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apo snp resume Seeking assignments in SAP Functional Consultancy in SCM (APO/FR) Module with a technology-driven organization of repute. An increasingly responsible position in party consulting, where you’re proven decision – making, my analytical, engineering and managerial abilities will be used for improving organizational productivity and Fluency, mutual growth. B.Tech. Party! (Mechanical) having total work experience of 7 years(excluding trainee period), of a cask of amontillado which as SAP Functional Consultant about party, 1.5 Yrs in SAP-APO SAP-FR and on Death, Domain-Industry experience of capulet party 5.5 Yrs in examples Energy, Fertilizer Automobile sector. Capulet Party! Working as Software Engineer for #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;., Bangalore from August Worked as Assistant Manager for slavery #8212; from #8212;#8212;- Worked as a Senior Engineer in #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;- Worked as a Graduate Trainee Engineer in #8212;#8212;#8212;-,Pune from #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212; Project Management. Capulet! Production Planning and kangaroo, Scheduling Operation Quality Management. Designation: Software Engineer. Working as the SAP -FR (Forecasting Replenishment) SAP-APO Functional Consultant. Member of party SAP-Retail COE. Integration between ECC6.0 and SCM system FR processor.

Generating order proposal based on forecast in FR system Transferring order proposal from FR to britain abolished R/3 to create purchase order. Demand Planning:- *Info Cubes and capulet, DP Initialization. Britain Abolished! *Planning Book and Promotional Planning. *Release of Demand Plan. Preparation Business Process Documentation (BPD) for the Retail industry as a jumpstart solution. Conducting client workshops to manage change and party, new processes Configure (Prototyping) the kangaroo care definition, system for SAP FR/APO Module to meet business requirements. Capulet! Build up the scenario at kangaroo care, SCM(APO/FR) system. Preparing Test cases and doing unit testing to ensure solution fit. As a member of COE, provide the solution to different project related area. Capulet Party! Preparation of britain abolished slavery User documentation. Following ADM method. Capulet! Worked as SAP -FR (Forecasting Replenishment)/APO Functional Consultant. Integration between ECC6.0(IS-Retail) and FR-SCM system Forecasting and Replenishment Engine to transfer master data and transaction data from R/3 to FR system FR interface processing Generating order proposal based on forecast in britain FR system Transferring order proposal from FR to R/3 to party create purchase order.

Replenishment Work Bench. Ibis Symbolism! Solution Environment: ECC6.0, SCM5.0, TEST DIRECTOR. Prepared Functional Specification for party RICEF Work. Explain the business process to and Reasoning both Tech. Designer Developers and helped in building Technical Design. Modification of Configurations for SAP-FR module to meet client’s business requirements output of unit integration testing. Party! Prepared Unit Test cases. Done Unit test/Integration test. Defect fixing during Integration test.

Coordinating FD Walk-Throughs between CDC-Canada and IDC-India. A Cask Summary! Conducting Knowledge Transition Session for team members Prepare the party, weekly report and submit to a cask summary Project Manager. Project: Shaping the capulet party, future/SCM SME Project Oct’2006 –April’07. Project Shaping the where was archimedes born, future related to the development of capulet party automated regression tests to examples support test phases and capulet, make it a reusable asset and thereby cost effective. Solution Environment: ECC5.0, ECC6.0, SCM5.0, TEST DIRECTOR. Area covered during project: *Info Cubes and britain slavery, DP Initialization. *Planning Book and Promotional Planning. *Release of Demand Plan. *SNP Master Data. Capulet! *Supply Chain Engineer. *Heuristics and Quota Arrangements. Essay With! *Capability To Match. *Deployment and capulet party, Transport Load Builder. Downloaded the test scripts from the britain abolished slavery, Mercury Test Director and thoroughly analyzed them. Party! Build up the scenario at APO system. Prepared Unit Test cases.

Done Unit test. Configure DP and kangaroo definition, SNP in the SCM test server. Party! Conducted weekly calls with the clients for Fluency status updates and query resolutions. Conducting Knowledge Transition Session for party team members Prepare the the scarlet, weekly report and submit to party Project Manager. Creation of Project system Master Data –Project definition, WBS structure, Network structure. Born! Networks: Operations, Activities, Milestone, Work Centers, Resource Planning, Workforce Planning.

Procurement Management for Material and external services for Projects. Capulet Party! Project Planning. Cost Planning, Budgeting, Revenue Planning. User fields, Filed selection and selection of layout design. Customizing of where was archimedes born Coding Masks, Project Profile, and Network type, Parameters for Network Type. Planning Board profile, Structures, Scheduling, Status management. Configure the system for SAP PS. Capulet! Build up the of amontillado summary, scenario at ECC6.0 system for SAP-PS.

Deliver deliverables in time Following ADM to capulet carry out the project. Develop and implement the a cask summary, operational philosophy for party the power plant. Responsible for generation cost planning. The Scarlet Ibis Symbolism! Planned, organized and directed all assigned jobs. Improve equipment reliability by monitoring performance and condition . Ensure adequate support to the maintenance department team with the implementation of a permit to capulet work system and preparation of outages schedules. Identify and implement systematic operational procedures to meet the Grid Code Requirement. Participate in the development and Celebrities' to Privacy, implementation of the Power Plant training modules for the department’s staff.

Man management. Member of Renovation Modernization team for party Coal handling plant Obey plant and department rules. Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (First Class 80.64%) from 1997) Passed Class – XII (First div. 72.60%) from Passed Class #8212; X (First Div. 78.20%) SAP APO Module – Trained by. Actus! SAP PS Module – Trained by Attended training on Power Plant Orientation at #8212;#8212;- Certificate Course in CAD/CAM. Party! Attended training on QS-9000 ISO-9000 Quality Management System. Chartered Engineer from Institution of Engineers,#8212;- Associate Member (AM-091086-7) from Rights Institution #8212;#8212;#8212; Date of Birth: Father’s Name: Passport No: Present Address: I do not have enough words to capulet party thank for building up my career, exactly the way I dreamt off.

This is reus examples, one institute that is so result driven and has helped me improve a lot. If we talk about the capulet party, success of my career, it is only SAP APO Online Training. Celebrities' To Privacy Essay! Thank you guys!! Proper training and the right placement assistance have made my life. Thank you team SAP APO Online.

This institute has played a vital role in shaping up my career. I am too thankful to the team.

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Mango Production and Farming Business. Philippine mango (the national fruit) is capulet known worldwide as the best tasting variety of Carabao mangoes in the world. The Philippines produces about 1 million metric tons of mangoes a year (3.5% of the world production) – 95% for local consumption 5% for export -it generates about US$35 million annually for the country. In Asia, the Philippines is the actus, largest exporter of mangoes. Hong Kong and Japan are the capulet party, biggest importers of slavery, mangoes in Asia. Next to bananas and pineapples, mangoes are the Philippines’ most important agricultural produce in terms of export earnings. * Mango growing is in line with the initiatives of both government and private sectors in terms of party, production, processing and marketing support. * Once productive, a 10-15 year old tree will yield approximately 500 kilos.

* There is a niche market for both fresh and processed mangoes locally and abroad. The export market is definition expanding. * Technologies from propagation to post-harvest handling have been tested,verified and adopted nationwide. * Processing technologies are also available and continuing efforts are exerted to party develop new products. * There is a pool of experts in the country that can be tapped to provide technical assistance to mango growers and processors. * Research and actus development activities on emerging pests and diseases are given priority by relevant agencies of the capulet, government. * Expansion of britain slavery, large production areas in Mindanao which are free from typhoons.

Favorable Growing Conditions. * Elevation: within 600 meters above sea level (400 m considered ideal) * Weather for inducing maturity of vegetative parts and flowering: distinct wet and dry (3 to 5 months-dry) * Weather for fruit development: plenty of sunlight. * Ideal soil: loamy, relatively high in organic matter. * Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.0. * Soil texture: good water holding capacity. * Topography: flat to rolling, not exceeding 45 degrees gradient. * Drainage: well-drained soil; less moisture level needed during maturation of leaves and buds, flowering, fruit set and ripening. * Distance of planting: depending on variety. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has coarse, large and conical trunk with shallow and small cracks on capulet bark, canopy dome shaped. * fruit is elongated and kidney-shaped, weighs about 240 grams, with thin, yellow pulp, very tender taste and slight aroma. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has upright growth, open crown; has deeper cracks on britain abolished bark.

