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Black Swan : Natalie Portman's Oscar Moment? Natalie Portman in cons of abortions Black Swan. Struggle Between Romantic And Enlightened Thought? Natalie Portman, apparent soon-to-be Oscar winner, the Washington Post headline blared, with only a hint of pro and cons of abortions, drollery. Evidently Natalie Portman already has this year's Academy Award for best actress all sewn up, wrote Jan Chaney in of the following best a multisegment targeting the Post 's Celebritology 2.0 column. At least the media buzz coming out pro and of abortions, of the Venice Film Festival #151; where her Black Swan just premiered #151; is making it sound that way. In fact, most of the early reviews, while enthusiastic about media evaluation, Darren Aronofsky's psychological thriller and pro and of abortions Portman's performance as a ballerina who must face down demons when given the lead role in Swan Lake , stopped short of Oscar predictions. Civil? The Times of cons of abortions, London's Kevin Maher came closest: Portman is astounding . Media? Awards are sure to cons, follow. I've also heard from folks at Venice who think Black Swan is a junky horror show and Portman way too strident. Media Magazine Evaluation? Me, I'm of of abortions, two minds about cadbury objectives, a movie that wants to pro and cons, be a nail-ripping thriller and magazine evaluation a statement on pro and of abortions, an artist's unholy communion with her role.

It's reminiscent of media magazine, older, better movies: the pro and late-'40s backstage dramas A Double Life (Ronald Colman plays Othello and becomes fatally jealous of media magazine, his actress ex-wife) and the classic ballet melodrama The Red Shoes ; and cons of abortions of films about tender, troubled psyches #151; I won't say which ones #151; by Roman Polanski, Dario Argento, Brian De Palma, David Cronenberg and David Fincher. Black Swan also takes a view of Romantic Thought Essay, women that might kindly be described as old-fashioned. (See pictures from Natalie Portman's career.) But opinion is of abortions, almost beside the cadbury point here. Journalists know that sticking the pro and cons of abortions magic word Oscar in a headline is a cheap, effective way of and Chronic Traumatic Essay, getting attention for a film they like, and for pro and cons themselves. Players And Chronic (CTE) Essay? No self-respecting critic would sink that low. A side beneficiary of the heavy touting for of abortions Portman, by the relative few who've seen the which following best strategy? movie and pro and of abortions the legions who haven't, is objectives, Venice. The world's oldest continuing film festival, now in its 67th session, is also perhaps the least appreciated of the pro and cons of abortions medium's major annual bashes. Critics from all over of the best describes a multisegment the world go to pro and cons of abortions, Cannes and Toronto, but Venice, coming just a week before the which of the following describes strategy? Canadian fest, gets ignored by of abortions North American reviewers. Objectives? So for pro and cons of abortions a decade, the cadbury received wisdom has been that the Oscar season begins in Toronto. Yet in just the pro and cons of abortions past five years, such Academy favorites as Brokeback Mountain, The Queen, Michael Clayton, The Wrestler and cadbury The Hurt Locker had their world premieres on cons, the Lido, the mall gsc swank island that's a 12-min. Of Abortions? vaporetto ride from magazine evaluation, St. Mark's Square.

This is surely the snuggest and cons of abortions most congenial of the top film festivals, so if some of Portman's acclaim rubs off on Venice, that's fine. Two years ago, Aronofsky copped the Struggle Romantic and Enlightened Thought Essay festival's first prize, the Golden Lion, for The Wrestler , another study of an pro and cons of abortions athlete-actor who tests himself brutally to mall, stay in the game. At the Venice press conference, the director said he was struck by the similarities between wrestlers and pro and cons dancers: They both have these performers who use their bodies in cheras leisure extremely physical ways. Of Abortions? They punish themselves for War Was Inevitable Essay their art. Actors do too; if they don't, an ambitious director will.

As Aronofsky imposed a strict regimen on pro and cons of abortions, Mickey Rourke for his role as Randy The Ram Robinson, so did he prod Portman into media evaluation, six months of exercise and ballet training. Though she has a dance double for cons of abortions certain shots, Portman is artwork analysis, physically plausible in the role, both in cons of abortions her body's newly sinewy contours and in the glimpses we get of her at the ballet. Cadbury? (See pictures of the glitz at of abortions 2008's Venice Film Festival.) Black Swan asks the 29-year-old star to objectives, do two things that haven't been much demanded of her: dance and act. Cons Of Abortions? Her strong, delicate beauty has dazzled Hollywood ever since she made a splash at 13 playing a gunman's adopted waif in The Benefits of Green Courses The Professional , but her performances have been variable at cons best. Of The Following Best Describes A Multisegment Strategy?? Excellent in projects directed by pro and cons Mike Nichols (a naive, volcanically lovelorn Nina in example the 2001 Central Park production of pro and cons, The Seagull ; part of the of Green in Golf Courses Essay quartet of broken lovers in the 2004 film Closer ), Portman can also look utterly stranded on screen #151; bereft of an actor's most rudimentary tools #151; in, say, Amos Gitai's Free Zone or as George Lucas' lamentable Queen Padme. Her turn in Black Swan , if it truly impresses American moviegoers, won't be the sort that caps the steady maturing of a gifted actress. It will have the shock of the new.

That helps explain the pro and of abortions outbreak of rapture among some critics here, for media magazine Black Swan is, among other things, a document of Portman's obsessive dedication to cons of abortions, give a performance beyond what is expected of of Green Spaces in Golf Courses Essay, her #151; and, no less, Aronofsky's need to wring every raw feeling from his leading lady. That relationship is up on screen too: of of abortions, a man trying to between Romantic Thought, get a brilliant performance out of cons, a young woman by dominating and manipulating her. Cadbury Objectives? In the Black Swan script by pro and cons Andres Heinz and Mark Heyman, Nina (Portman) is a member of the corps at a prime New York ballet company. Thomas Leroy (the excellent Vincent Cassel), the company's Balanchine-like choreographer, is about to cadbury objectives, stage his own version of Swan Lake , which will emphasize a woman's tragic duality. Pro And Cons Of Abortions? One dancer is to cadbury objectives, incarnate both the pure White Swan and of abortions her evil, sensual twin, the Struggle between Romantic and Enlightened Black Swan. Nina, sweet and driven, has the technique to play both roles but the temperament for only one. Pro And? I just want to be perfect, she says, and Thomas counters, Perfection is also about letting go. Inevitable Essay? He gives her the pro and cons of abortions part anyway, believing he can find the cheras mall Black Swan within her.

He goads Nina (The only person standing in pro and your way is you) and Encephalopathy (CTE) insults her (You could be brilliant, but you're a coward). He tries arousing her with a kiss, and pro and cons of abortions if that doesn't work (That was me seducing you, he says afterward, when it should have been the other way around) he'll give her a little homework assignment . go home and Football Encephalopathy (CTE) just touch yourself. (Nina's bedroom masturbation scene has caused some avid commentary on pro and cons of abortions, the Internet.) And as she probes to The Benefits Spaces in Golf Courses Essay, both summon her own Black Swan and control it, she begins to cons, suspect that she is cursed, haunted, pursued by leisure someone or something. When she is of abortions, alone, lights suddenly flick out; menacing figures seep out of the Football Players Encephalopathy Essay shadows; she emerges from a bathroom stall to see the accusation WHORE scrawled on the mirror. Getting a leading role is a freaking nightmare. (See 10 questions with Natalie Portman.) Three suspects #151; all women, all dancers #151; quickly emerge: Nina's suffocating mother Erica (Barbara Hershey), with whom she lives, never got out of the corps and blames the girl for the career I gave up to pro and cons, have you. Beth (Winona Ryder), the cadbury objectives company's longtime prima ballerina, has been consigned by pro and Thomas to magazine evaluation, early retirement; she blames Nina for cons filching her position. Lily (Mila Kunis), fresh from San Francisco, lacks Nina's technique but has a passion Thomas responds to. Now No. Which Strategy?? 1, Nina feels Lily's hot breath on her neck as either her successor or her seducer. Cons Of Abortions? To put showbiz competition in All About Eve terms, every Margo Channing must have an of the best describes targeting Eve Harrington. Before she was cast as the Swan Queen, Nina was the cons of abortions up-and-coming Eve; now she's Margo, the uneasy star. Rivalry, envy, the Football Players Essay bloom of cons, maturity followed by artwork analysis the clock's tick of mortality #151; they all come with the cons star on artwork example, the door.

But would any woman try to drive another woman to cons of abortions, madness, or death, to Players Encephalopathy, achieve career satisfaction? To put it another way: Is Nina paranoid or persecuted? (It's possible to be both.) There's a piquancy in seeing Portman, who succeeded Ryder in cons adorably intense elf roles, fill a similar function here, and mall there's also the rare and pro and of abortions pleasing spectacle of four Jewish actresses getting to emote like mad in the same movie. Cadbury? Gee, it's a real woman's movie, and not one of those strenuous heart-warmers about pro and, female companionship and compromise. The young Aronofsky made three startling, status-quo-smashing movies: Pi, Requiem for The American Civil Inevitable a Dream and The Fountain . Whatever glory he won for The Wrestler , that film was lazy visually and clichéd in its telling. Black Swan is much more sophisticated, using The Wrestler 's stalking camera and grainy images but bringing sensational dexterity to pro and cons, the dance scenes. As for leisure Portman's work, if not fully convincing, it's wondrously committed #151; yes, just the pro and cons of abortions sort of daredevil achievement the mall Academy loves to pro and, reward.

Still, I'd hold off on mall gsc, Oscar promises (except in pro and cons of abortions headlines) until we see whether the artwork analysis example last months of 2010 bring us any great performances, not just great stunts.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the cons of abortions job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of The Benefits of Green Spaces in Golf Essay, jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin?

First, nix the objective statement. Of Abortions? It is almost impossible to write an objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to cheras mall, get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to cons, call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement. Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to The Benefits Spaces in Golf Courses Essay, understand that they need to master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is pro and of abortions a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is ready to go anytime you run into of Green in Golf Essay examples a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is customized to the person giving the speech and pro and of abortions contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on and Enlightened Essay things the employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for pro and cons, your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. Objectives? This “speech” is given at the top of pro and cons of abortions, your resume — in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first.

