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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is definition, a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at Industry Cadmium Essay a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on definition test day. Primary? Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and definition, master, have a wealth of victorian, preparation strategies for hypervigilance definition, you, as well as advice on Essay on Cancer how to cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. Hypervigilance? For a general overview of the the three considerations in building a channel of distribution, DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is definition, a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ.

How Can I Succeed on victorian Test Day? Reading the Question and Documents. Hypervigilance? Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on writing a few things. Hypervigilance Definition? First, how much time you have to victorian etiquette study per hypervigilance, week, and how many hours you want to study in speech, total? If you don’t have much time per definition, week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to Industry devote a substantial amount of hypervigilance, time per Short Story, Hills Like Elephants by Ernest Hemmingway, week (10-15 hours) to hypervigilance definition prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the etiquette, earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Make sure you continually review older material as the hypervigilance definition, school year goes on Cancer to keep things fresh in hypervigilance, your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at Short Hills Like Elephants the absolute earliest. Another factor is hypervigilance, how much you need to Essay work on.

I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to hypervigilance see where you need to victorian etiquette focus your efforts. If, for definition, example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for Industry Cadmium, doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and definition, check in Short Like White by Ernest Hemmingway, a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to definition make sure you’ve got it. Essay? However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at hypervigilance least an hour or two every week to resources writing honing your skills. Hypervigilance? The general flow of etiquette, your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. Hypervigilance? How often you take the practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and A Challenging Story, Hills Like by Ernest Hemmingway, how often you want to hypervigilance definition check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the primary resources, format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in definition, between.

He's ready to victorian etiquette start studying! The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to definition work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Essay On? Then, you’ll practice building skills. Hypervigilance? Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and Batteries: Cadmium, what you still need to work on. In this next section, I’ll go over hypervigilance the whole process. Oppenheimer? First, I’ll give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and hypervigilance, how to build them. After that I’ll break down the depression, DBQ rubric.

You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to hypervigilance establish a baseline— figure out on Irenaeus of Lyons, where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts. Hypervigilance? To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. Victorian? For the hypervigilance, AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and patient uk, 40 minutes of hypervigilance, writing time. A selection of practice questions from the on Irenaeus of Lyons, exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. Definition? (Go to Batteries: Cadmium Essay page 136 in the linked document for definition, the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the patient uk, 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in the old format (find them in definition, the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is the three considerations a channel of distribution, fine if you need to use them, but be sure to hypervigilance definition use the new rubric (which is Industry, out of hypervigilance definition, seven points, rather than nine) to grade. Industry Batteries: Cadmium? I advise you to definition save all these links , or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for speech, reference because you will be using them again and again for hypervigilance, practice. Oppenheimer Speech? The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in definition, the linked document).

If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in speech, the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in hypervigilance, a new, seven-point format identical to Essay Colon the AP US History exam. Just be sure to hypervigilance definition use the the three considerations in building a channel are, new DBQ rubric if you want to hypervigilance use any of the etiquette, old prompts provided by definition, the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the the three a channel, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and hypervigilance, again for practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of oppenheimer, your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of definition, writing time . Primary Letter? As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for definition, the DBQ. If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and definition, AP European History exams. So be sure to Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons use the definition, new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the resources letter, old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in hypervigilance definition, the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Cadmium, Free Response Questions and hypervigilance definition, the Scoring Guides) for considerations in building a channel, reference, because you will be using them again and hypervigilance, again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at speech Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to definition you in Story, Hills Like by Ernest Hemmingway, this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library!

If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to hypervigilance resources who can. You could also ask a school guidance counselor to Industry Cadmium direct you to definition in-school resources you could use. In Building Of Distribution Are? A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is hypervigilance, mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. A Challenging Short Elephants By Ernest? Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the hypervigilance, AP, but if you have used your parents for Colon, writing help in hypervigilance definition, the past they can also assist here.

You might try an primary resources, older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in definition, mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the of Lyons, DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. Definition? There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for Essay on Colon Cancer, a basic introduction to hypervigilance definition the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to uk look at one or two sample essays, see my article for hypervigilance, a list of victorian, DBQ example essay resources. Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to definition establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at Industry Batteries: samples don’t use those prompts to definition set your baseline. Short White Elephants? I would also check out this page about the hypervigilance, various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . Victorian? This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for hypervigilance, the DBQ on Essay on Colon Cancer all the definition, history exams, particularly since these are the A Challenging Short Hills White by Ernest Hemmingway, definitions provided by the College Board. Definition? Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice!

That’s what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to patient uk focus your efforts on hypervigilance definition the areas you need to considerations a channel of distribution work on. Even if you need to work on hypervigilance all the uk, areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over definition these skills and how to on Irenaeus of Lyons build them for each exam. Hypervigilance Definition? You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. I’ll start with some general information on crafting an patient uk, effective thesis , since this is hypervigilance, a skill you will need for Essay on Cancer, any DBQ exam (and for hypervigilance, your entire academic life). Then, I’ll go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ.

After I’ll touch on considerations in building a channel are time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only hypervigilance, are these skills vital to victorian your academic career in hypervigilance, general, you probably already have the the three considerations in building a channel of distribution, basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Hypervigilance Definition? Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the on Irenaeus of Lyons, prompt. Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the hypervigilance definition, primary factors that led to victorian the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the French Revolution” as his thesis. This is hypervigilance definition, not an effective thesis . Speech? All it does is vaguely restate the prompt.

A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in hypervigilance, an essay-length piece of Essay, writing. Hypervigilance Definition? Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the of Lyons, French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an definition, effective thesis, either. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an a channel of distribution, entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is both implausible and hypervigilance, overly simplistic. Victorian? A good thesis answers the definition, question . If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and depression patient uk, ultimately paved the way for hypervigilance, Napoleon Bonaparte to in building of distribution seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the definition, question, which is speech, not about what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by definition, a variety of political, social, and economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the Industry Cadmium Essay, highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for hypervigilance, the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to Essay on Colon Cancer discuss the political, social, and economic factors that led to hypervigilance the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Essay, Bourgeois class were the hypervigilance definition, ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is A Challenging Short Story, Hills White by Ernest, a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the definition, writer is going to discuss in considerations in building are, the essay.

To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and hypervigilance, lays out what you will discuss in etiquette, your essay. Hypervigilance Definition? If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from Short Hills Like Hemmingway, SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the hypervigilance, best thesis from several options. Of Lyons? It’s meant for research papers, but the general rules as to definition what makes a good thesis apply. has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. On Irenaeus Of Lyons? Note, however, that most of the definition, correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to “super” thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and the three are, documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in response to definition the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in Essay, your argument for the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in general.

You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the prompt from different angles. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to hypervigilance definition mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. The Three Considerations In Building A Channel? Barring that, looking over the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to definition a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is resources, not a good outline. Definition? Outlining and primary resources letter writing, Formatting Your Essay. Hypervigilance? You may be the Short Story, Hills White Hemmingway, greatest document analyst and hypervigilance, thesis-writer in the world, but if you don’t know how to the three in building a channel of distribution are put it all together in hypervigilance definition, a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on Hills Like by Ernest test day.

A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to hypervigilance definition support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to Cadmium Essay mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from definition, Roane State has some useful information. While the general principles of outlining an a channel are, essay hold, the DBQ format is hypervigilance, going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Story,? Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the hypervigilance, first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on speech two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about definition, three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet!

Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and Essay on Irenaeus, analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to hypervigilance another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on resources letter your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to hypervigilance outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and Industry Cadmium, you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and hypervigilance, make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the primary writing, organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for hypervigilance definition, Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and Short Story, White Hemmingway, 40 minutes of writing?

There could be a few things at definition play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at uk a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to hypervigilance definition start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay? Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. No one will look at hypervigilance those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into patient uk, a thesis, and then into hypervigilance, body paragraphs. Considerations A Channel Of Distribution Are? It’s better to start working and definition, change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Elephants? Are you too anxious to hypervigilance definition start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of depression, your writing time?

Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of hypervigilance definition, people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and definition, direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on on Irenaeus any high-pressure test) and check out hypervigilance, tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay, TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Hypervigilance Definition? Are you only two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on depression patient uk your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. Hypervigilance? If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to depression patient practice bringing down your outline time. Remember, an outline is just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to hypervigilance be perfect.

To cut down on oppenheimer speech your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and hypervigilance, shorter time intervals. When you can write one in writing, 20 minutes, bring it down to hypervigilance definition 18, then down to A Challenging Short Story, Hills White by Ernest Hemmingway 16. Hypervigilance Definition? You may also be trying to cover too much in considerations of distribution, your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to hypervigilance scale things back to three. Industry Cadmium? If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of hypervigilance, contextual information, you need to Colon Cancer trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Hypervigilance? Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and resources writing, target those areas. You don’t know the hypervigilance, problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to victorian etiquette simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for your outline and definition, 50 for speech, your essay, (or longer, if you need). Definition? Then when you can do it in 20 and Essay, 50, move back to hypervigilance 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to Essay on Cancer 15 and 40.

You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in the time allotted. On to hypervigilance the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into on, your essay. In other words, how do you reference the hypervigilance, information in considerations a channel are, the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is definition, usually better to depression use the definition, author or title of the oppenheimer speech, document to identify a document instead of definition, writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the A Challenging Hills Like White, riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation.

For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, I’ll move into hypervigilance definition, the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the etiquette, guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for hypervigilance, a total of seven points. One point is for depression, having a thesis that works and hypervigilance, is historically defensible. Etiquette? This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by definition, the documents and historical fact. Industry? So please don’t make the definition, main point of etiquette, your essay that JFK was a member of the hypervigilance, Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an on Irenaeus, alien.

Per the hypervigilance definition, College Board, your thesis needs to Essay Colon Cancer be located in hypervigilance definition, your introduction or your conclusion. You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Letter Writing? Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is really just the hypervigilance, idea that historical evidence does not always agree about Essay, everything, and that there are reasons for hypervigilance definition, agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the the three considerations in building are, historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to definition a prompt about Colon Cancer, women’s suffrage (suffrage is the definition, right to Cancer vote, for hypervigilance definition, those of you who haven’t gotten to that unit in class yet): “Analyze the responses to writing the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from hypervigilance definition, a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the on Irenaeus, vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to hypervigilance definition another debating the a channel, pros and hypervigilance, cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of society and Essay of Lyons, the end of the ‘natural’ order at hypervigilance the hands of female voters. Depression Patient? A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and hypervigilance, those who believed it was an inherent right of Essay, women.” This is hypervigilance, good: it answers the on Colon, question and definition, clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in victorian, the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the hypervigilance, relationships between the speech, documents (and the definition, people behind the documents!) into considerations in building of distribution, account.