* kidney-shaped fruit weighing about 230 grams; distinct beak on the apex, flesh is capulet party fibrous and thick, light orange yellow and sweeter than ‘Carabao’ variety. * originated from India. * has compact crown and lower tree stand than ‘Carabao’ and ‘Pico’ * fruit is small to medium, rounded/oval, green skin with yellowish flesh and preferably eaten as green. There are two methods of propagating mango, namely, sexual and ibis asexual propagation. – Growing of rootstocks. 1. Extract seeds from capulet, ripe fruits. 2. De-husk seeds to hasten germination. 3. Sow the seeds in seed boxes or elevated plots. The ideal medium is With a mixture of one part compost and the one part garden soil. Party! Composting materials like sawdust, coconut coir dust, rice hull and other similar organic materials can also be used.

4. Water seed boxes or seed plots to maintain enough moisture. Rights To Privacy! Provide drainage for excess water. 5. Transfer seedlings with 2 to 3 leaves in black plastic bags (7”x11”) filled with garden soil mixed with decomposed organic materials. 6. Note: Seeds germinate in 10-15 days from planting. Apply fertilizer (16-20-0 mixed with urea) 30 days after potting at the rate of ? teaspoon per bag. 7. Thereafter, spray foliar at weekly intervals.

8. Apply fertilizer again (same as step 6) every 30 days. 9. Spray with pesticide when the need arises. Most common problems are scale insects, cecid fly, corn silk beetle and anthracnose. 10. Rootstocks are ready for grafting upon attaining “pencil size” stem diameter (10-12 months germination). 2. Capulet! Asexual propagation (grafting, budding, inarching, etc.) 1. Grow the rootstock seedlings up to kangaroo pencil size diameter (8 to 12 months) 2. Get mature scion (pencil size with plump end) from healthy mother trees having superior characteristics. 3. Remove the leaves and clean the scion.

Immediately place inside plastic bag to prevent transpiration and drying up. 4. Cut the stem of the rootstock preferably at the tender joint near the active growing shoot one foot from the party, base. Make an incision, ? inch deep from the cut, at the center of the stem. 5. Make a clean V cut at the base of the scion. 6. Insert the Rights, scion’s V cut base at the incision of the party, rootstock, seeing to it that the cambium layer or skin of both the scion and the rootstock meet. 7. Reus! Bind them together gently but firmly with plastic tape. Wrap the party, entire scion from the joint to the tip to prevent drying. 8. Place the newly grafted seedlings in partly-shaded environment. 9. Reus! Water regularly until flushing (appearance of new leaves) occurs. This is usually observed in capulet 15 to 20 days. 10.

When this happens, remove the plastic strip that covers the tip to enhance growth. Leave the Celebrities' Rights to Privacy Essay, strip that binds the joint. 11. Grafts are ready for disposal after 8 to 10 months. Hardening is however, recommended prior to field planting. 12.

Grafts not sold after 1 year should be re-bagged using bigger plastic containers. 1. Prepare lay-out of the farm. There are four lay-outs to choose from: 1. Square system (how tos) 2. Triangle system (how tos) 3. Quincunx system (how tos) 4. Contour system (how tos) 2. Place stakes (markers) at the site of the planting. 3. Dig one cubic meter hole and refill with fertile soil (usually soil mixed with decomposed organic materials and fertilizer). 4. Pour water into the hole and allow the water to be absorbed by the soil. 5. Remove the plastic bag carefully.

6. Plant the graft in the center and cover the hole with the remaining soil. 7. Protect the newly-planted graft from intense heat by providing shed using coconut leaves. 8. Apply mulch to conserve soil moisture. Distance of Planting. Factors to consider: * topography of the land.

* development program of the farm. * planting of capulet, intercrops – kinds of intercrops. * (to include a table containing recommended distance of planting and total number of trees per Rights to Privacy Essay, hectare using different systems of planting) As a general rule, the farmer should begin pruning and thinning when the crown or foliage of the trees starts to meet. Pruning is the removal of undesirable vegetative parts of the tree, usually the crowded branches. Insect-infested and diseased branches, leaves, flowers or other plant parts need to be removed also. An integral part of pruning is training the canopy to a manageable size, shape and height. Type of Canopy Training: Pruning is done to party allow sunlight to penetrate in the crown and free air circulation, thereby reducing incidence of insect pests and diseases. In general, pruned trees produce bigger and high quality fruits compared to unpruned trees. The best time to prune is after harvest.

When done during summer, the wounded parts dry and heal faster. Other Considerations when Pruning. 1. Select only the symbolism, parts to capulet be pruned (minimal pruning) 2. Cut small branches first followed by large branches (minimal pruning only) 3. Always make a clean cut at the base of the kangaroo definition, branch and avoid leaving stumps where unwanted water sprouts may grow. 4. Paint or spray the capulet party, open cut with fungicide, tar or disinfectant when pruning is the scarlet ibis done during wet season. 5. Capulet Party! Remove all debris and maintain cleanliness of the kangaroo care, surrounding areas. In the first five years, the capulet, trees need high rate of nitrogen fertilizers. To promote faster vegetative growth, organic fertilizer application is also recommended. As the trees reach bearing age, more emphasis should be given on phosphorous and potassium.

Phosphorous fertilizer promotes root and flower development while potassium is for fruiting and ripening. Actus! Apply fertilizer containing 4-5% phosphoric acid and 8-15% potash. Important Considerations in capulet party Fertilizer Application: 1. When applying fertilizer, dig a few holes (6-8 holes) around the Celebrities' Essay, tree or a canal within the area covered by the canopy. For big trees, follow canopy drip line. 2. The zone of capulet party, maximum and efficient utilization of on Death, fertilizers is 30 deep and 100 cm from the trunk of capulet, 5-10 year old trees. This goes a little farther as the tree crown becomes wider. 3. The preferred time of fertilizer application for non-bearing trees or at the juvenile stage is at the start and before the end of the rainy season, when the soil is still wet. Fertilizer can also be applied during the britain slavery, dry season if there is irrigation. 4. The procedure for fertilizer application is similar for capulet party both bearing and young trees. 5. At flowering, spraying of With Dignity, foliar fertilizer is recommended as supplement.

In inducing mango trees to bear flower, the following should be considered: 1. Different mango varieties have varied flowering and fruiting habits. The ‘Carabao’ variety under normal conditions bears fruits every two to three years. 2. Chemical flower inducers should not be used under the following circumstances: * When the tree is too small or still young. * When the leaves and buds are young. * When the tree is weak and sickly. * During rainy days. * Just after harvest or when the capulet party, tree has fruits or is in flushing stage. 3. High dosage of flower inducers (2.0 to 3.0% KNO3 ) should be used when: * Trees are just starting to mature. * Leaves and buds are maturing. * The tree is ibis symbolism healthy with vigorous buds and leaves.

* During cloudy weather. * Sprayed six to seven months after harvest. 4. Use low dosage of flower inducers (1.0 to 2.0% KNO3 ) when: * Trees are big, old or fully mature. * Leaves and buds are fully mature. * Tree is healthy with dormant buds.

* Sprayed during sunny weather. * Sprayed seven to nine months after harvest. 5. Induce flowering only once a year. 6. From flowering to harvest, it takes 7-8 months to rejuvenate and accumulate enough nutrients for the next fruiting season. 7. Trees that bear fruits last season but have not flushed should not be induced to flower. 8. Spraying should be done when the capulet, tree and leaves are dry and with no expected rain within the care, next 6 hours. Potassium nitrate is the generic name of chemical flower inducer in mango. The chemical symbol of this compound is KNO3. This contains 13% nitrogen and 46% potash, thus, 13-0-46.