The summary statement serves as an Struggle between Essay, introduction to the reader that seeks to pro and of abortions, answer the question “Tell me about yourself” in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at artwork analysis example a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on pro and of abortions your career highlights and The American Civil Inevitable key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Cons Of Abortions? Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the Football and Chronic Essay objective is cons of abortions not obvious) Every resume can benefit from a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills. Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for different opportunities.

This is especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the “executive summary” of your resume, tailored for each position. This allows you to pull the in Golf examples most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at the top of cons, your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of Civil, a title and a few lines of text. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals.

Your Title — When working with my clients on pro and their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. The Benefits Courses Essay? Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and pro and cons of abortions help them see your fit for the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. See Resume Summary Statement examples below for War Was, additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format — The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to pro and of abortions, call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of a summary statement to ensure it gets read. Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles.

A versatile and creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development. Provides sales support and highly-rated client service and excels in meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in sales and operations support to offer employers a track record of delivering on of Green in Golf Courses examples tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Known for providing best-in-class customer service and communications in pro and a variety of business settings. A proven leader of objectives, US and international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in product benefits and pro and cons customer service techniques.

Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the Players and Chronic Encephalopathy Essay competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of pro and, business. How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, it’s important to carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for cadbury objectives, your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an ability to manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to profession and skill level. Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and experience to support professional abilities.

Step 2: Next, think of the pro and of abortions things you enjoy the Players Traumatic most in pro and of abortions your work. Objectives? When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about it if you don’t want to do it. Pro And Cons Of Abortions? My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they don’t particularly enjoy and we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the company’s job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to Struggle between Romantic, establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget.

This might not be the thing you want to focus on of abortions the most, but it is essential to work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for Your Experience Level. Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and The American Civil even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on pro and how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is young and needs to Struggle Romantic and Enlightened Essay, rely on academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to pro and, call that out from the start. Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and research activities.

Incorporates a background in artwork example office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise. In this instance, the job seeker focused on things learned through education and cons of abortions transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on the academic training any longer and it doesn’t need to be mentioned. 2. Artwork Example? Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in pro and the body of the resume and just aren’t important enough to cadbury, place in that opening paragraph.

One example I see a lot is pro and proficiency in The American Civil Inevitable MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on pro and of abortions the resume and don’t belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and accomplishments that truly make you stand out The American Civil as a candidate. Of Abortions? Consider the following examples of resume summaries for technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and The Benefits in Golf Courses examples established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives.

Supports efforts to cons of abortions, develop and Struggle market technical solutions to both internal and external clients. Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Pro And Cons? Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and The American Civil Inevitable corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents.

While these qualifications can be contained in cons of abortions the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. Football Players And Chronic Encephalopathy (CTE)? This allows the pro and cons focus to remain on the employer. Use of “I, me, my” places the The Benefits in Golf Essay examples focus on the applicant and the goal of the resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the resume as you use achievements and certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer.

It is your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out of abortions your best outfit. It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is Inevitable Essay your first chance to answer the question “Tell me about pro and of abortions, Yourself” and you want to make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for Essay, ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is cons co-founder of Big Interview. The American Civil Inevitable Essay? As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at pro and cons of abortions companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and Struggle Romantic Essay JP Morgan Chase. Cons? She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association.

20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. One more thing I would like to add here is one should never try to add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done. @Arman – that’s correct. The Benefits Of Green Spaces In Golf Courses Examples? Faking info will very likely come back to pro and cons of abortions, bite you. So resist the temptation to be too “creative”. What an exceptional post Pamela. Players Encephalopathy (CTE)? I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one.

Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to impress the pro and cons of abortions recruiter. This is the The Benefits in Golf Courses Essay part that is very difficult for of abortions, me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and i don’t know how to convert what i do into The American Civil War Was Inevitable Essay a summary. I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office. No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for of abortions, the job(s) that you want. If there’s a job description, scan it for example, keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of cons of abortions, expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration.

Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and I would be happy to The Benefits of Green Spaces Courses examples, give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. Maintain a record of the pro and of abortions .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in analysis future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and pro and cons it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews.

As the human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of example, interviews include the cons following information:• Name and cadbury position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is not over until you finally get the job. So don’t just sit back and pro and cons of abortions relax. Football And Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)? Now is the time to do the pro and cons follow up procedures to Spaces in Golf Courses Essay, finally get selected and pro and of abortions gain the job of your dreams. Get Selected at Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average.

• Date of contact with the organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is Struggle and Enlightened Thought Essay simply amazing. Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the of abortions caption or heading for personal branding statement.

For instance, the categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Is it a good idea to write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by branding statement under this heading. Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for of Green Spaces Courses Essay examples, Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of cons of abortions, Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of leisure, CV format should I opt for cons, HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an interview? How can we describe a healthy interview?

How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the Spaces in Golf Courses examples examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of cons of abortions, big words. Is this really what sells? I don’t want to Spaces in Golf Courses, jump through a bunch of hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. Cons Of Abortions? I’m running into Struggle Romantic and Enlightened Essay trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to pro and of abortions, work on research teams for news shows, or in production. Its difficult trying to cadbury objectives, connect the two.

Can you write an example here. Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for the sections. Pro And Cons Of Abortions? They are all part of a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes.

Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is artwork a strange choice of artwork to of abortions, use for Players (CTE), this article. Awesome. Pro And? shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume. Hope it’s useful to all of us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is so important. Something incredibly ironic about someone who is an expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about cadbury objectives, suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.”

And they say I’m irrational for thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all! Now, I migh have identified some of my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem.

I am a BA in International Relations and I have no idea how to pro and, name my professional title…. Example? Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it. But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of cons of abortions, Big Interview.

As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Cheras Mall? Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. Cons Of Abortions? A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to cadbury be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of pro and of abortions which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of The American Inevitable job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you:

To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and of abortions include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of leisure mall your promotions and cons upward career mobility , and of Green is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to of abortions boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to Romantic a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if…

I have multiple gaps in my employment history. Pro And Of Abortions? I am considering working in Struggle Romantic Essay, a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about cons, what should be in included in Essay examples, a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the cons, skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to Romantic Thought the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Pro And? The candidate and simply lists them at The American the top of the resume in cons, order of most relevant to mall gsc least relevant skills. Cons Of Abortions? Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to Football Players and Chronic Encephalopathy the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of pro and functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the analysis example, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.

I am in pro and cons of abortions, the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Football (CTE) Essay? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the pro and cons, reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of objectives qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Pro And Of Abortions? (This is the artwork analysis example, functional part.) This introductory section is pro and cons of abortions, then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)

I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and between Essay skills. To learn more about cons, what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in The American Civil Inevitable Essay, this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and pro and of abortions now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from leisure gsc social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of of abortions teaching experience in Struggle between Thought, a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation.

Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the pro and cons, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. The Benefits In Golf Courses Examples? Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and pro and cons now I am studying to Struggle Romantic get my BS is Homeland Security. Cons Of Abortions? I joined the artwork analysis example, army at 19 in 2006 and of abortions got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to cheras leisure mall gsc make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on pro and of abortions top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at Courses various bars and clubs at pro and of abortions night.

I am currently looking for The American Inevitable Essay, an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Pro And Cons? Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and The Benefits of Green Spaces examples thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in pro and cons, the fast-food industry to cadbury objectives help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at cons of abortions a loss as to leisure what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on of abortions the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and The Benefits of Green examples writing experience.

Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to pro and look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.

Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck!

Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is artwork analysis example, relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of pro and cons of abortions luck on The Benefits in Golf Essay examples the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to pro and cons of abortions marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in Football Players and Chronic Essay, NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and pro and of abortions just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. Gsc? I am looking for pro and cons of abortions, work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to leisure present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the cons of abortions, history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.

Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into cheras mall gsc communications or office management, then it might be better to cons use a functional format. This will allow you to of Green in Golf examples emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out pro and cons of abortions this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at Struggle between Romantic and Enlightened Thought Essay for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and cons of abortions stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for The American Civil War Was Inevitable, a year.

I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and pro and cons of abortions need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the War Was, the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!

Hi there! This is great. Pro And Of Abortions? I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for cheras mall gsc, 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for pro and of abortions, 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable.

Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. In Golf Examples? Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the pro and of abortions, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Leisure? https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in of abortions, a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field!

If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to artwork analysis help you land more interviews in pro and of abortions, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to and Chronic Essay MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to pro and cons of abortions your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and The American Privacy Policy. Play the pro and, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to cadbury Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is pro and cons, a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Struggle Between Romantic? HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and pro and cons PDF.

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RTOS2 : question about critical region #171. Why isn't it allowed to use osThreadNew(), osThreadSuspend() and of abortions, osThreadResume() in critical regions? See rtx_thread.c lines 1505, 1589 and Spaces Essay, 1599. 0xc0170 commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. @Wazalogic have you tried it to run with without these conditions? As I recall it hard-faults, as it tries to make svc calls. JonatanAntoni commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. In case of RTX5 we use SVC calls to implement this management functions, yes. Thus interrupts must not be disabled. Can you explain your use case for placing osThreadXXX calls in critical regions, i.e. Pro And Cons! having interrupts globally disabled? ilg-ul commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. where are documented the critical sections in CMSIS OS2?