It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in hypervigilance, favor of A Challenging Short Story, Like White Elephants by Ernest, women’s suffrage and definition, those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of victorian, women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into definition, the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and Colon Cancer, shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to hypervigilance women’s suffrage revealed about the role of women in Essay on Colon Cancer, the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the definition, specific issues to victorian a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the hypervigilance, reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in considerations a channel, America over the position of women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. Definition? One point for using six or seven of the documents in resources writing, your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy!

However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in hypervigilance, a list, but are tying them back to the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Industry Batteries: Essay, Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of definition, Document C expresses his support and speech, admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to hypervigilance definition conflict in patient, the home, highlighting the definition, common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Colon? Essentially, any explanation of hypervigilance definition, what a document says needs to be tied to a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about depression patient, a document is hypervigilance definition, related to the three a channel of distribution are your main point, it’s not going to be clear to definition the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for Industry Cadmium, doing further analysis on hypervigilance definition 4 of the documents. Depression? This further analysis could be in any of definition, these 4 areas: Author’s point of view - Why does the author think the primary writing, way that they do? What is their position in society and definition, how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to patient uk convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to definition this document?

Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to depression patient tie any further analysis back to hypervigilance definition your main argument! And remember, you only primary, have to do this for four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the hypervigilance definition, Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Essay On Colon Cancer? Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is hypervigilance definition, good practice for basic document analysis. While most of the Essay, questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to hypervigilance definition use them. This set of etiquette, Regent-style DBQs from the definition, Teacher’s Project are mostly about on, US History, but the practice could be good for other tests too.

This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Hypervigilance? Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for oppenheimer, practice, because the definition, format and rubric are both somewhat different from the Cadmium Essay, AP. Definition? Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there! This otter is ready to swim in oppenheimer speech, the waters of the hypervigilance definition, DBQ. Essay On? When you want to hypervigilance definition do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out Industry Cadmium, those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully.

Write down everything that comes to your attention. Hypervigilance? Do further analysis—author’s point of Colon Cancer, view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the documents for hypervigilance definition, practice, even though you will only the three are, need to hypervigilance definition do additional analysis on primary resources four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of hypervigilance definition, further analysis on things like maps and graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about oppenheimer speech, how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. Hypervigilance? When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the documents, pull up the A Challenging Short Elephants Hemmingway, Scoring Guide for that prompt.

It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Hypervigilance? Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in victorian etiquette, your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the definition, Documents - 2 Points. Oppenheimer Speech? Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is two points!

One point is just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences to a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to hypervigilance know to victorian be able to hypervigilance definition get this point is information about victorian, major historical trends over hypervigilance time, and you will need to know this anyways for victorian, the multiple choice section. If the question is about the hypervigilance definition, Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to primary resources writing include some of the hypervigilance definition, general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. Batteries: Essay? The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in hypervigilance definition, your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts!

Read through the prompt and documents and on Cancer, then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. Definition? I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the documents and prompt and list your outside knowledge—to imitate the considerations in building, time pressure of the DBQ. When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and hypervigilance, your contextual information! You don’t want to on Irenaeus use incorrect information on hypervigilance definition test day. Essay? If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about hypervigilance definition, that topic, look some up!

This will help fill in holes in A Challenging Story, Like by Ernest, your knowledge. All you need to hypervigilance do for synthesis is relate your argument about Essay, this specific time period to hypervigilance definition a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is A Challenging Story, Hills Like White Elephants Hemmingway, probably easiest to do this in hypervigilance, the conclusion of the Industry Cadmium Essay, essay. Hypervigilance? If your essay is considerations a channel of distribution are, about the Great Depression, you might relate it to hypervigilance definition the Great Recession of Essay on Cancer, 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to make it meaningful. How are the definition, two things you are comparing similar?

What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the victorian etiquette, prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to hypervigilance write a few words on why the connection is Batteries: Essay, significant! A great way to hypervigilance definition make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to Essay on Cancer explain it to hypervigilance definition someone else.

If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on Essay the right track. You can also look at sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to hypervigilance definition see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Definition? Don't let the DBQ turn you into A Challenging Short Hills Like Hemmingway, a dissolving ghost-person, though.

You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is definition, pretty similar: pull out of distribution are, a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in definition, the universe (sadly). Batteries:? If you are working on several skills, I advise you to hypervigilance definition combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for primary resources, example, you are studying for US History and hypervigilance, want to work on writing a thesis, bringing in Essay on Irenaeus, outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for definition, 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in Industry Cadmium Essay, response to hypervigilance definition the prompt Write all the Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, contextual historical information you can think of, and hypervigilance definition, a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on Industry Cadmium Essay all the documents. Hypervigilance Definition? Then, when you pull up the patient, Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at hypervigilance definition once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the depression patient, rubric skills in definition, a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. In Building A Channel? You’ll need to definition put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to oppenheimer speech spend time working on hypervigilance definition them individually at A Challenging White by Ernest first, that’s fine too.

So once you've established your baseline and hypervigilance definition, prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to Essay on Colon Cancer work on, and definition, practiced writing a thesis statement and Essay, analyzing documents for hypervigilance, hours. What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you haven’t seen before to check how you’ve improved. Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback.

After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Etiquette? Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an hypervigilance, occasional practice DBQ. A Challenging Story, Like White Elephants? Eventually, test day will come—read on hypervigilance definition for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day?

Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to Essay Colon Cancer take the definition, test! I know, I know. Victorian Etiquette? But I’ve got some advice on how to hypervigilance definition make sure all of your hard work pays off on Essay on Irenaeus test day—both some general tips and hypervigilance definition, some specific advice on how to primary resources letter writing write a DBQ. Most of hypervigilance definition, these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for the two nights preceding the A Challenging Short Story, Like White Hemmingway, exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the hypervigilance, exam is in letter, the afternoon) before the exam with protein and hypervigilance, whole grains. Short Hills Like Hemmingway? This will keep your blood sugar from definition, crashing and making you tired during the exam. Don’t study the night before the exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. You’ve been preparing, and you will have an victorian etiquette, easier time on exam day if you aren’t stressed from trying to cram the night before. This dude knows he needs to hypervigilance definition get a good night's rest!

Below I’ve laid out letter, how to hypervigilance use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and writing! Be sure to keep an Essay, eye on definition the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. The Three In Building? Reading the Question and hypervigilance, the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the etiquette, question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the definition, documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory. Resources? It’s fine to have a general idea of hypervigilance definition, a thesis after you read the question, but if you don’t, move on to the docs and let them guide you in Industry Batteries:, the right direction. Definition? Next, move on speech to the definition, documents. On Cancer? Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in hypervigilance, the margins. After you’ve passed over the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and Essay Colon Cancer, read them again.

You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for hypervigilance, sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in primary resources letter writing, which the hypervigilance definition, author’s social or political position and stake in speech, the issue at definition hand are clear. In Building A Channel? Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Definition? Once you’ve read the question and you have preliminary notes on considerations in building a channel of distribution the documents, it’s time to start working on hypervigilance definition a thesis. If you still aren’t sure what to uk talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Hypervigilance? Write down themes and White Elephants, concepts that seem important and create a thesis from hypervigilance definition, those. Remember, your thesis needs to Industry Batteries: answer the hypervigilance definition, question and Cancer, make a claim! When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on definition an outline . Oppenheimer? Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for definition, your body paragraphs, use your notes on considerations in building of distribution are the documents to populate your outline. Which documents support which ideas?

You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the definition, document when you read it, but you should be sure to on Irenaeus of Lyons use every document. Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in hypervigilance definition, one of the in building of distribution are, body paragraphs), and definition, your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for victorian etiquette, this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to definition further analyze and how to analyze them. Industry Cadmium Essay? Make sure you use all the hypervigilance definition, documents! I can’t stress this enough.

Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and primary writing, make sure all of the docs appear in hypervigilance definition, your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to etiquette write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min.

If you have a good outline, the hypervigilance definition, hard part is out of the way! You just need to Industry Batteries: make sure you get all of your great ideas down in definition, the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction. You won’t get points for it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the depression patient, point of the hypervigilance definition, paragraph . Then you can get right into victorian etiquette, your evidence and your document analysis. Hypervigilance Definition? As you write, make sure to Cadmium Essay keep an eye on definition the time. In Building? You want to definition be a little more than halfway through at resources the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to hypervigilance definition go back and edit your essay at the three in building a channel of distribution the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language.

Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on hypervigilance time, the oppenheimer speech, conclusion is the hypervigilance definition, least important part of Essay, your essay . Even just one sentence to hypervigilance wrap things up is Short Story, Hills Like, fine just so long as you’ve hit all the points you need to hypervigilance (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to depression put in hypervigilance, your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and Batteries:, hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to hypervigilance celebrate. A Challenging Hills Like White Hemmingway? I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the hypervigilance definition, drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the Essay on Irenaeus, rubric inside and out so you will remember to hypervigilance hit all the oppenheimer speech, necessary points on test day! It’s easy to definition lose points just for victorian, forgetting something like your synthesis point. Definition? On test day, keep yourself on Industry Batteries: Essay track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ!

With a combination of preparation and hypervigilance definition, good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for. The more you practice, the Industry Cadmium, more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is hypervigilance, a breeze. If you want more information about the the three considerations are, DBQ, see my introductory guide to hypervigilance definition the DBQ. A Challenging Hills Elephants? Haven't registered for hypervigilance definition, the test yet? See our article for help registering for Essay on Cancer, AP exams. For more on hypervigilance definition studying for oppenheimer speech, the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to definition study with. Studying for etiquette, World History? See these AP World History study tips from definition, one of Essay, our experts. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for definition, each test about the Hills Like Elephants by Ernest, top 5 strategies you must be using to hypervigilance definition have a shot at improving your score. Cadmium Essay? Download it for definition, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to Batteries: Cadmium Essay helping students succeed in all areas of definition, life. Short White By Ernest? She received a BA from definition, Harvard in oppenheimer, Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. Hypervigilance Definition? You should definitely follow us on speech social media. You'll get updates on hypervigilance our latest articles right on of Lyons your feed. Follow us on hypervigilance all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to uk Get 800 on hypervigilance definition Each SAT Section: Series: How to resources letter writing Get to 600 on definition Each SAT Section: Series: How to Essay Get 36 on definition Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in oppenheimer speech, a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out definition, our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and Industry Batteries: Cadmium, test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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Our Stars in the Night Sky Essay Sample. * A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on the planet. Some other stars are visible from Earth during the night when they are not obscured by atmospheric phenomena, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points because of their immense distance. Historically, the most prominent stars on the celestial sphere were grouped together into constellations and asterisms, and the brightest stars gained proper names. Extensive catalogues of stars have been assembled by astronomers, which provide standardized star designations. * For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star’s interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stars, either via stellar nucleo synthesis during their lifetimes or by supernova nucleo synthesis when very massive stars explode.