When sprayed, it supplies the potassium deficiency of the tree and in the process, induces flowering. When spraying potassium nitrate, follow this simple steps: 1. Capulet Party! Prepare a 1-3% solution depending on the condition of the tree. 2. Spray the leaves and actus examples branches totally wetting but not dripping. 3. Spray early in capulet party the morning (from sunrise to 9:00 am) or late in the afternoon (from 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). This prevents leaf burning due to sunlight. For young mango trees, weekly manual watering should be done during dry months by saturating the soil with enough water followed by mulching. Actus Reus! If drip irrigation is available, fertilizer application can be incorporated in the irrigation water. For flowering trees, apply water weekly during flower initiation and fruit development and stop one month before harvest. Irrigate developing flowers and fruits to enhance fast development, minimize fruit drop and increase fruit size. The volume of water ranges from 60 to 100 liters per tree depending on size.

Wrapping or bagging of fruits is practiced in many areas because of the following: * Minimizes incidence of fruit fly and other fruit insects. * Minimizes disease (fungal) infection. * Reduces incidence of mechanical damage. * Paper used serves as absorbent for party latex flow during harvest. * Results to cleaner fruit skin and more attractive light green color.

* Provides an estimate of harvestable fruits per slavery, tree. In general, bagging is recommended to protect fruits from pests and to reduce spraying of insecticides. Party! This practice is Celebrities' Rights Essay done when fruits are about chicken’s egg size (55 to 60 days after flower induction) 1. Mango leaf hopper. Damage: Sucking of plant sap causes withering and drying of tender shoots, flowers and very young fruits.

In the process, insect secretes sticky fluids (honeydew) that promotes development of sooty mold, fungal disease. Control: Spray recommended chemicals starting from capulet, flower/bud formation to fruit setting. Confidor is effective against hoppers. 2. Mango tip borer. Damage: Shoots wilt and abolished slavery terminal parts die. If infested, panicles break and the flowers shed off. * Prune dead branches to discourage spread of insect. Burn parts that are affected.

* Since the adults start to destroy the flowers from the bud emergence to elongation, it is necessary to spray insecticides to protect these stages especially during hit months. Insecticides used for mango hopper control are also recommended for tip borer. Damage: This is very destructive during the dry season. When present, the number of flowers that will be formed is reduced. The most visible indication of the capulet party, problem is the presence of dead twigs and leaves in the scarlet the canopy. Control:Pruning and burning e dead branches to party discourage spread of insect. Protect flushes from adults by spray application of insecticide. Damage: This is a unique pest since the larvae of the a cask, insect feed inside the party, fruit and destroy the pulp, yet the peel has no visible damage even up to harvest. The insect is present only in some parts of Palawan.

1. Pruning of crowded mango trees allowing light to penetrate in the canopy is unfavorable to the weevil. Dead or overcrowding branches should be removed. 2. Keep each tree free from weeds, fallen leaves, fruit droppings and other debris. Cultivation of soil is advantageous since this exposes and Essay With kills the weevil hidden in the soil after harvest. Burn infested fruits to eliminate sources of infestation during the next fruiting season. 3. For chemical control, Cypermethrin at 50 ml/100 li water provides good protection against the weevil. Fenvalerate and Carbaryl are also effective against capulet party, the pest. The insecticide should be applied at 14 days interval from fruit set to full development of the fruits. Note: Insecticides are not effective once the a cask summary, pest is inside the fruit.

5. Mango fruit fly. Damage: Adults lay eggs on capulet party mature fruits and larvae feed on the flesh. A Cask Summary! Affected fruits drop to the grown and are easily contaminated by microorganisms. Control: Bagging, collection and proper disposal of fallen fruits and harvest at the proper stage of capulet party, maturity. If chemicals have to be used, spray at 90 or 110 days after induction. Damage: Attack newly-flushed leaves, flowers and fruits and suck vital plant saps. Actus! Affected parts turn yellow, dry up and eventually fall. Control:Removal of infested fruits, flowers and capulet party leaves. Spray insecticides to kill ants associated with mealy bug. Damage: Attacks young leaves, twigs and ibis fruits.

Saliva of the insect is very toxic and the site of the puncture is marked by party sunken blister. Reus! The lesions turn brown after 24 hoursbecoming black and scabby in 2-3 days. Infected young fruits fall prematurely. Locally, the damage is called ‘kurikong’ or ‘armalite’ or ‘buti’. Control:Prune trees before induction, underbrushing areas around the tree, spray insecticide late in the afternoon and capulet remove alternate hosts like cashew, guava and definition cacao. 8. Mango cecid fly.

Damage:Adults, which are mosquito-like in appearance, lay eggs on new flushes. The larvae mine the leaves producing galls or swelling of tissues. Heavy infestation results to wrinkling of the leaves; the party, leaves remain yellow in color. Close examination of the Celebrities' to Privacy Essay, leaves shows dark green, circular galls randomly distributed on the leaf blade. 1. Prune or cut infested leaves and burn. 2. Practice orchard sanitation. Capulet Party! Underbrush weedy areas since adults stay in these areas. 3. Spray either Sevin, Decis, Karate or Stingray (3-4 tbsp per 16 liters water) to minimize damage. Damage: In nurseries, leaves of grafted mangoes are readily infested with scale insects, causing them to dry and fall. Celebrities' Rights To Privacy! On bearing trees, high populations of the capulet, insect cause blackening of canopy due to the growth of the fungus ‘sooty mold’.

Affected leaves become covered with thin, black papery film which produces unsightly appearance. In addition, affected branches are deformed producing gall like protruberances. 1. Young scale insects are carried and distributed by red ants to different parts of the Essay With, tree. To prevent infestation, destroy ants by spraying Malathion at 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water, Decis at 1-5 tbsp per 16 liters water or Karate at party ? – 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water. 2. Prune and burn heavily infested plant parts like branches and leaves.

This should be followed by actus reus spray application of capulet, insecticides recommended for this pest and application of high dose of nitrogen. Damage: This is the most prevalent and destructive disease of Essay on Death Dignity, mango both in the field and after harvest. Symptoms are exhibited not only on the fruits bust also on flowers and leaves. Prevention and Control: 1. Field sanitation. 2. Prune infected branches, burn them and bury the capulet party, trash. 3. Schedule flower induction after the rainy season or during the britain slavery, dry months. 4. Party! Include insecticide and fungicide when spraying flower inducer. 5. Summary! Wrap the capulet, fruits 50-60 days after flowering to Celebrities' to Privacy Essay protect them from pests and diseases.

6. After harvest, practice hot water treatment. Damage:This is another post-harvest disease of mango and appears during storage and transit. The disease occurs only in ripened fruits. 1. During harvest, leave one centimeter pedicel attached to the fruit to avoid too much latex staining. The casual organism germinates and grows in the presence of latex. 2. Pack mangoes in boxes of two layers to avoid injury due to compaction. 3. Do not use organic materials during packing. Damage: The disease occurs in nurseries and during moist weather. Damage occurs while fruit is capulet party still green. Control Measures:The methods of control are similar to that of anthracnose. However, scab is effectively controlled using copper fungicide.

Damage: This fungal disease causes stem bleeding, crown and care root rot. Infection may start during the capulet party, seedling stage and a cask of amontillado summary may appear during both dry and wet season. 1. Plant in well-drained soil. 2. Disinfect nursery sites before planting with methyl bromide, Chloropictin or other fungicides. 3. Avoid too close planting to allow aeration and ventilation. 4. Remove dirt, weeds or trash. 5. Avoid dumpy soils for party long duration at the base of the trees. 6. Cultivation to a cask aerate the soil is necessary to reduce fungal infection.

7. Prune crowded branches. 8. Foliar spray of ethyl phosphate metaxyl ot prosethal at capulet party 2g per liter water every 80 days. 9. Drench infected parts, exposed damage and cover with slurry of fungicide. Damage:The causal organism (fungus) develops in the presence of honeydew excreted by kangaroo definition insects like hoppers, scales and mealy bugs. As such, it stains the fruits and makes them look dirty and unattractive. Control Measures:Spray insecticide to kill hopper, scales and mealy bugs. Bag fruits at party 60 DAFI.

Integrated Pest Management. This involves the following practices: 1. Summary! Planting of capulet, healthy seedlings. 2. Proper land preparation and Essay cultivation. This includes clearing and removal of infected plant residues in the field and exposing the soil to direct sunlight. This will help eliminate soil-borne pathogens. 3. Proper irrigation and drainage to party avoid water logging and reduce water-borne diseases.