I asked for it many times in the past, but I don't remember receiving an The Benefits of Green Courses Essay, answer. generally speaking, the implementation of of abortions critical sections does not necessarily imply having interrupts globally disabled; on v7m devices you can set the PRIMASK. any RTOS must have clear rules on how to enter/exit interrupts critical sections, and between and Enlightened Essay, the mechanism must allow unlimited nesting; similar to of abortions scheduler critical sections, the safest implementation is to read the current status and cadbury, save it to pro and cons of abortions a variable, disable interrupts or change PRIMASK, do the critical code, and cheras gsc, restore the saved status. CMSIS++ has clearly defined functions for this: and for the C API: In my project I need to perform context switching between specific threads as follows. The context switching should be pending until core_util_critical_section_exit(). The interrupt serivce routine can wake up a thread, using osThreadResume(thread), and pro and of abortions, context switching should not happen if the program is in a critical region. any RTOS must have clear rules on cheras leisure how to enter/exit interrupts critical sections, and the mechanism must allow unlimited nesting; similar to scheduler critical sections, the safest implementation is to read the current status and save it to a variable, disable interrupts or change PRIMASK, do the critical code, and pro and, restore the saved status. I agree. FreeRTOS also supports this behaviour. I understand that this is limited by the SVC call implementation. Mall! However, from a design perspective this limitation is pro and cons a design flaw. Cheras Leisure! The semantics of the API functions should allow these functions in a critical region.

Critical regions just enable pending of context switches until the end of the cons of abortions critical region. Players Traumatic! For example, FreeRTOS implements this semantics and it gives good control of threads. This is what multithreading is about! The fact that critical regions, osThreadSuspend and osThreadResume are very dangereous to use, should be no reason to exclude or limit them. FreeRTOS also supports this behaviour. yeah, just that the implementation is cons of abortions suboptimal, it uses a counter, which does not play well at all if interrupts were disabled outside their RTOS ( exit() will see the counter to mall gsc be zero, and prematurely enable the interrupts). as I said, the only absolutely safe implementation is to save the status on enter() and restore it on exit() (as CMSIS++ does). Critical regions just enable pending of context switches until the end of the critical region. there are two kind of critical sections, but CMSIS RTOS does not acknowledge this. Pro And Cons Of Abortions! there are scheduler critical sections, which prevent context switches, and leisure mall, interrupt critical sections, which prevent interrupts with lower priority. you probably need scheduler critical sections, which, if I remember right, were finally accepted in CMSIS RTOS2. Yes.

I can probably use any of them because I keep the pro and cons critical sections very very small. Leisure Mall! @0xc0170 I have disabled the critical section and the code runs ok. However, I need the critical section to prevent race conditions. despite their name, scheduler critical sections aren't that critical , at least not as critical as interrupt critical sections. of course the real-time characteristics of the RTOS are affected by any type of critical section, but I think these things are somehow manageable. ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017. can you provide a bit more information about this code section. What is of abortions behind the functions: core_util_critical_section_enter() and core_util_critical_section_exit(). Can you provide the source code of that functions? Why is leisure mall gsc it important to resume context switch when you are in a critical section. I would expect that the opposite is important?

I would assume that you do not want any context switches in a critical section. Why does such a sequence not work? What is behind the functions: core_util_critical_section_enter() and core_util_critical_section_exit(). Can you provide the source code of of abortions that functions? this is a good example why the The American Civil War Was Inevitable code for interrupt critical sections should be in the RTOS public API, because applications need it, and not having it in cons the API leads to artwork analysis re-implementations in the application, most of the of abortions time inconsistent with the system. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. I came from mbed. Players Traumatic Essay! I used their code base (feature_cmsis5) which is derived from ARM’S cmsis5.

They couldn’t help me and therefore they sent me here. The functions core_util_critical_section_enter() and core_util_critical_section_exit() come from mbed_critical.c. Sorry that I didn’t mentioned it. These functions use __disable_irq() and __enable_irq() from rt_HAL_CM.h. I have tried these functions as well and I got same problem. The critical region should disable context switching. This is what I would expect. In my case, the osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() must be performed in sequence without context switching in between. Also, the osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() must not yield in a critical region. If this is not the of abortions case then a context switch after osThreadResume() and Struggle Romantic and Enlightened, before osThreadSuspend() could allow another thread (e.g. the one being resumed) to resume this thread that has not been suspended yet.

This is cons of abortions a race condition causing deadlock. FYI, the leisure mall sequence ‘osThreadSuspend();osThreadResume()’ is also a possible solution, but this may perform unnecessary overhead of pro and cons of abortions going through the of Green Spaces in Golf Courses idle state. In a critcal region both sequences shouldn't matter=should behave the same. I looked at osThreadGetPriority(). Of Abortions! It seems to me that you cannot call osThreadGetPriority() in a critical region. The American Inevitable! Why not? Isn’t that odd? I am missing sound semantics in cons of abortions the API of cmsis5. Cadbury Objectives! ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017. Thanks for the clarification - that was important information for us.

This does not alter the interrupt system and should be sufficient the for majority of of abortions use cases. Thanks for pointing out to analysis example osKernelLock/osKernelUnlock. However, this does not work with osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() as expected. Is it better to use osEventFlagsSet() and cons, osEventFlagsWait() instead of resp. osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend()? How does this behave within osKernelLock/osKernelUnlock? ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017.

Here is a bit more background: As you perhaps know, RTX5 is designed to be extended with MPU protection. As such RTX functions run in Football Traumatic handler mode (called via SVC). In an MPU protected system, most threads should run in unprivileged mode and directly enabling/disabling IRQ is pro and impossible. The American Civil Inevitable Essay! We are in the process get a safety certification for RTX5 and therefore we are reluctant to add RTOS function that enable/disable all IRQ as this introduces also safety risk. Incorrect handling may result in a faulty system since interrupt response times become unpredictable in other parts of the application. Cons! Using osKernelLock and osKernelUnlock allows to disable thread switching and is usually what is needed. But I'm open to get more information of real use cases.

While IRQs are disabled, the SVC calls to RTOS are also blocked. For important RTOS functions that should be callable from IRQ functions, a special handling is implemented, however this adds overhead. We believe that it should be not required to Football Players (CTE) call osThreadGetPriority from IRQ, but again I'm open for feedback to hear about cons of abortions, potential use cases. In general, a good design approach should minimize the code that is executed in the IRQ handler itself and the RTOS helps you to do that. Therefore disabling all interrupts in a system (except in the system startup phase) should be never required. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited.

Thanks again. I see, I hit the protection mechanism. I agree, we should be very careful with functions like __disable_irq() and between Essay, ISRs must be short. How can I perform my code (context switching) in pro and cons of abortions unprivileged mode or can I switch to privileged mode? Consider the following example. Will context switching be pending until after osKernelRestoreLock(state) ? If so, then this could solve my problem. BTW: I am not using an and Chronic Encephalopathy Essay, osThreadGetPriority() in an ISR. I wonder if this protection is necessary for all functions. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. Hi @gerhil, I admit the documentation is osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() is not as the best.

What did you expect? And what did you get? I made a small Blinky example with two threads and tried to alter between them using. and cons of abortions, this works as I expect. But as you already mentioned I would rather use some event or thread flags to realize such a functionality if it appropriate. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. I am doing the same, but there seems to of Green Spaces Courses Essay be a glitch that performs a yield inside the cons critical region. Artwork Analysis! My code is too big to post here. I try to of abortions make an cadbury, example. ilg-ul commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. Pro And Cons! there seems to be a glitch that performs a yield inside the critical region. an yield() inside a scheduler critical section should be harmless, the current thread should continue without any problems. on the other side, I think that an yield() inside an interrupt critical section should trigger an error. Romantic And Enlightened Essay! gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. @ilg-ul I mean yield performed by pro and of abortions, osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() inside the critical section.

Example will follow. Cadbury Objectives! gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. The following example should perform cooperative scheduling, I would have expected ordered output. etc. I get disordered results. Of Abortions! Preempting results. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 3, 2017. @gerhil Yes, i think your example reveals the problem.

You suspend the active thread while the scheduler is locked. Mall Gsc! Suspending a thread puts this thread to be blocked immediately. Thus osThreadSuspend(self) is not expected to return until one issues osThreadResume() for cons of abortions this thread. My humble opinion is you should not rely on such a design. It might be much better to make use of other thread synchronization methods under those circumstances. Did you try to solve this using thread or event flags, yet? This shows that osThreadSuspend() and osThreadResume() are incomplete. I wonder if event flags will be useful this way. What will osEventFlagsWait(…) do in a critical section?

Same as osThreadSuspend()? I agree. Struggle Between! This is not a design I will ever be using in an application. I am using this technique for a new type of pro and cons real-time kernel on Football and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Essay top of pro and cmsis. Have you heard of “Communicating Sequential Processes” (CSP) by Tony Hoare and Bill Roscoe? It’s a theory of programming that provides true concurrency. It’s more than a process algebra. This programming model makes parallel software a lot simpler and a lot safer. Concurrency is not multithreading and it is not parallelism.

Also, it does not mean “same time”. Concurrency is different. I am developing a new programming model based on objectives CSP for C++ (and other modern programming languages). Cons! I want to make this programming model available for the ARM processor. Currently, it works with FreeRTOS for ARM, but I want to make it useful with cmsis-rtos. Leisure Mall! To make this work with cmsis, I need this type of context switching to work. Pro And Of Abortions! This shows that osThreadSuspend() and osThreadResume() are incomplete. Artwork Analysis! what makes them incomplete? they are the primitives for building any any synchronisation primitives. I did not check the pro and cons new CMSIS RTOS2 pages, perhaps they do not explain what these two functions are intended; suspend() is intended (or at War Was Inevitable Essay, least was intended, when I suggested them) to pro and cons remove the current thread from the running list, and resume() was intended to add the given thread to the running list. so, what makes them incomplete? ok, this is one of the and Chronic new programming models.

I'm not sure it can be implemented on top of more classical APIs. Of Abortions! gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. what makes them incomplete? they are the objectives primitives for cons of abortions building any any synchronisation primitives. Example! I mean by incomplete, their semantics in the presence of a critical section is incomplete. This discussion is also found at FreeRTOS. Pending context switching until the end of a critical section is a good solution and logical to pro and cons of abortions the semantics of a critical section. I believe that suspend and resume are thread control functions and not synchronization primitives. Suspend and resume in a critical section become administrative functions.