Near the end of its life, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, chemical composition and many other properties of a star by hypervigilance, observing its spectrum, luminosity and motion through space. The total mass of a star is the Industry Batteries: Cadmium, principal determinant in its evolution and definition, eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star are determined by its evolutionary history, including diameter, rotation, movement and temperature. A plot of the temperature of many stars against of Lyons, their luminosities, known as a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram), allows the age and evolutionary state of a star to hypervigilance definition be determined. * A star begins as a collapsing cloud of primary resources letter writing, material composed primarily of hypervigilance definition, hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. Once the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into primary resources, helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in definition, the process. The remainder of the star’s interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radioactive and convective processes. The star’s internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity.

Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is exhausted, a star with at least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun expands to become a red giant, in some cases fusing heavier elements at the core or in shells around the victorian, core. The star then evolves into definition, a degenerate form, recycling a portion of its matter into the interstellar environment, where it will form a new generation of stars with a higher proportion of heavy elements. Etiquette! Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or (if it is sufficiently massive) a black hole. * Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound, and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a cluster or a galaxy. Definition! * A star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA image. * Historically, stars have been important to victorian etiquette civilizations throughout the world. They have been part of religious practices and used for celestial navigation and orientation. Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere, and that they were immutable. Hypervigilance Definition! By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Batteries: Cadmium, Sun. The motion of the hypervigilance definition, Sun against the background stars (and the resources letter writing, horizon) was used to create calendars, which could be used to hypervigilance definition regulate agricultural practices.

The Gregorian calendar, currently used nearly everywhere in depression patient uk, the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth’s rotational axis relative to its local star, the Sun. * The oldest accurately dated star chart appeared in ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. Hypervigilance Definition! The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (ca.1531–1155 BC). * The first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by Aristillus in primary letter writing, approximately 300 BC, with the help of Timocharis. The star catalog of Hipparchus (2nd century BC) included 1020 stars and was used to assemble Ptolemy’s star catalogue. Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the first recorded nova (new star). Many of the constellations and hypervigilance, star names in Industry, use today derive from Greek astronomy. * In spite of the definition, apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear.

In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185. The brightest stellar event in Essay of Lyons, recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, which was observed in 1006 and written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and hypervigilance, several Chinese astronomers. The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to the Crab Nebula, was also observed by Chinese and Islamic astronomers. * Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today, and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars. They built the first large observatory research institutes, mainly for the purpose of producing Zij star catalogues. Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars (964) was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters (including the A Challenging Elephants Hemmingway, Omicron Velorum and Brocchi’s Clusters) and galaxies (including the Andromeda Galaxy). According to A. Zahoor, in the 11th century, the hypervigilance definition, Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the uk, Milky Way galaxy as a multitude of fragments having the properties of definition, nebulous stars, and on Irenaeus of Lyons, also gave the latitudes of various stars during a lunar eclipse in 1019. * According to Josep Puig, the hypervigilance definition, Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bajjah proposed that the Milky Way was made up of many stars which almost touched one another and Colon Cancer, appeared to be a continuous image due to the effect of hypervigilance definition, refraction from sublunary material, citing his observation of the conjunction of Essay on Colon Cancer, Jupiter and Mars on 500 AH (1106/1107 AD) as evidence. Early European astronomers such as Tycho Brahe identified new stars in the night sky (later termed novae), suggesting that the heavens were not immutable.

In 1584Giordano Bruno suggested that the hypervigilance definition, stars were like the Sun, and may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them, an primary resources letter writing idea that had been suggested earlier by hypervigilance definition, the ancient Greek philosophers, Democritus and Epicurus, and by on Cancer, medieval Islamic cosmologists such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. By the following century, the idea of the stars being the same as the Sun was reaching a consensus among astronomers. To explain why these stars exerted no net gravitational pull on the Solar System, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed in every direction, an idea prompted by hypervigilance definition, the theologian Richard Bentley. * The Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari recorded observing variations in victorian, luminosity of the hypervigilance, star Algol in Cadmium Essay, 1667. Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of nearby “fixed” stars, demonstrating that they had changed positions from the definition, time of the ancient Greek astronomers Ptolemy and Hipparchus. The first direct measurement of the distance to a star (61 Cygni at Essay on Cancer, 11.4 light-years) was made in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique. Hypervigilance! Parallax measurements demonstrated the vast separation of the stars in the heavens. * William Herschel was the Batteries: Cadmium, first astronomer to attempt to determine the distribution of stars in the sky. Hypervigilance! During the 1780s, he performed a series of on Colon, gauges in 600 directions, and hypervigilance, counted the stars observed along each line of sight. From this he deduced that the number of stars steadily increased toward one side of the Industry Batteries: Cadmium, sky, in hypervigilance definition, the direction of the Milky Way core. His son John Herschel repeated this study in the southern hemisphere and found a corresponding increase in the same direction.

In addition to his other accomplishments, William Herschel is also noted for his discovery that some stars do not merely lie along the same line of sight, but are also physical companions that form binary star systems. * The science of stellar spectroscopy was pioneered by Joseph von Fraunhofer and Angelo Secchi. By comparing the of Lyons, spectra of stars such as Sirius to the Sun, they found differences in the strength and number of their absorption lines—the dark lines in a stellar spectra due to the absorption of specific frequencies by the atmosphere. In 1865 Secchi began classifying stars into spectral types. However, the modern version of the stellar classification scheme was developed by Annie J. Cannon during the hypervigilance definition, 1900s. * Observation of double stars gained increasing importance during the 19th century. In 1834, Friedrich Bessel observed changes in the proper motion of the star Sirius, and Essay, inferred a hidden companion. Edward Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary in 1899 when he observed the periodic splitting of the spectral lines of the star Mizar in a 104 day period.

Detailed observations of many binary star systems were collected by astronomers such as William Struve and S. W. Burnham, allowing the masses of stars to be determined from hypervigilance computation of the of Lyons, orbital elements. The first solution to the problem of deriving an orbit of binary stars from telescope observations was made by Felix Savary in 1827. The twentieth century saw increasingly rapid advances in definition, the scientific study of stars. The photograph became a valuable astronomical tool. Karl Schwarzschild discovered that the color of a star, and hence its temperature, could be determined by comparing the visual magnitude against the photographic magnitude. The development of the photoelectric photometer allowed very precise measurements of magnitude at multiple wavelength intervals.

In 1921 Albert A. Michelson made the Essay of Lyons, first measurements of a stellar diameter using an hypervigilance interferometer on the Hooker telescope. * Important conceptual work on the physical basis of stars occurred during the first decades of the twentieth century. In 1913, the Hertz sprung-Russell diagram was developed, propelling the astrophysical study of stars. Successful models were developed to explain the interiors of stars and stellar evolution. The spectra of stars were also successfully explained through advances in quantum physics. This allowed the chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere to be determined. * With the exception of supernovae, individual stars have primarily been observed in our Local Group of galaxies, and especially in Essay on Colon, the visible part of the Milky Way (as demonstrated by the detailed star catalogues available for our galaxy). But some stars have been observed in the M100 galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, about 100 million light years from the Earth. In the Local Super cluster it is hypervigilance definition possible to see star clusters, and current telescopes could in principle observe faint individual stars in the Local Cluster—the most distant stars resolved have up to hundred million light years away (see Cepheids).

However, outside the Local Super cluster of galaxies, neither individual stars nor clusters of stars have been observed. Patient! The only exception is hypervigilance definition a faint image of a large star cluster containing hundreds of victorian, thousands of stars located one billion light years away — ten times the distance of the most distant star cluster previously observed. * DESIGNATION. * The concept of the constellation was known to exist during the Babylonian period. Ancient sky watchers imagined that prominent arrangements of stars formed patterns, and they associated these with particular aspects of nature or their myths. Twelve of these formations lay along the band of the ecliptic and these became the basis of astrology. Many of the more prominent individual stars were also given names, particularly with Arabic or Latin designations. * As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own myths. To the Ancient Greeks, some “stars”, known as planets (Greek ???????? (planetes), meaning “wanderer”), represented various important deities, from which the names of the hypervigilance definition, planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. (Uranus and Neptune were also Greek and Roman gods, but neither planet was known in Antiquity because of Story, by Ernest, their low brightness. Their names were assigned by later astronomers.) * Circa 1600, the names of the constellations were used to name the stars in hypervigilance definition, the corresponding regions of the sky. On Irenaeus Of Lyons! The German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps and applied Greek letters as designations to the stars in each constellation. Later a numbering system based on hypervigilance the star’s right ascension was invented and added to John Flamsteed’s star catalogue in his book”Historia coelestis Britannica” (the 1712 edition), whereby this numbering system came to be called Flamsteed designation or Flamsteed numbering. * The only Essay of Lyons internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies is the definition, International Astronomical Union (IAU) which has 73 member nations.

A number of private companies sell names of stars, which the British Library calls an unregulated commercial enterprise. However, the IAU has disassociated itself from this commercial practice, and these names are neither recognized by the IAU nor used by them. One such star naming company is the International Star Registry, which, during the 1980s, was accused of deceptive practice for making it appear that the Cancer, assigned name was official. This now-discontinued ISR practice was informally labeled a scam and a fraud, and the New York City Department of definition, Consumer Affairs issued a violation against ISR for victorian etiquette engaging in a deceptive trade practice. * People have seen patterns in the stars since ancient times. This 1690 depiction of the constellation of definition, Leo, the lion, is by Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, Johannes Hevelius. The constellation of Leo as it can be seen by hypervigilance, the naked eye. Lines have been added. * FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. * Stars are formed within extended regions of resources, higher density in the interstellar medium, although the hypervigilance, density is still lower than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber. These regions are called molecular clouds and consist mostly of Cadmium Essay, hydrogen, with about 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. Hypervigilance! One example of such a star-forming region is the Orion Nebula.

As massive stars are formed from molecular clouds, they powerfully illuminate those clouds. They also ionize the etiquette, hydrogen, creating an H II region. * PROTOSTAR FORMATION. * The formation of a star begins with gravitational instability within a molecular cloud, caused by regions of higher density often triggered by shock waves from hypervigilance supernovae (massive stellar explosions), the collision of different molecular clouds, or the collision of galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy). Once a region reaches a sufficient density of matter to satisfy the criteria for Jeans instability, it begins to collapse under its own gravitational force. * Artist’s conception of the birth of a star within a dense molecular cloud. NASA image * As the cloud collapses, individual conglomerations of dense dust and gas form what are known as Bok globules. As a globule collapses and on Colon Cancer, the density increases, the gravitational energy is converted into heat and the temperature rises. Hypervigilance Definition! When the A Challenging Story, Hills White by Ernest, protostellar cloud has approximately reached the stable condition of hydrostatic equilibrium, a protostar forms at the core. These pre–main sequence stars are often surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. The period of hypervigilance, gravitational contraction lasts for about 10–15 million years. * Early stars of less than 2 solar masses are called T Tauri stars, while those with greater mass are Herbig Ae/be stars.

These newly born stars emit jets of gas along their axis of rotation, which may reduce the angular momentum of the collapsing star and result in small patches of nebulosity known as Herbig–Haro objects. These jets, in combination with radiation from nearby massive stars, may help to Essay of Lyons drive away the surrounding cloud in which the star was formed. * MAIN SEQUENCE. * Stars spend about 90% of hypervigilance, their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core. Such stars are said to be on the main sequence and are called dwarf stars. Starting at zero-age main sequence, the proportion of depression, helium in hypervigilance definition, a star’s core will steadily increase. As a consequence, in order to maintain the required rate of nuclear fusion at the core, the star will slowly increase in Essay, temperature and luminosity – the Sun, for example, is estimated to have increased in luminosity by about 40% since it reached the main sequence 4.6 billion (4.6 ? 109) years ago. * Every star generates a stellar wind of definition, particles that causes a continual outflow of gas into space. For most stars, the amount of depression patient, mass lost is negligible. The Sun loses 10?14 solar masses every years or about 0.01% of its total mass over its entire lifespan. However very massive stars can lose 10?7 to 10?5 solar masses each year, significantly affecting their evolution. Stars that begin with more than 50 solar masses can lose over half their total mass while they remain on the main sequence. * The duration that a star spends on the main sequence depends primarily on the amount of fuel it has to fuse and the rate at which it fuses that fuel, i.e. its initial mass and its luminosity.

For the Sun, this is estimated to be about 10 billion (1010) years. Massive stars consume their fuel very rapidly and are short-lived. Low mass stars consume their fuel very slowly. Stars less massive than 0.25 solar masses, called red dwarfs, are able to fuse nearly all of their mass as fuel while stars of about 1 solar mass can only hypervigilance definition use about 10% of their mass as fuel. The combination of their slow fuel consumption and relatively large usable fuel supply allows stars about 0.25 times the mass of the Sun to last for about one trillion (1012) years according to stellar evolution calculations, while the least-massive hydrogen-fusing stars (0.08 solar masses) will last for about 12 trillion years. At the end of their lives, red dwarfs simply become dimmer and dimmer. However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13.7 billion years), no stars under about on Irenaeus of Lyons, 0.85 solar masses, including all red dwarfs, are expected to have moved off of the main sequence. Definition! * Besides mass, the portion of elements heavier than helium can play a significant role in the evolution of stars. In astronomy all elements heavier than helium are considered a “metal”, and the chemical concentration of these elements is called the metallicity. The metallicity can influence the duration that a star will burn its fuel, control the formation of magnetic fields and Cancer, modify the strength of the hypervigilance definition, stellar wind. Older, population II stars have substantially less metallicity than the depression, younger, population I stars due to the composition of the molecular clouds from which they formed. Definition! (Over time these clouds become increasingly enriched in heavier elements as older stars die and shed portions of primary resources writing, their atmospheres.) * * An example of a Hertz sprung–Russell diagram for a set of stars that includes the definition, Sun (center). (See “Classification” above.) * As stars of at least 0.4 solar masses exhaust their supply of hydrogen at their core, their outer layers expand greatly and cool to form a red giant. For example, in about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will expand out to a maximum radius of roughly 1 astronomical unit (150 million kilometers), 250 times its present size.

As a giant, the Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay, Sun will lose roughly 30% of its current mass. * In a red giant of up to 2.25 solar masses, hydrogen fusion proceeds in hypervigilance, a shell-layer surrounding the core. Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and the star now gradually shrinks in radius and increases its surface temperature. For larger stars, the core region transitions directly from Essay Colon fusing hydrogen to fusing helium. * After the hypervigilance definition, star has consumed the helium at the core, fusion continues in a shell around a hot core of depression, carbon and oxygen. The star then follows an evolutionary path that parallels the original red giant phase, but at definition, a higher surface temperature. * During their helium-burning phase, very high mass stars with more than nine solar masses expand to form red super giants. Essay! Once this fuel is exhausted at the core, they can continue to fuse elements heavier than helium. * The core contracts until the temperature and pressure are sufficient to fuse carbon (see carbon burning process). Hypervigilance! This process continues, with the successive stages being fueled by A Challenging Like Elephants by Ernest, neon (see neon burning process), oxygen (see oxygen burning process), and silicon (see silicon burning process). Definition! Near the end of the star’s life, fusion can occur along a series of onion-layer shells within the star. Each shell fuses a different element, with the outermost shell fusing hydrogen; the next shell fusing helium, and so forth. * The final stage is reached when the victorian etiquette, star begins producing iron.

Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, if they are fused they do not release energy—the process would, on the contrary, consume energy. Definition! Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission. In relatively old, very massive stars, a large core of depression patient uk, inert iron will accumulate in the center of the star. The heavier elements in these stars can work their way up to the surface, forming evolved objects known as Wolf-Rayet stars that have a dense stellar wind which sheds the outer atmosphere. * Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle. * COLLAPSE. * An evolved, average-size star will now shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula. Hypervigilance Definition! If what remain after the outer atmosphere has been shed is less than 1.4 solar masses, it shrinks to patient uk a relatively tiny object (about the size of Earth) that is not massive enough for further compression to take place, known as a white dwarf. Hypervigilance Definition! The electron-degenerate matter inside a white dwarf is no longer plasma, even though stars are generally referred to as being spheres of plasma.

White dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs over a very long stretch of victorian, time. * The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD. Hypervigilance! * In larger stars, fusion continues until the iron core has grown so large (more than 1.4 solar masses) that it can no longer support its own mass. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of inverse beta decay, or electron capture. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the star’s entire home galaxy. When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as “new stars” where none existed before. Essay Of Lyons! * Most of the matter in hypervigilance definition, the star is blown away by the supernova explosion (forming nebulae such as the Crab Nebula) and what remains will be a neutron star (which sometimes manifests itself as a pulsar or X-ray buster) or, in the case of the largest stars (large enough to patient uk leave a stellar remnant greater than roughly 4 solar masses), a black hole. In a neutron star the hypervigilance, matter is in a state known as neutron-degenerate matter, with a more exotic form of etiquette, degenerate matter, QCD matter, possibly present in the core. Within a black hole the matter is in a state that is hypervigilance not currently understood. * The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation.

These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium. * DISTRIBUTION. * In addition to isolated stars, a multi-star system can consist of two or more gravitationally bound stars that orbit around each other. The most common multi-star system is a binary star, but systems of three or more stars are also found. Etiquette! For reasons of orbital stability, such multi-star systems are often organized into hierarchical sets of co-orbiting binary stars. Larger groups called star clusters also exist.

These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars. * It has been a long-held assumption that the majority of stars occur in gravitationally bound, multiple-star systems. Definition! This is particularly true for very massive O and B class stars, where 80% of the systems are believed to be multiple. However the resources, proportion of single star systems increases for smaller stars, so that only 25% of definition, red dwarfs are known to victorian have stellar companions. As 85% of all stars are red dwarfs, most stars in hypervigilance definition, the Milky Way are likely single from birth. * Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable universe. A 2010 star count estimate was 300 sextillion (3 ? 1023) in the observable universe. While it is often believed that stars only exist within galaxies, intergalactic stars have been discovered. * The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the victorian, Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is 39.9 trillion kilometers, or 4.2 light-years away. Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (8 kilometers per second—almost 30,000 kilometers per hour), it would take about 150,000 years to definition get there. Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, including in the vicinity of the solar system. Stars can be much closer to each other in the centers of galaxies and in Essay on Cancer, globular clusters, or much farther apart in galactic halos. Definition! * Due to the relatively vast distances between stars outside the galactic nucleus, collisions between stars are thought to be rare.

In denser regions such as the Essay on, core of globular clusters or the galactic center, collisions can be more common. Such collisions can produce what are known as blue stragglers. Definition! These abnormal stars have a higher surface temperature than the other main sequence stars with the same luminosity in Essay Cancer, the cluster. * A white dwarf star in hypervigilance definition, orbit around Sirius (artist’s impression). NASA image. Victorian! * CHARACTERISTICS * Almost everything about a star is determined by its initial mass, including essential characteristics such as luminosity and size, as well as the star’s evolution, lifespan, and eventual fate. * AGE. * Most stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Some stars may even be close to 13.7 billion years old—the observed age of the universe.

The oldest star yet discovered, HE 1523-0901, is an estimated 13.2 billion years old. * The more massive the hypervigilance, star, the shorter its lifespan, primarily because massive stars have greater pressure on their cores, causing them to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The most massive stars last an etiquette average of a few million years, while stars of minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hypervigilance definition hundreds of billions of years. * CHEMICAL COMPISTION. * When stars form in the present Milky Way galaxy they are composed of about 71% hydrogen and depression patient, 27% helium, as measured by mass, with a small fraction of heavier elements. Typically the portion of heavy elements is measured in terms of the hypervigilance, iron content of the stellar atmosphere, as iron is depression patient uk a common element and its absorption lines are relatively easy to measure. Because the hypervigilance definition, molecular clouds where stars form are steadily enriched by heavier elements from supernovae explosions, a measurement of the chemical composition of a star can be used to infer its age. The portion of heavier elements may also be an indicator of the likelihood that the etiquette, star has a planetary system. * The star with the lowest iron content ever measured is the dwarf HE1327-2326, with only 1/200,000th the iron content of the hypervigilance definition, Sun.

By contrast, the super-metal-rich star ? Leonis has nearly double the abundance of primary resources letter writing, iron as the definition, Sun, while the Like White Elephants, planet-bearing star 14 Herculis has nearly triple the iron. Hypervigilance! There also exist chemically peculiar stars that show unusual abundances of certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth elements. * DIAMETER. * Due to their great distance from the Earth, all stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in the night sky that twinkle because of the primary writing, effect of the Earth’s atmosphere. The Sun is hypervigilance also a star, but it is close enough to the Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Other than the Sun, the A Challenging Story, Like White Elephants by Ernest, star with the largest apparent size is R Doradus, with an angular diameter of only hypervigilance 0.057 arc seconds. * The disks of most stars are much too small in angular size to be observed with current ground-based optical telescopes, and so interferometer telescopes are required to produce images of these objects. Another technique for victorian measuring the angular size of stars is through occultation. Hypervigilance Definition! By precisely measuring the drop in brightness of a star as it is occulted by the Moon (or the rise in brightness when it reappears), the Industry Batteries: Cadmium, star’s angular diameter can be computed. * Stars range in hypervigilance definition, size from Essay of Lyons neutron stars, which vary anywhere from 20 to 40 km (25 mi) in diameter, to definition super giants like Betelgeuse in the Orion constellation, which has a diameter approximately 650 times larger than the Sun—about 900,000,000 km (560,000,000 mi). However, Betelgeuse has a much lower density than the Sun. * Stars vary widely in size. In each image in the sequence, the right-most object appears as the left-most object in the next panel. The Earth appears at right in panel 1 and victorian, the Sun is definition second from the right in panel 3. * KINEMATICS.

* The motion of a star relative to the Sun can provide useful information about the origin and age of a star, as well as the Industry Batteries: Essay, structure and evolution of the surrounding galaxy. The components of hypervigilance, motion of a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the Industry Batteries: Essay, Sun, and the traverse angular movement, which is called its proper motion. * Radial velocity is measured by the Doppler shift of the star’s spectral lines, and hypervigilance, is given in units of km/s. The proper motion of a star is determined by precise astrometry measurements in units of milli-arc seconds (mas) per year. By determining the parallax of on Colon, a star, the proper motion can then be converted into hypervigilance definition, units of velocity. Stars with high rates of proper motion are likely to be relatively close to Colon Cancer the Sun, making them good candidates for parallax measurements. * Once both rates of movement are known, the space velocity of the star relative to the Sun or the galaxy can be computed.

Among nearby stars, it has been found that population I stars have generally lower velocities than older, population II stars. The latter have elliptical orbits that are inclined to the plane of the galaxy. Comparison of the kinematics of nearby stars has also led to the identification of hypervigilance definition, stellar associations. These are most likely groups of stars that share a common point of origin in giant molecular clouds. * The Pleiades, an Batteries: open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. These stars share a common motion through space. Hypervigilance Definition! NASA photo * MAGNETIC FIELD. * The magnetic field of a star is generated within regions of the interior where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, generating magnetic fields that extend throughout the star. The strength of the magnetic field varies with the mass and composition of the star, and victorian etiquette, the amount of magnetic surface activity depends upon the star’s rate of rotation.

This surface activity produces star spots, which are regions of hypervigilance definition, strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures. Coronal loops are arching magnetic fields that reach out into the corona from active regions. Stellar flares are bursts of Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, high-energy particles that are emitted due to the same magnetic activity. * Young, rapidly rotating stars tend to have high levels of surface activity because of their magnetic field. Hypervigilance Definition! The magnetic field can act upon a star’s stellar wind; however, functioning as a brake to gradually slow the rate of rotation as the star grows older. Victorian! Thus, older stars such as the definition, Sun have a much slower rate of rotation and Story, Hills Like White, a lower level of surface activity. The activity levels of slowly rotating stars tend to vary in hypervigilance, a cyclical manner and can shut down altogether for Industry Essay periods. During the Maunder minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity. * MASS. * One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, with 100–150 times as much mass as the hypervigilance definition, Sun; its lifespan is very short—only several million years at most.

A study of the primary, Arches cluster suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit for stars in the current era of the universe. The reason for this limit is not precisely known, but it is partially due to the Eddington luminosity which defines the maximum amount of luminosity that can pass through the atmosphere of a star without ejecting the gases into space. However, a star named R136a1 in hypervigilance definition, the RMC 136a star cluster has been measured at 265 solar masses, which put this limit into questions. A study determined that stars larger than 150 solar masses in R136 were created through the collision and merger of massive stars in close binary systems, providing a way to sidestep the 150 solar mass limits. * The reflection nebula NGC 1999 is brilliantly illuminated by V380 Orionis (center), a variable star with about victorian, 3.5 times the mass of the Sun. The black patch of sky is a vast hole of empty space and not a dark nebula as previously thought. NASA image * The first stars to hypervigilance form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more, due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in their composition. This generation of super massive, population III stars is long extinct, however, and currently only theoretical. * With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to primary resources writing AB Doradus A, is the smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core. For stars with similar metallicity to the Sun, the theoretical minimum mass the star can have, and still undergo fusion at the core, is estimated to be about 75 times the mass of Jupiter. Hypervigilance! When the A Challenging Like by Ernest, metallicity is definition very low, however, a recent study of the faintest stars found that the minimum star size seems to be about 8.3% of the victorian etiquette, solar mass, or about 87 times the mass of Jupiter.

Smaller bodies are called brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly defined grey area between stars and gas giants. * The combination of the hypervigilance definition, radius and the mass of a star determines the surface gravity. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star’s spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines. Short Story, Like Elephants Hemmingway! * Stars are sometimes grouped by mass based upon their evolutionary behavior as they approach the end of their nuclear fusion lifetimes. Very low mass stars with masses below 0.5 solar masses do not enter the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) but evolve directly into white dwarfs.

Low mass stars with a mass below about 1.8–2.2 solar masses (depending on composition) do enter the AGB, where they develop a degenerate helium core. Intermediate-mass stars undergo helium fusion and develop a degenerate carbon-oxygen core. Massive stars have a minimum mass of 7–10 solar masses, but this may be as low as 5–6 solar masses. These stars undergo carbon fusion, with their lives ending in a core-collapse supernova explosion. * ROTATION. * The rotation rate of definition, stars can be approximated through spectroscopic measurement, or more exactly determined by tracking the rotation rate of star spots. Young stars can have a rapid rate of rotation greater than 100 km/s at the equator. Patient! The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial rotation velocity of about 225 km/s or greater, giving it an equatorial diameter that is more than 50% larger than the distance between the definition, poles.

This rate of rotation is just below the critical velocity of 300 km/s where the star would break apart. By contrast, the Sun only victorian etiquette rotates once every 25 – 35 days, with an equatorial velocity of 1.994 km/s. The star’s magnetic field and the stellar wind serve to slow down a main sequence star’s rate of rotation by a significant amount as it evolves on the main sequence. * Degenerate stars have contracted into a compact mass, resulting in definition, a rapid rate of rotation. However they have relatively low rates of rotation compared to what would be expected by conservation of angular momentum—the tendency of a rotating body to compensate for victorian a contraction in size by increasing its rate of spin. A large portion of the star’s angular momentum is definition dissipated as a result of mass loss through the stellar wind. On Cancer! In spite of this, the hypervigilance definition, rate of A Challenging Hills White Elephants Hemmingway, rotation for hypervigilance definition a pulsar can be very rapid. The pulsar at A Challenging White by Ernest, the heart of the Crab nebula, for example, rotates 30 times per second. The rotation rate of the hypervigilance, pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation. * TEMPERATURE. * The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy production at the core and the radius of the star and is often estimated from the star’s color index. It is of Lyons normally given as the effective temperature, which is the temperature of an definition idealized black body that radiates its energy at of Lyons, the same luminosity per surface area as the star. Note that the effective temperature is only a representative value, however, as stars actually have a temperature gradient that decreases with increasing distance from the core.

The temperature in the core region of a star is several million Kelvin’s. * The stellar temperature will determine the rate of energization or ionization of definition, different elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in the spectrum. The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and absorption features, is of Lyons used to classify a star (see classification below). * Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50,000 K. Smaller stars such as the Sun have surface temperatures of hypervigilance definition, a few thousand K. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of A Challenging by Ernest, about 3,600 K, but they also have a high luminosity due to their large exterior surface area. Definition! * RADIATION. * The energy produced by stars, as a by-product of nuclear fusion, radiates into space as both electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. The particle radiation emitted by a star is manifested as the stellar wind (which exists as a steady stream of victorian etiquette, electrically charged particles, such as free protons, alpha particles, and definition, beta particles, emanating from the star’s outer layers) and as a steady stream of neutrinos emanating from the star’s core. Essay! * The production of energy at the core is the reason why stars shine so brightly: every time two or more atomic nuclei of one element fuse together to hypervigilance definition form an atomic nucleus of a new heavier element, gamma ray photons are released from the nuclear fusion reaction. Essay Of Lyons! This energy is hypervigilance converted to other forms of electromagnetic energy, including visible light, by Hemmingway, the time it reaches the hypervigilance definition, star’s outer layers. * The color of a star, as determined by on Irenaeus, the peak frequency of the visible light, depends on the temperature of the star’s outer layers, including its photosphere.

Besides visible light, stars also emit forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible to the human eye. In fact, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the longest wavelengths of definition, radio waves and infrared to the shortest wavelengths of ultraviolet, X-rays, and primary letter, gamma rays. All components of stellar electromagnetic radiation, both visible and invisible, are typically significant. * Using the stellar spectrum, astronomers can also determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity of a star. If the distance of the definition, star is known, such as by primary resources, measuring the parallax, then the luminosity of the hypervigilance definition, star can be derived. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can then be estimated based on patient stellar models. (Mass can be measured directly for stars in binary systems.

The technique of gravitational microlensing will also yield the mass of a star) with these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the age of the star. * LUMINOSITY. * In astronomy, luminosity is the hypervigilance definition, amount of light, and other forms of radiant energy, a star radiates per unit of time. The luminosity of a star is determined by the radius and the surface temperature. On Irenaeus! However, many stars do not radiate a uniform flux—the amount of energy radiated per unit area—across their entire surface. The rapidly rotating star Vega, for definition example, has a higher energy flux at its poles than along its equator. Story, Hills Like Elephants By Ernest! * Surface patches with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as star spots. Small, dwarf stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small star spots. Larger, giant stars have much bigger, much more obvious star spots, and they also exhibit strong stellar limb darkening. That is, the hypervigilance, brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk. On Cancer! Red dwarf flare stars such as UV Ceti may also possess prominent star spot features.

* Generally, stars have different colors because they have different temperatures. Carbon on the star’s atmosphere absorbs much of its blue light, making the cool star appear even redder than it should for its temperature. Astronomers use colors to definition classify many objects including stars, galaxies and quasars. They can use color to Essay Colon Cancer estimate the definition, spectral types of stars, the types if galaxies, to sort asteroids into different classes, and to estimate the distances to depression galaxies and quasars * However, the history of the stars making the hypervigilance, mind of an individual human being in the world extended or continuously improving , learning more new discoveries with the help of the astronomers and great deal of Batteries: Cadmium Essay, our extent technologies to improve the science, the hypervigilance, history if it, and to give more knowledge to us as a unity of Industry Batteries:, mankind in the whole world. * Pickover, Cliff (2001). The Stars of Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514874-6. Hypervigilance Definition! * Gribbin, John; Gribbin, Mary (2001). Stardust: Supernovae and Life—The Cosmic Connection. Yale University Press.

ISBN 0-300-09097-8. * A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. 1988. ISBN 0-553-17521-1. * Kaler, James. “Portraits of Stars and their Constellations”. University of Illinois. White Elephants By Ernest Hemmingway! Retrieved 2010-08-20. * “Query star by identifier, coordinates or reference code”. SIMBAD. Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-08-20. * “How to hypervigilance definition Decipher Classification Codes”.

Astronomical Society of South Australia. On Irenaeus Of Lyons! Retrieved 2010-08-20. Is this the definition, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Our Stars in the Night Sky. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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collapse enron essay NOW WE ARE HUMAN COMMODITIES. The corporation, it turns out, is an invention of the British Crown through the creation of the East India Company by Queen Elizabeth I in hypervigilance definition, 1600, which, being the original, transnational corporation, set today's precedence for big businesses. The East India Company, found India rich and left it poor, says author Nick Robin. The corporate structure of the East India Company was deemed necessary to allow the British to Batteries: exploit their colonies in such a way that the owner of the enterprise was, for the first time, separated from definition responsibility for on Irenaeus of Lyons how the enterprise behaved.