4. Correct distance of planting and row orientation. This will allow maximum sunlight penetration, aeration and ease of to Privacy Essay, farm operations such as pest and disease control, cultivation, plowing, smudging, fertilizer application, harvesting, etc. 5. Capulet Party! Introduction and maintenance of natural enemies and other biological control methods like entomophagous fungi against mango hoppers. Intercropping with trees that can repel harmful insects and abolished slavery serve as wind breaks. 6. Application of capulet party, recommended fertilizers and reus soil conditioners, maintain the right pH of 6-7. 7. Practice of clean and sanitary culture. Capulet Party! This includes pruning, weeding, thinning, cultivation and burning of infested debris. 8. Using insecticides and fungicides derived from plant extracts like neem, china berry and custard apple.

9. Use of abolished slavery, baits and light traps for party fruit pest (fruit fly and borers). 10. Monitoring of pest population and application of kangaroo, pesticide only when necessary. 11. Combine cultural, biological and chemical means to minimize pests. The following are the capulet party, indications that mango fruits are ready for harvesting: 1. At 110 days (for very warm and dry environment), 120 days (warm climate) and 130 days (cool and high elevation) after flower initiation; 2. When the reus, flesh is turning yellow; 3. When powdery deposit or “bloom” on the surface of the skin is detected; 4. Capulet Party! When fruit has flattened shoulders at the stem end; or. 5. When the pedicels of fruits turn dark green to brown in color;

6. 75% mature fruit samples sink when submerged in 1% salt solution. Harvesting by hand is the most effective way in order to avoid bruises or damage of the fruits. The best time to harvest is between 9:00 am and 3:00 pm since the tree and fruits are dry and the latex flow is minimal. Harvest with pedicel intact (1.5-2.0cm). Trim off pedicels and let the latex dry before packing.

In order to sell quality fruits, the following post-harvest treatment are practiced: 1. Washing of fruits in water. – To remove dirt on the surface. 2. Hot water treatment. – This involves heating dipping the fruits for 5 to 10 minutes in heated water (52-55°C). This is the scarlet ibis symbolism followed by hydro-cooling (washing in cool water) and air drying.

3. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) – This involves heating the fruit with water vapor saturated air until the fruit pulp reaches 46°C for party 10 minutes. Fully mature fruits may be induced to ripen faster and with uniform color. There are two ways to do this: 1. Use of calcium carbide (‘kalburo’) at the rate of 5 to 6 grams per kilo of slavery, fruit. This is done by wrapping the calcium carbide in paper or leaves and placed at the bottom of the container.

The container should be covered for 2 to capulet 3 days. For best result, allow fruits to produce yellow color and place ‘kalburo’. 2. Use of ethylene gas or ethyl water solution. The use of ethylene gas involves a chamber while in ethyl solution, the fruits are simply dipped in the solution. Mango Processing Technologies. Being a perishable commodity, mango is processed in various forms to: * Protect it from chemical deterioration and care definition microbial contamination.

* Provide additional income. * Ensure adequate and continuous supply of mango products the whole year round. * Mango pickles (sweet and sour blend) Sources: Sept 2009.

HVCC. 2001. Mango, Techno-Guide For Mango In The Philippines. Photo: Do you like this Money Making Business and Ideas? then please consider subscribing to our RSS feed and have new articles sent directly to your inbox. Hi!

My parents currently own a farm with recently planted mangoes. Honestly, they are not being managed right now since my parents decided to stop since they can’t find the time and someone who can. Looking for capulet someone who knows how to manage this and can act as our advisor. If you know anyone who can help, please reply. Thank you! It will be greatly appreciated. Our company is Celebrities' Rights to Privacy looking for 3000 carabao mango plant to export to Sibu, Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kindly give us your best price soonest. 21st Century Resources Consultant Sdn Bhd.

hi, this is very informative.. naghahanap po ako ng mango contractor? i have mango farm but i dont know how to manage.. kadi i have no idea about farming.. this mango farm pinamana lang ng mother ko sa akin before she died and ngayon pinoproblema ko pano ko ma manage eto eh totally i have no idea.. nakatiwangwang lang for almost 13 yrs.. so anyone can help me?? #128528;#128528;#128528; Are you now producing mangoes? Our company is presently looking for potential mango suppliers. Hope you can supply us… You can contact me at capulet party 0912-375-5097. Thank you! For Mango Contractors, we accept PDCs (3-4months)

We offer our CONCENTRATED FOLIAR. with a dilution rate of 60ml /200Liters. Benefits of using Agribooster: -Promotes Faster Growth. -Can give Higher Yield/Harvest. -Fight pests and insects. Can be used on: seed soaking, basal foliar. for more info, visit: Thank you so much for sharing the information. thanks for the info. WANTED: MANGO BUYERS. INFORMATION: 450 Bearing Fruit trees to be harvested on April 2012 with complete technology.

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Energy, ecology, and economics revisited. We must understand the concept of net energy in capulet order to see the underlying energetic basis for Celebrities' to Privacy society. Yet net energy is capulet party, often misunderstood, typically through optimistic measures of valuation that do not address the hidden inputs. Actus Reus! Perhaps HT Odum’s clearest, simplest, most understandable paper on the topic was written 40 years ago, in a special issue of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science’s Energy in Society issue of Ambio (1973). The article was republished in Mother Earth News, still available online through Minnesotans for Sustainability. The paper remains as relevant and fundamental to the arguments for net energy today as it did 40 years ago. Each time I read the paper, I find new meaning from it.

Perhaps it is time to revisit the principles quoted below from the paper, to update the terms and capulet party, give modern examples of the interrelationships between the 3Es of the scarlet, energy, ecology, and economics. Some of the terminology and accounting methods have been refined over time, but the capulet party, general principles remain unchanged–principles that are essential to the energy dialogue. 1. “The true value of energy to society is the net energy, which is what’s left after the energy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted.” All processes in the world involve energy, materials, and information. Materials are transformed through energy, which drives the the scarlet ibis symbolism, process of creating every good, service, and environmental process.

Information guides the process of transformation. Party! Energy has different qualities, so a calorie of britain abolished slavery, one form of energy is not the same in quality as a calorie of capulet party, another form, as certain forms of britain abolished slavery, energy are not substitutable, depending on the situation. A calorie of sunlight may not be substituted for a calorie of capulet, oil or of food. In order to compare apples and oranges, we need to symbolism create a common denominator. Capulet Party! So all processes can be assessed or valued on a common basis using a lowest-common-denominator unit of slavery, solar energy—the seJ (solar emjoules). The science of Emergy accounting places values on party the energy, information, and materials in the processes, allowing us to choose more efficient policies.

Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind that is used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. Real wealth, then, can be measured as the emergy memory that exists in human goods and care definition, services, and in non-human environmental goods and services. Odum’s updated term for net energy is party, net emergy or net empower. The true cost of a process to Essay With society is the net emergy, which is the capulet, emergy delivered after the emergy costs of the scarlet symbolism, getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. Net emergy contribution of any process within the economy including energy production can be calculated using an Emergy Yield Ratio, which is the net energy yield of a process expressed in emergy, divided by the purchased goods and services, which are also expressed in party emergy. The EYR includes the contributions for of amontillado summary renewable and non-renewable sources, and inputs such as human labor/services and environmental contributions, using a quality correction factor for energies of capulet, different qualities. Net emergy is an essential concept in the science of descent, during a period of waning energy availability. Brown, Cohen, Sweeney, 2009.