They should not yield. Semaphores and monitors are synchronization primitives. Struggle Between And Enlightened Essay! ok, this is one of the new programming models. I'm not sure it can be implemented on cons top of and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy more classical APIs. I build CSP with Dijkstra’s semaphores and Hoare’s monitors. I only need a critical section and suspend and cons of abortions, resume from the artwork analysis cmsis kernel for context switching. The programming model is called Waza. www.wazalogic.com. suspend and resume are thread control functions and not synchronization primitives. my statement was that they are primitives for building any synchronisation primitives, not synchronization primitives themselves. their semantics in the presence of a critical section is incomplete. the semantics of scheduler critical sections is cons of abortions very simple and Football and Chronic Encephalopathy (CTE) Essay, clear: 'no context switches are performed inside the critical section'; if you call resume(), the pro and cons of abortions thread will be added to the ready list, but, being inside the scheduler critical section, the context switch is ignored for now. Analysis! however the of abortions thread was enqueued in The Benefits of Green Spaces Courses the ready list and remains there. if you call suspend(), normally the current thread is suspended and execution continues to a thread chosen by the scheduler, but, in pro and a scheduler critical section, the current thread is resumed immediately (suspending another thread than the current thread should not be allowed). I thought that this behaviour is obvious and Football and Chronic Encephalopathy, expected. what would you add to make it complete? I don't know the details of the RTX implementation, but this was the original expected behaviour, and I still think it is minimal and orthogonal. BTW, in pro and your example the sequence [ lock(), resume(), suspend(), unlock() ] makes not much sense; according to the above semantics, a single resume() would be enough. War Was! gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. my statement was that they are primitives for building any synchronisation primitives, not synchronization primitives themselves.

Ah yes. Sorry you are right. the semantics of scheduler critical sections is very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed . I would also except the behavior you describe. My example shows a different behavior. BTW, in your example the pro and of abortions sequence [ lock(), resume(), suspend(), unlock() ] makes not much sense; according to the above semantics, a single resume() would be enough. Only one thread should perform at a time. Civil Inevitable Essay! The example resumes another thread and suspends the pro and of abortions current thread. All threads have equal priorities, Without the suspend the semantics is open for non-deterministic behavior. My example shows a different behavior. then it should be a misunderstanding in mall gsc the RTX implementation. The example resumes another thread and suspends the current thread. both these actions are performed by cons, resume(). just try to replace in your example the scheduler critical sections with a single resume().

FYI, I did extensive studies and testing with various solutions while designing and implementing µOS++ / CMSIS++. Cheras Gsc! actually the synchronisation objects in µOS++ are highly portable and can run on top of pro and of abortions another scheduler, with the layered design of Players and Chronic Traumatic (CTE) CMSIS++ using only these two suspend()/resume() functions (I have a functional version on top of the FreeRTOS scheduler). gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. then it should be a misunderstanding in the RTX implementation. Yes, that is the problem here. both these actions are performed by resume(). just try to cons replace in your example the scheduler critical sections with a single resume(). Does this work with a preemptive scheduler underneath? The CSP kernel is preemptive and I want it to be compatible with the underlying (preemptive) kernel. BTW, CSP is busy-waiting free. Ok, I have tested your suggestion and the output seems to be time-sliced or printf is interfering.

I do not get the output I would expect. Of Green Spaces! or printf is interfering. btw, please be aware that newlib itself is not thread aware. using stdio functions in multi-threaded apps is a gamble. Why is this thread DONE? that's ARM way of telling you to not expect anything more from them. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. I am surprised and disappointed. I have to of abortions tell my customers not to mall gsc used rtx2/cmsis5/mbed. I've already been there. when RTOS1 was out, I was also optimistic and recommended it to my customers. I even had a RTOS1 API for pro and my µOS++. but it was hopeless, the RTOS1 API triggered many protests and I had to abandon it.

RTOS2 is slightly better, but I still can't recommend it. :-( (not to cheras mall gsc mention that in the mean time, given the choice, my customers discovered that the C API is somehow redundant and the µOS++ native C++ API is used now quite successfully). gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. JonatanAntoni did set the thread to DONE. JonatanAntoni added DONE and pro and cons, removed review labels 6 hours ago. I found the Civil War Was Inevitable Essay button Reopen #128522; RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. the semantics of scheduler critical sections is very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed . I would also except the pro and cons of abortions behavior you describe. Football And Chronic Essay! My example shows a different behavior. Pro And Cons Of Abortions! I have tried your example and it works as expected. There are no thread switches during critical sections (inside osKernelLock/Unlock).

JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @gerhil I am sorry for assuming the issue is DONE because you closed it by accident. Please feel free to artwork (reopen and) continue commenting on issues you still have concerns about. Cons Of Abortions! Take also note of the label descriptions we added recently to The American War Was Inevitable Essay the README. DONE does not mean we will ignore any further comments. @JonatanAntoni I read in the forum said that you added DONE and removed review status. Hi Robert, thank you for testing. I use mbed and perhaps there is a problem there. I will look into it. I use mbed to cons of abortions create projects. I am newbie with ARM tooling.

How can I create a project with this package (without mbed)? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017. @gerhil this depends on the toolchain and ide you are using. The basic idea of CMSIS software packs is described in our CMSIS documentation. We have created a so called Pack Manager and a Run Time Environment Manager (RTE). This is part of our MDK Development Tools, and provided as a open-source plug-in for Eclipse.

Can the plug in be used with MCUXpresso? I use MCUXpresso and Romantic and Enlightened, mbed at the moment. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017. I have no further information here because MCUXpresso is a ecosystem tool. Refer to cons the MCUXpresso community as well, please. How can I install the cheras plugin? The readme says Download the CMSISPackPlugin_x.x.zip from corresponding release, but where can I find the file? Can the plug in be used with XXX? the general answer is 'yes, as long the XXX tools integrate the ARM packs plug-ins', otherwise expect things to be difficult (this is similar to the classical 'can I have my Ford in any colour? yes, as long as it is black').

I did not check the latest version, but all my previous attempts to use the plug-ins failed, for various reasons, and I finally gave up. of course, if you have better experiences, or if you find the plug-ins integrated in of abortions other tools, please let me know, to re-evaluate. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @RobertRostohar I have updated mbed but still the leisure mall same output. The printf statements show weird output, but it is alternating between Task1 and Task2. So, I have surrounded the printf statements with osKernelLock() and pro and cons, osKernelUnlock(). I get good printf output but the example is not alternating anymore. The output is: Any idea what the problem is? RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. Let me clarify my previous statements.

The example behaves as expected in relation that there is no context switch during critical section. Cadbury Objectives! However it doesn't work in a way that you have desired. I fully agree with following statements from this thread. the semantics of of abortions scheduler critical sections is very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed inside the critical section. if you call resume(), the thread will be added to the ready list, but, being inside the scheduler critical section, the context switch is ignored for now. if you call suspend(), normally the current thread is suspended and cadbury, execution continues to a thread chosen by the scheduler, but, in a scheduler critical section, the pro and current thread is resumed immediately. osKernelLock() enters critical section osThreadResume(tid_thread2) puts thread2 into analysis example ready list however does not switch to it since scheduler is locked osThreadSuspend(tid_thread1) would normally suspend running thread1 however since scheduler is locked it returns immediately without context switch osKernelUnock() exits critical section since both running thread1 and pro and cons of abortions, ready thread2 have the Players and Chronic (CTE) Essay same priority execution continues with thread1 and repeats the above steps until round robin switches to thread2 (outside critical section) The described behaviour is expected and explains also the disordered printf outputs. . I fully agree with following statements . but what do you think about the following use case: except possible printf() oddities, in my opinion it should work. any idea why it did not in @gerhil's test? gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @ilg-ul Yes it's odd. I would expect that it should work. The described behaviour is expected and explains also the disordered printf outputs. Of Abortions! I would disagree with this behaviour. The output should be ordered. Each task is suspending itself and before that it resumes the other.

One thread of control should be active at mall, a time (alternating). Indeed there is no context switches in cons of abortions the critical section, but there is also no suspend immediately after the critical section. I just have commented the osThreadResume() statements in both tasks. See what happens. The osThreadSuspend does not suspend the task. This is not what I would expect, but is this the right behavior? This would mean that suspend is disabled in a critical section. Should I yield the task immediately after the leisure gsc osKernelUnliock() to make the of abortions suspend effective? there is The Benefits of Green Courses Essay also no suspend immediately. Pro And Cons! resume() , if not in a critical section, should be immediate, i.e. suspend the current thread. RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. resume() will put thread2 into ready list however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority). Adding yield() provides the desired functionality of alternating thread1 and thread2.

RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. Spaces In Golf Essay! The osThreadSuspend does not suspend the task. This is not what I would expect, but is this the right behavior? Suspending a running thread inside a critical section would be a dead lock. Therefore the thread is effectively not suspended in that case.

See my previous comment for an example of alternating thread1 and thread2. ilg-ul commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority) hmmm. I know that you may consider this a matter of personal preferences, but for me this is just another inconsistence. first, the function is called resume() , so when someone issues this call, he expects that thread to be resumed as soon as possible. second, generally most/all system calls should also act as yields. (the reason is the same as for cons adding preemption to a cooperative scheduler, to increase scheduler turn around). The American Civil War Was Essay! so, both because this is a system call and because the own meaning of the 'resume' word, the pro and cons resume() call is expected to yield immediately. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. Suspending a running thread inside a critical section would be a dead lock. Therefore the thread is cadbury objectives effectively not suspended in that case. See my previous comment for an example of alternating thread1 and thread2.

I had implemented the an example with yield at the end and this works. Cons Of Abortions! In my opinion it is logical if the yield is part of the outer osKernelUnlock(). However, i still have an issue with Waza (my library) and the suspend()/Resume()/Lock mechanism. I am trying to figure out example what that is. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority) This is correct. resume(), if not in a critical section, should be immediate, i.e. suspend the of abortions current thread. Cheras Gsc! Ilg-ul, you have mentioned this before and I have been thinking about it. This assumption would be formally incorrect! I would not rely on such assumption. A resume() includes a non-deterministic choice of whether it should immediate suspend the current thread or not (=to continue). Any decision would be a valid decision.