This conscious separation of hypervigilance definition, personal responsibility from the act of looting is not surprising because looting is, theoretically as least, considered immoral in Christian circles. The corporation is thus a legal fiction, that lets the Industry Cadmium, investors who own the business avoid personal responsibility whenever the hypervigilance, business dealings are unethical or even blatantly illegal, despite the fact that such unscrupulous behavior profits them enormously. A corporation, after all, has but one purpose-to make money for the owners. Economist Milton Friedman gave voice to this pinhole vision when he answered his own rhetorical question: So the question is, do corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, have responsibilities in their business activities other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible? And my answer to that is, no they do not. In fact, the corporate system, say analysts, has no room for beneficence toward employees, communities, or the environment, a notion endlessly demonstrated on a daily global scale. Founders of the United States, such as Thomas Jefferson, recognized the on Colon, dangers of corporate greed, which accounts for why the hypervigilance, founding fathers believed corporate charters should be granted only to those entities willing to serve the greater public interest. Throughout most of the 19th century, therefore, states typically restricted a corporation they chartered to the ownership of etiquette, one kind of business and strictly limited the amount of definition, capital it could amass. Victorian Etiquette? In addition, states required the stockholders to be local residents, detailed specific benefits that were due the community, and placed a 20- to hypervigilance 50-year limit on Essay on Cancer, the life of a corporation's charter.

Legislatures would withdraw a corporation's charter if it strayed from its stated mission or acted in an irresponsible manner. Although the power of modern corporations dates back to this era, it has been greatly augmented by two major legal dodges aimed at giving them unencumbered authority to serve only the self-interest of hypervigilance definition, a few people. This was accomplished first by etiquette, the piecemeal removal of those restrictions imposed to protect the hypervigilance, welfare of the public from the self-serving interests of the few. The second change came in 1886, when the U.S. Supreme Court made the corporation all but invulnerable by decreeing, in a case brought by the Southern Pacific Railroad against Santa Clara County, California, that a corporation has the right of personhood under the Essay Colon Cancer, 14th Amendment (originally intended to protect the rights of freed slaves) and, as such, enjoys the same constitutional protections that you or I do as individuals. This second change was reaffirmed in 1906, when the hypervigilance, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that, The Corporation is a creature of the state. It is presumed to be incorporated for the benefit of the public. Within a century, the corporation had been transfigured into a superhuman creature of the law, that is legally superior to any American citizen because the corporation has civil rights without civil responsibilities.¹ WHEN PEOPLE BECOME COMMODITIES. We, as a society, are losing sight of one another as human beings—witness the on Colon Cancer, Wall-Street money chase in which numerous, large corporations discount human value as they increasingly convert people into faceless commodities that are bought and definition sold on a whim to improve the corporate standing in the competitive marketplace.

After all, market share translates into victorian etiquette, political power, which translates into higher profit margins, both of which exacerbate the corporate disregard for people, the rampant destruction of Nature, and the squandering of hypervigilance, natural resources. Science-based technology is the seed of Essay on, human exploitation of the definition, world's resources, including people. As such, it's appropriate to examine what the word resource means, because the A Challenging Story, Hills Elephants by Ernest Hemmingway, term is sadly misused. Hypervigilance Definition? Resource originally meant a reciprocal gift between humans and the Earth, but today it is Industry Cadmium, defined as the collective wealth of a country or its means of producing wealth; any property that can be converted into money. First we covet what Nature has produced. We then exert ownership over that which we covet, and finally we convert Nature into money.

The technological efficiency with which we convert Nature into hypervigilance definition, money has even become the measure of social success and Short Story, Hills Like by Ernest stature. We thus transform spirited and lively mutual gifts, including the human resource, into lifeless commodities. Where does this kind of thinking lead us when we consider one another and ourselves only as human resources? We can begin by looking at the education of our resource managers. Hypervigilance Definition? As soon as we demand, in this lifeless, linear sense, that education serves some immediate purpose and that it be worth a predetermined amount, we strip education of its intrinsic value, and it becomes mere training.

Such is the traditional training of foresters, range conservationists, fishery biologists, and game biologists, all of whom are trained in the traditional schools of resource management which abound in North America. Once we accept so specific a notion of utility, all life becomes subservient to its use; its value is drained of Batteries: Cadmium, everything except its specialized use, and imagination is relegated to the scrap heap. In turn, these patterns of thought determine the core of hypervigilance definition, a society's culture. Let's take another look at the term resource. Resource = re and source . Re means to put back, to restore, and resources source means the hypervigilance, original supply, the depression uk, point of something's origin. Interpreting the word in this way can be the inspiration for the rebirth of its original meaning. How would this change in hypervigilance, meaning affect our sense of the world and ourselves? There was even a time when people were valued for depression patient uk what they were as individuals. Although American workers have long had an enforced workweek of hypervigilance definition, 40 hours, there currently is an primary resources letter, insidious infringement into personal life due to hypervigilance pagers and cell phones, which allow corporations to victorian own employees 24 hours a day. Businesses seem to have no moral compunctions about calling employees whenever they choose—for the good of the company.

For those who would choose to live by the corporate proverb, for the good of the company, the Families and Work Institute said that in hypervigilance, 2001 employees are more likely to: lose sleep have physical and Cancer emotional health problems make mistakes on the job feel and express anger at hypervigilance, employers resent co-workers who they perceive are not pulling their weight look for different jobs. In the A Challenging Short Story, Hills Hemmingway, workplace, these feelings translate into more injuries and thus more claims for workers' compensation, increased absenteeism, higher health insurance and health-care costs, impaired job performance, and greater employee turnover—all of which are counterproductive and hypervigilance definition costly not only for of Lyons employees but also for hypervigilance employers.² At home, these feelings are often converted into a sense of not enough time to care for once-loved pets. About four million pets were brought each year to 1,000 shelters surveyed during 1994, 1995, and 1996, the vast majority of which were dogs. Of those, about 64 percent were killed. Only 24 percent were adopted; others were primarily lost pets that were ultimately reunited with their families. Most of the primary, owners who gave up pets were under 30 years of age. When asked why they were giving up their pet, many said that the hours they were being required to work disallow time to adequately care for definition their animal.³

Moreover, if American workers want more time with and for their families, the corporate response is: If you aren't willing to do the job the way we want, we'll find someone who will. A Challenging Short Hills Like White By Ernest? This attitude raises the question of what comes first today in our land of opportunity, where supposedly one is free to seek liberty and the pursuit of happiness—love or money? This question seems all the more relevant in light of the Enron debacle. The collapse of Enron highlights how some corporations are using people simply as commodities to boost company earnings. Hypervigilance? While Enron's employees were both forced to purchase and simultaneously prohibited from Batteries: Cadmium Essay selling company stock in hypervigilance, their Enron-heavy 401(k) retirement accounts, Enron executives cashed out more than $1 billion in stocks when it was near its peak in value. Regular employees, however, had to watch helplessly as their Enron stock plummeted in value and Industry Batteries: Cadmium their life savings disappeared.#8308; Clearly, the punishing free-for-all of globalization and hypervigilance open markets has not invited love into its house and thus is as much about the fear of lost opportunity as it is depression patient uk, about maximizing profit. And now, as fear enters into hypervigilance, the monetary counting houses, one must realize that any rosy face painted on the economy is done so with far too many temporary and dead-end jobs in Short Like White by Ernest Hemmingway, the service sector. The growing use of long-term, temporary workers by American businesses has created a new kind of employment discrimination, but not across the definition, board because some people actively choose such an Batteries: Essay, arrangement. Employers typically hire contingent workers, such as independent contractors and temporary workers, to hypervigilance definition fill gaps in Hills Hemmingway, personnel, especially to meet high seasonal demands in business. Because, technically, they are not company employees, long-term, temporary employees or permatemps can work at a job for years without being entitled to definition paid vacations, health insurance, pensions, and other benefits (such as rights and protections under federal labor statutes) enjoyed by permanent employees who do the same work.#8309; Although not all corporations operate this way, the arrangement is, nevertheless, desirable from the employer's point of etiquette, view because it holds down the cost of labor, which means higher profits.

The result is millions of employed people in the United States who cannot afford the basic necessities of definition, food, housing, clothing, and medical care. Resources Letter? This problem is well depicted in the movie Hidden in hypervigilance, America, which shows that below the image of primary resources, shining prosperity is a hidden layer of poverty with its desperate but proud parents and hungry children. There is also a kind of sweatshop alive and well in the United States—faster and faster with no time to slow down. A Gallup Poll in the summer or 1999 found that 44 percent of working Americans referred to themselves as workaholics. Yet, 77 percent said they enjoyed their time away from work more than they did their time while working. In fact, our American quest for material wealth—the money chase—leads to profound unhappiness, emotional isolation, and hypervigilance higher divorce rates because we are so busy striving for income there is no time for normal, human relationships.#8310; Our American ration of irony, however, is that the more connected we become electronically, the more detached and isolated we become emotionally because we are losing the human elements of life: the sight of a human face, the sound of a human voice, a smile, a handshake, a touch on the shoulder, a kind word. In essence, we're losing the Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay, human dimension of hypervigilance definition, scale in terms of A Challenging Story, Like, time, space, touch, sound, and size; we are physically and hypervigilance emotionally losing one another and ourselves. Nothing makes this clearer than such things as home fax machines, laptop computers, cell phones, beepers, Palms, BlackBerrys, and iPods. People are now on-line at home; in transit to work; at work; in Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, transit to home via cars, planes, trains, and on foot. In other words, people are virtually tethered to work.

Such workaholism is not only expected by hypervigilance, employers, it's often demanded if one wants to keep their job, which has added 24/7 to our lexicon. This kind of workaholism is especially hard on women because they are increasingly expected to work outside the home, juggle childcare, school activities for their children, and also maintain the home as though they had to nothing else to do. In addition, the 24/7 phenomenon hit the American work scene shortly after woman became a major part of the workforce. As things pile endlessly upon one another, the whole of life seems to melt down into a gigantic obligation that becomes increasingly difficult to primary resources meet because there simply is not enough time to get everything done, let alone done well. Definition? A standard greeting today is: I'm so busy. This greeting is letter, worn like the red badge of courage was in hypervigilance, the past, as though our exhaustion is proof of our worth and victorian our ability to withstand stress, which, in turn, is a mark of our maturity. In fact, we seem to hypervigilance definition measure our importance by how busy we are. The busier we are, the on Colon, more important we feel to ourselves and, we imagine, to others, which is reminiscent of the underlying theme of the definition, British television program Keeping up Appearances. If we do not rest, however, we will lose our way because action without time for reflection is seldom wise.

Rest nourishes our minds, bodies, and souls, which are poisoned by the hypnotic trance of perpetual motion as accomplishment and social success. Therefore, we never truly rest, especially many who are self-employed. In the quarter century following World War II, giant corporations like Ma Bell, General Motors, General Electric, and Westinghouse were the A Challenging Story, Like White, place to be, representing, as they did, the pinnacle of what capitalism had to offer workers: extraordinary job security and a cornucopia of benefits. In fact, college graduates tripped over hypervigilance, one another seeking life-time careers with these bedrock corporations because they could expect a comfortable house, a generously financed retirement package, lifelong health insurance, and, more often than not, a 9-to-5 job that allowed an organized man to form a healthy balance between work and family. That was the era when job security formed the underpinnings of the corporate operating principle. In 1962, Earl S. Willis, manager of employee benefits at Essay of Lyons, General Electric, wrote, Maximizing employee security is a prime company goal. Later, he wrote, The employee who can plan his economic future with reasonable certainty is an employer's most productive asset. In recent times, however, General Electric's John F. Definition? Welch, Jr., was known as Neutron Jack for shedding 100,000 jobs at the company. Job security has vanished at numerous companies. Today, chief executives dump thousands of workers in the blink of an eye, hoping such moves will please securities analysts and thus investors, so their stocks will inch up 5 percent on Short Like Elephants by Ernest Hemmingway, the stock exchange. Hypervigilance Definition? In addition, corporate managers slash away at employee benefits as though employees have suddenly ceased to Cancer be humans and hypervigilance definition have become commodities that can be forced into etiquette, a more efficient mode of production with less cost to the corporation.

They also phase out defined benefit retirement plans in favor of the far-less expensive 401(K) do it yourself plans. Many employees of the post World War II era, until the latter part of the 1960s, were true believers in their companies. They were also exemplary employees who worked 12 and 14 hours days, six and even seven days a week, whatever it took to ensure their company's success. They did this enthusiastically because their company's success was the foundation of their job security, and hence their success as family providers. Then things changed. The corporate mind-set closed and corporate attitudes hardened. Now, despite their dedication, despite all the birthdays, bedtimes, and school events they have missed as their children grew up, many have been chopped from their company's payroll in definition, a merger, re-engineering, rightsizing, downsizing, and re-deployment.

Bitter at Industry Batteries: Essay, the callous way they have been treated, many workers regret having been so dedicated, only to be treated like commodities that are discarded at will.#8311; In a personal sense, it hurts, but in a macro sense, it is the action we've got to take to remain competitive, says Joel Naroff of Naroff Economic Advisors in Holland, Pennsylvania. Ultimately the adjustments that the economy is making is hypervigilance, going to set us up for the next strong period of growth. What Naroff seems to be saying between the lines is: While it hurts to be fired, it's not personal; it's business. Others contend, however, that companies may well harm themselves by firing the people who purchase their products, potentially damaging the etiquette, economy in ways that cannot be rectified with quick fixes, such as tax cuts or lowering the interest rate. Hypervigilance Definition? In other words, layoffs (especially large, continuous ones) can only hurt the economy. An economist, on the other hand, would counter with the notion that what really matters is how consumers view the situation. Some would even suggest that workers have become relatively used to A Challenging Hills Like White by Ernest Hemmingway being fired for the market convenience of hypervigilance definition, their employer, as though that makes it acceptable, even okay. One could also rationalize that many of the job cuts will be less painful than they sound, in depression, part because companies in a tight labor market have scores of unfilled jobs that are easy to hypervigilance definition eliminate. Depression Patient Uk? And then there is the argument that many other cuts would be spread over years, and some might not even occur.#8312; While this all sounds very rational, workers and consumers act on hypervigilance definition, emotions, not what passes for economic logic, and etiquette announced layoffs can lead them to panic, because uncertainty and fear of the unknown are powerful allies when it comes to definition irrational thinking and the often-unwise actions it spawns.

Thus, even if nothing in patient uk, a person's own job changes, the fact that their company has fired people to hypervigilance definition increase the economic bottom line can, and often does, drastically change an employee's attitude about the wisdom of loyalty to the company and thus cripples the company's real wealth—the allegiance and imagination of its employees. No wonder it 's called downsizing. The end result is Cadmium Essay, that a worker's dignity levels out near zero! And what does the corporation lose when employees are fired—especially older, long-term employees? The corporation loses its collective memory and its history, both accrued through years of definition, loyal service. All of this revolves around consumption and consumerism. Letter? Consumption to the economist is the end-all and be-all of production.

It means economic growth. Consumption is the heart and hypervigilance soul of capitalism itself. The rate of consumption by victorian etiquette, a populace is hypervigilance definition, also the Essay, standard economic measure of definition, human welfare. Consumption as an end it itself arose with the conceptualization of the economy as a macro-social entity and economics as a macro-social science—rather than as household management, which is the true meaning of the word economy. To this end, Adam Smith wrote: Consumption is the sole end and Colon purpose of all production. Because consumption and consumerism dominate social discourse and hypervigilance definition political agendas of all parties, consumerism hogs the Essay Colon, limelight at center stage as the prime objective of Western industrialized societies, which, in the collective, are known as consumer societies. Within these consumer societies, the purpose of consumption is: variety, distraction from daily stresses, pleasure, power, and the status that one hopes will bring with them a measure of happiness and social security. None of this comes to pass, however, because people themselves are increasingly seen as economic commodities. How can a commodity find security from another commodity?

In this sense, the marketplace satisfies only temporarily our collective neuroses, while hiding the values that give true meaning to human life.#8313; Author James B. Twitchell puts it nicely: Once we are fed and definition sheltered, our needs are and have always been cultural, not natural. Industry Batteries: Cadmium? Until there is some other system to hypervigilance codify and satisfy those needs and victorian yearnings, commercialism [consumerism] —and the culture it carries with it—will continue not just to thrive but to triumph. In the final analysis, it is doubtful many people really subscribe to the economist's notion that human happiness and contentment derives solely from, or even primarily from, the consumption of goods and services. It's therefore surprising that such a notion has come to hypervigilance definition hold nearly dictatorial power over public policy and the way industrialized societies are governed. We are today so ensnared in the process of selling and buying things in the market place, that we cannot imagine human life being otherwise. Cadmium? Even our notion of hypervigilance, well-being and of despair are wedded to victorian the flow and hypervigilance definition ebb of the markets. Why is this so much a part of our lives?

It is largely because people have yet to understand the notion of conscious simplicity, which is based on the realization that there are two ways to wealth: want less or work more. Put differently, true wealth lies in the scarcity of one's wants—as opposed to the abundance of one's possessions. The discussion of corporate beginnings is based on: (1) Jim Hightower. 1998. Chomp! Utne Reader . March-April:57-61, 104, (2) Nick Robins. 2001. Loot.

Resurgence 210:12-16, and (3) David C. Korten. 2001. What to Do When Corporations Rule the World. Yes! A Journal of Positive Futures . Summer:48-51. Diane Stafford. 2001. Workers feeling overwhelmed. Knight Ridder Newspapers . In: Corvallis Gazette-Times , Corvallis, OR. May 21. Dru Sefton.

1998. Busy owners are abandoning pets. Knight-Ridder Tribune News Service . In: Corvallis Gazette-Times , Corvallis, OR. June 7. The Associated Press. 2001. Enron retirees: Collapse wiped out life savings. Corvallis Gazette-Times , Corvallis, OR. December 19.

Tony Pugh. 1999. Sad Ballad of the Long-Term Temp. Knight Ridder Newspapers . In: Corvallis Gazette-Times , Corvallis, OR. December 7. The Editors. 2000. No time to slow down. U.S. News World Report . June 26:14.

The preceding four paragraphs are based on: Steven Greenhouse. 2001. Essay Colon Cancer? After the Downsizing, a Downward Spiral. The New York Times . April 8. The preceding three paragraphs are based on: Adam Geller. 2001. Economists fear cuts will affect consumer spending.

The Associated Press. In: Corvallis Gazette-Times , Corvallis, OR. Hypervigilance Definition? February 1. The preceding three paragraphs are based on: Paul Ekins. Etiquette? 1998. From Consumption to Satisfaction. Resurgence 191:16-19.

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customs article by Resolution of the Commission of the hypervigilance definition Customs Union. No. 287 dated July 18, 2010. Part 1. General Provisions. 1. The present procedure of of Lyons filling in the passenger customs declaration has been elaborated in accordance with Article 355 in the Customs Code of the Customs Union. 2. The passenger customs declaration form (hereinafter the hypervigilance definition Declaration) consists of the Industry Essay main form and complementary form named the Declaration of Available Cash and/or Monetary Instruments (hereinafter the Declaration of hypervigilance definition Available Cash) which is a supplement to the main Declaration form and shall be filled in cases provided by the present Procedure.

3. The Declaration form has the following dimensions: 148 x 210 mm (A5 format) or 210 x 296 mm (A4 format); the form is made typographically or printed using printing units of electronic computers. The Declaration forms can be made using self-replication paper. 4. The customs applicant shall fill in the Declaration by hand clear and legibly or print it by means of computer, and shall enter in the Declaration columns information on the goods transported across the Customs Union border (hereinafter the Customs Border) and other information required for customs purposes in compliance with the of Lyons customs legislation of the definition Customs Union. Submission of the electronic copy or electronic version of the Declaration is not required. 5. Information shall be indicated in Batteries:, the official language of the Customs Union member-state, the hypervigilance definition Russian or English languages, and also – upon consent of the A Challenging Story, Hills Elephants Hemmingway customs body – in any other language spoken by the officials of such customs body. 6. Should one Declaration form (hereinafter the Main Sheet) be insufficient for indication of information on all transported goods, the required quantity of such Declaration forms shall be used (hereinafter the Additional Sheet). Data on the goods subject to indication in subparagraphs 3.1, 3.3 of item, 3 and item 4 of the definition Declaration, may be indicated in Additional Sheets of the Declaration. The items contained in Additional Sheets shall be filled in according to the rules of Industry Batteries: Cadmium Essay filling in the items of the appropriate sheet. The filled in Additional Sheets shall make an hypervigilance, integral part to the Declaration. 7. Information entered in the Declaration may be altered or added prior to letting the goods out, upon consent of the customs body and on the basis of justified request of the customs applicant, provided such entered alterations or additions have no influence on making a decision on Cadmium Essay letting the goods out and entail no necessity to alter any data which have an impact on calculation of the amount of customs payments and observance of any bans and restrains. Alteration or addition of hypervigilance any data entered in the registered Declaration may not entail entering information on any other goods except for those already indicated in etiquette, such registered Declaration.

Any alterations and additions of the Declaration shall be certified by the signature of the customs applicant and sealed with the personal numbered seal of the customs body authorized official who has registered such Declaration. 8. The customs applicant shall indicate necessary data in the Declaration, in particular, by checking off the appropriate boxes (the checked off box means an hypervigilance definition, affirmative answer, otherwise the answer is negative). 9. A Challenging Story, Like Elephants By Ernest? One copy of the main form of the Declaration and of the hypervigilance definition complementary form (if filled in) of the Declaration shall be kept in Essay, the files of the customs body. 10. The Declaration shall be made in duplicate for the purposes of customs declaring of: - goods imported into the customs territory of the Customs Union in the accompanied baggage, provided the hypervigilance natural person who accompanies the same has the unaccompanied baggage when crossing the border; - goods transported across the customs border in the unaccompanied baggage; - goods with respect to which the customs applicant expresses his/her willingness to identify the same; - transport vehicles for personal use, temporarily imported into the customs territory of the Customs Union. Batteries: Cadmium? In any other cases the second copy of the Declaration shall be made at hypervigilance will of the customs applicant. The customs applicant may make the Declaration in three or more copies. The central customs body of the Customs Union member-state, namely: the State Customs Committee of the Batteries: Cadmium Republic of hypervigilance definition Belarus – from the resources letter writing Belarusian Party, the Customs Control Committee of the Ministry of hypervigilance definition Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan – from the Kazakhstan’s Party, the Federal Customs Service – from the Russian Party, may establish the cases when for declaring the auto- and motor vehicles the Declaration shall be filled in one copy. 11. Letter? In the “Entry”, “Departure” boxes the hypervigilance definition customs applicant shall indicate the Industry direction of transportation of the goods. 12.

In item 1 of the Declaration the customs applicant shall indicate information about himself/herself, details of his/her identity papers, information on existence or absence of persons under sixteen who travel together with the definition customs applicant – by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, and indicating the goods quantity in the “Quantity” line. 13. Depression Patient? In subparagraph 2.1 of item 2 of the Declaration the customs applicant, by hypervigilance ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall indicate availability or absence of the goods, transported by him/her in the accompanied baggage. A Challenging Short Hills Elephants? Should such goods be available, the total number of items of baggage shall be indicated in figures in the “Quantity of hypervigilance definition items” line in depression patient uk, subparagraph 2.1, item 2 of the Declaration. 14. Hypervigilance Definition? In subparagraph 2.2 of item 2 of the Declaration the customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall indicate availability or absence of the goods, transported by him in the unaccompanied baggage. Should such goods be available, the total number of items of baggage shall be indicated in figures in the “Quantity of items” line in subparagraph 2.2, item 2 of the Declaration. At the point of arrival at the customs territory of the Customs Union, such information shall be treated as a notification to the customs body of availability or absence of the goods transported in patient uk, the unaccompanied baggage with the customs applicant. 15. In subparagraph 2.3 of item 2 of the Declaration the hypervigilance definition customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall indicate availability or absence of his/her goods transported by the carrier. Should such goods be available, the total number of items of baggage shall be indicated in figures in the “Quantity of items” line in subparagraph 2.3, item 2 of the Declaration.

16. In subparagraph 3.1, item 3 of the Declaration the customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall indicate availability or absence with him/her of cash currency of the Customs Union member-states, travel cheques, to the total amount not exceeding USD 10000 in the equivalent. At will of the customs applicant, information on available cash currency and travel cheques shall be indicated in Hills Elephants, this subparagraph. The type of currency or kind of a monetary instrument – “travel cheques” shall be indicated in the “Name” line. The sum shall be indicated in hypervigilance, the units of depression uk currency (currency of the travel cheques’ par value).

17. In subparagraph 3.2, item 3 of the Declaration the customs applicant shall notify of availability with him/her of definition cash currency of the Customs Union member-states, foreign currency, travel cheques to the amount exceeding USD 10000 in the equivalent and/or bills of credit, (bank) cheques, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes. Should the primary resources letter answer be “Yes”, the customs applicant shall fill in a complementary form – the definition Declaration of Available Cash. Short Story, Hills Like Hemmingway? Should the mentioned goods be transported, information on such goods shall be entered in the Declaration of Available Cash. 18. In subparagraph 3.3, item 3 of the definition Declaration the customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall notify of availability with him/her of any transported vehicles for personal use. Additionally, information of such vehicles, separately for each kind thereof, shall be indicated in this subparagraph.

An Additional Sheet for each vehicle shall be filled in. 19. In subparagraph 3.4, item 3 of the Declaration the customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall notify of availability with him/her of goods with respect to which any bans or restrains have been imposed by the legislation of the Customs Union. Should such goods be available, information on such goods, and also information on the documents evidencing of complying with such restrains, and on the body which have issued the same, shall be indicated in item 4 of the Declaration. 20. In subparagraph 3.5, item 3 of the Declaration the customs applicant, by ticking the appropriate “Yes”, “No” boxes, shall notify of availability with him/her of any indivisible goods which weight exceeds 35 kg and/or goods which total weight exceeds 50 kg and/or which total customs value exceeds EUR 1500.

Should such goods be available, detailed information on the same shall be indicated in item 4 of the patient uk Declaration. 21. Hypervigilance Definition? In item 4 of the Declaration the Batteries: Essay customs applicant shall indicate the following information on the goods mentioned in subparagraphs 3.4, 3.5, the goods subject to customs declaring, and other goods at will of the natural person; 1) name and distinguishing features (what material such goods are manufactured of, colour, shape, brand, identification numbers (if any); 2) details of the documents evidencing of observance of the restrains; 3) weight/ number; 4) cost of goods (in the currency of the Customs Union member-state, Euro or US dollars). Should the Declaration be made with respect to goods transported in the unaccompanied baggage – if such baggage has been accepted for transportation by the air carrier as the accompanied one, but in the course of hypervigilance definition transportation, by any reason beyond control of the natural person, has not been delivered to the destination place simultaneously with arrival of such natural person – the customs applicant, apart from information mentioned in the first part of this item, shall indicate the details of documents about transfer of such baggage to such air carrier or other documents enabling to identify such baggage. 22. Essay Of Lyons? When filling in Additional Sheets of the Declaration, the definition customs applicant shall make an entry: “sheet No.___ ” in the upper right-hand corner of the Essay of Lyons sheet face, and information on the customs applicant of the transported goods shall be indicated there (surname, name, patronymic, his/her country of residence and identity document (series and number of the passport or other identity document) mentioned in item 1 of the Main Sheet.

When filling in Additional Sheets of the Declaration, the customs applicant shall make an entry: “ _______Additional Sheets”; quantity of such Additional Sheets shall be indicated in words. 23. All copies of the Declaration (Main and definition, Additional Sheets) shall be signed by the customs applicant or the authorized person of the customs official; date of filling in the Declaration shall be indicated on the Sheets. At submission of the Declaration, the primary resources letter following information shall be indicated in hypervigilance definition, the Declaration by the customs official below the signature: - registration number of the customs official in the customs official register; - position, surname, name, patronymic of the customs official’s worker, engaged in customs operations; - number of the on Irenaeus of Lyons document on the basis of which the hypervigilance definition customs official carries out A Challenging Short Story, Hills customs operations in the name of the customs applicant. Part 3. Procedure of Filling in the Declaration of Available Cash. 24. Hypervigilance Definition? The Declaration of Available Cash shall be filled in when transporting: - money in cash (bank notes and coins, except for coins of uk precious metals) and travel cheques to the amount exceeding USD 10 thousand in the equivalent; - other monetary instruments in the documentary form (bills of hypervigilance credit, (bank) cheques, securities to bearer confirming payment obligations of the issuer (debtor) wherein no person is indicated to whom such payment shall be made).

When filling in the form, information on all transported cash, travel cheques, and monetary instruments shall be indicated. 25. The Declaration of Available Cash shall be made in duplicate and victorian etiquette, signed by the customs applicant. Additionally, the customs applicant shall indicate the date of filling in the form. One copy of the Declaration of Available Cash together with the Main Form shall be kept in the customs body. The second copy of the Declaration of Available Cash, bearing an appropriate note made by the customs body, shall be kept by the customs applicant. 26.

In item 1 of the Declaration of definition Available Cash the customs applicant shall indicate information about himself/herself. Residential (registration) address in A Challenging Hills Like White Hemmingway, the territory of the Customs Union and details of the document evidencing the right to stay at the territory of the Customs Union (if any) shall be indicated by the persons who are not the citizens of the Customs Union member-states. 27. Hypervigilance Definition? In subparagraph 2.1 in the Declaration of Available Cash the customs applicant shall indicate the amount of each kind of transported currency in the currency units, including currency of the Customs Union member-states. 28.

In subparagraph 2.2 in writing, the Declaration of Available Cash the hypervigilance customs applicant shall indicate the par value or the appropriate amount in the currency of the Customs Union member-state or foreign currency the right to which is confirmed by the monetary instrument. Should there be no par value or should it be impossible to calculate the amount in Essay on Irenaeus of Lyons, the currency of the Customs Union member-state or foreign currency the right to which is confirmed by definition the monetary instrument, the quantity of exported monetary instruments shall be indicated. 29. Should cash money so transported be not the Story, Hills by Ernest Hemmingway property of the natural person, the customs applicant shall make “another person” note in definition, item 3. Should “another person” note be made, the customs applicant shall indicate, in subparagraph 3.1, the Essay Colon Cancer name and location address (legal address) of the enterprise, company or organization to which such transported money and/or monetary instruments belong. 30. Should the customs applicant indicate “Other” in item 4 or 5 of the Declaration of Available Cash, also the hypervigilance definition source of victorian etiquette income or intended use of the definition declared money and/or monetary instruments shall be indicated. 31. Primary Resources Letter? In item 6 of the Declaration of hypervigilance Available Cash, initial point of travel (the country from which such declared money and/or monetary instruments have been or are exported) shall be indicated by the customs applicant in the “Country of departure” box; and the country which is a terminal point of the customs applicant’s travel shall be indicated in the “Country of arrival” box. Respectively, the date of departure shall be the date of exit from the country of departure, and the date of arrival shall be the date of entry to the terminal point of travel. 32.

In subparagraph 6.1 of the Declaration the customs applicant shall indicate the Colon Cancer type of transport, by which he/she has arrived at the Customs Union territory or will leave the hypervigilance Customs Union territory. 1. Central Customs Directorate (CTU) 2. A Challenging Short Hills Like Elephants? Siberian Customs Directorate (STU) 3. North Western Customs Directorate (SZTU) Kaliningrad Customs Directorate.

4. Southern Customs Directorate (JTU) 5. Privolzhsky Customs Directorate (PTU) 6. Urals Customs Directorate (UTU) 7. Hypervigilance Definition? Far Eastern Customs Directorate (DVTU) 8. Etiquette? North Caucasus Customs Directorate (SKTU) © 2005-2017 FEDERAL CUSTOMS SERVICE.

PRESS OFFICE: +7 (499) 449-7252; Department of work with citizens (Public Liaison Office of the FCS of Russia) +7 499 449-7771, +7 499 449-7675 FAX +7 (499) 449-7300.