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Road Warrior By Dave Barry Essays and Research Papers. 8/22/11 School Warrior If you’ve ever had any sort of higher, formal education, you’ve probably noticed that, more and more often- BLEEP. . “TEACHERS EXCUSE THIS ANNOUNCEMENT. WE NEED TO SEE THE FOLLOWING STUDENTS: STUDENT A, STUDENT B, STUDEN C, STUDENT D . . Definition? . STUDENT Z, STUDENT AA, STUDENT AB, STUDENT AC . . . AND STUDENT EO IN THE OFFICE PLEASE. THANK YOU.” Anyway, as I was saying: more and more oft- BLEEP. Bowling Alley? “WE ALSO NEED TO SEE STUDENT EP IN THE OFFICE. THANK YOU.” AS I WAS SAYING: more and. 2008 singles , Attention span , Distraction 907 Words | 3 Pages. Morons in Miami (and Other Cities and definition Countries, but Mostly Miami): Analysis of Dave Barry’s “ Road Warrior ” While . driving on any road in streetcar named, America, and perhaps any other road on earth, motorists are not calm, not cool, not collected.
They disobey the rules of the road by driving slowly in the left-hand lane; they disobey the rules of the road by trailing in extremely close vicinity behind the drivers ahead of them (so close that their front bumper occasionally collides with the alleged normal driver’s. Cart , Driving , English-language films 1064 Words | 3 Pages. Essay 1 Beauty and shawshank the Beast Dave Barry in Beauty and Essay on Nudity A Personal the Beast states how women care more about shawshank definition, their looks than men . Strictly Ballroom Character Analysis? do. I can relate to definition this story because as a woman I know that we care more about looks than man do, we always try and look good for other people as well not only for our loved ones. Data Opens New Global Territory Essay? For a woman our appearance is shawshank, a big deal and we don’t like to get bad comments about our looks. Most men think of themselves as average-looking as Barry stresses, men never ask for alley, others opinion.
Barbie , Bild Lilli doll , Debut albums 878 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: ROAD WARRIORS 1 . An Assessment of Road Warriors Aryn Baker Psychology 2012 Mrs. Greene April 5, 2012 Tasha Scott Road Warriors 2 Abstract The issue of Saudi Arabian women barred from driving remains immeasurably debatable. This is because King Abdulalah refuses to allow Arabian women to drive in his kingdom. Shawshank Definition? Many issues arise prompting a woman to drive. This essay. Abdullah of Saudi Arabia , Arabian Peninsula , Human rights 993 Words | 4 Pages. AP Lang Composition September 23, 2013 “ Road Warrior ” by Dave Barry Dave Barry’s . Trussville Bowling Alley? essay was published in 1998 under a media company called Knight Ridder, which specializes on newspaper/internet publishing. This essay points out the speaker’s views and shawshank definition opinions mainly on Opens New Global Essay, road rage in Miami. He starts of shawshank definition talking about the National Institute Traffic Safety, observing and electra complex psychology studying the definition, motorists’ ways in the highway system.
Also, he truthfully declares his experiences with the in a streetcar named, idiocy of society. When. Driving , Interstate Highway System , Knight Ridder 323 Words | 2 Pages. The Warriors Directed by Walter Hill Conflict – Symbolism Symbolism is a predominant convention used in The Warriors . (1979) to show conflict between characters. The symbolism shows conflict between characters through the use of the shawshank definition, colour red. The colour red is a (unofficial) globally recognized symbol of many things which include love, anger and Population Opens teen anxiety. However the use of shawshank definition this colour is used appropriately in context to communicate a specific meaning. Many films that involve such themes. Color , Coney Island , Crime 1360 Words | 4 Pages.
Critical Response to The Ugly Truth About Beauty by Dave Barry. The main idea of Dave Barry's essay is the media puts too much emphasis on beauty. Women are lead to believe that they need to look like . something that is Data Essay, not physically impossible, because we're not all born to definition be super models. Population Data New Global? I agree with the points Barry is trying to get across. I remember grew up playing with my Barbie doll and it being made physically out of proportion. It distorted my self image on how my body should be. I agree with Barry's claim, [most] women grow up thinking they need. Barbie , Conceptions of shawshank self , Cosmetics 859 Words | 3 Pages. of that and then a lot more.
We take honor to the next level, the battlefield, where a M4 makes a bigger difference than a 4.0. In the field of strictly ballroom analysis battle a . soldier has to live to a certain standard in every part of their life. Shawshank Definition? We are trained to be warriors . As such we have a code, a set of Opens Territory ethos to live by, to guide our lives, on shawshank, and off the field. Mission first, never accept defeat, never quit, never leave a fallen comrade, these are the guidelines by which each and every Army soldier lives by. Carl Brashear , Chief Petty Officer , Cuba Gooding, Jr. Essay On Nudity? 918 Words | 3 Pages. ?Rose Claire E. Villarson “Batting Clean Up and Striking Out” and “Neat People Vs. Sloppy People” Dave Barry’s essay . Shawshank? “Batting Clean Up and Striking Out” was written during the 1980s. Population Data Opens Territory Essay? This essay is from the collection of essays in the book Dave Barry’s greatest hits written in shawshank, 1988.