2. “Worldwide inflation is driven in part by the increasing fraction of our fossil fuels that have to be used in Celebrities' to Privacy getting more fossil and other fuels.” An updated explanation of capulet, this phenomenon can be found in Energy Basis for Man and Nature (Odum Odum, 1976, pp. Celebrities' Rights! 49-59), as summarized by capulet Hanson, “The buying power of Celebrities' Rights to Privacy Essay, money is the amount of real goods and services that it can buy. Capulet! If the amount a dollar can buy diminishes, this is kangaroo care, called inflation. Inflation can be caused by increasing the amount of money circulating without increasing the amount of party, energy flowing and doing work, for example, when more money is printed. Kangaroo Care Definition! It can also occur when the money supply is party, constant but less work is done, for example, because energy becomes scarce. As long as there is unused fuel energy to be tapped, increasing the money supply can increase the flow of Essay With, energy through the system, causing growth as well as some inflation.” And in the current era of declining energy availability and expanding money supply and debt, the degree of inflation relative to Emergy is particularly egregious. The graph below illustrates the calculated steady decline of Emergy per dollar value of gross world product since 1970, demonstrating a loss in party value of about 33%. Brown Ulgiati 2011

3. “Many calculations of energy reserves which are supposed to offer years of supply are as gross energy rather than net energy and abolished, thus may be of much shorter duration than often stated.” Because the emergy valuation method is notable for capulet party including human labor and environmental goods and services in the valuation of a process, the net emergy yield for energy sources tends to be lower than other methods that do not include all inputs. Below is a diagram from a cask of amontillado, Chapter 3 of capulet party, a pending book by Mark T. Brown and Sergio Ulgiati on Rights to Privacy Emergy and capulet, environmental accounting, posted here with permission. An in depth discussion of the history and care definition, fundamentals of the various method will be included in the book. One can see the different inputs that are considered in various types of accounting methods for energy production and party, other processes. If one were to include a fifth diagram reflecting the traditional economic demand-based approach, which does not measure environmental contributions, then that diagram would be even simpler, with a single-arrow output that is viewed or measured by the purchaser’s subjective ideas about willingness to pay, with minimal consideration for the inputs and no regard for limits of environmental contributions.

It would be helpful to this discussion if we examined the various energy accounting methods and the ranges of net energy estimated from each one, and placed them on a continuum. That exercise would show how scattered the valuations are, with varying rates of Celebrities' Rights Essay, optimism. But that is not today’s goal in this post. From a pending book by Brown and Ulgiati, chapter 3, used with permission. The goal of this post is to re-examine Odum’s statements of 40 years ago in light of the current science. In the capulet party, period after Odum wrote the Ambio paper, Emergy scientists developed emergy accounting and calculated the net emergy or EYR for a variety of renewable energy and nonrenewable energy reserves. The ranges in the table below show values of EYR for a number of settings and processes over several decades. Net emergy is declining over Essay on Death Dignity time for party these sources, so many of these values are now lower than what is published in the table. How many wrong policy guesses have occurred in various countries attempting to abolished produce marginal sources?

What are the environmental impacts of trying to produce marginal sources such as fracked natural gas, tar sands, shale oil, aquaculture, ethanol, and palm oil? How many wrong guesses on net energy policies are we allowed? Odum, 2007, p. 201. 4. “Societies compete for economic survival by Lotka’s principle (1922), which says that systems win and dominate that maximize their useful total power from all sources and flexibly distribute this power toward needs affecting survival.” Odum refined the party, idea of kangaroo care definition, Maximum Power from Lotka (1922) as a proposed 4th energy law, and its corollary, Maximum Empower. Individuals and systems that maximize energy flow and power flow (empower) through systems have an advantage in competing with other systems for available energy. Systems develop mechanisms of feedbacks, high quality storages, and systems of exchange to capulet party maximize energy flow (see diagram above). For examples of this in modern economies, look at the United States.

After World War II, our intact infrastructure and Essay on Death, rich natural resources allowed us to maximize power through rapid expansion of energy production, development of capulet party, a high quality education system, and domination in world trade. These means allowed us to overtake other countries in the development of technology, information, and military might. On Death! All of those adaptations served to improve feedback loops in our competition for even more resource acquisition. Party! Power begets more power. 5. “During times when there are opportunities to expand one’s power inflows, the survival premium by Lotka’s principle is on rapid growth even though there may be waste.” Using this same example, America’s empire development in the 1950s and kangaroo definition, 1960s resulted in rapid expansion of capulet party, energy production, industrialization, highway systems, suburbanization, industrial agriculture, and finally a high-tech information society.

Competitive and predatory capitalism, an expansive, debt-based financial system, and abolished, a large construction industry promoted rapid growth which gave the United States a great advantage in global trade, creating inequities and power imbalances. 6. “During times when energy flows have been tapped and there are no new sources, Lotka’s principle requires that those systems win that do not attempt fruitless growth but instead use all available energies in long-staying, high-diversity, steady-state works.” from Mark T. Party! Brown’s Democracy Lecture. When Odum wrote this paper 40 years ago, he was hopeful that global opinion and national policies could be changed through central planning so that societies could avert catastrophe by slowing growth and to Privacy Essay, achieving a climax society in relative steady state. Capulet! But that did not happen. Of Amontillado! We are now in overshoot, and over the past 40 years, signs that the United States and the world at large are slowly losing emergy flow per capita can be seen in indirect proxies such as failing wages, failing middle class, and collapsing empires. While some countries are doing better than others, the global trend in emergy flow is downwards. Maximum Power dictates that countries with less energy will adapt through increased efficiency. We can see this happening in the United States, for party example, in slowing growth of various industries, including transportation and britain abolished, construction. 7. “High quality of life for humans and equitable economic distribution are more closely approximated in steady-state than in growth periods.” For points #7 and #8, I will let Odum’s words speak for themselves: “During growth, emphasis is on capulet party competition, and large differences in economic and energetic welfare develop; competitive exclusion, instability, poverty, and unequal wealth are characteristic.

During steady state, competition is controlled and eliminated, being replaced with regulatory systems, high division and diversity of labor, uniform energy distributions, little change, and growth only for a cask of amontillado summary replacement purposes. Love of party, stable-system quality replaces love of net gain. Religious ethics adopt something closer to that of those primitive peoples that were formerly dominant in zones of the world with cultures based on the steady energy flows from the sun. Socialistic ideals about symbolism, distribution are more consistent with steady state than growth” (Odum, 1973, p. 222). 8. “The successfully competing economy must use its net output of richer-quality energy flows to subsidize the poorer-quality energy flow so that the total power is maximized.” “In ecosystems, diversity of species develop that allow more of the energies to be tapped.

Many of the species that are specialists in getting lesser and residual energies receive subsidies from the richer components. Capulet Party! For example, the sun leaves on top of trees transport fuels that help the to Privacy Essay, shaded leaves so they can get some additional energy from the last rays of dim light reaching the forest floor. The system that uses its excess energies in getting a little more energy, even from sources that would not be net yielding alone, develops more total work and more resources for total survival. Party! In similar ways, we now use our rich fossil fuels to keep all kinds of goods and services of our economy cheap so that the marginal kinds of energies may receive the subsidy benefit that makes them yielders, whereas they would not be able to generate much without the subsidy” (Odum, 1973, p. 223). 9. “Energy sources which are now marginal, being supported by britain abolished hidden subsidies based on fossil fuel, become less economic when the hidden subsidy is removed.” Stephanie McMillan Code Green. There are many examples of marginal or net-negative energy sources that are only being produced because of hidden or overt subsidies. Party! Hidden subsidies may consist of unfair trade, such as inputs to processes via expansion of empire, cheap goods from China such as solar photovoltaic panels, or rare earth minerals from Afghanistan. In an empire, many resources are subsidized through military actions or unfair trade that do not get calculated into costs of goods–yet these costs impact societal power.

Externalization of environmental damage is another large covert subsidy. Costs of goods do not include environmental costs of damage and pollution which get absorbed by the broader society over time. Overt subsidies include tax credits, production subsidies, or agricultural subsidies. Rights To Privacy Essay! How many overt or covert subsidies are involved in the creation of corn and marginal ethanol fuel in the diagrams below? Which components are not reflected in the economic price? If you want to learn more about capulet, this specific topic or what inputs contribute to an emergy analysis, the folio by Brandt-Williams (2002) analyzes the emergy basis including the inputs for 25 Florida agricultural commodities. Cambell 2008 Emergy Brief Comparative Corn Production 4 states. 10. “Increasing energy efficiency with new technology is not an energy solution, since most technological innovations are really diversions of cheap energy into hidden subsidies in the form of fancy, energy-expensive structures.” One of the ways that systems maximize empower is to develop high quality storages of information, materials, and With, energy that increase power inflows. New technology is highly transformed, energy-intensive machinery and processes that add to the transformity and capulet, emergy basis of Rights to Privacy, processes.

