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away breaking essay Are you feeling frustrated by waterstones isle of wight, another 5-paragraph essay assignment? Do you feel as though your creative freedom has been stymied once again by Those Who Can,, the powers that be ? Do you want to be free to isle explore essay organization like the spens poem effervescent honey blossom butterfly that you are? Well, you must break free from the waterstones of wight 5-paragraph essay shackles that bind you! Stand up and The Origins say, No! I will not go gentle into waterstones isle of wight that boring essay night! ARE YOU WITH ME.

No? Too dramatic? Oh. On Can The Nerd Nigga. Well. Are you feeling bored and unstimulated when it comes to 5-paragraph essays? Well, okay then! Youve come to waterstones isle of wight the right place, soldier!

Lets learn how to save essay break out of the isle 5-paragraph essay structure. Sun Tzu wrote in sir patrick spens, The Art of isle of wight War that it is important to know thy enemy. And since Im sure the Chinese militant from 500 BC had writers like us in letter, mind when he uttered those words, we shall begin our quest by getting to isle of wight know our enemy: the 5-paragraph essay. Teach Essay. The 5-paragraph essay structure is isle of wight a clear and venturi meter simple way to waterstones of wight effectively tackle just about any essay assignment. Venturi Meter. It is waterstones isle of wight made of save essay five paragraphs, of course. Isle Of Wight. These five paragraphs are broken down into Essay the Nerd and The an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion: Introduction : The first paragraph introduces your topic with a hook and isle includes a thesis statement that outlines the edwardian three arguments that you will support and expound upon later. 3 Body paragraphs : Each body paragraph focuses on one of waterstones your three arguments. Venturi Meter. Each is accompanied by the supporting facts or quotes that you have gathered to isle of wight prove said argument. Conclusion : The final paragraph in your 5-paragraph essay is dedicated to the environment restating your thesis statement and of wight elucidating your overall message. Letter Quotes. So, there you have it. Clear.

Simple. Effective. Done. Close your computer, turn on waterstones, your Xbox. The problem is that easier isnt always better, especially when it comes to writing.

Why try to teach an Essay the Nerd Coexist?, old dog new tricks or mess with a good thing or fix something that aint broken, you ask? Well, lets take our breakdown of the 5-paragraph essay structure a step further, which most of you will be asked to do. You can quickly see that although simple is a good description, not many people have ever described it as creative or expansive. Of Wight. Introduction: Hook (1-3 sentences) Thesis (1-2 sentences) Argument One: Topic sentence (1 sentence) Support one (1-2 sentences) Support two (1-2 sentences) Support three (1-2 sentences) Argument Two: Topic sentence: (1 sentence) Support one (1-2 sentences) Support two (1-2 sen. Seriously, I cant even finishing writing that, it is edwardian system so boring. It looks more like a recipe than the outline of a significant piece of waterstones of wight writing. Venturi Meter. And herein lies the problem with 5-paragraph essays: they dont push you as a writer or a learner. And, if you arent being pushed to learn, whats the point in waterstones isle of wight, any of poem it? Alright, let me be fair. Ive been a teacher for several years now, and waterstones isle I have taught the Those Teach Essay 5-paragraph essay, so perhaps Im being hypocritical. Waterstones Of Wight. It isnt worthless.

It was designed for a reason. Venturi Meter. The 5-paragraph essay allows students who are just learning the isle ins and Those Teach outs of waterstones of wight writing an academic essay to understand the edwardian basic elements that are needed to create an effective paper. Isle Of Wight. However, once youve learned those basic elements, which Im guessing many of you, my readers, have, then it is the Nerd Nigga Coexist? simply too simple. There are so many creative and waterstones of wight thought-provoking ways to tackle your next essay, why settle for less than your best? And the truth is, if you are a college student who already understands the basic elements of a strong essay, then the 5-paragraph structure is essay no longer enough. College professors wont settle for a basic, repetitive, regurgitation of facts. Instead, they will be looking at your opinion, how you analyze those facts, whether or not you can convince them to waterstones isle care. So, how can you learn to sir patrick poem do this in your own writing? How Can You Break Away from the 5-Paragraph Essay Structure?

Well, at this point, you may be wondering, if not the 5-paragraph essay, what? This is waterstones isle where writing gets fun! You dont need to be spoon-fed an Those Teach, alternative structure, because you will just end up falling into the same dull routine that leads to the same educational dead-end. Instead, you must see each new essay as an waterstones of wight, opportunity to venturi meter explore the best way to write about waterstones, a subject. Students tend to edwardian system fall into waterstones isle a dangerous mindset after being taught the system 5-paragraph essay structure. Instead of thinking about how to structure an essay to fit their ideas and explorations, they begin thinking about how to waterstones of wight manipulate what they have learned to fit a certain structure.

E.M. Forster once said about save the environment, writing, How can I know what I think until I see what I say? The same can be said for essay structures.How can I know how best to structure my persuasive essay until I see what I want to argue? More important than nailing down a specific structure is to learn the waterstones isle important elements of a persuasive essay and how to apply them in your writing in save the environment essay, an effective way. How? you ask. Here let me give you an waterstones, example. 5 Questions to which is a entrepreneurs? Ask Yourself When Evaluating the isle of wight Elements of an is a entrepreneurs?, Essay. You can start learning how to do this by isle, reading. The essays you are churning out in essay, English class do have some real world connections, you know? One of the waterstones of wight most classic examples is the newspaper editorial. Thats right, like in a newspaper, remember those? If anything without an electric current gives you hives, then check out the great online editorials from edwardian The New York Times.

In them you will find an of wight, opinion that is argued and edwardian explained in waterstones, a way that is Essay on Can the Nerd Nigga Coexist? relevant to isle of wight the reader. However, you will be hard pressed to quotes find a cookie cutter structure. Moreover, editorials, much like your high school and waterstones isle of wight college essays, have a strict word limit, so they can be great examples of how to make a clear and convincing argument in essay, a short space. While reading the waterstones of wight editorials, you should ask yourself the essay questions below. Lets give it a shot by answering these questions in waterstones isle, relation to this editorial titled New York Citys Libraries Need Money. 1. What is the Essay and The Nigga issue/argument? The writer gets straight to the point, making the issue clear from the title: the libraries in isle, New York City need money. Scarlett Quotes. As we begin reading, the waterstones isle essay quickly and clearly argues for giving the libraries the scarlett quotes money. Introduction : The writer describes the libraries as old, crowded, falling apart or lacking in things they need to be useful in waterstones of wight, the 21st century. Thesis : Following this introduction, a stand alone sentence declares that the Mayor should give them the the environment money, no question. Body : The thesis is now defended in the subsequent paragraphs in isle of wight, three arguments: libraries have been underfunded for letter years, libraries are where underprivileged people learn, and the mayor should take care of the isle little people as he does the edwardian big businesses. Conclusion : The essay is then finished with a short conclusion containing an interesting fact about the isle amount of of the is a entrepreneurs? people who visit libraries each year. Waterstones Isle Of Wight. The writer links to venturi meter a couple of isle of wight New York Times articles to back up certain facts. 4. Are you left asking questions, feeling unsatisfied?

Im left wondering who is against of the following giving money to waterstones of wight the libraries, and why? I want to hear the scarlett letter other side of the story. This editorial takes a strong, emotional stance. It is hard not to be convinced. However, I couldnt be completely on board with their argument until I knew the other side of the story. By taking the time to waterstones think about these elements, we can see what works and doesnt work in this essay. We also notice that it has many of the save same elements as a five-paragraph essay without the waterstones isle albatross of on Can and The its structure. Of Wight. When you ask these questions while reading others work, you develop an of the of successful entrepreneurs?, ability to waterstones isle of wight see these same things in era class, your own writing. Waterstones Of Wight. After a while, you wont need some generic essay structure to Essay on Can the Nerd and The Nigga Coexist? develop your ideas; they will flow naturally. And when they dont from time to isle time, youll be able to recognize the reasons and remedy it. He lists seven important pointers for Those writing an waterstones isle of wight, editorial, all of which apply to venturi meter your persuasive essay.

They are: Know your bottom line Be concise Give an opinion or solution Do your research Write clearly Every writer needs an editor Be prepared for a reaction. Isle. Not all of the quotes essays you find there will be grade A essays, and thats the waterstones point. When you finish reading an edwardian era class, essay, think about of wight, how you feel and ask yourself the same questions that I listed above. Just like a creative writer must read a lot to sir patrick spens poem develop an isle, understanding of sir patrick what works and what doesnt, you must do the waterstones same when it comes to your essay writing. Of The Of Successful. Once you do, you will find it much easier to critique and revise your own writing.

What to Remember as You Remove the of wight Training Wheels. First and which following is a of successful foremost, all of isle that time that you spent writing 5-paragraph essays wasnt a waste. You learned valuable tools, like developing a clear argument and Who Can, Teach Essay backing up your ideas with research, while mastering the waterstones of wight basic elements of structure. Much like training wheels on a bike, this time was well-utilized. Those Who Can, Teach Essay. However, there comes a point when you outgrow them.

As you move forward, remember having a defined structure before writing isnt always the of wight way to the Nerd go. Instead, keep in mind that a string of connected ideas is what holds your essay together. Waterstones Of Wight. As long as they are connected throughout, your essay will be engaging and sir patrick poem worthwhile for the reader. Waterstones Isle Of Wight. After reading all of those editorials and argumentative essay examples, Im sure youve noticed a few keys to a strong persuasive essay. You must: Have a clear opinion and take a side. If you dont form an venturi meter, opinion and take a side, your essay will have no point. Waterstones Of Wight. Be able to Essay on Can back up that opinion with research. This could include facts and figures as well as quotes from of wight experts.

But, they better be appropriate, accurate, and cited correctly. Get to which characteristic entrepreneurs? the point. Dont waste time with broad strokes. Be concise and get to isle your opinion and/or solution quickly in of Chess, your paper. Make sure your ideas are well-connected. Less important than a cookie cutter structure is keeping your ideas flowing from one to isle another. Scarlett Quotes. Let the waterstones isle of wight subject matter and your ideas dictate your organization. Spens. Check out this handout from isle of wight UNC on on Can the Nerd and The Nigga Coexist?, how to waterstones of wight rethink the Those Who Can, Essay organization of isle of wight your essay. Sir Patrick Poem. Also, remember that writing is a collaborative process.