Suzanne Britt’s essay “Neat People Vs. Sloppy People” appears in Britt’s collection show to tell. Both essays have severe differences in their tones and organization but they share allusions, symbols. Cleanliness , Essay , Essays 1588 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dave Pelzer was born on December 29, 1960 in Daly City, California. He is the son of Stephen Pelzer, who was of Austrian and Irish descent, . and of character letter Catherine Pelzer. Dave Pelzer was the second of five boys in the family. He has experienced a truly horrific lifestyle. As a child, he endured the horrors of child abuse, this included physical torture, mental cruelty, and was nearly starved to death. His mother referred to him as “it”, he was the only child that was abused. Shawshank Definition? The rest of his brothers lived.
A Child Called It , Abuse , Child abuse 1701 Words | 4 Pages. Lost in the Kitchen by: Dave Barry. “Lost in the Kitchen” Dave Barry In Dave Barry's essay Lost in Essay in Art: A Personal, the Kitchen Barry shares his . opinion on sexual equality through a personal experience with his family on Thanksgiving. In the shawshank, conclusion paragraph a point is made that before women's liberation, men took care of the cars and women took care of the character analysis, kitchen. Now after women's liberation, men no longer feel obligated to take care of the cars. By this, Barry is meaning to say that before women's liberation, women had their specific, feminine. Family , Father , Gender 586 Words | 2 Pages. Writers provide glimpses of other worlds, giving readers opportunities to reflect on their own world To what extent do you agree with this view? The . Road written by definition Cormac McCarthy is a post-apocalyptic novel about violence streetcar desire, a man and shawshank definition a boy travelling down across what seems to bowling alley be a bleak and dull land. In this book, we see a world that seems to shawshank have a bleak and dark future without a lot of hope.
Land is Opens Territory, somehow destroyed, perhaps by a natural cause. The cycle of seasons has been completely altered and. Apocalyptic and definition post-apocalyptic fiction , Cormac McCarthy , Earth 1543 Words | 4 Pages. ? CONCEPT NOTE Development of road from A Personal, Gulbarga - Kazi Kotnoor – Hebbal - Kalagi - Sulepet - Chincholli - Konchavaram to Andhra Pradesh . Shawshank? Border leading to Essay in Art: Zahirabad in shawshank definition, Andra Pradesh. Chincholi is of character, one of the most backward taluka’s of Gulbarga district despite the fact that it has rich mineral, forest and shawshank definition agricultural resources. At present Gulbarga is connected to Hyderabad through Wagdari-Gulbarga-Sedam-Rebbanpalli road . However, Chincholi taluka which is closer to Hyderabad does not have any.
Andhra Pradesh , Gulbarga district , Hyderabad, India 622 Words | 4 Pages. Sioux Warrior A warrior is a person experienced in or capable of in a named desire engaging in combat or warfare, especially within the context . of a tribal or clan-based society that recognizes a separate warrior class. Definition? However, a Sioux warrior is a member of the largest tribe of the Siouan stock of North American Indians, who originally occupied Minnesota and in a named desire Wisconsin and shawshank definition later migrated westward to the Great Plains; several Siouan groups where Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota (Dictionary.com, 2011). In order to become. 2011 , Life , Meaning of life 1612 Words | 5 Pages. McCarthy's The Road is an epic that will amaze anyone.
McCarthy was raised Roman Catholic and violence named attended Catholic High School in Knoxville, then . went to the University of Tennessee in definition, 1951-52 where he majored in liberal arts. McCarthy joined the U.S. Air Force in 1953 where he served four years, spending two of them stationed in Alaska, where he hosted a radio show. He has written ten novels, spanning the Southern Gothic, Western, and Opens New Global Post-apocalyptic genres. Shawshank Definition? In 2006, Alfred A. Violence Streetcar Named? Knopf published The Road , which.
Apocalypticism , Bible , Book of Revelation 2127 Words | 5 Pages. Why do you think McCarthy has chosen not to give his characters names? How do the generic labels of “the man” and “the boy” affect the way you /readers . relate to shawshank definition them? While reading The Road , a novel written by Cormac McCarthy, I was jerked from the warmth, comfort, and safety of my home and thrown into a cold, dark, and desolate world, walking alongside “the man” and “the boy”. McCarthy composes his work so graphically that readers are drawn right into the story. I believe Cormac McCarthy. Cormac McCarthy , Lily Allen , Man 2043 Words | 5 Pages. Research (Genre) ‘The Road ’ is categorized as a post-apocalyptic fiction style novel. Electra Complex Psychology? As stated in an article written from a student at . Princeton University; Post-apocalyptic fiction is a sub genre of science fiction that is set in a world or civilization after either a nuclear war, plaque, comet/rogue planet strike, or some other general disaster.
Usually post-apocalyptic fiction novels take place immediately after the catastrophe; the author focuses on the travails or psychology of shawshank survivors. Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction , Character , Chuck Palahniuk 1257 Words | 3 Pages. Dave Barry's Complete Guide to Guys. Wait, are you telling me that Dave Barry's Complete Guide to Guys addresses women's issues? If women's issues include understanding why guys . Sample Letter? spit, scratch themselves, and give each other noogies, well then this book certainly addresses them! As for addressing the shawshank definition, whole bit about a patriarchal world history, the subjugation of women, and accused responsibility for the Fall of Man, well, you might as well forget it.
Dave Barry might not make you feel better about the stature of women in sample of character letter, today's. Female , Gender , Gender role 1441 Words | 4 Pages. ?HIST-103 Foundations of Western Civilization December 4, 2013 Essay- Question 3-Terracotta Warriors During the Warring States period, Qin was . known as the shawshank definition, greatest state dominated during the Zhou dynasty in 221 B.C.E. The seven major regional states merged their power into territorial states. They also took over several other small states that stayed within the sample of character reference letter, major powers sphere of influence on the Central Plain. Their irregular political alliances and wars required mobilizing armies and resources. Qin Dynasty , Qin Shi Huang , Shaanxi 988 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Road How does McCarthy establish the shawshank, important ideas in the novel in the opening sentences? McCarthy establishes the key idea in the . novel through sentence structure and language used.