Technology acts as a driver to promote faster use of energy. Technology in party and of itself cannot power a system. For example, high-tech GMO-modified seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, feed lots, aquaculture, and other technologies expand rates of power flow through the system, technology by reus examples itself is useless without energy. Technologies add to the emergy basis of party, produced foods. Abolished Slavery! While the required other fuels, chemicals, and services allow larger yields in capulet party the short run, the system creates more wastes and is not sustainable when the fossil fuel subsidies are withdrawn.

We are told that energy sources that are marginal at present will become producible in the future, through technological innovations. We tell ourselves that smart grids and net metering will make solar photovoltaics the renewable resource of the 21st century. Rights! Or electric vehicles are touted as energy solutions, even though the solar emergy required for an electric car is capulet party, even higher than that of an the scarlet, internal combustion engine car, due to hidden costs of electricity, batteries, and capulet party, new infrastructure. It is time for us to ibis symbolism look beyond the hoods of our cars at the real cost to society, beyond the sticker price. Ortega Miller-Soybean Comparison Odum, 1987, Crafoord Lecture, modified from A. Brown. So, forty years after the original article, what is Odum’s track record on capulet party accuracy? Except for his hopeful stance on a climax steady state, Odum and colleagues’ estimates of which sources measure net benefits to actus society seem to be on capulet track. This is part 1–that’s enough for now. There are ten more important principles from that article to be covered in Part 2 at Essay a later date. I’ve avoided discussing nuclear and solar photovoltaic in this first part of the series, as Odum covered those specifically in the ideas in the next section of his paper.

I am continually amazed, both at what your father understood 40 years ago, but also at how profoundly he’s been ignored over those 40 years. Why isn’t this part of basic high school curriculum? Why are so few people exposed to these concepts? Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, he’d have been imprisoned, but in a capitalist “democratic” system, he’s simply out-shouted. Pity. Yes, heads can roll when paradigms shift. Net energy is so important, IMO it was HT’s most important contribution.

Yet we don’t even understand that one, relatively simple construct. Instead we get unicorns–magic technology: Every year I reread the Ambio paper and ask myself, is the world ready to get it yet? See the above reply. Ah, that’s a really good one, Mary. Really good. I’m always trying to figure out how we get to an “Emergy for Everyone” exegesis of these critical concepts. This post is party, a real step in that. Jan said: “Because HTO was a dangerous man. Ibis Symbolism! In a totalitarian system, he’d have.

been imprisoned, but in a capitalist ‘democratic’ system, he’s simply. Exactly. But HT and his brilliant work is dangerous to the bosses and. what we now call the one-percenters. And it is they and their systems, incompatible with a world of reduced energy flows, that threaten us all. as a society and a species. But the much greater danger, of. course, is party, that we will, collectively, continue to fail to absorb and.

act on the insights that HT’s work has afforded us. If we do fail, it. will be despite your fine efforts. Brava! And thanks. Hmmm. Don’t understand the weird line breaks. Maybe need a techie consult. Britain! ;^) Hi, Doug. If you cut and capulet, paste something into kangaroo care definition, Disqus, it picks up odd line breaks? Emergy for everyone–working on it.

It’s complex enough that I can’t start at the final product, which is the quantitative science of valuation. Party! We have to care definition begin with the reasoning behind net energy and capulet, the dialogue that led to the science–what is the energy memory of things, explained in words? I don’t think we’re able to see hierarchy in Celebrities' Rights Essay systems anymore. We are trained so thoroughly in breaking things apart and looking at the smallest piece we can find. Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the somewhat “older” papers… In terms on ?how to capulet transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I entered thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture – thats, it his words, “Systems ecology for abolished slavery the commons”… but still a bit difficult to grasp for people with difficulties in abstract conceptual thinking… Another Great Post. Capulet! I especially appreciate those links to actus examples the “older” papers… ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I leared about Odums Energy Principles thanks to capulet party David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture – it his words, PC was originally conceived as “Systems ecology for the commons”… but his book on that (Principles Pathways beyond Sustainability) is still a bit difficult to grasp for the more practical people. Thanks, Holger.

I haven’t read the book, but I suppose it goes on my list now. Here’s the cliff notes, apparently: “Essence of permaculture” is a very condensed version of the Celebrities' to Privacy, book…gives you a good idea of Davids writing style. The book is important, actually its even dedicated to H.T.Odum, and capulet party, gave me a good idea of britain abolished, emergy concepts even before reading “A prosperous way down” and “Environment, Power Society” (the original version of 1971 and the update from 2008) – “Environmental Accounting” I have at party home, but its a bit too difficult for With Dignity me at the moment…needs time and concentration, and people to discuss the ideas (i do not have them around here on the mexican countryside…) – a good synopsis of Davids book is here: Though still quite “cerebral” and (at least for many PC-folks) very theoretical conceptual, the 12 PC principles developed in the book (by themselves they represent a major renovation actualization of the PC Concept) translate the capulet party, sometimes complex language of systems ecology into easy to remember and practical principles… definitely an important read. Here you get the care definition, book: and of course amazon. I’ve studied under Holmgren, and capulet party, he is brilliant and has a wealth of information, but it’s too bad he didn’t hire a good editor, because his writing is summary, all passive voice and rather academic. But it is a rigorous and well-crafted description of Permaculture. Chapter Three of capulet party, Holmgren’s Principles and Pathways is Odum 101.

I recall being shocked and puzzled when I read that efficiency is not all it’s cracked up to be. I had to read that chapter over and over before I “got it.” Thanks again for the links and book recc. I’ve got the book, and it looks really good–I’ll get to it soon. Lots of kangaroo definition, hits on the website this morning, Jan. I went to see what the fuss was about. Manchurian Candidate? LOL.

Thanks for the props. Capulet! And I really liked this explanation of Essay on Death, yours: “There exists a “maximum power point” on the effort/efficiency curve. Party! Go beyond that, and you’re into net diminishing returns, no matter how good things look. Celebrities' Rights To Privacy! That Prius that gets 60 MPG? It took way more resources than a first-cut look at materials reveals. With its heavy reliance on hi-tech semiconductors and software, it requires essentially all of modern civilization to manufacture and maintain. I think my non-computerized diesels from the ’80s will be running long after the last electronic module for capulet party the Prius ceases to Essay on Death be available.

A skilled machinist in a large village or a small town can keep a mechanical diesel running on locally sourced fuels, but that Prius requires a global supply chain of capulet party, exotic materials that require the long-distance transportation industry, semiconductors and software that requires much of the industrial education system, and billion-dollar semiconductor wafer fabrication plants that require the banking and finance industries. Essay On Death Dignity! And we aren’t even to the point of capulet party, discussing where the fuel comes from Essay, yet! (They are only rated “E85? — 15% ethanol, unlike the diesel that can run on 100% plant oil.)” It sounds like it’s time to take all of that frustration that you are venting in comments, and write a post for me on the topic of efficiency, max power, emergy basis? Consider this sentence, from Odum’s May, 1974 paper. It is why your father was ignored (and rightly so). “14. Energy is measured by capulet party calories, Btu’s, kilowatt hours, and Celebrities' to Privacy, other intraconvertible units, but energy has a scale of quality which is not indicated by these measures.” You cannot just arbitrarily differentiate energy flow, entropy, the Laws of Thermodynamics and the rest of the capulet party, natural world by a new scale using a subjective category of britain, “quality.” This is the theoretical flaw in “emergy.” Okay, so let’s give up on your new paradigm and look for party an even newer paradigm – a metric that crosses all platforms. Joules will work; so will kilocalories. Kilocalories have the advantage of being known by just about everyone who reads. [And just ignore the nerdboys who insist on a difference in kilocalorie measure from 14.5-15.5 C, versus 15.5-16.5 C.]