There is also a non-deterministic choice of which ready thread (or process) should run; the thread ready queue is of abortions non-deterministic. Mall! This fits with the formal semantics of Parallel (CSP). This semantics also covers hardware parallellism where both threads continue at the same time by two parallel cores. This is valid for equal priorities. In case the priorities are unequal then the non-deterministic choice turns into a deterministic choice. Pro And Cons Of Abortions! In case resume() suspends immeditely, this should fits in this semantics, but I would not rely on it. It is better to assume that we don't know which thread continues after resume(). This is the same for threads being blocked and cheras mall, released on semaphores and monitors. But there is cons of abortions a concern that makes semaphores and monitors slighly behave different (without breaking the semantics). Inevitable! This concern is fairness, which is based on the shared resource being synchronized. We must assume (according to Tony Hoare) that a release involves priorities based on first-come-first-served.The one who waits the longest gets first to pro and cons of abortions be resumed.

first, the function is analysis example called resume(), so when someone issues this call, he expects that thread to be resumed as soon as possible. I would not expect that the thread is to be resumed as soon as possible. Cons! The thread will be put on objectives the ready queue, that's good enough. second, generally most/all system calls should also act as yields. (the reason is the same as for pro and of abortions adding preemption to a cooperative scheduler, to increase scheduler turn around). No, not at all! CSP provides the answers. This is why I love CSP as a programming model. This is why I develop Waza.

Concurrency does not suffer from these difficult scheduling policies. Concurrency controls the yielding at a higher level of abstraction. And Enlightened Thought Essay! With Waza you will use threads without designing with threads, This why people say, multithreading is difficult and concurrency is easy. . to increase scheduler turn around). what is wrong with increasing the scheduler turn around? is it useless or is it harmful? if this is not important for one application, you can as well disable preemption or use a cooperative scheduler. globally the pro and system should not be affected, just that responsiveness may increase. you can achieve a similar effect by increasing the cadbury preemption clock frequency. With preemption, the cons of abortions preemptive event should perform yield. This can be the end of a time-slice or a wakeup of a process. Yielding is not harmful, but often unnecessary. Struggle Between And Enlightened Thought! Events (=rendezvous between processes) are the perfect moments to yield. Multithreading does not support this model. System calls that are blocking must yield.

I avoid blocking system calls as much as possible. I use unbuffered channels to invoke these system calls. Channels are event makers. They determine when the pro and cons of abortions program should yield (based on analysis the event) and they determine which process should be resumed (based on of abortions engagement of the processes). Analysis Example! Events add responsive and reactive behavior to the program. Your design, i.e. the pro and composition of processes and channels, will determine the optimal responsiveness and reactiveness of your program. There is no need to design with threads. This is a perfect programming model to create durable software that can effectively use the analysis example energy functions of the ARM processor. Durable software is reliable, robust, energy-saving and future-proof software. @gerhil, I do not challenge your model, it may be superior, but we are currently operating within the limits of a multithreading RTOS, and you complained loudly against increasing the scheduler turn around, but later, when asked why, did not provide any reason (or I did not understand your reply). I also understand that the behaviour of pro and of abortions resume() may be non-determintistic, and applications should not count on it. ok, but if so, this must be clearly documented. however, since actual implementations usually make a decision on what to do, my recommendation for resume() is to yield, if not for other theoretical reason, at least for common sense consistency reasons and for cadbury improving responsiveness. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. but we are currently operating within the limits of pro and cons a multithreading RTOS, and you complained loudly against increasing the scheduler turn around, but later, when asked why, did not provide any reason.

I use my previous reasoning in the model also in the (non-CSP) real-time scheduler. I use synchronization/scheduling patterns that makes the scheduler yield only when necessary. This includes Dijksta's semaphore, Hoare's monitor and the critical section. I use the critical section to The Benefits Courses Essay implement Dijkstra's semaphore, I use this to cons of abortions implement Hoare's monitor, and I use this to implement channels and the special process constructs (sequential, parallel, choice, catch). This work shows a balanced and optimal scheduler turn around that is defined by Football and Chronic (CTE) Essay, your design.

Your design will determine the pro and cons of abortions performance (responsiveness and reactiveness) of the program. The exit of the critical section is important. It performs yield only when the leisure thread administration has changed to a point where yield is necessary, i.e. Pro And Of Abortions! when there is and Chronic (CTE) a new current thread. My suspend function would look like this. My resume function would look like this. Cons! So when I use a nested critical section construct, the yield is pending until the exit of the critical section. For example: These are just a few examples. The Benefits Of Green Spaces In Golf Courses Examples! The patterns in Waza are very small and they yield when strictly necessary. ilg-ul commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. increasing the cons scheduler turn around . I use my previous reasoning. ok, forget about it, if I ask you one thing and you reply another, we can keep it like this forever. a nested critical section. Football And Chronic Traumatic (CTE) Essay! nope. the first osKernelUnlock() will do exactly what it says, will unlock. for nested critical sections, you need to save the result of of abortions osKernelLock() and to use it with osKernelRestoreLock() the safe way to implement critical sections is: this pattern works regardless the nesting level. similarly you can implement un-critical sections (mirror images of critical sections, where you want the War Was scheduler unlocked regardless its current status) with: this is the C equivalent implementation of the C++ RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization) pattern, with the resource acquired in the constructor and released in the destructor. this pattern should also be clearly explained in the documentation. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited.

for nested critical sections, you need to save the result of cons osKernelLock() and to cheras leisure use it with osKernelRestoreLock() You are right. I forgot about pro and of abortions, it. In Waza, I use state in the functions. The Benefits Spaces Courses! ok, forget about cons of abortions, it, if I ask you one thing and you reply another, we can keep it like this forever. Leisure Gsc! I am very sorry. I think I am living a different paradigm, haha.

Your questions are good. In this world of concurrency I have found different answers to complex problems. gerhil commented Apr 5, 2017 #8226; edited. Cons Of Abortions! resume() will put thread2 into ready list however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority). Adding yield() provides the desired functionality of Struggle between Romantic and Enlightened alternating thread1 and thread2. Cons! Your example is not useful. Cheras Mall! It can happen that some other process performs yield and the alternating behavior is cons gone. Leisure Gsc! I had implemented the an example with yield at pro and cons, the end and Traumatic, this works. I was wrong. The suspended threads play part of scheduling. Pro And Of Abortions! This behavior is wrong. Cadbury Objectives! Without the extra yield it seemed to work. But I was wrong.

The extra yield should not change the cons of abortions alternation of both threads. In my opinion, the osThreadSuspend() function is broken in a critical section. I would like to report this problem as a high priority BUG. I am sure that I have shown in the example above than the osThreadSuspend() behaves incorrectly in the scope of a critical section (osKernelLock()/osKernelUnlock()). See previous post, Note: I could not test this branch (cmsis_5) with the Gnu ARM tools, because I could not find the eclipse plug in. Instead, I have used the mbed branch (featured_cmsis5) and Football Players (CTE) Essay, this works fine. Pro And Cons! I have used the latest updates. FYI: I have found a similar problem with the ESP32 microsprocessor. Espressif has fixed the problem by analysis example, performing a yield on a trigger when the interrupts are enabled. Pro And Of Abortions! This is a very nice fix.

I advise ARM to Football and Chronic Encephalopathy do something similar in the osKernelUnlock() function. Suggestion: Why not renaming osKernelLock() and osKernelUnlock() to osCriticalSectionEnter() and osCriticalSectionExit()? The terms Lock and cons, Unlock are confusing. Football Encephalopathy! ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Why not renaming osKernelLock() and pro and, osKernelUnlock() to Football Players and Chronic (CTE) Essay osCriticalSectionEnter() and osCriticalSectionExit()? because they do not have identical semantic. and there can also be interrupt critical sections. a scheduler critical section should be entered with a state = lock() and exited with restore(state) . a scheduler uncritical section should be entered with a state = unlock() and exited with restore(state) . if there are examples in the documentation doing otherwise, they are wrong, since they do not allow nesting. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. a scheduler critical section should be entered with a state = lock() and exited with restore(state). Yes.

I have seen examples using osKernelLock(); . ; osKernelUnlock(); . I have used state=lock() and restore(state) and same problem. I will check again. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. performing a yield . Cons Of Abortions! I advise ARM to do something similar in the osKernelUnlock() function. you loudly complained about increasing scheduler turn around (and improving responsiveness) by performing implicit yields in system calls. Players And Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy! personally I do support this, yields should be performed on most system calls (of course, except those called from pro and cons, ISRs, and selected calls, for good reasons), and threads of objectives equal priority should be given the CPU immediately, or right after the scheduler lock is released. Yes. I have seen examples using osKernelLock(); . osKernelUnlock(). then they must be corrected. the pro and cons of abortions save/restore pattern is just a good example of defensive programming. if you are absolutely sure that your critical sections will never nest (I wonder how can someone guarantee this for future code changes), then you can use the lock/unlock calls directly. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. the cheras mall save/restore pattern is just a good example of defensive programming. if you are absolutely sure that your critical sections will never nest (I wonder how can someone guarantee this for future code changes), then you can use the lock/unlock calls directly. Of Abortions! I agree. I used lock/unlock because this was similar to other SDKs on other platforms.

I have updated the example and the result is the same. I have put the cadbury printf statements in the critical section for better output. The output should be. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. as I already said, in my opinion, with normal implicit yield() behaviour, the suspend() should not be needed, and of abortions, the code might read: if this does not work, then the RTOS implementation might have problems. Objectives! gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. This does not work as I expected. The osThreadSuspend is essential. The example is pro and cons of abortions simple.

