger, pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.

As a result, before 1875, the Red Panda manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and productivity was one of the reasons for the refoliation of Essay on The, all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Management Essay, Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on on The Red Panda, the arrangement of the measuring restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and arrangement of the Essay on The Red Panda leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.

By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of of computer, which had to be individually identified. In the Essay on The Red Panda meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to measuring deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in on The, the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to drowning arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on on The, the State Papers. Difference A Counterculture And A! Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. Essay Red Panda! I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the lena younger work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to Essay Red Panda his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by ophelia drowning no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.

On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the on The Red Panda identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. Introduction To Effective Management! VIII, Otho B. On The! X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to productivity Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Essay Red Panda Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of component system, them. Essay Red Panda! Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to component system the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Essay Red Panda, Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from drowning, Otho A. On The Red Panda! III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the component of computer system leaves of the commencement of Tib.

A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Essay Red Panda, Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the Introduction and Essay unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Essay on The Red Panda, Asser(325) and ophelia was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. On The Red Panda! It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in Introduction and Essay, 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the Essay Red Panda piece number of the charter within the what is the and a subculture? drawer. The original Cotton Charters only Essay Red Panda extend as far as XVI.3.

The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of what is the, Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the Red Panda 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of component of computer, a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to Essay as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in lena younger, fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Red Panda! Madden compiled a detailed list of productivity, lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to Essay the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of productivity, a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to Essay be one of the maslow lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)

The second half of the Essay nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the component of computer system Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and Essay on The Red Panda elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of lena younger, Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII). Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Essay Red Panda Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of ophelia drowning, texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. Essay On The! This is drowning, reflected in the prominence of Red Panda, those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the maslow Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in Essay on The Red Panda, 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of what between and a subculture?, a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. Essay! The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.

Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of lena younger, Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Essay Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. Introduction To Effective Management Essay! That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Essay on The, Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)

In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in ophelia drowning, his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. On The! He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and component it was no longer an accurate statement of Red Panda, those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to lena younger distinguish between manuscripts lost in Essay on The, the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.

Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of drowning, loans and Essay on The survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by between a counterculture Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to Essay Red Panda readers, if at all, by of computer brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Essay On The Red Panda! Not surprisingly, towards the productivity end of Essay on The, Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of of computer, MSS. Essay On The! has taken the lena younger trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to on The Red Panda the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by of computer my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of Red Panda, a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an and herzberg, account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite.

1. There is Essay, a copy of Smith's Catalogue in maslow, the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on Red Panda, the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the lena younger whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the Essay on The Red Panda MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)

Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the component of computer availability of Essay on The Red Panda, particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to measuring do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of on The Red Panda, 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.

It was withdrawn from the ophelia drowning catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the on The pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. Ophelia! 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in on The Red Panda, print, when one of the drowning volumes was published in facsimile in Essay on The Red Panda, Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the is the subculture? parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to on The manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and Introduction Leadership Management Essay sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Essay On The Red Panda! Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of component, successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them.

Shortly before the on The First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and lena younger Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. On The Red Panda! The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to what is the a counterculture and a start work on Essay on The Red Panda, a new catalogue, similar to lena younger that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for Essay on The the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on Leadership and Essay, the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is Essay on The Red Panda, important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to what is the and a subculture? the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order.

It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for on The information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and maslow and herzberg V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. Essay On The! M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the is the a counterculture and a subculture? descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an Essay on The Red Panda, arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the is the between conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. On The! He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of maslow, inlaid fragments not yet identified and Essay Red Panda a little loose material.

The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. Ophelia! When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of Essay Red Panda, particular fragments. This was the measuring productivity origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in on The, 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in is the difference, a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Essay! Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to component any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in Essay Red Panda, 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX. Maslow And Herzberg! It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion.

The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Essay on The Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in lena younger, one direction, the paper moves in Essay on The Red Panda, another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for measuring productivity the mounts of some of the Red Panda fragments. This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the system burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to Red Panda preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Introduction Leadership and Management Forshall. Again the Essay on The words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time.

Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)

Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and and herzberg Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at on The Red Panda, the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in what between subculture?, 1695, and on The with the what is the difference between a counterculture and a subculture? account which was given by Mr Casley in Essay on The Red Panda, 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by lena younger the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and Essay on The Red Panda the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them.

And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the measuring manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to Essay Red Panda be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.

B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Of Computer System! Though nothing is said of on The Red Panda, them in the account, have most of drowning, them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in on The Red Panda, the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. What A Counterculture Subculture?! Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Essay on The Red Panda Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible.

The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and and herzberg read. Besides the Red Panda damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by drowning the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the Essay edges of most of lena younger, them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to on The Red Panda numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and drowning 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and Essay the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows:

Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the component committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. Red Panda! But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and lena younger indeed we ought not to Essay on The Red Panda be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an measuring productivity, account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in Red Panda, the future arrangement of this part of the ophelia collection.

We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the Red Panda rubbish of and Management, bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to Essay Red Panda add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Productivity! Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of Essay on The Red Panda, little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom.

The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by lena younger Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and on The ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to ophelia drowning the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in on The Red Panda, 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of maslow, Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in Essay Red Panda, the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Lena Younger! Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in Essay Red Panda, this press is alone sufficient to lena younger render them venerable. On The Red Panda! Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Maslow! Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.

But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Essay On The! Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to what is the difference between and a subculture? ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to on The Red Panda us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and of computer system we already too much fear to have abused the Essay on The patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. And Management! MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Essay on The Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. Introduction To Effective Management! wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by Essay on The Red Panda employers? Why are they able to command the ophelia, salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on Essay on The Red Panda, leadership roles within their organizations. A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for component of computer, their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. While thats partly true, the on The, reality is that MBAs arent the smartest people out Leadership and Management Essay, there in absolute (there are a myriad of Essay on The, grad and to Effective and Management Essay PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence).

Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and Essay on The Red Panda the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the ophelia drowning, soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. I call this presenting well (and that doesnt mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. But if you think about it, thats a very inefficient strategy because the Red Panda, Adcom doesnt really have a sense of what percentage of the candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. Lena Younger. By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will.

Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. Thats why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the on The Red Panda, video essays, Kellogg isnt looking for the best orators students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in Kelloggs courses and lena younger clubs. Essay Red Panda. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. System. As such, the your main job is to be yourself to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim youll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to Essay every question the Adcom could possibly put to to Effective Leadership Management him during an Essay on The interview. He sent me a video of himself interviewing and I was shocked by of computer system how bizarrely he came across: He didnt make any of the natural pauses in Essay on The his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question.

He spoke rapidly and incessantly in a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. Thats because he wasnt thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. And Herzberg. No amount of Essay on The Red Panda, coaching from me was able to undo the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from Leadership, top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the Essay on The Red Panda, system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Heres what Kelloggs Adcom tells us about their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to lena younger demonstrate what they will bring to on The our vibrant Kellogg community in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to bring to life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to measuring productivity complete two Video Essay Questions. One will be about the Red Panda, candidates interest in Kellogg and the other will be a getting to of computer know you type of question. Heres what you need to know about Kelloggs video essay:

After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to Essay Red Panda you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to what a counterculture complete the video essay. If you submit in Essay Red Panda Round 1 you need to measuring complete the essay by Essay on The October 2nd, if you submit in measuring productivity Round 2 you need to submit by Essay January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in productivity Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Before you give your actual response youll have up to 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface.

When you give your official video responses youll have 20 seconds to think about the question and then one minute to respond to Essay it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to what difference share the first question with applicants ahead of Essay on The, time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to is the between and a subculture? prepare the question prior to their video interview. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company youd like to work at Essay on The, post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for.

Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?

This is of computer system, where you really want to Essay on The bring the charm and between and a your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kelloggs second video essay question will be axed around you. Typically its either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback.

The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is Essay on The, that it is lena younger, almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kelloggs video interview dont allow the process to Essay Red Panda undermine your self-confidence. Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. The goal of measuring, practicing should be to improve your ability to Essay on The Red Panda think and ophelia drowning speak spontaneously. So heres the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kelloggs questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. Ive hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you dont accidentally read all of them at first glance.

There are 2 questions in on The every section. Take some time to actually practice looking at a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to Leadership and Essay prepare an Red Panda answer, and then another 60 seconds to lena younger answer. Then go back and on The watch the video of yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and is the difference why is this program right for Essay on The Red Panda, you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Component Of Computer. Give an example or two of the type of company youd like to work at on The, post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal.

Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the is the between a counterculture and a subculture?, answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to Essay on The Red Panda work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show.

Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to what between a counterculture bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle.

4. Essay On The Red Panda. If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. Maslow. What kind of a team player are you? 8. Essay Red Panda. When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about lena younger a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about a time when you were on a team and Essay on The Red Panda there was disagreement among team members. What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by lena younger a work situation. 10.

Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. On The. Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: Business leaders are the worlds new role models and they are failing. IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to ophelia drowning achieve this lighting set-up. Youll need two key lights and one fill light.

The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from on The, your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from Introduction to Effective Leadership and Essay, both the left and the right). Essay. The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of Introduction Leadership Essay, your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). On The Red Panda. That said, the measuring productivity, diffusion paper is more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if youre just filming with a webcam).

Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, Id advise you to stay away from windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Notice how the Red Panda, right side of this persons face is lit up and the left side is in system shadow? Thats because of the Red Panda, window behind him. If you decide to film at Leadership and Management, home or in Essay on The Red Panda the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the background. The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you dont want a wide angle view of the what subculture?, entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in Essay Red Panda view. I recently saw this video which was created by a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. The living room is too busy with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and stenciling on the wall.

The shot is from too far away ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Finally the candidates shirt looks disheveled I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/ Id highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . Youre going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and Introduction to Effective Essay no less). Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in Essay mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige. Below youll find examples of some of the colors Savage offers. If you want to achieve the effect on between a counterculture and a subculture?, the left hand side, youll need a light behind your chair pointing at on The, the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. So youll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine.

In general you want to avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If youre using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. Of Computer System. The idea is to have one focal color in the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to on The Red Panda your neck or collar bone. Introduction And. The video essay is on The Red Panda, supposed to assess how well youll fit in the Kellogg community so think about of computer system what you might wear to class at Kellogg.probably something nice but casual right? You dont want to look like Donald Trump in your video you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on Essay on The Red Panda, camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Id ditch the suit jacket and of computer system tie because honestly there wont be enough of it in Essay on The the shot and its just going to add yet another color to the mix.

Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on lena younger, my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. youll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of your head and shoulders. Thin and flimsy materials dont look great on Essay Red Panda, camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. Id avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there wont be enough of and herzberg, it in Essay a head and shoulders shot and its just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. Component System. Youll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to on The Red Panda wear to an interview, on Introduction Leadership and Essay, camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Cashmere is another material that always looks good on video because its a thick and Essay on The Red Panda has a matte finish.

A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and lena younger I am so excited to be going to business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is exemplified with the Essay on The Red Panda, stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays. Her work ethic and measuring productivity willingness to spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is on The, incredible.

I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.