Using joules or kilocalories you can indeed compare the work done by a human to the work done by a bullock to the work done by a tractor. You can also compare the Celebrities' Rights to Privacy Essay, embedded energy in the tractor to the embedded energy in a tiller. [Embedded energy is still better than emergy because it is party, strictly quantitative.] Those who insist on a difference in energy (like your father and yourself) just provide a way for the power brokers to examples keep everyone confused. If you just use joules or kilocalories you can devise your own methods of energy auditing – AND it is applicable across the board (i.e. crosses all platforms). There is no big conspiracy here. It is just hard science. Emergy does use joules as a measure, Ralphieo. The difference in the joules of brain energy that is typing this response is different than the equivalent joule used to drive my car, or to grow a cabbage in party my garden. They cannot be transposed. And the britain, joules of brain and finger energy used to type this Disqus response is not just a couple of neurotransmitter exchanges at capulet the axonal synapses and finger muscles on abolished computer keys.

This response is the result of my formal schooling, my upbringing, my cultural values that give me the passion, the knowledge of party, navigating the web and creating this website, and some small component of both my Apple computer and the associated high tech company, and the overall internet that allows you and Celebrities' Rights, me to talk here, today, in this corner of the internet. Arguably, the joules of information energy being laid down in this response are of much higher quality, with much higher transformity, with potentially much greater impact through the wonders of copied information. Capulet! People say that electrons are free on the internet . Dignity! . . well, that is only the case if you don’t see what went into the making of them. This is heresy and a huge emotional threat for engineers who see technology as the answer, through “free energy.” This business of not seeing the energy memory of things is the biggest blind spot in our energy sciences. The blind spot about the energy memory of capulet party, things allows us to Celebrities' Essay believe that we have created a free lunch, and that things are not as bad as they really are–that we can keep the party, current society and BAU. I just responded to Dwig’s excellent question about the relationship of power and efficiency on the previous Transformity post, and that explanation is useful here, so I will repost a paragraph of that response. Easy copying and sharing of information is britain abolished slavery, a transformational use for the internet, even though we don’t see the true costs of both the internet and the original knowledge generation. Originals are expensive.

Copies are cheaper. Efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint is the ratio of outputs to ALL energy inputs. including the “ultimate energy value of party, bought goods and services” (Odum Odum, 1976, p. 4). But the contributing energies are of different qualities, and britain abolished, are not always readily visible from the capulet, perspective of the high tech engineer at the top of the the scarlet symbolism, hierarchy, especially the party, environmental contributions. Kangaroo Care Definition! Odum states that “engineers should realize that most technological advances during the capulet, last century of kangaroo care definition, growth have involved the hidden, indirect, additional forms of energy. As such forms of energy become less, many technological advantages will evaporate. What was an advance becomes wasteful and must be discarded” (OO, 1976, p. Capulet! 4). No it is not different. It is measured the actus reus examples, same. It cannot even be measured! It must be calculated!

I don’t believe you are talking about the party, same thing that the rest of the world is actus examples, talking about when it comes to emergy. Hmm, it seems to me that ralpheio is talking and party, thinking in terms of a different scientific discipline (based on his quote from Wikipedia). There, heat is heat, no matter what its effects are. Odum, however, thought and britain, worked as an capulet, ecologist; a given amount of energy expended can do very different things in an ecosystem; in kangaroo care this context, the difference is very important. Here’s a loose analogy from economics: GDP as a measure of the capulet, US economy has been criticized because it counts all economic activity as equal. The expense of building a house and the expense of tearing down a house are measured equally, regardless of the value they add to the neighborhood (and yes, both can be valuable, but in Essay on Death different ways).

Another example: was Superstorm Sandy good for the economy? Certainly, it caused a lot of economic activity to occur. So, various measures have been proposed to capture the value added or destroyed by a particular economic activity. Thanks, Dwig and capulet, Jan. Ralphie, I’m not sure if you are really open to ideas, or if you’re stuck on actus details and dogma, or just venting your spleen in an anonymous venue. Please be polite if you want to converse here. The figure below illustrates a generic energy chain which transforms energy of lower, dilute quality into higher, more concentrated forms. Sunlight becomes plants, plants are eaten by bigger and bigger animals and humans, and plants become peat, which eventually becomes coal, and is extracted to create electricity by humans. For a joule to get to the higher levels and exist there, as a joule of capulet party, electricity or a solar PV panel, or as DNA, or as information on the internet, it has been transformed many, many times, with associated very large losses in the form of abolished, heat entropy. Capulet Party! Does a joule of bear exist without the supporting plants?

Does a joule of tiny energies on the internet exist without the on Death With Dignity, supporting contributions from lower levels? No. Capulet Party! And if it takes 4 or 5 joules of coal to create a joule of electricity, then there may be relative differences in the ability to do work. Complex work requires a lot of different kinds of high quality energy. Could we run our current society based on coal, without the electricity? No. Can electricity based on renewables run our society?

No, not so much. Can we drop too many middle layers or power flow from loss of nonrenewable energy and still have the higher levels function? Energy is on Death, transformed and upgraded through energy chains which store progressively higher quality energy as assets at each level, then feeding back at each level to promote pulling in more energy. Mary – You and Jan are being impolite, not me. If you are not willing to take criticism of your ideas without taking cheap shots, you are no scientist. The commentator, Dwig, gets it but still buys into the abstract concept of emergy. Here is a tip for all of you. No matter how hard you try, you cannot alter the laws of physics. Capulet! You can certainly define things differently, but it is merely a parlor game and your definition does not square with the real world. Reus! As the Wikipedia entry says so succinctly, “The idea that a kilocalorie of heat is different is absurd.”

I’m not sure I understand you. Odum writes of “intraconvertable units” of energy, which you seem to say only applies to capulet joules or kilocalories. Certainly one could also use ergs or dyne-centimetres or “barrels of oil equivalent” if one wished, because all these units are “intraconvertable.” Odum then goes on to note that not all energy is created equal, and thus Odum originated the concept of “EMbedded enERGY.” I agree that the ambiguous term “quality” itself lacks quality and precision. Care Definition! “Quality” generally refers to an immediate aspect of something, rather than a historical aspect. In the vernacular, a closely regulated source of precision flow of capulet party, electrons might be thought of as a “high quality” energy source, whereas the chaotic, random nature of a lightening bolt could be thought of as lower quality because even though it may provide vastly more power than a typical 200-amp household electrical service, it’s nature is too unpredictable to abolished slavery be of much practical use to anyone except for some plants that get off on the nitrogen it fixes. On the other hand, the embedded energy that goes into the making of a photovoltaic solar panel means that electrons from such a source have a different cost to them than do, for example, electrons coming from a coal-fired power plant.

So either I misunderstand you, or I think you may misunderstand the subtle meaning that Odum ascribed to “quality” in this context. Not all electron flows are created equal! Thanks, Jan, you addressed Ralphie’s question better than I, with more clarity. My head was still resonating with the issue of energy memory, which is the application of the idea of quality. I agree that the word quality has been loosely used and open to misconstruction. Yes you misunderstood me.

Odum’s concept of embodied energy, or “emergy” was a way to differentiate between human energy and that of fossil fuels. It is capulet, a false distinction. Energy can be low-quality because it is dissipated over a large area, like sunlight. It can be high-quality because it is concentrated in actus a coal seam. However, regardless of its quality, it is measured the capulet, same – in kangaroo joules, kilocalories, BTU’s etc.

Arbitrarily assigning a new qualitative category and capulet party, changing the measurement units to fit your arbitrary standard is not acceptable. Physics trumps politics. There is care definition, a very good reason for party SI units (look it up). This is a cask, why Odum got no traction with his new units. I still think we’re talking past each other. Emergy units are not just another unit for capulet expressing energy. No, emjoules are not at all the symbolism, same thing as a statement of the party, energy they contain. You cannot burn a photovoltaic panel and obtain the amount of heat implied by it’s emjoule content, any more than you can cool a cooked egg and get a raw egg back. This is not politics.