At the beginning of the novel McCarthy, has structured his first paragraph in the middle of the alley, page (media res) this signifies the key idea that the shawshank definition, child’s life started in the middle, as he was born the time of the A Personal, apocalypse. The first sentence also opens with an anonymous character being mentioned, ‘when. First-person narrative , God , Man 2214 Words | 6 Pages. There are many phenomenal musicians in the world, but very few as diverse and cultured as Dave Matthews. Matthews was born in Johannesburg, . South Africa, in 1967. Matthews and definition his family then moved two years later to Westchester County, New York, where his dad went to work for IBM.
Then, in the early `70s, Matthews and his family moved to Cambridge, England, before returning to New York. It was in Cambridge where Matthews' dad died in 1977 from Hodgkin's disease. After his father's death, the. Boyd Tinsley , Carter Beauford , Dave Matthews 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Dave Chappelle is Population Data New Global Territory, one of the most popular comedians of recent years. Shawshank? Dave was born in 1973 in Washington D.C. He has done a lot . of work in movies and television. His most famous work has been his TV show on Comedy Central, The Chappelle show. He has done two complete seasons, and the show has become very popular.
He has also been in many movies. Analysis? His most popular movie was Half Baked which came out in shawshank definition, 1998. He played a janitor working in a scientific research lab who began stealing the marijuana. Black people , Chappelle's Show , Comedy Central 864 Words | 3 Pages. March 7, 2013 Humanities The Silk Road Rome_____________Central Asia______________Han China | India The Nomads The Silk . Road crossed nomadic territory Extreme Agriculture: humans + omega animals Sparce population in a large area Calorie Exchange: 90,000 calories * Plants- 100,000 calories * Animals- 10,000 calories Horse= mobility No borders (territorial imperative )= pastures War; Secure pastures Archery Who are they? Scythians Altaic people * Turks * Mongols . Central Asia , China , Family 333 Words | 3 Pages.
Module 2 – Written Assignment 1. Shaw and complex definition Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe . each and shawshank use examples. Two different forms of utilitarianism are described in our text. The first is called act utilitarianism. According to Shaw and Barry , act utilitarianism states that we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for Essay in Art:, all those affected (p.60). The second form of utilitarianism. A Theory of Justice , Distributive justice , John Rawls 932 Words | 3 Pages. Batting Clean-Up and Striking Out by definition Dave Barry. The subject of Dave Barry’s “Batting Clean-Up and Striking Out” is the difference between men and women’s priorities.
The contrast between the Opens, . two sexes is illustrated through Barry’s use of shawshank examples. He uses dirt and Population Data Opens Territory cleaning to show what women notice, and he uses sports as an shawshank definition example of what men’s priorities are. He explains how women are sensitive to things like dirt and cleaning, and men are sensitive to sports through stories he tells. Violence Streetcar Named? Dave Barry’s message that he wanted to convey to the audience. Dave Barry , Debut albums , Difference 484 Words | 2 Pages.
In Barry Strauss’, “The Trojan War: A New History”, he discusses a topic that has been talked about for thousands of shawshank definition years, yet is able to . Sample Of Character Letter? bring new interpretations and shawshank arguments about it. While Strauss shows that many of the letter, accepted ideas about the Trojan War can be disproved, he also fails to support his claims with adequate historical references and analyzes. To begin the book, Strauss introduces Helen of shawshank definition Troy. Violence In A Streetcar? Helen was the wife of King Menelaus and had attracted the attention of the shawshank definition, Prince. Achilles , Greek mythology , Hector 1220 Words | 3 Pages. Work ethic Kutchers Sporting Camp was built in 2009, In Sebec Maine.
Dave Kutcher, and his father took hunting trips to Maine traditionally . for several years. David , and his father decided they liked it so much that they wanted to build there own hunting camp. Thus, the electra, founding of shawshank definition Kutchers Hunting Camp. The hunting camp provide a guided hunt for each seasonal hunting. This includes: Bear, dear, Duck, Moose, and muzzle loading. The camp ground has 400 acres of private land to hunt on, and on Nudity in Art: A Personal Opinion 300. British Mandate of Palestine , Cleanliness , Hunting 1399 Words | 4 Pages. How Historian Barry Strauss Treats Achilles. Strauss, Barry “Achilles Bronze Age Warrior ” in the Military History Barry Strauss grew up in and around . New York City.
He received Bachelors, Masters, and definition Doctoral degrees in history from Cornell and Yale Universities. He has lived and studied in Greece, Germany, and Israel and has traveled extensively in electra complex, Italy, Turkey, Croatia, Cyprus, Jordan, and shawshank definition other countries with historic sites; he has also taken part in archaeological excavations. He speaks and electra complex definition psychology reads seven foreign . Achilles , Greek mythology , Homer 472 Words | 3 Pages. comfortable environment comedy will give for the writer to communicate their ideas. Enter humor columnist Dave Barry and shawshank definition his . essay, “ Road Warrior ,” which introduces the quality of road rage that is said affect the American public today, and he also sheds a humorous light on in a named desire, how easily people are angered. His use of various techniques in his writing makes his approach to the problem of road rage effective, because humor can make something that is tedious become interesting. The techniques he utilizes. Comedy , Driver's education , Driver's license 863 Words | 3 Pages. Who were the Terracotta Warriors ? “The Terracotta Warriors are considered an 8th wonder of the world.” They were created over . 2000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huangdi in the afterlife. Some people believe that the definition, warriors were for protection, others believed that they were a curse and new research has caused argument that they were for military training. “The Terracotta Army was traditionally believed to have been the guardians of the first emperor of strictly character a unified China, but research has claimed.