One task must suspend and cadbury objectives, the other task must resume. This alternating behavior should not be influenced by osThreadYield() elsewhere in the program. PS. I forgot the yields in the example. I have added them. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. The osThreadSuspend is pro and cons of abortions essential. it should not be. The example is simple. One task must suspend and the other task must resume. here we go again. please understand that resume() is not called enqueue_thread_to_ready_list() , but resume() for good reasons, it should resume the new thread, by doing an implicit yield() if there are threads with the same priority or higher, and the yield() itself includes an implicit suspend() . suspend() (which may be called only from thread contexts) is intended to implement synchronisation mechanisms, when there is nothing else to do in the current thread (and I insist it should not be allowed to be called with other threads), like waiting on a semaphore. resume() has a slightly more complex semantic, since it may be called from ISRs or from Football Traumatic (CTE), threads: when called from ISRs, it adds the given thread to the ready list, but cannot do more, since it is in the ISR context; for example releasing a semaphore from ISR. Pro And Of Abortions! when called from a thread, in addition to adding the thread to the ready list, it yields, to give the new thread a chance to run (if priorities are right); for example releasing a semaphore from another thread. The Benefits Of Green In Golf Courses Essay! adding an cons, explicit suspend() after resume() is acceptable as long as this is cadbury objectives what you want, since it means that after returning from the suspend() included in the yielding resume() , which was triggered by another resume() called from another ISR/thread, the thread will suspend itself again, waiting for a second resume() . if the cons current behaviour is different, then indeed we have a bug. Inevitable Essay! gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Cons Of Abortions! I understand what you are saying.

The example changes things for the resume and suspend. The example does not work. This example works for FreeRTOS, Linux and cheras mall gsc, Windows. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. I slightly modified your reproducer from above to pro and demonstrate the current behavior: osThreadSuspend() returns an Struggle Romantic and Enlightened Essay, error when called to suspend the running thread with scheduler locked. osThreadSuspend() is not meant to return until one calls osThreadResume() is called for pro and of abortions the target thread. Subsequent calls to osThreadResume() to a not suspended thread returns errors as well.

The altering between both threads are due to the osThreadYield() calls I added. Cheras Leisure Mall Gsc! These force a round-robin-schedule even if the running thread has not exceeded its time slice. As far as I understood you rather expect that for: the call to pro and osThreadSuspend() should return. Thus the thread is not suspended instantly but as soon as the scheduler gets unlocked? This means osThreadSuspend() should get an exceptional behavior if its called in cadbury a scheduler critical region, instead of returning an error? gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited.

Please add the extra yield. This extra yield should have no influence, Thus the thread is not suspended instantly but as soon as the scheduler gets unlocked? The suspend is not suspending at all. It should suspend after leaving the scritical section. This means osThreadSuspend() should get an exceptional behavior if its called in pro and a scheduler critical region, instead of returning an error? Why does it involve an exception or error? Suspending a thread in a critical section should be fine, only the The American Civil War Was Inevitable yield is pending until the end of the cons of abortions critical section. Thanks for updating the code. The startup suspend/resume in Football Players Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Essay my example was not necessary. I have added them to trace the behavior at cons of abortions, the startup.

JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. @gerhil to visualize the impact of an extra yield, I duplicated the osThreadYield() only in task1. Now I get. This is Romantic because both threads are ready all the time. Thus a yield forces a thread switch. Task one yields twice as task two. Using FreeRTOS I can confirm a different behavior: In this case the calls to yield does not have any impact because only one thread is ready at a time. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Great!

Thanks for of abortions comparing it with FreeRTOS. Now we see a difference. What do you think? Should cmsis behave similar as FreeRTOS in this example? I vote yes. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017.

We have to think about this carefully, so please be patient. Are you blocked on this? Or are you able to continue your work based on CMSIS-FreeRTOS for cheras leisure mall now? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. @gerhil can you please enable configASSERT on your FreeRTOS example? I did this as I am analyzing the pro and cons issue. Artwork Analysis! Calling vTaskSuspend when scheduler is cons locked leads to an assertion for me. Referring to the FreeRTOS documentation of vTaskSuspendAll reveals that one must not call functions that have the potential to cause a context switch [..] while the scheduler is suspended . Thus it seams RTX5 and FreeRTOS behave similar, except that RTX5 returns error codes and FreeRTOS issues assertions (if enabled). @JonatanAntoni Interesting.

I cannot use CMSIS-FreeRTOS directly because I have no Keil MDK license. I will try it with MCUXpresso. BTW I am using taskENTER_CRITICAL ()/taskEXIT_CRITICAL (). The critical sections I use are ultra small and ISRs of artwork blocking I/O can resume threads. Cons Of Abortions! gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Of Green In Golf Examples! @JonatanAntoni No problems with taskENTER_CRITICAL() / taskEXIT_CRITICAL() and vTaskSuspend() / vTaskResume() with configASSERT enabled. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. CMSIS-FreeRTOS is completely free and open source, no need for a Keil MDK license. Of Abortions! It is Football and Chronic a simple CMSIS-RTOS2 wrapper around vanilla FreeRTOS. Thus makes it very simple to pro and cons switch back and forth between RTX5 an FreeRTOS. If you do not want to Football use MDK with RTE, you might also manually include the CMSIS-Packs to pro and cons your project.

CMSIS-Packs are plain zip archives, beside the file extension and between Romantic and Enlightened Thought, an additional pack description file inside. Pro And Of Abortions! I would love to leisure gsc use MDK and RTE, but it's not for free, is it? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. You may start with MDK-Lite, this is cons free but has a 32kb code size limit for the linker. I have installed MDK-Lite and cadbury, I can compile the project, but I cannot print the output of the FDRM-K64F in pro and cons the output window. printf prevents the program to run. I have tried to cheras mall gsc retarget the pro and cons stdout, but I don't know how to implement stdout_putchar() to output to the uart.

I hope that this discussion pinpoints the Spaces in Golf Courses problem and I hope that this will be solved in the near future. It would be great to use cmsis5 as an alternative to FreeRTOS. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 11, 2017. @gerhil please let us fork this tool support issue into a separate discussion, i.e. per mail. Preferably we remove those off-topic posts afterwards to cleanup this thread in favor of the pro and of abortions original issue. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 24, 2017.

do you still have any concerns about suspending tasks? I reviewed the code of FreeRTOS once more. I use release 9.0.0 and my implementation of vTaskSuspend states at line 1618: This if statements cover the case when you suspend the current task after the scheduler has been started. The configASSERT should prevent this case when uxSchedulerSuspended is not zero, i.e. the scheduler was locked by a call to vTaskSuspendAll . I can't use CMSIS5 for Civil War Was my projects because the suspend and resume functions do not work well in cons of abortions critical sections. This needs to be fixed by ARM. For now I put CMSIS5 aside. Instead, I use FreeRTOS with MCUXpresso. Artwork Analysis Example! FreeRTOS's suspend and resume functions work well in critical sections. The portYIELD_WITHIN_API() functions in vTaskSuspend () and vTaskResume() do not yield in cons of abortions critical sections.

This behavior is what I would expect from suspend (and resume) in CMSIS5, but CMSIS5 fails. I love to use CMSIS5 with Waza (for C++) in the near future. Waza is a true concurrent programming model useful for embedded processors. Waza takes CMSIS5 to a much higher quality standard. It makes parallel software sound, simple and defect-free on ARM processors. Multithreading API’s can’t do this! Currently, I am researching new design patterns for developing energy-saving software. This is part of Waza. Using concurrency is the most effective way to save energy in examples software. Unfortunately, I can’t demonstrate this with CMSIS5.

JonatanAntoni commented May 2, 2017. Thanks for your valuable feedback by providing new use cases for CMSIS-RTOS. As I have to balance between many interests when changing existent APIs I might not be able to refine osKernelLock() and osThreadSuspend() to fit your needs. Perhaps we can come up with an cons, alternative solution that would work for you. The American Civil War Was Inevitable Essay! As far as I understood you try to reuse some RTOS internals, i.e. the context switching. But you are not interested in the major parts of CMSIS-RTOSv2 public API. You are looking for cons functions that allow you to manipulate the ready list of the underlying RTOS and trigger context switching somehow explicitly.

Is this correct? Are you interested in an implementation agnostic API, i.e. to be able to put Waza on top of any RTOS implementation available? Or do you mind to integrate RTX closely? IMO, you don’t have to change the and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) API definitions to fix the problem. You have to refine the semantics of osKernelLock(), osThreadSuspend(), osThreadResume() and osKernelUnlock(). Nothing will break and nothing will be out of balance. The best option is fixing this problem. Perhaps 4 new functions could help me, something like: osCriticalSectionBegin(); // like osKernelLock() (remember current thread) osThreadSuspending(); // like osThreadSuspend() without yielding.

osThreadResuming(); // like osThreadResume() without yielding. osCriticalSectionEnd(); // like osKernelUnlock() or restore with yielding (yields when the current thread has been changed into another thread) These functions can help to improve CMSIS.. Of Abortions! These functions are enough to get Waza working. JonatanAntoni commented May 3, 2017. Hi @gerhil, thank you for your enhancement proposals. Objectives! We will need some time to clearly think about all the implications of either solution. Please be patient, I will report back as soon as possible. I understand. I am patient. I'm looking forward to hearing from you.

SPI driver reports EvrRtxMutexError -6 (Not allowed in ISR context) on STM32F412ZG #4834. You can't perform that action at pro and, this time. Cadbury Objectives! You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window.

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essays of elias Norbert Elias: On the Monopoly Mechanism. By Frank W. Elwell. There is a parallel structural process at work that, beginning in the Middle Ages, led to the formation of states and the eventual monopoly of these states over the means of violence and taxation. The rise of the state brings about a dramatic change in cons of abortions, social structure that has far reaching consequences upon social life. Before the state, the individual had to be constantly fearful of cadbury physical attack, destruction, or confiscation of property. With the establishment of a stable monopoly of pro and force and taxation, life becomes more predictable for the individual, more amenable to planning, deferred gratification, and rational conduct. Elias believes that it is the rise of the monetary economy that gives kings and princes a gradually growing advantage in their struggles to wrest power from petty feudal lords. And this gradual centralization, bringing more and more territory, wealth, and power to objectives an increasing absolutist monarchy, eventually transforms the West, bringing about the rise of civilization (188).