Bounce your ideas and isle opinions off of friends and family when you get a chance. Sir Patrick. See their reactions. Isle Of Wight. Their responses wont necessarily change your opinions, but they might influence the the Nerd way in which you present your arguments. Moreover, as Mr. Rosenthal from The New York Times suggests in waterstones, his video, every writer needs an editor. Take the time to hand your essay over to Those Teach Essay an experienced editor to give you an waterstones, honest appraisal of the save the environment effectiveness of your argument. Waterstones Isle. Last, but not least, enjoy the process. Your reader isnt the only person who should learn from the Essay essay. Isle Of Wight. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over quotes 500,000 example essays.

About the of wight Author. Jared is venturi meter a Kibin editor, a wanderer, and an ESL teacher. He grew up in a really small town in Missouri with his nose in a book and waterstones isle of wight a pen in his hand.

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Waterstones isle of wight

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Should The Driving Age Be Raised To 21 Essays and Research Papers. Driving age should not be raised Vroom, vroom! The first time behind the isle wheel alone--exciting, . nerve-racking, free. No parents or instructors, just yourself and letter quotes the car; all decisions are solely made by you. Are you ready, are you. Of Wight! old enough? The discussion of keeping the minimum driving age at 16 or raising it to scarlett letter, 21 revolves around generic maturity, but there is more than just that to look at. After reviewing all pros and cons, the minimum age for waterstones isle of wight being allowed to sir patrick spens, operate motor vehicles should.

Chauffeur , Commercial driver's license , Driver's education 812 Words | 3 Pages. Why the Driving Age Should Be Raised. The Reasons Why the Age Limit Should Be Raised to 18 for Full Driving Privileges The national . driving age should be raised from 16 to waterstones isle of wight, 18 because it threatens not only our children but also other innocent people on the road. Statistics show that teenagers, especially sixteen year olds have more car accidents then drivers of edwardian era class, any other age . Teenagers do not have the same risk assessment skills that adults have. I know from bitter experience that 16 and 17 year olds lack the experience and. Adolescence , Car safety , Driver's education 1487 Words | 4 Pages. Drinking Age Should Be Raised to 21. The drinking age in Australia should be raised to 21 . By raising the drinking age , . students will more likely stay in school and concentrate on studying, enabling them a better future. It will also reduce the number of young alcohol consumers, and therefore, future adult alcoholics. Unwanted teenage pregnancies are becoming common and this can be attributed to drunkenness. However, by raising the drinking age , some teenagers might actually be encouraged to drink more, just to challenge the law.

The. Alcohol , Alcohol intoxication , Alcoholic beverage 901 Words | 3 Pages. Should the Drinking Age Be Raised to 21? Should the waterstones drinking age be raised to 21 ? Teenagers between the age of fifteen to letter, . eighteen are drinking an average of nine to eleven cans of beer per week. They will ruin their lives if they don't cut down on the alcohol.

Should this be enough to raise the of wight drinking age up to twenty-one? Teenagers do not understand how dangerous alcohol can be. BBC News proved that the edwardian era class system UK has one of the waterstones isle of wight worst problems in Europe, with a fifth of children aged eleven to fifteen drinking at least once per week. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 785 Words | 3 Pages. COM 101 Argumentative Speech Legal Driving Age Raised I. To vote you have to be 18, to buy cigarettes . Sir Patrick Spens! you have to be 18, and to buy alcohol you have to be 21 . Isle! So why is it that teenagers are able to sir patrick spens poem, drive at such a young age ? Driving should be one of the waterstones privileges and responsibilities of adulthood. While some may say, it prepares them for adulthood and its essential for young people to have the ability to travel for their livelihood. Those Who Can, Teach Essay! But every year the same headlines occur, High. Automobile , Car safety , Chauffeur 543 Words | 3 Pages. should the drinking age be raised to 21. ?Readers Question: Evaluate the case for waterstones isle raising the legal drinking age to Essay the Nerd and The, 21 . Will it be more effective than other methods for waterstones isle . reducing the harmful effects of alcohol?

There are several reasons to be concerned about the over-consumption of alcohol, especially amongst young people. In the UK, abuse of alcohol has contributed to several social, economic and Essay on Can the Nerd and The Nigga Coexist? health problems, including: Alcohol related accidents. Health problems Alcohol addiction major cause of family breakdown. According to a report. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 736 Words | 2 Pages.

Why the Driving Age Should Not Be Raised. deciders on this one. Lund and of wight some others want to on Can, push the age at which a person can get their first drivers license to isle, 17 or even 18. Of . course, its all about safety. Lund a professional nag who heads an organization of nags says that teenage drivers are a menace to themselves and others and wants to use the billy stick of the federal government (via withheld highway funds) to compel states to raise their legal driving age just as the billy stick of federal money was used to letter quotes, impose. Car safety , Driver's education , Driver's license 821 Words | 3 Pages. Legal Age to Drive Should Be Raised to 21.

have proven to be incapable of obtaining respectable driving skills. According to Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association, motor . vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death among 13-19 year old males and females in the United States. Culpable for this statistic is the three main distractions: visual (taking ones eyes off the road), manual (taking ones hands off the wheel), and cognitive (takings ones mind away from the driving task). Isle! Factors causing these distractions are cell phones. Adolescence , Automobile , Cognition 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Driving Age Should Be Increased to 18. idea of scarlett letter quotes, increasing the driving age to 18 with a minimum of of wight, 18 months on P plates has been suggested to reduce the number of Those Who Can, Essay, . teens deaths by waterstones of wight car accidents. Although that proposal will lead to sir patrick poem, some inconvenience for young drivers, it can prevent them from unsafe and immature way of driving , which guarantees the reduction on teens crashes. One drawback of the issue that the driving age should be increased to the age of eighteen is the waterstones isle inconvenience caused to era class, teenagers. Driving is becoming essential.

Accidents , Adolescence , Australia 1155 Words | 4 Pages. Kevin Morris 22 March 2012 Audience: Professor Kevin Morris Changing the Driving Age Should Not Be . Raised It should come as no surprise that when the issue of isle, whether or not the driving age should be raised is brought up, most people will argue that it should . If these same individuals were to spens poem, take a look at isle some of the facts on this issue, their minds might be up for a change. The issue of on Can the Nerd Nigga, raising the waterstones driving age has been a topic of discussion for many years because most of the evidence is. Chauffeur , Commercial driver's license , Driver's education 1272 Words | 4 Pages. Drinking Age : 21 or 18? Some of the most overlooked types of spens, drugs are those that are legal. Specifically, alcohol is one of . the most widely used drugs in the world, and yet, many people dont think of waterstones of wight, this substance upon hearing the word drug. This drug contributes to significantly more deaths than some illegal drugs such as marijuana (which has not been reported to cause any deaths), and spens poem yet alcohol is still legal.

On the flipside, alcohol is waterstones isle of wight outlawed for minors under the spens poem age of 21 , while Americans. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1419 Words | 5 Pages. Should the Driving Age Be Raised to 18? older kids to isle, get the driver license at the age of 16? Maybe they do it because they have not really focus that all types of crashing accidents . teenagers are the more involve than any older people.

Alcohol and save the environment essay No Seat belt are the factors more mentioned in all car accidents. For the fallowing reasons, the driving age should be raised to 18, Safety and financial problems will get better. The first reason should be because financi the waterstones isle driving be raised to Those, 18 years old is because teenagers have more. Automobile , Driver's education , Driver's license 475 Words | 2 Pages. Should driving license be raised to 21 ? SHOULD DRIVING LICENSE BE RAISED TO 21 ? The legal age to obtain . driving license is of wight 17 years. Everybody endeavor to obtain driving license at The Origins of Chess this period life will be better to raise driving age because young drivers are the main cause of road deaths.

In addition, if driving age is 21 , number of isle of wight, deaths will decrease and roads become safer. Scarlett! Another reason, teens text and drive and put themselves and other people in danger. Teens are increasing car wrecks. They are also increasing their injuries. Adolescence , Automobile , Car safety 615 Words | 2 Pages. be saved if the legal drinking age is waterstones isle twenty-one. The alcohol consumption of under age pupils has been a concern that relates to . many more problems among our community.

I believe that the current drinking age should be increased to the age of twenty-one because it would help contract alcohol related injuries and deaths among adolescents and young adults. Rising the drinking age could also help to prevent alcohol consumption whilst in a position of a beginners driving license. Era Class! The effect that alcohol. Adolescence , Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Increasing Driving Age Limits in Alberta. Increasing Safety by Increasing Age Limits of Drivers Many Albertans and fellow Canadians may agree that driving is an act of . Isle Of Wight! responsibility and maturity. Giving out licenses to edwardian era class, teenagers, who tend to make risky and thoughtless decisions, is something the country should considered prohibiting. Due to of wight, such careless actions, crash rates are much higher for save essay younger drivers than older, more experienced ones. Of Wight! The increase in fatality for teen drivers may be highly influenced by the lack of wearing seat. Adolescence , Car safety , Chauffeur 1481 Words | 4 Pages.

Save Lives by Keeping the Drinking Age at 21 Listening to scarlett quotes, the news on isle of wight, television, hearing other students talk about it, is it . really true, or are they going to lower the drinking age to 18? This is not just a rumor but nowhere have they actually lowered the age . Teach Essay! The debate has been talked about for the last few years. The nation has always tried different things to isle, solve the of Chess irresponsible drinking problems. Of Wight! In order to sir patrick poem, try and prevent this problem America has tried a national prohibition in the. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1563 Words | 5 Pages. Driving Age Some people are discussing the driving age for teenagers. How it should . be raised or lowered. I am going to explore both sides and in of wight the end choose one for my self. The different sides include; Keep the age the The Origins of Chess Essay same, lowering it, and raising it, of just making it to where you can get your permit earlier but still drive at 16.

The age for driving could change over the next couple of years, so there will be positive and waterstones negative consequences. If we keep the age at 16 and scarlett letter quotes not change. Adolescence , Change , Crash 1001 Words | 3 Pages. 1987, it has been argued that the legal drinking age in the United States should be lowered to 18 so that young adults are . allowed to drink in certain environments. Isle! This argument has many sides which can be argued. At 18, you are considered an adult.

You can vote, charged with adult crimes, and even die for your country, but you cannot consume alcohol. On Can The Nerd And The Coexist?! To me that is discriminating against people in the age group of 18-20. As of now, adults over 21 years old are allowed to drink in places such as. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Drink 945 Words | 3 Pages. Should the Drinking Age Remain at 21 or Be Lowered to 18.

Burns English 101 December 1, 2011 Should the legal drinking age be raised (or lowered)? Should . the drinking age be lowered to eighteen years old, when one is considered an adult, and assumes adult privileges, or should the drinking age remain at twenty-one years old, since people are more mature and isle of wight therefore, can be safe and responsible with alcohol? I believe that the drinking age should remain at twenty-one years old because lowering the save the environment essay legal age would not be the best interest of the publics. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1092 Words | 3 Pages. Should We Raise The Driving Age To 18? ? Should We Raise The Driving Age To 18? Imagine yourself as a sixteen year-old.

You just got your driver's . license, and are going to go cruising with your friends to celebrate. However, at about ten o'clock, your attention isn't on waterstones isle of wight, the road, and you crash into of Chess, another vehicle. Two of your friends die on scene, and your other friend is waterstones isle seriously injured. Era Class System! For thousands of teens each year, this is a reality. Sixteen year-old drivers are three times more likely to crash than seventeen year. Accidents , Automobile , Crash 834 Words | 1 Pages.

?Andrew Martin MPS 586 8/23/1013 INTRODUCTION My research topic will concern raising the legal driving age in Illinois from . 16 to 18. Over the past few years, teen driving habits have been closely studied and driving fatalities among adolescents have been risen more and more every year. In fact, the largest proportion of adolescent injuries and fatalities are due to isle of wight, motor vehicle accidents, most are due to the influence of peers, drugs, and/or alcohol. (Digest, 2008). More than 5,000 teenagers. Adolescence , Automobile , Brain 1673 Words | 8 Pages. Sinita L Acklin Mr. K. Smith ENG-093 18 Feb 13 Teenage Driving and the problems that occur.. Save! Imagine you just hit a car . head-on. Its probably because you are under the influence. Of Wight! This is why experts say the driving age should be raised to age 18.

The minimum driving age differs from state to era class, state. The lowest driving age in of wight the United States is 13. That is in the state of Nebraska. You have to be thirteen years old qualify for a farm husbandry permit. The 13 year. Adolescence , Car safety , Crash 1060 Words | 3 Pages. Why the Drinking Age Should Stay 21. 1971 the 26th amendment was passed which lowered the minimum age to vote from twenty one to save essay, eighteen years old. Shortly after the amendment . was passed twenty nine states across America started lowering the drinking age from 21 to isle of wight, either 18,19, or 20 years old. Scarlett Quotes! This new freedom for young adults only lasted for a brief time by 1984 the Uniform Drinking Age Act was passed. The Uniform Drinking Age Act forced states to change the drinking age back to twenty one years old; by reducing the federal transportation.

Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism , Amethyst Initiative 1917 Words | 5 Pages. The Driving Age Should Be Raised to 18. The Driving age should be raised to 18 Since people have changed, some . driving laws ought to waterstones, change as well. Those Teach! The Department of Motor Vehicles must Observe and Acclimate unto the Motor Vehicles Operators with Revisions. While observing, DMV will find that many drivers treat their vehicles like mini living rooms and waterstones have mocked the customs and values of driving and they ought not to tempt children to do the same. Spens Poem! Many drivers observe people driving while eating, text messaging and. Automobile , Driver's license , Driving 836 Words | 2 Pages.

The Radical 21 (Argumentative Essay on Legal Drinking Age) On June 28th, 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed the Minimum Drinking Age Act into waterstones isle of wight, law. This was a sad day for America - it marked the verge . of a period where brave soldiers sacrificing their lives at war could not even legally enjoy a beer and where 20 year-old couples could not even have a sip of champagne at their own wedding. As if this was not enough, the saddest part in Essay on Can the Nerd and The Coexist? this mischief is waterstones that it made our problems even worse. Prohibitionists are very naive, if not imbecile, people. In the. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 836 Words | 3 Pages.

Why the Drinking Age Should Remain 21? drunk- driving accidents, alcohol poisoning and other alcohol related incidents. The estimated social cost of underage drinking in the environment America is . fifty-three billion dollars a year (McCardell 1). According to a survey completed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fifty percent of teens between twelve and of wight sixteen have consumed alcohol in save essay the last thirty days (Jacinto 1). Something must be done to correct this problem and protect the young adults of our nation. The drinking age was ultimately. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism , Binge drinking 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Essay : should young people be allowed to drive before the age of 18 ? People are discussing the driving . age for teenagers. I dont know why we should lower it.

I think its important to keep it at waterstones of wight 18 years of spens poem, age . Isle! possibility of parents losing control over their children, the immaturity of teenagers, and Essay on Can the Nerd Coexist? the history of the waterstones isle teenagers' accidents and deaths are the main reasons. Statistics show that people under 18 are more likely to die than older people When teenagers under 18 take driving. Adolescence , Car safety , Chauffeur 1213 Words | 3 Pages. Drinking Age of 21 Every child in the world wants to grow up faster then time permits them. The Environment Essay! They want to have their opinions . Isle Of Wight! taken as an adult's would be. Edwardian System! They want to have the privileges adults do. Waterstones Isle! They want the Those Who Can, Teach freedom adults have. Most of waterstones of wight, all, children want to make their own decisions even though ultimately, it is the same decision the adults would of made for them. However, adults believe children below a certain age are immature and uneducated and sir patrick spens that they are unable to make their own decisions.

Amethyst Initiative , Drinking culture , Legal drinking age 1229 Words | 4 Pages. Should U.S. States Raise the of wight Driving Age ? Teenagers worldwide view the privilege of driving . Save Essay! as a coming of waterstones, age ritual. Recently, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has called upon states to era class system, raise the driving age from sixteen to seventeen, or possibly even eighteen years old. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, or IIHS, is a research group funded by the auto insurance industry. Research by the IIHS has shown that car crashes are the leading cause of death amongst teenagers. Adolescence , Automobile , Car safety 937 Words | 3 Pages. The drinking age should remain 21 and not be lowered to 18. The Drinking Age Should Remain 21 By Matt Hill Teenagers will do just about anything to fit in with the popular . crowd.

Drinking and partying are both viewed as cool or popular in the eyes of some teenagers. What does a teenage party consist of? Well, it will usually take place in a house with no parental supervision, along with members of both sex, and isle of wight a lot of alcohol. The teens may then engage in drinking games such as beer pong, flip cup, quarters, presidents and A-holes, to name a few. Those Who Can,! As. Adolescence , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1084 Words | 3 Pages. Why the Drinking Age Should Be Lowered. Drinking Age In todays society it is legal for an 18 year old to vote, be enlisted in the military, serve jury duty, buy tobacco products, . live on their own and support themselves.

Yet after all of that responsibility, these young adults are still not given the privilege to isle of wight, enjoy a few beers here and there. The current drinking age in the United States is 21 years of age , a controversial issue for many. The issue is exceptionally debatable and many people believe the drinking age should be lowered. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1866 Words | 5 Pages. DRINKING AGE DEBATE Should the drinking age be lowered to 18 years old, when one is considered an adult, and sir patrick poem . Waterstones Of Wight! assumes adult privileges and penalties, or should the drinking age remain at 21 years old, since people are more mature and Essay therefore, can be safe and responsible with alcohol? I believe that the drinking age should remain at 21 years old because lowering the legal drinking age would not be in the best interest of the public's safety, as well as today's youth. The most fundamental. Adolescence , Alcohol abuse , Amethyst Initiative 1204 Words | 4 Pages.

Legal Drinking Age , 18 or 21 ? People have always wanted what they cannot have. Starting in waterstones isle of wight 1984, this is the poem attitude most . Isle! lawmakers in America have taken with respect to underage drinking, since it was the time when many states changed their drinking age from eighteen to twenty-one. Lawmakers thought that if you raised the drinking age , people could drink more responsibly, because as you grow older, your brain matures and with maturity comes responsibility. Save The Environment! Although this law, passed not even twenty. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 2474 Words | 7 Pages. Should the isle Minimum Drinking Age Be Lowered.

Tayrin ORand 14 March 2012 Should the Minimum Drinking Age be Lowered? The minimum drinking age became a hot . topic ever since it was set to twenty one years old. It is a law not everyone welcomes with open arms, one that has the most impact in The Origins Essay the lives of adolescents and waterstones isle of wight if violated, one that can put a state at risk of poem, forfeiting ten percent of its annual federal highway appropriation. John M. McCardell Jr., president of Middlebury College; founder and president of Choose Responsibility. Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholism 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative essay on legal driving age.

Ellis Driving for isle of wight many teenagers is scarlett letter there first passage to waterstones, freedom, nothing is more exciting to The Origins, many teens than becoming the legal . Of Wight! age to drive. In the United States, most states legal age limits are set somewhere between 15 to 17 yrs old, each state having there own licensing process often with some type of probationary period before teens can obtain a full license. Recently law makers in Florida, Georgia, Delaware, Illinois, and quotes Massachusetts have debated raising the legal driving age . Waterstones Isle! Many of. Chauffeur , Driver's education , Driver's license 791 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Increasing the era class driving age to 18 Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that making the driving . age 18 is waterstones isle a safer requirement for the environment essay young teens. Thesis: Changing the driving age to isle, 18 will reduce driving fatalities and accidents, make our system more efficient (similar to Germany's laws in the environment driving ), and reduce our gas and insurance prices. Waterstones Of Wight! Introduction A week before my 16th birthday after hours of begging and pleading, my mom finally took me out to practice my driving skills. I enjoyed. Automobile , Brain , Driver's education 842 Words | 3 Pages. The Drinking Age Should Remain 18 in Australia.

The Drinking Age Should Remain 18 Years Old in Australia The Drinking Age Should Remain 18 . Spens! Years Old in Australia These days there are a number of social issues in the community, such as drug abuse, teenage pregnancy and alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is rampant in todays society, Australian Drug Foundation states that, Alcohol is the isle most widely used psychoactive, or mood-changing, recreational drug in Australia.(Healey, 2002, p. 11). Underage drinking and binge drinking are some of Essay and The Nigga, the. Adult , Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law 1574 Words | 4 Pages. raise the driving age to 18 years old has been a touchy subject on every level of the spectrum; from State Highway Safety . Association to teenagers and isle everybody in between. Although everyone has some degree of approval that raising the driving age would be a good idea no one has really put forth the effort to actually have it come to pass. This has lead to the ongoing debate of whether it should even be a consideration anymore.

There are several reasons that establishing the driving age at 18 is a. 1916 , 1920 , 1922 1893 Words | 5 Pages. Keeping the Drinking at 21 In the save the environment essay world today, the majority of countries has a legal drinking age of isle of wight, eighteen or lower. Unlike . many other countries, the United States has a minimum legal drinking age of twenty-one. Although our laws acknowledge that at age eighteen one is an essay adult who possess sufficient maturity and judgment to operate a motor vehicle, serve in the military, perform jury duty, sign a contract or even get married, those same laws deny that same adult the right to purchase, possess. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Drinking culture 1544 Words | 4 Pages. Why the of wight drinking age should not be lowered. The legal drinking age is the age at edwardian era class system which a person can consume or purchase alcoholic beverages.

In 1934, the Original ABC . Act stated that the legal age for purchase, possession or consumption of any alcoholic beverage was 21 years of waterstones isle of wight, age (History). The United States has the Essay on Can Nigga Coexist? highest minimum age for alcohol consumption or purchase. Each state is responsible for setting their own minimum drinking age based on federalism. In 1984, the national minimum drinking age act was passed and it pushed states. Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1551 Words | 5 Pages. to raise the waterstones minimum legal age for The Origins purchasing alcohol. The primary reason for waterstones this was to sir patrick spens, combat drunk driving fatalities. Waterstones Isle Of Wight! Then, . in edwardian era class 1984, Congress passed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act, which stated that states must raise the waterstones isle of wight minimum drinking age to The Origins of Chess, 21 by 1986, or they will lose ten percent of their federal highway funding. This act shows just how serious of an issue youth drinking had become.

As a result of this, there has been a dramatic decrease in drunk driving deaths. Today, the debate. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1295 Words | 4 Pages. like most underage teens do now days. Although, alcohol is treated as a big scary issue, in waterstones most fatalities from drunk driving have dropped . significantly since the drinking age was raised from 18 to 21 , lowering the drinking age back down would drastically help the U.S.s binge drinking problem, therefore the U.S. should follow most European countries and lower the drinking age federally. When you turn 18 you are considered an adult, there are many privileges that come along with being 18.

But one. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 999 Words | 3 Pages. leave and save the environment essay go home, but you friends won't let you because they know the dangers of waterstones, driving after having a few drinks. Instead they ca ll a cab . to give you a ride home. You would be extremely lucky to have such smart friends.

Drunk driving is a very serious problem in our society today, but it is becomming socially unacceptable causing the numbers of of Chess, alcohol related traffic fatalites t o decline considerably. Waterstones Isle! Drunk driving can be very deadly. Yet many people drive while under the essay influence everyday. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 886 Words | 3 Pages. Lowering the Drinking Age from waterstones of wight 21 to 18. the drinking age should be lowered to eighteen like most of the world or if it should stay at the environment 21 . . Underage drinking has been a major controversial issue for years, yet why is it not under control? Teenagers are continuing to buy alcohol with fake identification cards, drink, get into bars, and drink illegally.

As a teen I have proof that these things are going on not only in college but in high school as well. Waterstones Isle Of Wight! There are a lot of factors that come together to edwardian era class system, why the drinking age should be lowered to. Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1138 Words | 3 Pages. Increasing the Driving Age to 18 Years of Age According to recent statistics collected by Stats Canada, there . are approximately 160 000 road accidents in waterstones of wight Canada each year. Information recorded by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada states that of these 160 000 road accidents, there are approximately 2850 fatalities. Of these fatalities, over 5000 are predominantly teenagers aged 16-20, who are relatively new drivers. Furthermore, 400 000 drivers of the same age category are seriously injured. Adolescence , Automobile , Driver's education 885 Words | 3 Pages. ? Appellation Do you believe the drinking age should be lowered to allow eighteen year olds to Teach Essay, consume alcohol, or . should the legal age to drink alcoholic beverages stay at the age of twenty-one? Prior to waterstones isle of wight, 1984 you were, once you turned eighteen, in most states permitted to purchase alcohol.

It was completely up to the state government. At age 18 they are legally an on Can the Nerd and The Nigga adult, and can therefore abide by waterstones of wight their own rules and if they make a bad decision they have to pay the price. Why is it that as. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1407 Words | 4 Pages. The Driving Age Most people dont like the driving age at 21 , a lot of them are . Letter Quotes! teens. A lot of the teens feel that the government is taking away part of there freedom. If teens at 18 are able to isle, vote and, go into the military shouldnt they be able to sir patrick, drive, at 18 to? In some states the driving age is 16, I think it should be raised to isle of wight, 18 because most, Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among 15- to 20-year-olds. I think it would be better, to get your driving license. Automobile , Automotive industry , Driver's education 464 Words | 2 Pages. David 14 May 2012 Drinking Thrills Kills Driving Skills On the night of The Origins, 3rd February, 2007, Jane Cuthbert from the state of isle of wight, Missouri lost her . Those Who Can, Essay! two sons in a tragic motor accident.

She was buying new supplies from a grocery shop, and waterstones of wight because she was in a hurry she left her two sons, Brian and The Origins of Chess Essay Ken, in the car. As she stepped out of the grocery shop, she saw a blue minivan ram into waterstones isle, her stationary car. Scarlett! Her two boys, including the driver of the minivan who was apparently drunk, died on impact. Since. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Drinking culture 2446 Words | 6 Pages. Drinking Age The drinking age was moved from 18 to 21 for a reason. The higher drinking . age of 21 has saved many lives, helped reduce the amount of underage drinking, and therefore should not be lowered. Many studies from a large variety of waterstones, sources have proven higher drinking ages have a positive effect on on Can and The Nigga Coexist?, society.

Alcohol is harmful to of wight, the development of younger people. Research has shown that an adult is less likely to poem, binge. Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism , Drink 1002 Words | 3 Pages. Should the Legal Drinking Age Be Lowered? Keeping the legal drinking age at waterstones isle of wight 21 Introduction: The question of whether or not to lower the legal drinking . age has been in the mix for of Chess years. Isle! In the 70s the scarlett quotes legal drinking age for some states including Wisconsin and Georgia was 18. Studies have been done for both sides of the arguments to try and of wight back up their opinion on the legal drinking age . When discussing this subject most people go back to college campuses and how changing the Those Essay legal drinking age will affect young adults at the. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1171 Words | 5 Pages. DRINKING AGE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

States, there is a law that prohibits youth twenty-one years of age and waterstones of wight younger not to drink any alcoholic beverages. Save The Environment! However, there has been . an of wight ongoing controversy on whether the drinking age should be lower than twenty-one. Underage drinking has been a major controversial issue for spens years, yet why is it not under control? A lot of people believe that it should be lowered, but also there are a considerable amount of people who think it should stay the same. Waterstones! This debate has been going on for several years. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 2530 Words | 10 Pages. Drinking Age Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy, was once said by a very smart man named Benjamin Franklin. He . lived in on Can the Nerd Coexist? a time when there was no minimum drinking age . Before the 1900s there wasnt any kind of drinking laws anywhere in the United States. The drinking age was regulated by society which was family, church, and communities. Yes, some kids probably drank too much back then, but Ive learned that the current laws arent doing much to stop it now either. Waterstones Isle Of Wight! At.

Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1428 Words | 4 Pages. Editorial: Raising Legal Driving Age. one that I have decided to write about in this editorial, are the various legal ages that you have here in America. Scarlett! There is one . age for drinking, one for driving , one for joining the waterstones military, etc. Now, in this editorial I am going to be focusing on the fact that you can be as young as 16 to the environment, get a drivers license in this country. Why is waterstones isle of wight it that the US government allows young kids, because that is The Origins Essay what you are at the age of of wight, 16, the enormous responsibility of managing a vehicle and being personally. Adolescence , Automobile , Chauffeur 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay -Raise the Driving License Age to Eighteen. the larger society, the scarlett letter age at which a boy can earn his license should be raised to eighteen. Waterstones! . Raise the Driving License Age to Eighteen Throughout the history, people have always wanted what they cant have. The Origins Of Chess! So is of wight desire of of Chess Essay, teenagers to have driving license.

More than 5000 teenagers die in car accidents every year. Isnt this shocking? Indeed a very large number-according to waterstones isle, the statistics in the special report about the Dangers of Teen Driving -Readers Digest. Era Class System! It also reveals. Adolescence , Automobile , Car safety 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Military Drinking Age What would happen if the drinking age were lowered for those in the military? Xxxxx xxxxx English . 123 Mrs. Xxxxxx 20 Apr 20XX Military Drinking Age 1 What would happen if the drinking age were lowered for those in the military?

When I started this paper, I didnt want my own views to waterstones isle, sway my opinion on this question. The more I researched, the more I had even my own views expanded. I wanted to era class system, know what military people thought about this topic, what. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Army 1276 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 Should 18 Year Olds Be Able to Drink? Although theyre considered an adult, are able to vote, can be in the army draft, buy lottery . tickets, smoke, and the list goes on, an 18year-old cant sit down and waterstones drink a beer with his friends.

What is the reasoning behind this? Some think the Essay Nigga Coexist? law is taking away their freedom, but others believe it is saving lives. There are many opinions on this topic. Ever since 1984, the legal age to drink or purchase alcohol has been 21 years of age . There. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1218 Words | 4 Pages. abuse have led some politicians and commentators to suggest that the legal drinking age should be raised from 18 . years to 21 years. Do you agree? Give reasons and supporting evidence for isle your answer.

The issue of whether Australia should raise the legal drinking age to twenty-one or keep it at spens poem eighteen is a widely debated topic, this essay will educate and argue points in favour of the drinking age being raised . Alcohol is the most widely consumed drug in the world (Shannon 2002), and is the most. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1559 Words | 4 Pages. Drinking Age There is a question that a lot of waterstones isle of wight, people have been wondering for a while now. Should the drinking . System! age be lowered to eighteen years old? The United States Of America is of wight one of the few countries to have a drinking age of Those Teach Essay, twenty one, and a lot of people is wondering, at eighteen years old, you are old enough to go to war, drive, to choose the president, but not old enough to drink? Teenagers turn 21 and dont know how to control their drinking, when in waterstones fact, they should be taught. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Drinking culture , Iraq War 912 Words | 3 Pages. Legal drinking age should be lowered to 18 Pros * The age at which one is considered a legal adult in spens . the US is typically 18. Turning 18 entails receiving the rights and responsibilities of isle of wight, adulthood to vote, smoke cigarettes, serve on juries, get married, sign contracts, be prosecuted as adults, and join the military - which includes risking one's life.

This recognition of maturity should also encompass the right to drink; if young people are responsible enough to Essay Nigga, fight for their country. Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1652 Words | 5 Pages. John Smith Negative: The legal drinking age in the U.S. should be lowered to 18. Introduction We believe that the isle of wight . Quotes! drinking age across the isle of wight United States should stay at 21 years of age . Several states are currently petitioning that the drinking age be lowered; however, we find this to be dangerous and extremely unnecessary. Quotes! The first reason why we would like the of wight drinking age to stay the same is because of edwardian era class system, history. From the end of Prohibition (when alcohol was not allowed to be manufactured.

Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholism 934 Words | 3 Pages.

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coeducation essay Womens colleges in the United States are alive and well. Many historic womens colleges are still thriving according to their original mission, and some others that have been historically limited to women now admit male students in their ranks. Our list highlights schools that are still limited to women only and is based exclusively on waterstones isle, factors actual college freshmen said were most important to their college decision. According to letter, the most recent nationwide survey published by the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA , these factors include academic reputation, financial aid offerings, overall cost, and waterstones isle success of graduates in the post-college job market. Our data was derived from a variety of publicly available sources, including U.S. News World Report, the National Center for save essay, Education Statistics, and waterstones isle of wight PayScale.com. Moore College of Art and Design was founded in Philadelphia in 1848 as the first womens art school in the United States. The school offers bachelors degrees for women as well as coeducational graduate programs. A small undergraduate enrollment of only 412 students creates an intimate and collaborative environment in which to learn, experiment, and grow. The Environment! Undergraduate tudents can choose from ten majors leading to a BFA, while graduate students earn either MA or MFA degrees.

Moore students can engage in special programs such as paid student teaching internships and international study in places like London and Rome. Tuition cost: $30,048. Judson College, located in Marion, Alabama, is the fifth oldest womens college in the United States. The college is affiliated with the Alabama Baptist Convention and was named after Ann Hasseltine Judson, the first female missionary from the United States to Burma. Judson prepares students for purposeful lives by growing in knowledge, faith, service, and of wight character. Judson students choose from 20 academic majors, 22 minors, 10 pre-professional programs, and an associates degree. Sir Patrick Spens Poem! Science, humanities, fine arts, and isle of wight social science programs provide not only classroom education, but enriching experiences such as studying abroad and forming meaningful relationships with professors. Tuition cost: $16,838. Cottey College is an independent, liberal arts and sciences college for women.

The college is located in Nevada, Missouri, and is owned by a philanthropic womens organization called the P.E.O. Sisterhood. Quotes! There are currently about 300 students enrolled and waterstones of wight 45 faculty members, allowing for small classes, often with fewer than 10 students. More than 90 percent of faculty, which includes both men and women, hold terminal degrees. Cottey College values community, inside and save essay outside of the classroom. Students live in apartment-style suites designed with a kitchen, living room, and single or double bedrooms occupied by 10 or 12 women. Tuition cost: $19,300. Bay Path University, located in Longmeadow, Massachusetts, offers bachelors degrees for waterstones isle of wight, women and masters degrees for both men and women. Scarlett Letter! Students can enroll in courses on Bay Paths 62-acre suburban campus or through the waterstones first ever all-women online college.

BPU was founded in 1897 with the goal of providing practical, affordable, and career-oriented education. The school maintains this vision, offering degree programs that connect classroom learning to sir patrick poem, careers and leadership experience. More than 27 clubs and organizations allow students even more opportunities to connect active experience with what they learn in the classroom. Tuition cost: $31,785. Founded in isle of wight 1932 by the Sisters of Mercy, the Those University of St. Joseph is waterstones, a Roman Catholic womens college with a coeducational graduate program. Save Essay! About 5,500 students are enrolled, engaging in a rigorous Jesuit education on waterstones isle of wight, the universitys 105-acre campus. Classes at USJ tend to be small, with an average of only 14 students. There are 25 undergraduate majors and 45 minors offered, as well as graduate and adult learning programs. Summer courses and online degree programs are available for those who need more flexibility. Sir Patrick! Students can choose from more than 45 countries to study abroad, either individually or on a faculty-led learning trip.

Tuition cost: $36,140. Founded in waterstones 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman College is a historically black, liberal arts womens college in Atlanta, Georgia. Spelman has graduated such notable alumae as Harvard Dean Evelynn Hammonds, Sams Club CEO Rosalind Brewer, and Pulitzer Prize winner Alice Walker. Spelman offers 27 majors and scarlett letter quotes opportunities to waterstones of wight, study in even more fields through the save the environment schools partnerships in the Atlanta University Center and isle of wight abroad. The Spelman MILE, or My Integrated Learning Experience, is a curriculum that creates a holistic education, connecting rigorous coursework with applied and service learning experiences. Tuition cost: $26,388. The College of the environment essay Saint Mary, located in Omaha, Nebraska, is the only Catholic womens university within a five-state area. About 1,000 students are enrolled in of wight 30 undergraduate and edwardian era class seven graduate degree programs. A Saint Mary education is focused on helping women bloom into leadership in the areas of arts and sciences, business, education, health and human services, and legal studies. Students reach their leadership potential through classroom experience, campus activities, local projects, and study abroad opportunities. Waterstones Isle! Within six months of era class commencement, 92 percent of graduates are either employed or pursuing advanced education.

Tuition cost: $28,964. Located in Midway, Kentucky, Midway University is an isle of wight independent, liberal arts university affiliated with the The Origins of Chess Essay Christian Church. Midway is the only womens college in the state of Kentucky and offers two- and four-year degree programs. Each major offered is built on isle, a liberal arts foundation, but is also career focused. Midway has high-quality athletic and riding teams, as well as a beautiful campus. In addition to associates and bachelors degree programs, students can engage in pre-professional and honors programs at Midway. The university offers evening and online options, as well as dual enrollment for high school juniors and seniors to gain college credit. Tuition cost: $22,000.

Wesleyan College, the oldest member of the Seven Sisters of the South, is a liberal arts womens college in Macon, Georgia. The colleges 200-acre campus and the surrounding district is on the National Register of Historic Places. Founded in 1836, Wesleyan was the worlds first college chartered to grant degrees to women. Wesleyan students come from more than 20 countries to study in one of the colleges 31 undergraduate majors, eight pre-professional programs, and dual degree programs in engineering. Both men and women are allowed into Wesleyans Executive Master of Business Administration and save Master of Education in Early Childhood Education programs.

Tuition cost: $20,290. Located 12 miles from Lynchburg, Virginia, Sweet Briar College is a womens liberal arts college occupying 3,250 acres in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Sweet Briars 40 undergraduate programs, three pre-professional programs, and two graduate degree programs play a part in empowering young women to reshape their world according to their passions. Activities such as student government, outdoor programs, and campus events train Sweet Briar women to incorporate into their lives the lessons they learn outside of the isle of wight classroom. Sweet Briar offers an undergraduate degree in Equine Studies, riding facilities, and individual courses as part of the Riding Program. Tuition cost: $34,935. Mary Baldwin College, located in Stauton, Virginia, is Essay, a private liberal arts university originally founded as the Augusta Female Seminary. MBC is of wight, one of Virginias three womens colleges and offers undergraduate degrees for women and graduate degrees for quotes, women and men.

About 2,500 students are enrolled and led by 79 full-time and 59 part-time faculty members. Mary Baldwin boasts an educational experience that is personalized, experiential, and relevant. The entire college experience at MBCfrom courses and research to community service and study abroadis designed to equip students for a meaningful life, based on what they like to do and who they want to become. Tuition cost: $30,331. Russell Sage College, a womens college in waterstones isle Troy, New York, is one of edwardian system three institutions that make up The Sage Colleges. Nearly 900 students are enrolled in degree programs at Russell Sages 15-acre historic campus. Sage students study a cross-section of subjects while engaging with the community and the world.

The school offers flexible degree completion and certificate programs, such as undergraduate and graduate degrees in isle of wight chemistry, occupational therapy, and writing. Study abroad, summer programs, culture and language acquisition, and honor societies give students the opportunity to enrich their educational experience outside of the Essay the Nerd Nigga classroom. Tuition cost: $28,400. The College of Saint Elizabeth is a private, Roman Catholic womens college in New Jerseys Morris Township and Florham Park. CSE was New Jerseys first four-year Catholic college for women and one of the first Catholic colleges in the nation to award degrees to women. Of Wight! A total of The Origins of Chess around 2,000 students are enrolled, including about 50 men who attend part-time. Bachelors, masters, and isle doctoral degrees are offered at Saint Elizabeth, as are a variety of Who Can, professional certificates and ministry preparation programs.

Every area of study features challenging courses paired with abundant resources and support, such as cross-registration opportunities with nearby partner institutions. (Ed. Waterstones Isle Of Wight! note: As of fall 2016, the College of St. Elizabeth will be fully co-educational.) Tuition cost: $31,688. Salem College, founded in 1772 in edwardian system Winston-Salem, North Carolina, is the oldest institution for womens education in the Southern United States. Salem began as a primary school and later became a girls academy, before being converted to a college. The school has 945 undergraduate students and waterstones isle about 200 graduate students, including men who are 23 or older.

All students are required to take Salem Signature courses, which develop skills and practices such as critical thinking, communication, quantitative reasoning, global awareness, and gender inquiry. The school runs on a 4-1-4 calendar, requiring four courses each term and one course each January. Tuition cost: $26,236. Located in Greensboro, North Carolina, Bennett College was founded in 1873 to educate newly emancipated slaves. The private liberal arts school for women is historically black and is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Essay And The Nigga! Bennett welcomes faculty and students from diverse backgrounds and nourishes a culture of open inquiry, active scholarship, and personal empowerment.

Undergraduate majors and minors are offered in the divisions of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education, and Natural and waterstones isle of wight Behavioral Sciences/Mathematics. Other academic programs include Africana Womens Studies, the Center for Global Studies, and the Honors Program at Bennett College. Tuition cost: $18,150. The College of Saint Benedict is a Roman Catholic liberal arts womens college in St. Joseph, Minnesota. The college enrolls around 2,000 students and has a partnership with Saint Johns University, a mens college in neighboring Collegeville. Those Teach Essay! The university welcomes students of all faiths, although 54 percent of students are Catholic. For more than 150 years, the college has been making its own coarse-grained bread and using the proceeds to fund special projects. Isle Of Wight! Almost 90 percent of Saint Benedict students return after their first year.

About 18 percent of the colleges graduates go to graduate school, and 79 percent enter career-related positions or service work. Tuition cost: $40,846. Hollins University was founded in 1842 as Valley Union Seminary and scarlett letter quotes is one of the oldest higher education institutions for women in the nation. The university is located on the border of Roanoke and Botetourt counties in Virginia. About 800 students are enrolled in Hollinss all-female undergraduate and coeducational graduate programs. Hollins encourages students to learn, explore, and create as they become leaders and waterstones culture shapers. Because this kind of letter creative leadership is in high demand, 97 percent of graduates are employed or in waterstones isle of wight graduate school within a year of finishing a degree program at Hollins. Tuition cost: $35,635. Colorado Womens College, originally an institution of letter its own, is of wight, now one of eight undergraduate colleges at the University of Denver. Founded in 1888, CWC remains the only all-womens college in the Rocky Mountain Region.

The college started with shared values among founders, faculty, and students, and has used this unity to become a catalyst for Those Essay, personal, professional, and global change. Of Wight! A variety of class options allow students to complete a degree on a more flexible schedule. For example, courses may be offered once per The Origins, week, in an intensive two-week format, or partially or entirely online. CWC runs on waterstones isle, the quarter system, giving students a two-week interim between each quarter to save the environment, take a class or study abroad. Tuition cost: $44,178. Located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Douglass Residential College is a liberal arts womens college that is part of waterstones Rutgers. Letter Quotes! Douglass is the only womens residential college in the United States that is waterstones isle, part of a flagship public research university. Programs include first-year orientation for poem, Rutgers freshmen, senior year workshops, and a four-year academic engagement curriculum.

Students at Douglass benefit from experiential learning opportunities such as student government, internships, and isle of wight themed and sir patrick spens language housing. Unique programs are available for Douglass women majoring in science, math, engineering, and technology fields. Tuition cost: $28,987. Stephens College is a womens college in Columbia, Missouri, enrolling 850 students. Founded in isle of wight 1833 as the Columbia Female Academy, the school was later renamed The Columbia Female Baptist Academy, and then Stephens Female College. Save The Environment Essay! Grounded in the liberal arts, the Stephens education focuses on pre-professional fields and isle performing arts. Students can earn degrees through the Schools of Design, Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Studies, and Performing Arts. Essay! Each program uniquely embraces a culture of engaged learning, providing opportunities for internships, research, and creative collaboration. Students can study abroad in Italy, Korea, Ireland, and isle of wight an array of poem other locations. Tuition cost: $29,176. Founded in waterstones isle of wight 1889 as Decatur Female Seminary, Agnes Scott College is now a private liberal arts womens college.

The college is affiliated with the the Nerd and The Nigga Presbyterian Church and with institutions such as the isle of wight Georgia Institute of Technology, the Emory School of Nursing, and Washington University. Agnes Scott students can choose from 30 majors and Essay the Nerd and The Coexist? 25 minors in such varied fields as Africana Studies, Mathematics, and Religion and Social Justice. The college features a residential campus rich with opportunities for community engagement and of wight leadership opportunities. There are 45 student organizations on campus, as well as a governance system led in part by students. Tuition cost: $37,236. Columbia College, a private liberal arts college in Columbia, S.C., roots its vision and curriculum in the environment essay what it calls, the 4 Cscourage, commitment, confidence, and competence. These are seen as both phases on a continuum in students transformation into leaders and waterstones isle necessary characteristics for Essay, life-long learners.

Columbia invests in its students through its Institute for Leadership and waterstones isle of wight Professional Excellence offering students opportunities for internships, academic and career advising and coaching, service learning, mentoring and more. In addition, Columbia College offers a variety of degree programs with over Those Who Can, Essay, 30 majors as well as individualized programs of study. Isle! Class sizes are small (11:1 student-faculty ratio) ensuring a student-centered approach. Combine all this with Columbias active student life in the context of a unique southern college town, and students will surely find their niche. Tuition cost: $28,100. Converse College is a liberal arts university in Spartanburg, South Carolina.

The undergraduate college is exclusively for women, while graduate, online, and summer programs are coeducational. On Can The Nerd And The! Converse promotes bold and daring leadership for advancing communities and professions. Experiential learning is emphasized, as students are offered opportunities for internships, research, leadership development, community service, and travel. A variety of strong academic programs are available, and more than half of Converse students choose to double major. For women 24 and older, the waterstones isle Converse II program provides a quality Converse education with reduced fees and a simpler application procedure.

Tuition cost: $16,500. Mills College, originally founded as the Young Ladies Seminary in 1852, is now a liberal arts and the environment sciences college in the San Francisco Bay Area. More than 40 women-only undergraduate and 25 coeducational graduate degree programs are offered. Mills is known for a diverse student body and a commitment to providing an intimate, collaborative educational experience. Bachelors-to-masters accelerated degree programs in education, business administration, infant mental health, and waterstones other areas allow students to save, complete an undergraduate and advanced degree in isle of wight five years.

Mills offers unique academic fields of study such as queer studies and book art. Tuition cost: $44,258. Scripps College is sir patrick spens, a liberal arts womens college in Claremont, enrolling about 950 students. Waterstones Of Wight! Known as the City of Trees and edwardian era class system PhDs, Claremont is a small southern California town only isle, 35 miles away from downtown Los Angeles. Scripps was founded in The Origins of Chess Essay 1926 and is on a historic 32-acre campus.

Every student at the college begins with the Core Curriculum in Interdisciplinary Humanities and finishes with a senior thesis or culminating project. Students may cross-register to take courses at any one of the other Claremont Colleges. Waterstones Of Wight! In addition to Teach, undergraduate programs, Scripps offers a post-baccalaureate premedical program, allowing students to waterstones of wight, complete prerequisites for medical, dental, or veterinary school. Tuition cost: $49,152. Mount Mary University, founded in sir patrick spens poem 1913 by the School Sisters of Notre Dame, is a Catholic liberal arts university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The university serves about 1,200 undergraduate women and around 500 male and waterstones female graduate students. In all fields of study, Mount Mary encourages creativity through service and professional preparation. Competence, community, compassion, and commitment characterize a Mount Mary education. Teach Essay! Service learning is isle of wight, integrated into the curriculum through study abroad opportunities, chances to volunteer, and the Leadership for Social Justice Seminar, which is a required course for all freshmen. Tuition cost: $26,760. Alverno College, located in The Origins of Chess Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is a Roman Catholic liberal arts womens college.

Alverno seeks to engage and isle of wight connect students through weekday and evening undergraduate programs for Who Can,, women, as well as coeducational graduate programs. Waterstones Isle Of Wight! The community at Alverno is based on collaboration, respect, justice, and a commitment to hospitality. Around 2,500 students are enrolled in the colleges 60 undergraduate programs and four graduate programs. Although Alverno is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, nineteen other religious denominations are represented within the colleges student body. Tuition cost: $25,660. Located in Notre Dame, Indiana, Saint Marys College is a Catholic, womens liberal arts college enrolling about 1,600 undergraduate students. Academics at Saint Marys challenge students to explore and discover everything from the world around them to the potential in themselves. Graduate students can pursue a Master of Science in the environment Data Science or Speech Language Pathology, or a Doctorate of Nursing Practice. All three graduate programs are based on isle, a cohort model and include on-campus, online, and hybrid format options.

Saint Marys students can take advantage of the schools proximity to the University of Notre Dame by participating in sporting events, clubs, and other organizations. Tuition cost: $37,400. Located in Allentown, Pennsylvania, Cedar Crest College is a private liberal arts womens college that also admits male students for evening classes. The school was founded in 1867 and was one of the first womens colleges in the United States. Cedar Crest forms leaders by preparing the whole person for scarlett quotes, life in the global community. Graduate and non-traditional education is also offered through the coeducational School of Adult and Graduate Education. Waterstones Of Wight! Cedar Crest offers qualified students the 4YG, or Four-Year Guarantee. The college commits to providing students a clear path to graduating in four years, thereby reducing excess credits and excess cost. Tuition cost: $35,600.

Brenau University is a private, not-for-profit institution in Gainesville, Georgia, consisting of graduate and undergraduate schools, as well as a Womens College. Non-degree and Those Who Can, Teach online programs are available in addition to Brenaus degree programs. Students can also take courses at Brenau campuses in North Atlanta, South Atlanta, Augusta, and Kings Bay. The Brenau curriculum is based on four portals, offering classes and educational experiences that expand the worldview, reveal the beauty of science and math, develop the creativity and imagination, and refine a range of communication and language skills. Study abroad opportunities are available in France, Belgium, Korea, China, and Denmark.

Tuition cost: $25,878. Notre Dame of Maryland University. Notre Dame of Maryland University, founded in 1873, is an independent, Catholic-affiliated, liberal arts college in Baltimore. In addition to the undergraduate Womens College, Notre Dame offers graduate studies and waterstones isle of wight part-time programs for women and era class men. The university produces fearless and faithful graduates from a diverse student body. Waterstones Isle! NDMU, the only womens college in the state of save the environment Maryland, offers a transformative educational experience through the study of fields such as art, behavioral neuroscience, foreign languages, philosophy, and waterstones of wight more. Certificate programs are available, as are two five-year dual degree programs. Tuition cost: $33,670.

Founded in 1871 by the Ursuline Sisters of Cleveland, Ursuline College is a Catholic, womens-focused college in Pepper Pike, Ohio. About 700 students are enrolled in Ursulines 30 undergraduate degree programs. Spens Poem! The college also offers 11 graduate programs and a Doctorate of Nursing Practice degree. The 112-acre campus is about 10 miles outside of Cleveland and 30 miles from Akron. The liberal arts college is particularly known for its programs in art therapy, nursing, and teaching certification. Students of all faiths are welcome at Ursuline, but the college strives to live gospel values while encouraging students to clarify what they believe. Tuition cost: $28,520. Also known as St.

Kates, St. Isle! Catherine University is a private Catholic university in the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Kates offers undergraduate programs for women and coeducational graduate and associate programs. Students can pursue one of poem more than 100 fields of isle of wight study through St. Catherines four schools: the School of Business and Professional Studies; the School of Humanities, Arts and edwardian Sciences; the waterstones isle School of Social Work; and the Henrietta Schmoll School of Health. Fieldwork, internships, study abroad, and other opportunities are available for The Origins of Chess Essay, students to engage in global education, collaborative research, and waterstones of wight community-based learning. Tuition cost: $37,842. Mount Holyoke is a womens liberal arts college in South Hadley, Massachusetts.

The college was founded in 1837 as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and became the The Origins first of the Seven Sisters, as well as a member of the Pioneer Valleys Five College Consortium. About 2,000 students are enrolled at Mount Holyoke, representing 45 states and 74 countries. The school offers 51 majors and the option to design a major. At MHC, 29 percent of students choose an interdisciplinary major and 84 percent of classes have fewer than 30 students. Mount Holyoke offers courses on various global issues and has even been awarded the Senator Paul Simon Award for Comprehensive Internationalization.

Tuition cost: $43,886. Simmons College, founded in Boston by a clothing manufacturer in waterstones isle of wight 1899, is a private women-focused undergraduate college also offering coeducation graduate programs. Era Class System! More than 50 undergraduate majors are available, as is the only MBA program in the United States designed exclusively for women. The college seeks to provide a transformative learning experience that unites passion and purpose. Simmons students can participate in a plethora of student organizations, as well as leadership development and community service opportunities. Some of these opportunities allow students to connect with the other five institutions that make of the Colleges of the Fenway. Tuition cost: $37,380. Meredith College is a liberal arts college in Raleigh, North Carolina. Isle Of Wight! Merediths undergraduate degree programs serve 2,000 women, while about Essay and The, 300 men and women are enrolled in the colleges graduate programs. Meredith is the largest undergraduate womens college in the southeastern United States.

More than 80 undergraduate majors, minors, and concentrations are available, along with 16 graduate and waterstones of wight certificate programs. Meredith students hail from 26 states and 39 countries and enjoy opportunities to do research, study abroad, and participate in more than 100 clubs and The Origins of Chess organizations. There are currently 19,000 Meredith graduates living in all 50 state and abroad. Tuition cost: $33,730. Barnard College is a private womens liberal arts college in isle of wight Manhattan, and is one of the Seven Sisters of the Northeast. Barnard has a partnership with Columbia University, which gives students access to even more resources than those offered by the college itself. The primary focus at Barnard is addressing gender issues while empowering students to face the various challenges that will arise throughout their lives. The schools curriculum emphasizes intellectual resourcefulness, which transcends traditional academic disciplines. Letter! Exchange programs are available through Columbia and Juilliard, as well as through the Manhattan School of Music. Tuition cost: $47,631.

Bryn Mawr College is a womens liberal arts college four miles west of Philadelphia. The college is part of the Seven Sisters and the Tri-College Consortium with Swarthmore College and Haverford College. Bryn Mawr was founded in 1885 and has about 1,300 undergraduate and 400 graduate students. Bryn Mawr students come from all over the world, representing 45 states and 62 countries. The school promotes intellectual inquiry and waterstones isle balances independence of mind with collaborative work.

Students can major in anything from Arabic to Economics to era class, Creative Writing, or enroll in graduate programs in areas such as Clinical Developmental Psychology and Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology. Tuition cost: $47,140. Smith College is an private, womens liberal arts college in Northampton, Massachusetts. Waterstones Of Wight! With 2,600 undergraduate students and 100 male and scarlett quotes female postgraduate students, Smith is the largest of the Seven Sisters colleges. Over 1,000 courses are offered in more than 50 areas of study, and an open curriculum allows students to explore various fields of interest. Undergraduates at Smith can begin accelerated masters programs at the University of Massachusetts Amherst starting their junior year. Special programs such as The Poetry Center, the Smith Program at the Smithsonian Institution, and the Smith Scholars Program afford students opportunities to become active scholars in their field of study.

Tuition cost: $46,288. Located in Wellesley, Massachusetts, Wellesley College is isle of wight, a womens liberal arts college and a member of the Seven Sisters. Wellesley has partnerships with many well-known universities, allowing students to cross-register at institutions like MIT, Amherst, Dartmouth, and Wheaton. Hillary Clinton, Madeleine Albright, and Diane Sawyer all graduated from Wellesley College, as did two thirds of the nations female Secretaries of State. Scarlett Quotes! In addition to a variety of academic majors and waterstones isle the option to design a personalized major, Wellesley academic programs afford students opportunities to Teach Essay, study abroad or attend special events such as seminars in public writing.

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ICS 161: Design and isle Analysis of letter quotes, Algorithms. Lecture notes for March 12, 1996. NP-completeness is a form of of wight, bad news: evidence that many important problems can't be solved quickly. These NP-complete problems really come up all the time. Knowing they're hard lets you stop beating your head against sir patrick poem, a wall trying to solve them, and of wight do something better: Use a heuristic. If you can't quickly solve the Those Who Can, Teach Essay, problem with a good worst case time, maybe you can come up with a method for solving a reasonable fraction of the waterstones, common cases. Solve the problem approximately instead of exactly. A lot of the time it is possible to come up with a provably fast algorithm, that doesn't solve the the environment, problem exactly but comes up with a solution you can prove is close to waterstones of wight right. Use an exponential time solution anyway. Scarlett Quotes! If you really have to solve the waterstones isle, problem exactly, you can settle down to writing an exponential time algorithm and stop worrying about Who Can, Teach Essay, finding a better solution.

Choose a better abstraction. Of Wight! The NP-complete abstract problem you're trying to solve presumably comes from ignoring some of the seemingly unimportant details of a more complicated real world problem. Perhaps some of those details shouldn't have been ignored, and make the difference between what you can and can't solve. NP does not stand for on Can Nigga, non-polynomial . There are many complexity classes that are much harder than NP. PSPACE . Waterstones Isle! Problems that can be solved using a reasonable amount of memory (again defined formally as a polynomial in the input size) without regard to how much time the the Nerd and The Coexist?, solution takes. Waterstones! EXPTIME . Problems that can be solved in exponential time. This class contains most problems you are likely to run into, including everything in the previous three classes. Sir Patrick! It may be surprising that this class is not all-inclusive: there are problems for which the best algorithms take even more than exponential time. Undecidable . For some problems, we can prove that there is no algorithm that always solves them, no matter how much time or space is waterstones isle of wight, allowed.

One very uninformative proof of Nigga, this is based on the fact that there are as many problems as there real numbers, and only as many programs as there are integers, so there are not enough programs to solve all the isle of wight, problems. But we can also define explicit and useful problems which can't be solved. Although defined theoretically, many of these classes have practical implications. For instance P is a very good approximation to the class of problems which can be solved quickly in practice -- usually if this is true, we can prove a polynomial worst case time bound, and conversely the polynomial time bounds we can prove are usually small enough that the corresponding algorithms really are practical. NP-completeness theory is concerned with the distinction between the first two classes, P and NP. Examples of problems in different classes. A simple path in a graph is just one without any repeated edges or vertices. To describe the problem of finding long paths in terms of complexity theory, we need to formalize it as a yes-or-no question: given a graph G, vertices s and t, and a number k, does there exist a simple path from Those Who Can, Essay s to t with at least k edges? A solution to this problem would then consist of isle, such a path. Why is this in NP? If you're given a path, you can quickly look at era class it and add up the length, double-checking that it really is of wight, a path with length at least k. This can all be done in linear time, so certainly it can be done in polynomial time.

However we don't know whether this problem is in P; I haven't told you a good way for finding such a path (with time polynomial in edwardian era class system m,n, and K). Isle! And in fact this problem is NP-complete, so we believe that no such algorithm exists. There are algorithms that solve the problem; for Essay and The Nigga, instance, list all 2^m subsets of edges and check whether any of them solves the problem. But as far as we know there is no algorithm that runs in polynomial time. Suppose we have an encryption function e.g. The RSA encryption works by performing some simple integer arithmetic on isle of wight the code and the key, which consists of a pair (p,q) of large prime numbers. One can perform the encryption only knowing the product pq; but to decrypt the code you instead need to Essay know a different product, (p-1)(q-1). A standard assumption in of wight cryptography is the known plaintext attack: we have the code for some message, and edwardian era class we know (or can guess) the waterstones isle, text of that message. We want to edwardian use that information to discover the isle, key, so we can decrypt other messages sent using the same key. Formalized as an NP problem, we simply want to find a key for which code=RSA(key,text). If you're given a key, you can test it by doing the poem, encryption yourself, so this is in NP.

The hard question is, how do you find the key? For the waterstones isle, code to be strong we hope it isn't possible to do much better than a brute force search. Another common use of RSA involves public key cryptography: a user of the system publishes the product pq, but doesn't publish p, q, or (p-1)(q-1). That way anyone can send a message to Those Teach that user by using the RSA encryption, but only the isle, user can decrypt it. Breaking this scheme can also be thought of as a different NP problem: given a composite number pq, find a factorization into smaller numbers. One can test a factorization quickly (just multiply the letter quotes, factors back together again), so the problem is in NP. Finding a factorization seems to be difficult, and we think it may not be in P. However there is isle, some strong evidence that it is not NP-complete either; it seems to be one of the (very rare) examples of edwardian era class, problems between P and NP-complete in difficulty.

We've seen in the news recently a match between the world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, and waterstones of wight a very fast chess computer, Deep Blue. The computer lost the match, but won one game and of Chess Essay tied others. What is involved in waterstones of wight chess programming? Essentially the sequences of possible moves form a tree: The first player has a choice of 20 different moves (most of which are not very good), after each of which the second player has a choice of many responses, and scarlett so on. Chess playing programs work by traversing this tree finding what the possible consequences would be of of wight, each different move. The tree of moves is not very deep -- a typical chess game might last 40 moves, and it is rare for edwardian, one to reach 200 moves. Since each move involves a step by each player, there are at most 400 positions involved in most games.

If we traversed the waterstones isle of wight, tree of chess positions only to that depth, we would only save essay, need enough memory to store the 400 positions on a single path at a time. This much memory is easily available on the smallest computers you are likely to use. So perfect chess playing is a problem in PSPACE. Waterstones Of Wight! (Actually one must be more careful in definitions. Of Chess! There is waterstones isle of wight, only a finite number of positions in chess, so in principle you could write down the solution in constant time. But that constant would be very large. Generalized versions of chess on larger boards are in PSPACE.) The reason this deep game-tree search method can't be used in practice is that the tree of moves is very bushy, so that even though it is not deep it has an enormous number of vertices.

We won't run out of Who Can,, space if we try to of wight traverse it, but we will run out of sir patrick spens, time before we get even a small fraction of the way through. Some pruning methods, notably alpha-beta search can help reduce the portion of the tree that needs to be examined, but not enough to solve this difficulty. For this reason, actual chess programs instead only search a much smaller depth (such as up to 7 moves), at which point they don't have enough information to evaluate the true consequences of the moves and are forced to guess by using heuristic evaluation functions that measure simple quantities such as the total number of pieces left. If I give you a three-dimensional polygon (e.g. as a sequence of isle of wight, vertex coordinate triples), is there some way of twisting and bending the sir patrick spens poem, polygon around until it becomes flat? Or is it knotted? There is an algorithm for solving this problem, which is very complicated and has not really been adequately analyzed.

However it runs in at least exponential time. One way of proving that certain polygons are not knots is to find a collection of of wight, triangles forming a surface with the of Chess, polygon as its boundary. Isle Of Wight! However this is The Origins of Chess Essay, not always possible (without adding exponentially many new vertices) and even when possible it's NP-complete to isle find these triangles. There are also some heuristics based on letter finding a non-Euclidean geometry for waterstones isle of wight, the space outside of a knot that work very well for many knots, but are not known to work for all knots. So this is one of the rare examples of scarlett letter, a problem that can often be solved efficiently in practice even though it is theoretically not known to be in P. Certain related problems in higher dimensions (is this four-dimensional surface equivalent to a four-dimensional sphere) are provably undecidable.

Suppose you're working on of wight a lab for a programming class, have written your program, and start to run it. After five minutes, it is still going. Does this mean it's in poem an infinite loop, or is it just slow? It would be convenient if your compiler could tell you that your program has an infinite loop. However this is an undecidable problem: there is of wight, no program that will always correctly detect infinite loops. Some people have used this idea as evidence that people are inherently smarter than computers, since it shows that there are problems computers can't solve.

However it's not clear to me that people can solve them either. Here's an example: This program searches for solutions to era class system Fermat's last theorem. Does it halt? (You can assume I'm using a multiple-precision integer package instead of built in waterstones isle of wight integers, so don't worry about system, arithmetic overflow complications.) To be able to answer this, you have to understand the recent proof of Fermat's last theorem. Of Wight! There are many similar problems for which no proof is known, so we are clueless whether the corresponding programs halt. We have no reason to The Origins believe it should be true, so the expectation among most theoreticians is that it's false. But we also don't have a proof. So we have this nice construction of complexity classes P and NP but we can't even say that there's one problem in NP and not in P. Waterstones Isle! So what good is the theory if it can't tell us how hard any particular problem is to solve? (Conversely if everything in essay NP is easy, those problems are easy. So NP-completeness can be thought of as a way of making the of wight, big P=NP question equivalent to smaller questions about the The Origins of Chess, hardness of individual problems.)

So if we believe that P and NP are unequal, and we prove that some problem is NP-complete, we should believe that it doesn't have a fast algorithm. For unknown reasons, most problems we've looked at in NP turn out either to isle be in P or NP-complete. So the theory of NP-completeness turns out to be a good way of showing that a problem is likely to be hard, because it applies to a lot of problems. But there are problems that are in NP, not known to be in P, and not likely to be NP-complete; for instance the save the environment essay, code-breaking example I gave earlier. We say that A is easier than B, and write A B, if we can write down an algorithm for solving A that uses a small number of calls to a subroutine for B (with everything outside the isle of wight, subroutine calls being fast, polynomial time). There are several minor variations of this definition depending on the detailed meaning of small -- it may be a polynomial number of calls, a fixed constant number, or just one call. Then if A B, and B is in P, so is A: we can write down a polynomial algorithm for A by expanding the subroutine calls to sir patrick spens poem use the fast algorithm for isle of wight, B. So easier in this context means that if one problem can be solved in polynomial time, so can the other. It is sir patrick, possible for the algorithms for A to of wight be slower than those for B, even though A B. As an example, consider the scarlett quotes, Hamiltonian cycle problem. Does a given graph have a cycle visiting each vertex exactly once?

Here's a solution, using longest path as a subroutine: This algorithm makes m calls to a longest path subroutine, and does O(m) work outside those subroutine calls, so it shows that Hamiltonian cycle longest path. (It doesn't show that Hamiltonian cycle is in P, because we don't know how to isle solve the longest path subproblems quickly.) As a second example, consider a polynomial time problem such as the sir patrick, minimum spanning tree. Then for waterstones, every other problem B, B minimum spanning tree, since there is a fast algorithm for minimum spanning trees using a subroutine for B. (We don't actually have to call the Who Can, Essay, subroutine, or we can call it and ignore its results.) This seems like a very strong definition. After all, the of wight, notion of Those Who Can, Teach, reduction we've defined above seems to imply that if B A, then the two problems are very closely related; for instance Hamiltonian cycle and longest path are both about finding very similar structures in graphs.

Why should there be a problem that closely related to all the waterstones isle of wight, different problems in NP? Theorem: an NP-complete problem exists. We prove this by example. One NP-complete problem can be found by modifying the halting problem (which without modification is undecidable). Bounded halting . This problem takes as input a program X and a number K. The problem is to find data which, when given as input to X, causes it to stop in at most K steps. To be precise, this needs some more careful definition: what language is X written in? What constitutes a single step?

Also for technical reasons K should be specified in unary notation, so that the length of system, that part of the input is K itself rather than O(log K). For reasonable ways of filling in the details, this is in NP: to test if data is a correct solution, just simulate the program for K steps. This takes time polynomial in K and in the length of program. Isle! (Here's one point at which we need to be careful: the program can not perform unreasonable operations such as arithmetic on very large integers, because then we wouldn't be able to simulate it quickly enough.) To finish the proof that this is NP-complete, we need to show that it's harder than anything else in sir patrick spens NP. Suppose we have a problem A in NP. Waterstones! This means that we can write a program PA that tests solutions to A, and halts within polynomial time p(n) with a yes or no answer depending on whether the spens, given solution is really a solution to the given problem.

We can then easily form a modified program PA' to waterstones of wight enter an infinite loop whenever it would halt with a no answer. If we could solve bounded halting, we could solve A by passing PA' and p(n) as arguments to sir patrick spens a subroutine for bounded halting. So A bounded halting. But this argument works for every problem in NP, so bounded halting is NP-complete. How to prove NP-completeness in practice. Most proofs of NP-completeness don't look like the waterstones isle of wight, one above; it would be too difficult to prove anything else that way. Instead, they are based on the observation that if A B and B C, then A C. The Origins! (Recall that these relations are defined in terms of the existence of an algorithm that calls subroutines.

Given an algorithm that solves A with a subroutine for B, and an algorithm that solves B with a subroutine for C, we can just use the second algorithm to expand the waterstones isle of wight, subroutine calls of the first algorithm, and get an algorithm that solves A with a subroutine for scarlett, C.) As a consequence of isle of wight, this observation, if A is NP-complete, B is in NP, and A B, B is NP-complete. In practice that's how we prove NP-completeness: We start with one specific problem that we prove NP-complete, and we then prove that it's easier than lots of others which must therefore also be NP-complete. So e.g. since Hamiltonian cycle is scarlett letter quotes, known to be NP-complete, and Hamiltonian cycle longest path, we can deduce that longest path is also NP-complete. Starting from the bounded halting problem we can show that it's reducible to a problem of simulating circuits (we know that computers can be built out of circuits, so any problem involving simulating computers can be translated to one about simulating circuits). So various circuit simulation problems are NP-complete, in particular Satisfiability, which asks whether there is an input to waterstones of wight a Boolean circuit that causes its output to be one. Circuits look a lot like graphs, so from there it's another easy step to proving that many graph problems are NP-complete. Most of these proofs rely on Essay on Can Nigga constructing gadgets , small subgraphs that act (in the context of the waterstones of wight, graph problem under consideration) like Boolean gates and the environment other components of circuits. There are many problems already known to be NP-complete, and listed in the bible of the subject:

Computers and Intractibility: A guide to the theory of NP-completeness. Michael R. Garey and David S. Johnson. W. Waterstones Isle! H. Freeman, 1979. If you suspect a problem you're looking at is NP-complete, the first step is to look for it in Garey and Johnson. The second step is to find as similar a problem as you can in Garey and Johnson, and prove a reduction showing that similar problem to be easier than the one you want to solve.

If neither of on Can the Nerd Nigga Coexist?, these works, you could always go back to the methods described in the rest of this class, and of wight try to find an efficient algorithm.