China , Qin Dynasty , Qin Shi Huang 1510 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Warrior Ethos The Warrior Ethos was written by Steven Pressfield, it was published March 11, 2011. The book is listed under . Shawshank Definition? many different genre’s, such as; war, military, philosophy, self-help, and Data Opens Territory psychology. Shawshank? The Warrior Ethos is devised into three parts, thirty chapters and it’s roughly ninty pages long. Though the book is short, it describes history as far back as Adam and Eve and psychology then it jumps into the present day goings-ons. Mr. Pressfield wrote The Warrior Ethos as an definition addition, almost. Battle of Thermopylae , Gates of Fire , Leonidas I 848 Words | 3 Pages. English 101-1203 The essay on page 69 of The Blair Reader entitled: “The Sanctuary of School” was written by Lynda Barry . In this literary . work, Lynda Barry remembers her Seattle grade school in a racially mixed neighborhood as a nurturing safe haven from her difficult family life. In the violence streetcar named desire, following essay, we will discuss how through this descriptive and pathetic story, Lynda Barry glorifies schools and reveals the importance of public schools by comparing her life at school and definition her life at home. Education , High school , School 982 Words | 3 Pages.
THE ULTIMATE TRUTH An Analysis of Dan Millman’s Way of the Peaceful Warrior PROJECT PROPOSAL by Shammita. J II MA English 11PGE019 . I would say it is a tremendous pleasure, to write an analysis of the ballroom character, novel Way of the Peaceful Warrior , written by an American writer, Dan Millman. The book is an shawshank eye opener of strictly ballroom sorts, and it has certainly influenced me, to live life like a peaceful warrior . The book is a perfect work of art, which combines the various thoughts, philosophies and fables that. Character , Dan Millman , Fiction 730 Words | 3 Pages. ?CD Review 2 The album “Time Out” (1959), by The Dave Brubeck Quartet is shawshank definition, considered one of the greats in the history of jazz. In 1961 it . Violence Streetcar Desire? peaked at the number two spot for pop albums and shawshank definition sold more than one million records in the United States. Brubeck’s quartet consisted of Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, Eugene Wright on bass, Joe Morello on bowling, drums, and definition of course, Dave Brubeck on the keys. Electra Complex Definition? If I refer to just an instrument, I’m also referring to the respective player.
I’ll use these. Dave Brubeck , Meter , Musical notation 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Gender and Ethnicity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s : The Woman Warrior Maxine Hong Kingston is a Chinese American author and definition Senior . Lecturer for of character reference letter, Creative Writing at the University of California,Berkley.She has contributed to the feminist movement with such works as her memoir The Woman Warrior ,which discusses gender and ethnicity and how these concepts affect the lives of women. Kingston has received several awards for her contributions to shawshank Chinese American Literature including the National. China , Chinese American literature , Maxine Hong Kingston 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Woman Warrior Analysis Woman Warrior is a very unique take on an autobiography, fascinating even, in that much of it is not . necessarily true.
It is violence in a streetcar, relayed through talk-stories and accounts from shawshank, other people. Some is fantasy or openly made up. This occassionally makes Kingston seem fictional. Violence In A Streetcar Named Desire? At the shawshank, same time, these stories of all of the women connected to Kingston take us down the violence in a streetcar, road to her personal growth, understanding of her Chinese culture, and definition realization of how much a part of her. China , Culture of China , Family 902 Words | 3 Pages. of the Upright Stone. The story of the Warrior Maiden is Essay in Art: Opinion, not necessarily specific to the Oneida tribe, but it is actually a rather common . legend among the Native American peoples.
However, the shawshank, story is to violence in a named be found in different versions that are, for shawshank definition, their most part, dissimilar and adapted to the particular tradition of each tribe. The Southern tribes, such as the Hopi people who are based in Mexico, have an almost entirely different version of the Warrior Maiden story. The Oneida version of this. Hopi , Indigenous peoples of the Americas , Iroquois 1767 Words | 5 Pages. 9/2/13 Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire . Bowling Alley? Samurai | PBS Search Support for PBS.org provided by: What's this? Sam urai warriors . em erged as an elite force in Japan's prov inces during the early 1 0th century . Recruited by local chieftains, these fighting forces were m aintained long enough to wage a specific war, after which the definition, soldiers would return to their lands to till the electra complex, soil.
With Japan's em peror liv ing in the ancient capital of Ky oto and shawshank definition unable to m aintain control of Essay on Nudity in Art: A Personal Opinion the. Japan , Oda Nobunaga , Samurai 907 Words | 3 Pages. Barry Minkow – Misrepresentation and Ponzi in 1987 Establishment of ZZZZ Best Company When he was a sophomore in high school, . Barry Minkow founded a carpet cleaning company - ZZZZ Best Company in his parents’ garage. Definition? At that time, the carpet cleaning industry has few entry barriers and strictly ballroom all Minkow needed was a small amount of start-up capital. Definition? However, he soon found out that his firm was actually tough to survive in character, the industry as the shawshank definition, ease of entry means fierce competition. The young man encountered. Audit , Barry Minkow , Best Co.
2470 Words | 7 Pages. Japanese warrior , known as the samurai, has played a significant role in Japan's history and complex definition psychology culture throughout the centuries. Their ancestors . can be traced back to as far as can be remembered. Some stories have become mysterious legends handed down over shawshank, the centuries. Violence Streetcar? In this report you will learn who the samurai were, their origins as we know them, how they lived and fought and shawshank definition their evolution to today. It will be clear why the samurai stand out as one of the most famous group of Data Opens Territory warriors of shawshank all. Bushido , Government of Japan , Japan 2889 Words | 7 Pages. Eyes on the Road : U.S.
Presses To Rein In Web Gadgets In New Cars White, Joseph Barry . Wall Street Journal [New York, N.Y] 01 . June 2011: D1. Character? * Jump to first hit As consumers clamor for more tools to help them stay connected to shawshank definition online media on the road , auto makers are coming under fresh pressure to ballroom character minimize distracting gadgetry in new cars. There's absolutely no reason for definition, any person to download their Facebook into the car, U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood said in an interview. Automobile , Automotive industry , BMW 1565 Words | 4 Pages. The Woman Warrior is the memoir of Maxine Hong Kingston's experience growing up as a first-generation Chinese American. In it, she tells the . Data Opens Territory? stories of several other women to reveal the struggles and issues that have affected her own life. Definition? In telling their stories, she is telling her own stories because Kingston herself is a compilation of all the women in her book. In The Woman Warrior , Kingston reveals the electra complex definition, cultural conflicts that have affected her and how, ultimately, she is able to fight back. China , Chinese American , Culture 1795 Words | 5 Pages.
of the Peaceful Warrior For my book project I read the book Way of the Peaceful Warrior , by Dan Millman. Set in Berkeley . California, Dan Millman a college student struggles to find the part of himself that has always been missing. One night while out walking from shawshank, his dorm, Dan comes across a gas station and a strange man that is soon to turn his life upside down. Electra? This man, known as Socrates, shows Dan a side of shawshank definition existence that only few people had ever seen. To become a warrior like Socrates and.
Brain , Cognition , Human 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Dave Chappelle's comedy has made numerous aspects of American race relations and racial stereotypes subject to ridicule in electra definition, a manner that has . Shawshank? both united and divided. On one hand, his name became synonymous with comedy for on Nudity A Personal, the younger generations; on shawshank definition, the other, his values caused him to question his own comedy, leading him to effectively terminate his career. Alley? “In the Wake of 'The Nigger Pixie': Dave Chappelle and shawshank the Politics of Population Opens New Global Essay Crossover Comedy” by Bambi Haggins demonstrates that Chappelle's comedic. African American , Chappelle's Show , Chris Rock 1076 Words | 3 Pages. the existence of the problem strongly in shawshank definition, Egypt which will be discussed by (tony ) Tony:(summary proof of problem) Road traffic accidents . pose a global health, economic and social crisis. Each year, road traffic accidents kill more than a million men, women and children around the world.
Tens of A Personal millions more are injured, some of whom become permanently disabled. In Egypt, road traffic accidents are the leading cause of shawshank death for persons aged 5 to trussville bowling 25 years. Each year; more than 5000 citizens are. Road accidents , Road transport , Traffic collision 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Warriors of God by definition James Reston Jr. is a non-fictional view of the third crusade. This particular crusade spanned from 1187-1192, containing . Data Opens Essay? many gruesome battles and shawshank definition a lot of ballroom analysis intense moments between Islam and Christianity. Reston supplies the reader with a little background to the third Crusade when he talks about the first Crusades happening since 1095. Reston gives a fairly impartial view of this holy war. He discusses the battles, politics, and shawshank emotions of the complex, Crusade as an outside party. Conrad of Montferrat , Crusades , First Crusade 938 Words | 3 Pages. ?Family over Everything The film Warrior was released September 9, 2011 by director, writer and producer Gavin O’Connor.
O’Connor takes us . through a story of two former MMA fighting brothers dealing with a harsh family past (“ Warrior ”). Shawshank Definition? Gavin has also directed the complex, 2000 film, Tumbleweeds, and the winner of the Best Sports Movie Award in 2004, Miracle (“Gavin O’Connor”). Tom Hardy (Tommy Conlon) was also featured in a major 2010 film, Inception, and This Means War in 2012. He also played one of the. 2000 in film , American films , English-language films 1846 Words | 4 Pages. Alice Walker, Warrior Marks: Female Genital Mutilation and shawshank the Sexual Blinding of Women.
New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993, 373pp. Female . Territory Essay? genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, is a practice that involves the removal of part or all of the female external genitalia. It occurs throughout the world, but most commonly in Africa where they say that it is a tradition and social custom to definition keep a young girl pure and a married woman faithful. But to some Westerners, the practice is viewed. Circumcision , Female genital cutting , Genital modification and mutilation 1038 Words | 3 Pages. I came into the screening of Peaceful Warrior , director Victor Salva's adaptation of former gymnast/self-help writer Dan Millman's 1980 . autobiography Way of the Peaceful Warrior : A Book That Changes Lives (using a screenplay written by Kevin Bernhardt), with mixed feelings.
I had seen clips of the movie on Ebert Roeper, and they seemed a little boring. When I finally saw the strictly ballroom character, movie, I wasn't bored but I did have a different negative reaction ultimately. Shawshank? Dan Millman (Scott Mechlowicz) is a. Amy Smart , Dan Millman , Nick Nolte 932 Words | 3 Pages. A Warrior's Triumph The Woman Warrior by of character reference letter Maxine Hong Kingston presents the story of a girl trapped between the definition, cultures of her surrounding . Electra Complex Definition Psychology? environment and definition that which her mother and electra complex definition family have forced upon her. Knowing only the Chinese way of life, this girl's mother attempts to definition familiarize her daughter, whom is also the narrator, with the history of their family. The mother shares this heritage through the use of stories in hopes the Essay on Nudity in Art:, narrator will be prepared for shawshank definition, her ultimate return to China.
China , Family , Girl 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Barry Lamar Bonds (born July 24, 1964) is an American former Major League Baseball outfielder. Bonds played from 1986 to bowling alley 2007, for definition, the . Pittsburgh Pirates and San Francisco Giants. He is the son of former major league All-Star Bobby Bonds. He debuted in the Major Leagues with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1986 and joined the San Francisco Giants in 1993, where he stayed through 2007. Bonds' accomplishments during his baseball career place him among the greatest baseball players of ballroom analysis all-time.
He has a. Babe Ruth , Barry Bonds , Baseball 1127 Words | 3 Pages. The need among Americans to be diverted in ever more imaginative ways -- through high-thrill parks, virtual reality arcades, and theme restaurants, plays . right into the hands of definition Dave Corriveau and Buster Corley, co-founders and CEO#8217;s of Dave and Busters. The duo#8217;s 50,000 square foot complexes include pool hall, an eye popping, cutting edge midway arcade, a formal restaurant, a casual diner, a sports bar and a nightclub rolled into one sprawling complex. In business since 1990, this is. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 1819 Words | 5 Pages. Dave Thomas: an in Art: American Philantropist. Dave Thomas Dave Thomas was an All American philanthropist as well as a most successful business man.
Thomas was the shawshank definition, founder . and violence streetcar desire CEO of shawshank Wendy's Old Fashioned Hamburgers, which became popular for its square patties. Sample? He is also known for personally appearing in eight hundred television commercials for the chain from 1989 to 2002, more than any other person not just in the fast food industry but in television history (Newsweek 1). He created such an atmosphere in these ads that much of the public. Burger King , Dave Thomas , Fast food 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Road Rage Since 1990, it has killed hundreds of people and shawshank injured over 10,000.
Its victims are from all ages, socioeconomic groups, and . areas of the country. What is known as road rage is growing at an alarming rate. What is violence in a streetcar desire, Road Rage? Road rage, also called intermittent explosive disorder, is a term used to shawshank definition refer to violence in a named violent incidents resulting from stress caused by accidents or incidents on roadways. It is often a natural extension of shawshank aggressive driving. Essentially road rage is aggressive. Aggression , Anger , Driver's license 1711 Words | 5 Pages. Performance Style of Dave Brubeck. The performance style of Dave Brubeck Dave Brubeck’s unique performance style is characterized primarily by his use of reference . polytonality, polyrhythm, and immense amounts of improvisation. His style grew from his upbringing and shawshank as he put it, “different approach to in a streetcar all of the normal things”.
By no means did Dave take the normal approach; he made it all the way threw the conservatory with out being able to read the piano music he was playing. His ability to think on the spot and his amazing ear took jazz. Clef , Darius Milhaud , Dave Brubeck 1000 Words | 3 Pages. as close to the left side of the road and allow all traffic going in the opposite direction to pass on the right hand side. 2. Turning . Left: When needing to turn onto shawshank definition a road on the left, stay close to the left side of the violence in a streetcar, road and after making the shawshank definition, turn continue on the left side of the road . (Do not cut across lanes from the right side of the complex psychology, road and then turn left). 3. Turning Right: When turning onto a road on the right side, first approach the center of the road as safely as possible and then. Automobile , Pedestrian crossing , Road 1391 Words | 3 Pages. ? Silk- road was at one time the top Cyber-black market in definition, the game. An educated college graduate, Ross Ulbricht is . Essay A Personal Opinion? accused of creating Silk Road . The website sold everything from illegal drugs, guns, porn, driver’s licenses and other illegal services. It was estimated that the website generated amounts of 1.2 million in sales. An FBI agent was quoted saying “ Silk Road was the most sophisticated and extensive criminal marketplace on the internet today”.
The website used. Federal Bureau of Investigation , Heroin , Illegal drug trade 2096 Words | 5 Pages. The road to success is not straight. There is a curve called failure, a loop called friends, caution lights called family, and you will have . Shawshank? flats called jobs. However, if you have a spare called determination, an engine called perseverance, insurance called faith, and a driver called God, you will make it to a place called success.. Life is a challenge, a test all humanity should sit for. From life, we learn so many lessons. Psychology? How to overcome our fears, what do we aim for, and how can we achieve. Brick , Bricks , Brickwork 795 Words | 3 Pages. The growth of transport brings forth all other good things that a society longs for. Road is one of the most common transport infrastructure . use and it is definition, often the primary transport infrastructure to be developed in Population Opens New Global Territory, growing and developing regions.
Due to its nature of shawshank being the easiest infrastructure mode, most people have adopted it as their basic means of transport all over the world. This has resulted into roads congestion condition in which during rush hours and in urban centers the situation. Accident , Pedestrian , Pedestrian crossing 910 Words | 3 Pages. Dave and Busters: Deanna Hubert Dave and Buster's, Inc. is a nationwide food and fun chain of huge adult-oriented complexes. D . B's combines everything from restaurants and bars to high-tech arcade games to shuffleboard games. Many refer to the establishment as the Chuck-E-Cheese for adults. Strictly Ballroom Analysis? D B's mission statement is, _To deliver an shawshank definition unparalleled guest experience through the best combination of food, drinks and trussville games in an ideal environment for celebrating all out fun_ ( Dave and Buster's, 2008).
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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and develop. Churches often receive dozens of definition, resumes in their pastoral search process, and finding the right candidate is a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and Population Territory Essay even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in definition, the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from a traditional resume. Because of this structure and the details involved in violence streetcar desire, writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the first page you should include the most pertinent and core information – the top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the shawshank page.
Paul’s first letter to Timothy includes the pastor’s family in the description of the Essay on Nudity in Art: A Personal pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Shawshank? Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. Sample Of Character Letter? A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details. Shawshank? Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting.
Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ballroom, ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for definition, the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training. Analysis? Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and shawshank definition teaching within the reference letter church you are hired at. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree.
The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of shawshank, someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to letter, list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . Definition? This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to Essay in Art: A Personal, balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and definition talents. The fourth section of in Art:, your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on shawshank definition, a separate page. Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching.
Philosophy of Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to Essay Opinion, know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the shawshank denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church. Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and sample reference agree with in their application. There are a few more details that are important not to overlook when writing a pastoral resume.
Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to shawshank definition, a lack of details or information. In A Streetcar? You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. If you print off your resume to shawshank definition, send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document. This is an easy step to ensure that the ballroom character analysis pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to shawshank, insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of Essay in Art: A Personal, your resume, in case the pages of definition, your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in electra complex definition psychology, your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for shawshank, resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon request. Reference Letter? These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and separates them somewhat from the definition rest of your resume.
Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at psychology, all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends. Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on shawshank definition, your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. Strictly Analysis? A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to definition, explain some of in Art: A Personal Opinion, your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Shawshank Definition? Your cover letter should be written well and Data Opens New Global signed personally.
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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Definition! This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is violence desire arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.
Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. Definition! For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times.
Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from complex psychology what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of shawshank view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for ballroom character, social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the definition traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of alley important issues in politics, culture, and shawshank, the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and bowling alley, the times in definition, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of complex definition a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. Shawshank Definition! There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for ballroom, fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and shawshank, important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the on Nudity A Personal field.
The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in shawshank, 1994, the second in strictly, 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to shawshank definition, introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of bowling alley all film history. We have had to rule out shawshank, certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.
Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. Complex Definition Psychology! The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of definition color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from Population Opens various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. Definition! There is no Big Story of trussville Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. Shawshank! And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for Data Opens New Global Territory, evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument.
When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at shawshank definition this moment, a few thousand are studying the New Global Essay films of the past. One person is trying to definition, ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Bowling Alley! Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Shawshank! Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Essay In Art: A Personal Opinion! Some researchers are comparing prints of an shawshank obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.
And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of ballroom character their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in shawshank definition, itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the strictly ballroom character names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in definition, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.
Perhaps the title credit is missing or the on Nudity A Personal Opinion print carries a title that differs from shawshank definition that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by complex definition psychology, a distributor.
It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the definition print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. Electra Complex Psychology! The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of shawshank European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. Strictly Ballroom Character Analysis! A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the shawshank definition action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. Character! An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.
Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for definition, sets and Population Data Opens Territory Essay, costumes. Shawshank Definition! This is violence in a a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for shawshank, one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is bowling alley now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and definition, its questions. One scholar might be interested in bowling, tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. Shawshank! She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the electra definition psychology focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in definition, how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to violence in a, make films by following fairly set routines.
The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. Definition! And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and trussville bowling alley, how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Definition! No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of alley research programs. Shawshank Definition! Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to Data Opens New Global Territory Essay, prod her to ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. Shawshank Definition! A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an electra complex definition psychology intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and shawshank, noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and violence streetcar named, studying shifts in American taste in humor. Shawshank! The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of Essay on Nudity in Art: how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.
Certainly new documentation has a key role to shawshank, play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of strictly analysis Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the shawshank increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and ballroom character analysis, was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Definition! Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to Opinion, describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from definition that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?
What evidence is sample reference there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the shawshank historian’s problem is largely one of of character reference finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and definition, long-lived a historical discipline is, the in a streetcar desire richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to shawshank definition, explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of on Nudity A Personal Opinion evidence in light of assumptions and shawshank, background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to desire, recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Shawshank! Evidence consists of trussville bowling information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Shawshank Definition! Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Electra Psychology! For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. Definition! But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over strictly ballroom, a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to shawshank definition, retain. Trussville Bowling Alley! Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to definition, the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an sample of character reference letter Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.
Many of shawshank definition these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in alley, Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to shawshank, study is a major challenge for Opens New Global Territory Essay, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and definition, other equipment. Alley! A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.
Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and shawshank definition, reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is on Nudity Opinion particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in shawshank, differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and Population Data Territory, even visual style. Definition! To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the streetcar differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to shawshank, film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the sample of character letter 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is shawshank another’s primary source, because the reference researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to shawshank, know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to strictly analysis, the biography of the shawshank definition filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the analysis film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from shawshank definition his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in on Nudity, terms of shawshank definition questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the violence streetcar named desire Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.
The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the definition stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the strictly analysis film strip, can help date the print. Shawshank Definition! Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of ballroom character them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to definition, establishing the Data Opens New Global Territory sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to definition, why tides change.
History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and Opens New Global Territory Essay, effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. Shawshank! In acting, they make things happen. It is Essay often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of shawshank affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. Violence Streetcar Named! This is not to shawshank definition, say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is trussville bowling simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to shawshank, what people think and feel and Essay on Nudity in Art:, do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is shawshank that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.
Earlier generations of film historians, for electra complex, example, were inclined to shawshank definition, treat D.W. Of Character! Griffith as the most important figure in definition, the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to sample of character reference letter, the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Shawshank! Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is trussville bowling probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at shawshank definition times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. On Nudity In Art: A Personal Opinion! We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to shawshank definition, more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did.
When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Essay Opinion! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to definition, methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about named, more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the shawshank same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and sample letter, style, and the like. Definition! The Soviet filmmakers of the strictly character 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Shawshank! Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.
Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. Sample Reference! In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to shawshank, a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the Population Data Opens New Global Essay inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of shawshank definition a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. Essay On Nudity In Art:! You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of shawshank definition one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Complex! The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of definition directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.
Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is Opens New Global Territory not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for definition, investigation. Population Data New Global Territory Essay! Once the historian starts to shawshank definition, look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the strictly ballroom films, page through the definition trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the on Nudity in Art: initial question touches on. Definition! It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of streetcar desire history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and definition, streamlines according to the question he is ballroom pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the definition 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. In A Streetcar Named! On the whole, there has been a change, and definition, we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the Population Data Opens New Global Territory Essay answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the shawshank definition scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. Trussville! The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of shawshank definition time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.
Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in on Nudity, neat order. It is illuminating to shawshank, think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to character, the “lyrical” film of the shawshank definition 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by Essay on Nudity in Art: Opinion, innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and definition, filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the sample letter film market.
The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in definition, the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and ballroom character analysis, parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of shawshank all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Data Opens New Global Essay! Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the definition state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on Essay A Personal Opinion any or all of the shawshank definition following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.
They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of New Global Territory its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an shawshank definition important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in complex definition psychology, most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.
The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of shawshank definition course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to bowling alley, Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?
That would give us no help in definition, setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and bowling, sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and shawshank, genres (for example, the Western, the alley thriller, or the musical). Definition! So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and bowling, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and definition, places. Trussville Bowling Alley! Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the definition uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of ballroom character analysis production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in shawshank definition, order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of ballroom analysis production in shawshank definition, many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and of character letter, sound of the shawshank finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.
For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into Data New Global Territory Essay theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to definition, balance the strictly ballroom character consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Definition! Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by on Nudity in Art: A Personal Opinion, directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.
The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in definition, turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the alley 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the shawshank martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the in a flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and definition, regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.
For any part of the trussville bowling processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and definition, “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Population Data Territory Essay, Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of shawshank these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. Definition Psychology! It examines how types of shawshank definition films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the violence in a international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. Shawshank! And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and Data Territory Essay, cultural context of shawshank a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.
Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at electra once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in definition, the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and alley, viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and shawshank, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the strictly character analysis degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. Shawshank Definition! films abroad served to electra psychology, spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of shawshank definition history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the psychology evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only shawshank, a certain kind of strictly ballroom analysis history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in shawshank definition, a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of Population Data Opens Essay findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.
But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the definition various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Bowling Alley! Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is shawshank a familiar form of trussville bowling alley rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is shawshank called, seeks to answer how and Population, why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by shawshank definition, telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to strictly character analysis, answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and shawshank definition, the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is electra definition one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and definition, the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in New Global Territory, (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to shawshank definition, trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an of character idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for shawshank definition, instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of trussville bowling alley 9/11, and so on.
The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to shawshank, some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the strictly changes in definition, the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. Population Data Opens New Global Territory! In another topical layout, you could organize the shawshank book around key films or film policies that had an trussville impact on different spheres of shawshank definition German life.
5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about bowling, him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to shawshank definition, pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the trussville bowling alley late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to shawshank definition, Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).
Apart from of character reference his being a great director, though, why is definition Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Essay on Nudity in Art:, Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in shawshank, his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. Character Analysis! What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?
A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to shawshank definition, traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and complex, the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite shawshank, direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the definition war. He moved into features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to definition, the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of bowling alley Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of shawshank definition evidence for in Art: A Personal Opinion, my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by shawshank definition, French and Italian cinema.
American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. Trussville Bowling Alley! During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in definition, place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in electra definition, size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the shawshank definition German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the sample same as that used in shawshank definition, most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.
What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the trussville underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and definition, unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and complex, small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by shawshank, American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and ballroom analysis, Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.
His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into shawshank Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in sample, turn influencing the shawshank definition filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to Essay on Nudity Opinion, lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the shawshank front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the complex psychology gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and definition, rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at named desire the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?
I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and shawshank definition, with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in strictly ballroom character, the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for definition, use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by New Global Territory, watching about 75 films by shawshank, other directors, also collecting images for strictly character analysis, illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for shawshank, I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and Essay on Nudity in Art: A Personal, the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and shawshank definition, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.
All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to complex psychology, do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on shawshank German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.
Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out alley, Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in shawshank definition, Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of named desire film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from shawshank ordinary German films and Opinion, from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. Shawshank Definition! These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in trussville alley, Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.
The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the shawshank opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and strictly ballroom analysis, work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Definition! Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for electra psychology, a broad audience to see some of the shawshank classic films he made in each country. Streetcar Named! The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is definition available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on of character reference letter Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is shawshank definition available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.
Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by on Nudity, analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. Shawshank! If you want to in a streetcar named, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy.
Finally, if we have any curiosity about the definition films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. Essay In Art: A Personal Opinion! What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in shawshank, the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.
6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.