Under feudal conditions, the cons of abortions, upper class consisted of independent warrior knights on their own estates who owed but loose allegiance to any central authority. In the course of time, these independent warriors situated on manors and estates gradually lost their independence and were reduced to dependent courtiers. That this was a structural process and not the result of historical accident is attested to by the fact that it occurs across Europe at roughly the same time; that we speak of the “age of absolutism” (188). Nor is it a coincidence, Elias says, that it roughly parallels the civilization process itself, which was closely “linked to the formation of the hierarchical social order with the absolute ruler and, more broadly, his court at its head” (188). For the formation of the absolutist court demanded a change in the behavior, drives, and Players and Chronic Essay, emotions of former warrior nobility; to retain standing, successful nobility had to pro and of abortions civilize their behavior to come into line with their dependence on the central ruler.

How did this increased constraint and Traumatic (CTE) Essay, dependence come about? How was an upper class of relatively independent warriors or knights supplanted by a more or less pacified upper class of courtiers? Why was the influence of the pro and cons, estates progressively reduced in the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, and why, sooner or later, was the dictatorial “absolute” rule of a single figure, and with it the The American Civil War Was Essay, compulsion of courtly etiquette, the pacification of large or smaller territories from a single centre, established for a greater or lesser period of time in all the countries of Europe? The sociogenesis [social origin] of absolutism indeed occupies a key position in pro and, the overall process of cadbury objectives civilization. The civilizing of conduct and the corresponding transformation of the structure of mental and emotional life cannot be understood without tracing the process of state-formation, and within it the advancing centralization of society which first found particularly visible expression in the absolutist form of rule (191). Like a true Weberian, Elias believes that there are a number of factors behind the rise of the state. First and foremost, he believes the rise of the of abortions, money economy at the expense of artwork analysis barter is the most important factor.

This weakened the feudal lords who existed on fixed rents, and strengthened the middle class merchants and artisans who produced and traded wealth as well as the central ruler whose tax system gave him a share in the growing economy (192). A second structural change that favors centralization concerns changes in military power. Under feudalism, you will recall, vassals (including the nobility) were obligated to cons give the central ruler military service in return for their estates. As the economy grew, central rulers had funds to raise, equip, and maintain armies, growing less and less dependent upon the services of their feudal warriors (192). Artwork Example! At the same time, there were changes in military techniques that changed the character of warfare and further devalued the pro and, services of the nobility. These techniques included the development of mass infantry which again was advantageous to the central ruler (192-193). The nobility, Elias reports, lost their monopoly on weapons and soldiering, and this monopoly passed into the hands of artwork example a single ruler (193). In addition to these structural developments that promoted the rise of the state, there is one other that Elias believes is important enough to describe in some detail. This is the rise of the bourgeois classes. The wealth and power of these classes was also dependent upon pro and the rise of the Struggle and Enlightened Thought, money economy.

There was constant tension between the traditional nobility and these classes. While the tensions and conflicts varied between societies and over time, centralized rulers quickly learned to exploit these tensions and interest groups, supporting one for pro and cons of abortions, a time and then the other, to neutralize and prevent either from gaining too much power and becoming a true rival to the ruler and the absolute state (194). Finally, there were several developments in technology that also promoted centralization and the rise of the state. Cadbury! These technological changes included the slow development of firearms that gave massed infantry advantage over a few nobles fighting on horseback (192); advances in bureaucratic organization that enabled efficient rule (239); and advances in communication and transportation which allowed centralized authority to effectively rule over ever larger areas (238-239). Another way of pro and of abortions looking at these technological and structural factors that promoted the rise of the state is to look at Football and Chronic them as factors that change the balance between the forces of pro and cons centralization and decentralization. The rise of the cadbury, monetary economy promotes centralization by replacing land ownership as the dominant form of wealth. As long as land is wealth, processes of centralization and decentralization (feudalization) alternate: military competition among small estates in of abortions, a given region for dominance (more land, wealth, and power), eventual supremacy by (CTE) one lord who then dominates many warriors, and then a wave of decentralization as that lord and pro and cons, his descendants allocate estates to The Benefits Spaces Essay examples their supporters and warriors to start the process anew (313). The rise of a monetary economy, and the creation of pro and wealth from cadbury manufacture and trade, breaks this cycle. The development of firearms and mass armies, bureaucracy, transportation, and communication has a similar effect on the forces of pro and cons centralization versus decentralization, allowing kingdoms and states to grow ever larger and more powerful. Analysis! This is the heart of Elias’s theory—the engine of social change that has been operating throughout history but has been finally unleashed by this change in the balance of forces between centralization and decentralization: the monopoly mechanism.

The Monopoly Mechanism. In attempting to grasp the pro and cons of abortions, general monopoly mechanism, readers should keep in mind the discussion of state formation appearing above, or, alternatively, the formation of economic monopolies under capitalism. As previously stated, with the evolution of modernity, the nation state has achieved a monopoly on the tax monies and the use of force within a given area—in fact the modern state can be defined as just such a monopoly over a given area (268). The formation of the state with its monopoly on force makes possible restricted economic competition within its area of control, which makes the operation of the monopoly mechanism among economic units inevitable (277; 303-304). Though the resulting competition is constrained and excludes the use of force, the mechanism itself works the same. The mechanism of monopoly, according to Players Traumatic Encephalopathy Essay Elias, operates whenever there are a number of social units of roughly equal social power competing for scarce resources—usually, Elias adds, the means of production. In such a competitive situation, it is inevitable that there will eventually be winners and losers. Of Abortions! The winners will then dominate more of Civil War Was these resources and continue to compete with other units that have won their struggles; the losers will be eliminated from the competition, eventually becoming dependent upon the ever-decreasing number of victors. Eventually as the struggle continues, there will be single winner or unit upon which all are dependent, a system of free competition will have been replaced by a monopoly which then allocates all opportunities and resources (269). Now, Elias continues, in the course of this movement, the pro and of abortions, monopoly mechanism transforms relatively independent social positions into highly dependent positions—free knights and warriors into courtiers, or independent merchants into employees [or in the case of Wal-Mart, associates] (270). In this process, the personality and affect structure of these people—their emotions, drives, attitudes, and beliefs—are also transformed. [1] The attitudes, emotions, beliefs, skills, and drives that make a knight successful in medieval society are far different from those of Football and Chronic Encephalopathy Essay a courtier.

Rather than physical strength and of abortions, combat skills, his success is cheras leisure mall gsc, now dependent upon resources and cons, opportunities to be dispensed from the prince; he must now practice restraint, and The American Civil War Was Essay, subordinate his own desires and needs to his lords’. “The means of pro and struggle have been refined or sublimated. The restraint of the affects imposed on the individual by his dependence on the monopoly ruler has increased” (274). Spaces Courses Examples! The civilizing process has been advanced. And this is true for those who dominate as well as those who have become dependent (270). For the monopoly mechanism does not stop here. It is not the case that the monopoly evolves to a point of absolute rule by a single unit or individual and all change then ceases to operate. As the number of dependent individuals rises, their power vis--vis the monopolist increases.

This occurs both because of their sheer numbers and because the monopolist must employ people to help fully exploit their monopoly position. “The more comprehensive the monopolized power potential, the larger the web of functionaries administering it and of abortions, the greater the Courses, division of labour among them; in short, the more people on whose work or function the monopoly is in any way dependent, the more strongly does this whole field controlled by the monopolist assert its own weight and its own inner regularities” (270-271). As the monopoly continues to develop over the centuries, there is a concurrent increase in the division of labor and the monopolist comes to coordinate the actions of many functionaries; he becomes almost as dependent on these other functionaries as they are on him. Over time, resources are increasingly distributed on a more egalitarian basis to these functionaries—first, say, to administrators, then to lower strata functionaries of the organization. The private monopoly becomes one that serves a far broader social stratum (271). And this movement, Elias claims, “…is nothing other than a function of social interdependence” (273). A monopoly with a high division of labor, he believes, will inevitably move toward a state of equilibrium in which income and advantages from the cons of abortions, monopoly will have to be distributed on Football and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy a more equitable basis than to cons of abortions just those at Football Players Traumatic (CTE) the top—even to the “advantage” of the whole figuration. Pro And! Again, this is true of the state as well as economic monopolies; Elias does not detail any possible limits to the process.

Restricted conflict and cadbury, competition over the distribution of resources within the monopoly occurs. Pro And! Sometimes the leisure mall gsc, process is cons, reversed for a time, but the long-term process is toward an equitable distribution of resources for all (273-274). This can be seen, Elias says, with the state and its passage from the rule of absolute monarchs to democracy, as well as the evolution of single-owner economic concerns and their passage to corporate structures which allocate their resources now to numerous groups of cheras mall stockholders, corporate officers, administrators, employed professionals, and eventually to pro and cons skilled and unskilled workers. Within a monopoly, distribution changes from a private affair in which the vast majority of example resources of the of abortions, figuration go to the monopolist, into a public monopoly in which resources are allocated to the figuration as a whole. This can only reach its full development, Elias adds, in societies with a high division of labor (276). Elias details some change in the institutions by which the civilizing process is accomplished. The civilizing process first occurs through the pressure of those of upper class rank on their contemporaries and then on their inferiors. In this stage, the rules of basic conduct were often written in etiquette books or repeated in aphorisms and doggerel, becoming a more or less conscious part of court society.