It is not some “arbitrary standard.” It is measuring a different thing. One might just as well say a kilowatt-hour or a light-year is just an arbitrary, political way of kangaroo care, measuring time, simply because they sound like something other than what they are. I understand Systeme International units quite well, and kilocalorie is not even one of them, as it’s been superseded by the watt*second. Jan – I am not talking past you at all. Capulet! You have bought into an absurd concept. Since you cannot seem to understand what I am saying (whether willfully or not I will leave to your conscience), here is actus, a quote from a the party, Wikipedia entry on emergy. “The idea that a calorie of sunlight is not equivalent to to Privacy a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Joule’s mechanical equivalent of heat).”[28] Sciubba, E., 2010. On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Capulet! Energy.

I understand what you are saying. You do not understand what I am saying. Actus Examples! Good day to capulet you! Hello Walter (Ralphieo), Good discussion here. Summary! I appreciate the worthwhile contributions of party, all the participants. I agree with most everything said by Mary, Jan, and Dwig.

I also think the points raised by Walter are significant – there are serious objections to Odum’s concept of emergy, and the scarlet ibis, they need to be dealt with in a rigorous and scientifically sound way. As Dwig indicated, emergy needs to be considered in the context of capulet, Odum’s work in systems ecology, and alongside the parallel concept of reus examples, transformity. As Odum pioneered the capulet party, field of systems ecology, he looked at how these systems processes energy – in flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and symbolism, sinks. The concept of capulet, emergy helps to quantify the energy used in these processes. To me, the concept of emergy makes intuitive sense in a number of ways. It does not make sense to me to look only at energy quantity. Energy itself is a nebulous thing – we know it only by its ability to a cask summary do work, which immediately brings it into the qualitative dimension. What kind of work, and what scale of results? And yes, heat energy is heat energy, but does the burning of a book tell us it’s true energetic value, or is there a way to take into account all of the energy that went into making the book possible? One can argue about and refine how the math is done to party calculate it, but Odum’s efforts were an attempt to Essay on Death With bring this closer to a common apples to apples standard, which continues to be refined (Giannantoni, 2003). I think it is an capulet party, extremely helpful and important concept.

I’m currently reading Environment, Power Society in the Twenty First Century, and am continually amazed by Odum’s broad perspectives and how the concepts interact and Essay With, support one another across many systems, scales, and party, depths. I think it is Rights to Privacy Essay, a work of genius. OK, having said that…I also recognize that new concepts such as emergy, and fourth and fifth laws of thermodynamics need rigorous analysis from a wide body of experts…and that blog comments are not the greatest forum to undertake such an exploration. I did a quick Google search. One paper I found discussing the criticisms of emergy was “Promise and Problems of Emergy Analysis” by Hau and Bakshi. The paper above is sympathetic to Odum’s view, so I also looked up one of the papers they reference as critical of Odum’s view. I chose to look up Cutler Cleveland’s paper, because I have a respect for Cleveland’s work in capulet ecological economics and the concept of EROI.

The paper is called “Aggregation and the Role of britain slavery, Energy in the Economy” This comment is too long already, so I won’t try to summarize the papers here. I did note to my surprise that Cleveland very early on extols the importance of energy quality. “Despite its widespread use, aggregating different energy types by party their heat units embodies a serious flaw: it ignores qualitative differences among energy vectors.” Cleveland notes various researchers considering energy quality back to at least 1960. Secondly, Cleveland praises Odum for laying the foundation of research into biophysical energy and material flows in systems that provided the intellectual backbone for the discipline of ecological economics. He does criticize emergy analysis as being one dimensional (he has the same criticism of exergy analysis). I would be interested in hearing about any other more academically oriented criticisms or defenses of emergy and the laws of maximum em-power and hierarchies of energy. The Scarlet Ibis Symbolism! I’m especially interested if anyone has a good quote from capulet, Charles Hall on these subjects…perhaps something from the 1995 book he edited, “Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Odum.” Hi, David.

No, this isn’t the place for rigorous analysis, thanks. Summary! I’ve heard these complaints so many times over the past 40 years–yet Odum’s explanations for how the world works have been borne out over capulet time in what’s happening in the world today. That is such rock solid evidence for a cask me that I’m not much interested in these arguments. We stopped and capulet, saw Charlie and his wife in late July on my bike trip–it was good to see them. Here’s an a cask summary, email that has been sitting in my box for 2 months now waiting for some opportunity to copy and paste. So here’s Charlie’s take, with his permission. I was trying to wheedle him into expanding it into a guest post, but I guess this will do: “Odum was my PhD adviser and I have written a book called “Maximum Power ” (Colorado Univ.

Press). The idea is not that entropy should be maximized but that there is selection for an optimal rate of doing each process where rate and efficiency are opposite and what is selected for is maximum power at an intermediate efficiency. This concept would operate so that organisms do not operate at maximum efficiency or as fast as possible but at an intermediate rate of each. Odum thought that as resources change the location on the power curve change and capulet, successful (surviving) organisms would adjust their rates accordingly. There was nothing necessarily about over the cliff for other organisms or humans or civilizations in what he said. But it was still uncomfortable for us grad students who thought humans should restrict their appetites. I think he would say from this perspective “If the US does not use the middle East oil then the Chinese will” but also “as the oil is depleted successful nations will adjust their spending appropriately.

There is much more of this available on definition the website and capulet, elsewhere, and I have written “the continuing importance of maximum power” published in Ecological Modelling in the scarlet ibis a special tribute to Odum. Do not despair quite yet, although H.T. and I both think the world is likely to be quite different” (email, CAS Hall, July 26, 2013). The PDF version of the 2004 Ecological Modelling article is linked below: I have thoroughly enjoyed the capulet, comments this time round. Funny how I send you an email asking this very question and it blows up in the comment section.

The world is a strange place and coincidence abounds. Brian, yes, I find myself wondering the Essay on Death, same thing about the series of coincidences. Serendipity, but maybe mostly a number of connected people with two or 3 degrees of separation who are thinking about the same things. Mary, thank you! That paper by Hall is like gold to me, with its review and analysis of Odum’s career! I highly recommend everyone give it a read. “For most of us who have been exposed to it [Maximum power principle] in capulet party some detail, there is no doubt as to its veracity.” “I believe it to be extremely interesting, and Dignity, enormously more important than most things with which we fill our students’ heads.” I keep a short list of articles to recommend for basic energy literacy, and this 1973 paper by Odum is at the top of that list. I also love the introduction given by Mother Earth News when they reprinted it: “In early November of capulet party, 1973—during a visit to MOTHER’s new home in the mountains of western North Carolina—New Alchemist John Todd gave the magazine’s editors about the 14th-generation Xerox copy of what can conservatively be described as a dynamite paper. “We had only to glance at this extraordinary document to realize that the paper (originally written at the request of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) is one of the most concise—yet most sweeping—examinations yet made of the real problems of. the world.

Read it and see for Rights yourself.” I’m also glad to see another person here who recognizes the strong connection between Odum and David Holmgren’s articulation of Permaculture. Holmgren wrote the first Permaculture book (Permaculture One), with Bill Mollison serving the role of editor and capulet, advisor. The very first reference in a cask Permaculture One is to Odum’s Environment, Power and Society. And as Holger notices, Holmgren’s “Permaculture Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability” is capulet, full of constant references to Odum’s work. Holmgren should be read side by side with A Prosperous Way Down and Environment, Power and Society for the 21st Century. Kangaroo Care Definition! These works complement and reinforce one another so well. In terms of how to apply the information, Odum focused on suggesting appropriate governmental policy, whereas Holmgren focuses on grassroots, bottom-up actions from party, individuals and alternative community.

In fact, the other paper at the top of my list for actus energy literacy is Holmgren’s “Energy and Permaculture.” I see it as an capulet, early draft of kangaroo care, his later book (the 12 permaculture principles had not yet been developed, but he does offer a nice list of suggested strategies). It is almost entirely a tribute to party Odum. The third paper on my list is summary, Energy Follows Its Bliss by John Michael Greer. I think misconception of solar PV electricity is that you also have to make do with less. The reality is that you can be more productive with more electricity at no cost. Well, there is the one time first cost. Which when divided out over the useful life, net to around 3 cents per kWH. Do you even know how much you pay? Simple math on your electric bill divide the Bill amount by the total kWH that month. I am an expert in these matters.

Here is the cost backup.