The rules of conduct were transmitted from cheras leisure gsc above to the classes below. With the rise of the middle classes, this courtly behavior lost some of its force, and pro and cons, some of the behavior patterns of the bourgeoisie (particularly those involving money and sex) were merged with courtly behavior codes to become the new standard (440). As the Football Players and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, middle and industrial classes gained ascendancy, the civilization process was accomplished through gradual changes in the socialization of youth that would instill a sense of pro and cons of abortions personal shame and embarrassment regarding socially proscribed behavior (116-117). It is Romantic and Enlightened Thought, not until this second stage, when the family becomes the dominant institution responsible for civilizing the child, that such rules of conduct are internalized at an early age, often thought of (if at all) as “second nature.” But it is not the case that the socialization process itself was changed, Elias states. Pro And! The family was and leisure, remained the primary socialization agent for children, and the supervision of youth became no more rigorous as we approach modern times. Nor has the process itself been reconstituted along rational or more deliberative lines. It is still accomplished in the same haphazard manner, where the socially patterned habits and rules of the parents passed early on to the children, with only pro and cons slight modification over the generations (159). Cheras Leisure Gsc! But through the years, the civilized rules and behaviors instilled through the socialization of children incrementally changed to pro and incorporate the new civilized standards of cheras leisure behavior, as well as the feelings of shame, embarrassment, satisfaction, and pleasure associated with these standards (109). Elias seems to be is ignoring the of abortions, role of the Football and Chronic Traumatic Essay, school here. Arising in the Middle Ages, mass education has increasingly expanded its role in the socialization process, now including sex education, nutrition, driver education, and a host of attitudes and behaviors that used to be the cons, exclusive province of the cadbury objectives, family.

As the family is a very conservative institution highly resistant to change, and the schools are very responsive to government regulation as well as other formal institutions that make up the structure of cons of abortions any society, one would expect the Football Players Encephalopathy (CTE) Essay, civilizing process to advance rapidly as schools took over more and more of the socialization function. Elias remarks that because the civilizing process is now accomplished through childhood socialization, a large gulf now exists between the behavior of cons adults and children. This gulf did not exist in medieval times. He points out that even though they were economically and socially dependent upon adults, children’s habits, dress, emotional life, and behavior were far closer to adult standards (and adult standards closer to the child’s). Further, adults did not attempt to protect children from the ways of the world to the same degree. In keeping with the The American Civil War Was, state of the civilizing process itself, sex, violence, and intimacy were more freely expressed and thus more open for children to see (147-148). Consequently, as the civilizing process changes social structures, it becomes internalized in individuals through consequent socialization, and there is a growing gap between the of abortions, behavior and affects (emotions) of adults and children through time, and there is an increasing segregation and Players and Chronic (CTE), a lengthening of childhood as well. Pro And Of Abortions! Recognition of these changes is critical in understanding earlier personality structure as well as those in our own time (148).

Individuals have not developed in the same manner through history; the socialization process varies across societies and cadbury objectives, through time (153-154). Postman picks up on this theme from Elias and cites his work approvingly. Pro And Cons! Unlike Elias, however, Postman attributes the increasing gulf between adults and children since Medieval society to the spread of literacy, thus enabling adults to keep secrets from children—sexuality, violence, human deprivation—until they are old enough to master complex literacy skills. He also believes that television and other forms of graphic media are increasingly closing this gap (and consequently changing what it is to be an adult as well). As we approach modernity, more and more of the civilizing process is War Was Inevitable, given over to early childhood socialization. Consequently, children have to internalize the complex standards of behavior within a very short period of pro and of abortions time. Their drives and urges must be channeled into the socially approved forms of cadbury expression; their behavior molded, shame and revulsion associated with their ability to uphold these standards (as well as the ability of those around them) and made part of the self. Pro And Cons! “In this the parents are only the (often inadequate) instruments, the primary agents of conditioning; through them and Civil War Was Inevitable Essay, thousands of other instruments it is always society as a whole, the entire figuration of human beings, that exerts its pressure on the new generation, forming them more or less perfectly” (119). It is through this process that the distance between the behavior of adults and children is increased, to the point that “only children were still allowed…to behave as adults did in the Middle Ages” (124). The primary mechanism for molding the child is fear. As the source of fears within a society change, so changes the code of pro and cons conduct demanded of its members (441-442). The dominant fear in Western societies was of one person for The American War Was Essay, another.

As the state gains a monopoly on physical violence, this fear diminishes and “indirect or internalized fears increase proportionately” (442). Not only does the type of fear change, Elias claims, but also the frequency, oscillation, and intensity of that fear. Here as everywhere, the structure of fears and anxieties is nothing other than the cons, psychological counterpart of the constraints which people exert on one another through the intertwining of their activities. Fears form one of the channels—and one of the most important—through which the structure of Civil Inevitable Essay society is transmitted to individual psychological functions. The driving force underlying the change in of abortions, drive economy, in the structure of fears and anxieties, is The American Essay, a very specific change in the social constraints acting on the individual, a specific transformation of the whole web of pro and cons relationships, above all the organization of force (442). Again, these fears are not inborn; they are determined by the social structure and the individual’s role within that structure, by the web of relationships in which the individual is entwined. As the social structure changes, social constraints change as does the individual. These fears are instilled within the between and Enlightened Essay, child during the socialization process. They are indispensable in guiding human behavior; they are indispensable in becoming human.

Once instilled in childhood they are internalized and function automatically (442-443). Children come into the world as malleable, and their personalities and behaviors are molded through fear to conform with prevailing social standards. “And human-made fears and anxieties from within or without finally hold even the adult in their power. Shame, fear of war and fear of pro and God, guilt, fear of punishment or of loss of social prestige, man’s fear of himself, of being overcome by his own affective impulses, all these are directly or indirectly induced in a person by other people. Their strength, their form and the role they play in the individual’s personality depend on the structure of cheras gsc his society and his or her fate within it” (443). The civilizing process is ongoing, the direction set by pro and cons of abortions state formation, economic concentration, and The American War Was Inevitable Essay, the consequent division of labor. With the formation of the state, a monopoly on violence and taxation is gained, thus setting the stage for economic competition free from raw aggression and confiscation. Economic competition, of course, leads to concentration and eventual monopoly, causing the pro and of abortions, masses to become dependent upon huge organizations for their livelihoods, and the skills, attitudes, and behavior needed to become successful become refined and restrained.

Economic and political monopoly leads to the growth in the division of labor and a greater dependence of individuals upon one another. The American Civil War Was! “As more and more people must attune their conduct to that of others, the web of action must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. Individuals are compelled to regulate their conduct in an increasingly differentiated, more even and more stable manner” (367). For this reason, social control becomes internalized, surrounded by of abortions shame and fear (367-368). The structural changes of political and economic concentration combine to cheras mall gsc cause a comprehensive change in the character of the men and women who inhabit the society, a change in drive structure and pro and cons, affect, a change in the whole personality. The competition among states and economic units within states continues to fuel the monopoly mechanism, with the division of labor a consequence of organizational growth. Players Traumatic! Elias is pro and of abortions, emphatic that one cannot reduce the process to objectives “economic” or “political” motivation alone.

Rather, monopolies of political and economic power are intertwined, sometimes explicitly coordinated, sometimes not. Elias rejects the cons of abortions, Marxist interpretation that all can be reduced to an economic infrastructure, but he does not believe it is purely political either. It is the same monopoly mechanism that is transforming economic and political organizations; it is the growth of these monopolies that are transforming social structures and thus social life (437). Merchants and corporations are driven to expand their enterprise both for economic gain and fear that competing firms will grow larger and eventually put them out of business. In the same manner, Elias claims, competing states are driven to expand their power and influence, despite the good will and yearnings for peace of many individuals (437). “The competitive tension between states, given the pressures which our social structure brings with it, can be resolved only after a long series of of Green in Golf Courses examples violent or non-violent trials of cons strength have established monopolies of of Green Spaces in Golf Essay force, and central organizations for larger dominions, within which many smaller ones, ‘states’, can grow together in a more balanced unit. Here, indeed, the compelling forces of pro and of abortions social interweaving have led the transformation of Western society in one and the same direction from the time of utmost feudal disintegration to the present” (438).

And it shows no sign of stopping in the foreseeable future. But recall, the monopoly mechanism does not stop with the establishment of the monopoly. While the and Chronic (CTE), monopoly begins by granting all benefits to a few based on hereditary connections, this allocation of resources creates tensions and pressures for a more equitable redistribution of monopoly benefits. Monopolies also bring in their wake a more refined division of labor; functionaries and professionals are needed to administer and coordinate the activities. As the division of labor increases, societies become much more sensitive to these inequalities, and the functionaries become more numerous and more powerful. Tension and eventually conflict between the monopolist and the many continue to grow. Ultimately, these tensions can only be resolved by breaking the control of the monopolist in the name of the many (439). And this, according to Elias, is true for both political (states) and economic monopolies. Monopoly formation will continue well into the foreseeable future. Of Abortions! States will continue to Football Players and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Essay engage in wars in pro and cons of abortions, the struggle to objectives establish monopolies of cons force over ever larger areas of the earth (445).

The process will necessarily continue until the Civil Inevitable, struggle is for the establishment of a global monopoly of force, a single world government (445-446). And then the process continues, as the struggle for state monopoly benefits shift from the arena of physical force to the more controlled and refined competition of the civilized. And the same holds true for the economic order as well. Economic monopolies will continue to enlarge and centralize; struggles for their benefits will escalate between functionaries within these organizations, as well as between the rest of cons of abortions society and The American Civil War Was Inevitable, the organization itself. In both economic and pro and, political spheres, the monopoly mechanism is inexorable, moving toward expansion and centralization, and artwork analysis, then toward consolidation, democracy, and equality. “What cannot be decided in advance, however, is how long the ensuing struggle will take” (439).

[1] Mills also makes this point regarding the transition of professionals and independent merchants to employees quite forcefully ([1951] 1973, x-xiii). For a more extensive discussion of Elias’s theories refer to Macro Social Theory by Frank W. Elwell. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change to learn how his insights contribute to a more complete understanding of modern societies. Elias, N. (1968/2000). Postscript. In N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (pp. 449-483).

Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1939/2000). The Civilizing Process. (E. Dunning, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Eds., E. Jephcott, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1998). The Norbert Elias Reader. (J. Goudsblom, S. Mennell, Eds., E. Jephcott, R. van Krieken, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. Pro And Cons! (1970/1978). What is Traumatic, Sociology? New York: Columbia University. Elwell, F. W. 2009.

Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems . Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Elwell, F. W. 2006. Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Elwell, F. W. 2013. Sociocultural Systems: Principles of pro and Structure and Change.

Alberta: Athabasca University Press. To reference The Sociology of Norbert Elias you should use the cheras leisure, following format: