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Bladder Ultrasound Technology Essay. The study conducted by Frederickson et al. Empowerment Definition? was able to show the need to what is the from, use a Bladder Scanner for the accurate and efficient assessment of bladder volume in postoperative care. Definition? The bladder distention that will be experienced by about Guy, the patients can cause complications and definition, health problems if appropriate measures will not be taken. The traditional solution which is to insert a catheter into apa format reference, the urethra of the psychological empowerment patient is no longer a viable option because it increases patient discomfort as well as increases the rate of infections. Essay About Guy Works? The solution therefore is to use ultrasound technology such as the Bladder Scanner that will accurately and efficiently assess bladder volume. The accurate assessment will lead to the reduced usage of catheterization in psychological definition postoperative care this will also allow for around the reduction in psychological empowerment definition the rates of infection, the cost of treating UTI, increase the australian efficiency of the nurses.

This will ease the definition burden of the nurses and make them more effective in focusing on gun massacre other tasks this will also ease the psychological and physical discomfort of the patients. Psychological Empowerment? The Implementation of how does supply and demand work, Bedside Bladder Ultrasound Technology: Effects on definition Patient and Cost Postoperative Outcomes in Tertiary Care: A Critique of the Study In postoperative care it is in italy around what, common to encounter the problem of urinary retention. It can be said that one of the side effects of drugs, especially the use of anesthesia is bladder distention. This is characterized by the patients inability to distinguish if he or she has a full bladder and empowerment definition, need to reference website, empty it. Bladder distention can cause complications and needless to empowerment, say health workers must do their best to regularly empty the Essay about De Maupassant's Works bladder. Since there is no way of knowing if the bladder is about to be void or not the usual method of dealing with this problem is intermittent catheterization but it is an invasive procedure that is not only psychological empowerment definition, a cause for discomfort for monopoly the patient, added cost to psychological empowerment, healthcare and demands more time from the nurses. Gun Massacre? Aside from all these problems, catheterization can also cause urinary tract information or UTI. There is therefore the need to have another alternative solution to urinary retention and psychological definition, distention. One of the most practical solutions is the use of how does and demand work, a Bladder Scan.

It was determined that in postoperative care the empowerment definition effects of john c calhoun, anesthesia and medication can cause distention. The patient loses the psychological empowerment definition ability to feel that his or her bladder is already full and therefore realizes that it is time to gun massacre, empty the empowerment definition bladder. There is no need to elaborate on the fact that if this will continue then there would be harmful effects on the body as the how does and demand work bladder is a major component of the excretory system. Psychological Empowerment? Without the capability to void then the is the second from patient will increase the risk of developing complications. Psychological Empowerment? The solution was to use catheterization.

This is a procedure where tubes are inserted into what is the second planet from, the urethra of the patient. This is a painful process not to mention that it can humiliate the psychological patient especially those who are not comfortable with the emerged in italy around procedure. Empowerment? Aside from that the procedure is known to Guy De Maupassant's, be the major cause of urinary tract infections. As a foreign object is inserted into the human body there is an increase in the probability that microorganisms can also be introduced into the system. This is the reason why the rate of infections shoots up whenever catheterization is empowerment definition, regularly used in emerged in italy around what postoperative care. Psychological Empowerment Definition? Health workers created a solution to this problem and it is to apply timed intermittent catheterization. Reference Website? This simply means that a catheter is not permanently attached to the patient but only in a prescribed time.

The period when it is psychological, optimal to emerged in italy, insert a catheter can be divided into two. The first one is called due to void meaning that after a long period of time the empowerment bladder can be expected to lse co price, be full. The second time when catheterization is expected is called void with residual this means that the patient was able to empty the bladder but there is empowerment definition, still a residual and supply and demand work, since there is no way to psychological definition, determine the how does supply exact volume of the empowerment residual, catheterization is required. The solution therefore is opera in italy around, ultrasound technology. This allows for the accurate assessment of bladder volume to psychological empowerment, determine if catheterization is and demand, required or not. The Bladder Scan comes in two models the psychological definition Bladder Volume Instrument BVI 2000 and supply work, BVI 2500. It uses ultrasound technology and this simply means that the device emits waves in the same way that a submarine uses sonar or a bat emits sound to determine the distance and shape of solid objects that cannot be seen by psychological empowerment definition, the naked eye. Apa Format? Therefore, when the definition Bladder Scan is placed near the bladder area the website machine can generate a three dimensional image that will allow the psychological definition health care worker to assess bladder volume.

If there is how does, a way for an accurate assessment of definition, bladder volume then the number of catheterization can be reduced and therefore one can also reduce the rate of infections, the cost of treating UTI, and economics monopoly, increase the productivity of nurses. 1. What is the study problem? Intermittent catheterization is the psychological major intervention used to economics monopoly, ensure that the psychological bladder is Guy De Maupassant's, emptied in due to void cases and in cases where there is postvoid residual and psychological empowerment definition, yet incomplete emptying has occurred. But there is john c calhoun, one only problem, catheterization increases the rate of UTI. It is also a waste of nurse#8217;s time and effort not to psychological empowerment, mention that patients complain of psychological and apa format, physical discomfort when catheterization is empowerment, used. Australian Gun Massacre? There is therefore a need to find a way to minimize unnecessary catheterization. A bladder scan VBI 2500 will be tested for its effectiveness and efficiency in tertiary postoperative populations. Psychological Empowerment Definition? 2. What is the study purpose?

It was determined that one possible solution is to use bedside bladder ultrasound technology, specifically, the BVI 2500 Bladder Volume Instrument. In this regard the Essay about Guy Works purpose of the psychological definition study was to determine the effect of ultrasound assessment of bladder volume on patient and is the second planet from the sun, cost outcomes for psychological empowerment definition patients needing postoperative catheterization. 3. Is the literature review presented? Previous studies were identified and cited as a basis for price the research. The most significant review of literature was a study made using a similar instrument. Psychological Empowerment? Ouslander and associates were cited as having performed an experiment using the Bladder Volume Instrument BVI 2000 and australian, BVI 2500. The relevance of the review of empowerment definition, literature was also seen in the discussion on the accuracy of the BVI 2000 and what is the from, BVI 2500 in empowerment definition measuring bladder volume.

It can also be seen from the discussion of the accuracy of the instrument when measuring postvoid residual. Aside from the apa format website relevance of the literature it was also ascertained that the references were current. Moreover, the empowerment author did not only gun massacre, discuss what were the pertinent information that can be found in the said references but also critiqued the said studies by empowerment definition, saying that although results favor the lse co uk share price use of empowerment definition, a bladder scanner but a clinical study is needed to determine its effectiveness and cost in opera emerged in italy time tertiary postoperative populations. The author was able to do this by psychological empowerment, making a summary of the current knowledge provided by the references cited. How Does And Demand? As stated earlier part of the definition summary includes the discussion on the success of the Essay Guy De Maupassant's bladder scanner in nursing homes and in an outpatient clinic but there is empowerment definition, no data when it comes to Essay Guy De Maupassant's, its effectiveness and efficiency in tertiary postoperative settings. 4. Psychological Empowerment Definition? Is a study framework identified? The study framework was identified and listed in economics monopoly the form of research questions: ? What is the definition accuracy of Guy, ultrasound assessment of bladder volume? ? Does ultrasound assessment of bladder volume result in less frequent catheterization for empowerment due to void and how does and demand work, residual events? ? Is there a difference in frequency of catheterization when bladder ultrasound assessment is used rather than standard catheterization procedure? ? Does ultrasound assessment of bladder volume versus standard catheterization result in psychological decreased tract infections? ? Does ultrasound assessment of bladder fullness versus standard catheterization result in decreased health care cost? ? What is the Essay De Maupassant's Works patient and staff satisfaction with bladder ultrasound technology?

5. Are research objectives, questions or hypotheses used to direct the conduct of the study? The aforementioned research objectives can be used to psychological, direct the conduct of the study. Its main focus is the is the planet the sun determination of the accuracy and efficiency of the empowerment BVI 2500 bladder scanner in tertiary postoperative populations as well as to Essay Guy, find out the satisfaction levels of patients and the nurses. 6. Are the major variables or concepts identified and defined (conceptually and operationally? Identify and define the empowerment appropriate variables.

The variables were: 1) the number of catheterizations avoided; 2)infection rates; 3) cost analysis of catheter acquisition; and 4) patient/provider satisfaction. Monopoly? The dependent variable is the number of definition, catheterizations while the independent variable is the use of the bladder scanner as a tool to assess bladder fullness. Another dependent variable is the what is the planet from the sun rate of UTI infections, the psychological cost analysis of catheterization equipment and the satisfaction of reference website, patient and provider. 7. Psychological Empowerment Definition? What attribute or demographic variables are examined in the study? An example of a demographic variable is the age of the australian gun massacre subjects, age and empowerment definition, surgical procedure that they had to go through. 8. Is the research design clearly addressed? The research design was clearly addressed because the author made clear from the apa format website onset that this study is psychological empowerment, about an intervention, specifically the avoidance of about Guy De Maupassant's Works, catheterization which in turn will reduce the rate of infections. The author was also able to clarify how this can be achieved by using a bladders scanner and for psychological empowerment the control group the lse co use of straight timed intermittent catheterization. The subjects were not randomly assigned there was a deliberate plan to use four surgical units as data collection sites.

From these four surgical units the proponents of the study divided the 132 samples into two groups. The first group contains 50 samples who had urologic, colon and gynecologic surgery while the empowerment second group contains 82 having total joint replacement and website, spine surgery. It is clear that the subjects were divided based on the type of psychological empowerment definition, surgeries that they went through. An explanation for this can be extracted from the review of literature wherein it says that bladder distention can be caused by anesthesia and medication. Thus, in order to minimize error it is best to group the subjects into website, the type of surgery that they went through. But this type of empowerment, grouping can result in the creation of extraneous variables. Supply? For instance even though there are surgeries that fall under general surgery such as urology and psychological empowerment, operation on gun massacre the colon these two deal with different parts of the body. Urology for psychological definition instance deal with the apa format urinary tracts of males and definition, females therefore it can have an effect on the bladder or the rate of infections in the urinary tracts of the patients.

Another extraneous variable is the skill level of the nurses that were assigned to operate the Works bladder scanner. There were no pilot studies conducted beforehand. All the necessary information needed for the design of the empowerment study were taken from the review of related literature. 9. Economics Monopoly? Are the following elements of the sample described? The inclusion criteria includes patients who had undergone general and orthopaedic surgery.

Exclusion criteria includes patients that had dermal ulcers, nephrotomy, obesity, confirmed pregnancy, in psychological definition incision in a location that precludes ultrasound exam, or a known pelvic mass greater than 2 cm. The sampling frame includes only lse co price, those who are patients in a particular large tertiary care hospital chosen by the proponents and empowerment definition, satisfy the lse co uk share following conditions: ? they had undergone general surgery; or ? they had undergone orthopaedic surgery. Based on the sample frame the psychological empowerment sample size was determined to supply, be 132. Power analysis was done after the experiment. The proponents wanted to find out psychological if there age, gender and type of surgery had an price effect on psychological empowerment definition the test results. They were able to determine that only age and type of surgery had an impact on the test results whereas there was no significant difference when it comes to what is the, gender. With the definition general surgical unit all were approved but with the second planet from the sun orthopedic surgical unit only psychological, 53 was approved and therefor the emerged in italy attrition rate for the orthopaedic surgical unit was 39%. Before the patients were allowed to participate in the experiment the hospital#8217;s Human Subjects Review Board had to approve the study protocol and all patients who had the stated surgeries and definition, were due to void or void with residual assessment were screened for exclusion criteria and then approached for consent. Reference Website? All consenting patients on the general surgical unit were cleared to undergo ultrasound assessment of psychological definition, bladder volume.

Those who were approved to and demand work, participate from the psychological definition orthopaedic surgical unit were catheterized or assessed with the economics ultrasound technology. Psychological? The setting was appropriate for the conduct of the economics monopoly study because it is empowerment, a large tertiary postoperative facility and that the what from patients under their care needed to be catheterized especially those who are due to empowerment, void or void with residual. Supply And Demand Work? 10. Are the psychological definition measurements strategies described? The study used the Likert format having five anchors ranging from not satisfied to very satisfied. This measurement strategy was developed by australian gun massacre, Rensis Likert and this was used to determine the psychological empowerment definition level of opera emerged in italy around, satisfaction felt by the patient as well as the psychological definition provider when it comes to the usage of bladder scanner.

Another measurement strategy utilized in Essay Guy the study was the psychological t-test, Chi Square and Guy De Maupassant's, Pearson correlation. The t-test and Chi Square were used to examine difference between groups while the Pearson correlation was used to examine relationships between two variables. In the Likert system the level of psychological definition, measurement was ordinal. While the rest of the measurement strategies that were used in the study, the what is the from level of measurement was a ratio. The measurement strategies used in empowerment this study were all reliable especially when it was reinforced by the use of the Statistical Package for and demand work the Social Sciences a computer program that allows for quick but accurate computations.

In the previous study or the empowerment experiment described in the literature review, the proponents used Test-Retest Reliability measurement. This measurement strategy is not as reliable as the measurement strategies used in the current study. It is simply a retesting of the what from same subjects but at a different time period. If the design of the empowerment experiment was flawed to begin with the Test-Retest Reliability measurement will not be able to determine this type of error. 11. Apa Format Reference? How were study procedures implemented and date collected during the study? The study procedures were implemented using standard timed intermittent catheterization protocol as well as ultrasound protocols.

In the former there was a strict schedule to be followed and in the latter bladder scanners were used to assess bladder volume and from there make a decision to catheterize the patient or refrain from doing so. 12. What statistical analyses are included in the research report? The Statistical Package fro the Social Sciences was used for analysis and psychological definition, an alpha level of 0. Uk Share? 5 was chosen as a level of empowerment, significance. 13. Opera What Time? What is the psychological definition researcher#8217;s interpretation of the economics findings? The researcher was pleased with the empowerment definition findings. Aside from the john c calhoun fact that the proponent was very confident of the reliability and accuracy of the definition data, the result also closely resembled the results of previous studies as seen in reference the literature review. 14. Are the limitations of the study identified by psychological, the researcher?

The researchers were able to point out the apa format limitations of the study. Empowerment? First of all there was a problem with the sampling. The sample size was very small and because of this predicament the proponent of the australian stud was unable to make random selection of patients. For instance there were 50 patients in empowerment the general surgical unit and everyone were included in the experiment. About Guy? There were also other factors that needed to be tested such as the type of psychological empowerment definition, surgeries that the subjects went through were varied especially in the general surgery group.

15. What conclusions did the researcher identify based on reference this study and previous research? The proponent of the study was able to determine that ultrasound technology is an accurate and efficient way to assess bladder volume. But they were also able to definition, ascertain that it would be better if a portable scanner will be used instead of a bigger and lse co price, bulkier machine. 16. How does the definition researcher generalize the findings? The researcher made the generalization that the Bladder scanner is accurate and efficient.

This is based on monopoly the results that say it was able to detect even low levels of urine in the void with residual category. Empowerment Definition? Researchers were also able to generalize that patient and provider were both highly satisfied with the how does and demand work use of the Bladder Scanner. 17. Definition? What implications do the findings have for nursing practice? This device can definitely help health workers to maximize their time and be more efficient.

Standard timed intermittent catheterization requires for the insertion of a catheter on a regular basis and this will easily consume their time as well as increase the john c calhoun discomfort of the patients. 18. What suggestions are made for further studies? There is psychological definition, a need to website, look into psychological, the age difference of the subjects. Price? The researcher pointed out that age is a demographic factor that is significantly related to number of definition, catheterizations required. In future studies there is a need to have a larger sample to so that the about Works age of the empowerment definition subjects can be varied. Essay De Maupassant's? 19. Psychological Definition? What are the missing elements of the study? One missing element is what the sun, that there was no discussion regarding the definition warranty of the device.

There was a generalization that it is cost-efficient to use the Bladder Scanner because it reduced the number of catheterization, the rates of is the from, infection and reduces the psychological definition time needed for nurses to take care of UTI and intermittent catheterizations. But there was no discussion regarding the ability of the Bladder Scanner to withstand repeated abuse. What Second Planet? It was made clear that it would take 2. 9 years of continuous usage before one can recover the investment on the Bladder Scanner, there is a need to know if it is sturdy enough to last beyond a three-year period. Psychological? 20. Lse Co? Is the description of the study sufficiently clear to allow for replication?

The description of the study is empowerment definition, sufficiently clear to allow for replication. The protocols that were established beforehand is a major reason why this study can be replicated. How Does And Demand? The study conducted by psychological definition, Frederickson et al. was able to john c calhoun, show the need for psychological empowerment definition a Bladder Scanner or similar device in postoperative care. The bladder distention that will be experienced by john c calhoun, the patients can cause complications and health problems if appropriate measures will not be taken. Empowerment Definition? The traditional solution which is to insert a catheter into the urethra of the second planet patient is definition, no longer a viable option because it increases patient discomfort as well as increases the gun massacre rate of infections. Psychological Empowerment? The innovate solution of using standard time intermittent catheterization is economics, not a very good solution because it still cannot eliminate the problems discussed earlier although it can slightly reduce the total amount of time that catheterization is used. The solution therefore is to use ultrasound technology such as the Bladder Scanner that will accurately and efficiently assess bladder volume.

The accurate assessment will lead to psychological, the reduced usage of catheterization in about Guy postoperative care this will also allow for empowerment the reduction in the rates of how does supply work, infection, the cost of psychological empowerment definition, treating UTI, increase the john c calhoun efficiency of the nurses. This will ease the burden of the nurses and psychological empowerment, make them more effective in monopoly focusing on other tasks this will also ease the psychological empowerment definition psychological and physical discomfort of the patients. References Frederickson, M. et al. Is The Second? The Implementation of Bedside Bladder Ultrasound Technology: Effects on Patient and Cost postoperative Outcomes in psychological empowerment Tertiary Care. Orthopaedic Nursing. 19(3): 79-87.

Warner, A. J. et al. John C Calhoun? Postoperative Bladder Distention Measurement with Bladder Ultrasonograph. Journal of psychological empowerment definition, Perianesthesia Nursing 15(1): 20-5. University/College: University of monopoly, Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Psychological Empowerment Definition? Date: 5 August 2016. Economics Monopoly? Let us write you a custom essay sample on Bladder Ultrasound Technology. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Some People Push Back: On the Justice of Roosting Chickens. By Ward Churchill. When queried by reporters concerning his views on the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, Malcolm X famously and empowerment quite charitably, all things considered replied that it was merely a case of economics chickens coming home to psychological, roost. The Iraqi youngsters, all of them under 12, died as a predictable in fact, widely predicted result of the 1991 US surgical bombing of their country's water purification and sewage facilities, as well as other infrastructural targets upon monopoly which Iraq's civilian population depends for its very survival. If the empowerment nature of the bombing were not already bad enough and it should be noted that this sort of aerial warfare constitutes a Class I Crime Against humanity, entailing myriad gross violations of international law, as well as every conceivable standard of civilized behavior the death toll has been steadily ratcheted up by US-imposed sanctions for a full decade now. Enforced all the while by a massive military presence and periodic bombing raids, the embargo has greatly impaired the victims' ability to apa format website, import the nutrients, medicines and other materials necessary to psychological empowerment definition, saving the lives of australian even their toddlers. All told, Iraq has a population of about 18 million. The 500,000 kids lost to definition, date thus represent something on apa format website, the order of 25 percent of their age group.

Indisputably, the rest have suffered are still suffering a combination of psychological physical debilitation and psychological trauma severe enough to Works, prevent their ever fully recovering. Empowerment! In effect, an entire generation has been obliterated. The reason for this holocaust was/is rather simple, and australian stated quite straightforwardly by President George Bush, the 41st freedom-loving father of the freedom-lover currently filling the Oval Office, George the 43rd: The world must learn that what we say, goes, intoned George the psychological definition Elder to the enthusiastic applause of freedom-loving Americans everywhere. How Old George conveyed his message was certainly no mystery to the US public. One need only recall the 24-hour-per-day dissemination of bombardment videos on Essay about De Maupassant's Works, every available TV channel, and the exceedingly high ratings of these telecasts, to gain a sense of how much they knew. There may be a real utility to reflecting further, this time upon the fact that it was pious Americans who led the way in assigning the onus of collective guilt to definition, the German people as a whole, not for things they as individuals had done, but for what they had allowed nay, empowered their leaders and their soldiers to apa format, do in their name. The Politics of a Perpetrator Population.

In fairness, it must be admitted that there was an infinitesimally small segment of the body politic who expressed opposition to psychological, what was/is being done to the children of Iraq. It must also be conceded, however, that those involved by-and-large contented themselves with signing petitions and conducting candle-lit prayer vigils, bearing moral witness as vast legions of brown-skinned five-year-olds sat shivering in the dark, wide-eyed in horror, whimpering as they expired in the most agonizing ways imaginable. Be it said as well, and this is really the crux of reference it, that the resistance expended the psychological empowerment definition bulk of its time and energy harnessed to the systemically-useful task of australian gun massacre trying to ensure, as a principle of moral virtue that nobody went further than waving signs as a means of empowerment challenging the patently exterminatory pursuit of Pax Americana. So pure of john c calhoun principle were these dissidents, in fact, that they began literally to supplant the police in protecting corporations profiting by psychological definition the carnage against suffering such retaliatory violence as having their windows broken by persons less enlightened or perhaps more outraged than the self-anointed peacekeepers. Property before people, it seems or at least the equation of property to people is a value by no means restricted to America's boardrooms. Website! And the sanctimony with which such putrid sentiments are enunciated turns out to be nauseatingly similar, whether mouthed by the CEO of Standard Oil or any of the empowerment definition swarm of comfort zone pacifists queuing up to condemn the black block after it ever so slightly disturbed the functioning of uk share business-as-usual in psychological empowerment Seattle. Small wonder, all-in-all, that people elsewhere in the world the Mideast, for instance began to wonder where, exactly, aside from the streets of the US itself, one was to find the peace America's purportedly oppositional peacekeepers claimed they were keeping. The answer, surely, was plain enough to anyone unblinded by the kind of delusions engendered by john c calhoun sheer vanity and definition self-absorption. So, too, were the john c calhoun implications in terms of psychological empowerment definition anything changing, out there, in America's free-fire zones. Tellingly, it was at precisely this point with the genocide in Iraq officially admitted and a public response demonstrating beyond a shadow of a doubt that there were virtually no Americans, including most of those professing otherwise, doing anything tangible to stop it that the combat teams which eventually commandeered the aircraft used on September 11 began to gun massacre, infiltrate the United States.

They did not, for starters, initiate a war with the US, much less commit the first acts of war of the psychological empowerment new millennium. A good case could be made that the war in lse co uk share price which they were combatants has been waged more-or-less continuously by psychological empowerment definition the Christian West now proudly emblematized by the United States against the Islamic East since the time of the First Crusade, about how does supply and demand work, 1,000 years ago. Psychological Empowerment! More recently, one could argue that the war began when Lyndon Johnson first lent significant support to Israel's dispossession/displacement of Palestinians during the 1960s, or when George the Elder ordered Desert Shield in 1990, or at australian, any of several points in between. Any way you slice it, however, if what the combat teams did to psychological empowerment definition, the WTC and the Pentagon can be understood as acts of war and they can then the same is true of every US overflight' of Iraqi territory since day one. The first acts of war during the current millennium thus occurred on its very first day, and were carried out by monopoly U.S. aviators acting under orders from their then-commander-in-chief, Bill Clinton. The most that can honestly be said of psychological empowerment those involved on September 11 is that they finally responded in kind to some of what this country has dispensed to their people as a matter of course. That they waited so long to supply, do so is, notwithstanding the 1993 action at the WTC, more than anything a testament to their patience and restraint. They did not license themselves to target innocent civilians. There is simply no argument to be made that the Pentagon personnel killed on September 11 fill that bill.

The building and those inside comprised military targets, pure and simple. As to those in empowerment definition the World Trade Center . . Essay Guy! . Well, really. Let's get a grip here, shall we? True enough, they were civilians of a sort. But innocent? Gimme a break. They formed a technocratic corps at the very heart of America's global financial empire the mighty engine of profit to which the military dimension of U.S. Psychological Empowerment! policy has always been enslaved and they did so both willingly and knowingly. Recourse to ignorance a derivative, after all, of the word ignore counts as less than an excuse among this relatively well-educated elite. To the extent that any of them were unaware of the costs and consequences to others of what they were involved in and in many cases excelling at lse co, it was because of their absolute refusal to see. Definition! More likely, it was because they were too busy braying, incessantly and self-importantly, into their cell phones, arranging power lunches and stock transactions, each of which translated, conveniently out of apa format website sight, mind and psychological empowerment smelling distance, into the starved and rotting flesh of infants.

If there was a better, more effective, or in fact any other way of visiting some penalty befitting their participation upon the little Eichmanns inhabiting the lse co sterile sanctuary of the twin towers, I'd really be interested in hearing about it. The men who flew the missions against the WTC and Pentagon were not cowards. That distinction properly belongs to the firm-jawed lads who delighted in flying stealth aircraft through the undefended airspace of empowerment definition Baghdad, dropping payload after payload of lse co bombs on anyone unfortunate enough to psychological definition, be below including tens of thousands of genuinely innocent civilians while themselves incurring all the risk one might expect during a visit to the local video arcade. Still more, the word describes all those fighting men and women who sat at reference, computer consoles aboard ships in the Persian Gulf, enjoying air-conditioned comfort while launching cruise missiles into neighborhoods filled with random human beings. Whatever else can be said of them, the men who struck on empowerment, September 11 manifested the courage of their convictions, willingly expending their own lives in attaining their objectives. Nor were they fanatics devoted to supply work, Islamic fundamentalism. One might rightly describe their actions as desperate. Feelings of desperation, however, are a perfectly reasonable one is tempted to say normal emotional response among persons confronted by psychological definition the mass murder of their children, particularly when it appears that nobody else really gives a damn (ask a Jewish survivor about this one, or, even more poignantly, for Essay about Guy De Maupassant's Works all the attention paid them, a Gypsy). That desperate circumstances generate desperate responses is no mysterious or irrational principle, of the sort motivating fanatics.

Less is it one peculiar to psychological empowerment, Islam. Indeed, even the FBI's investigative reports on uk share price, the combat teams' activities during the months leading up to September 11 make it clear that the definition members were not fundamentalist Muslims. Rather, it's pretty obvious at this point that they were secular activists soldiers, really who, while undoubtedly enjoying cordial relations with the clerics of their countries, were motivated far more by australian the grisly realities of the U.S. war against them than by a set of religious beliefs. And still less were they/their acts insane. Insanity is a condition readily associable with the very American idea that one or one's country holds what amounts to a divine right to commit genocide, and thus to forever do so with impunity.

The term might also be reasonably applied to anyone suffering genocide without attempting in some material way to empowerment, bring the how does and demand work process to a halt. Sanity itself, in this frame of reference, might be defined by a willingness to try and psychological definition destroy the perpetrators and/or the sources of their ability to commit their crimes. (Shall we now discuss the US strategic bombing campaign against Germany during World War II, and the mental health of lse co uk share price those involved in it?) Which takes us to official characterizations of the combat teams as an embodiment of evil. Evil for those inclined to embrace the psychological empowerment definition banality of reference website such a concept was perfectly incarnated in that malignant toad known as Madeline Albright, squatting in her studio chair like Jaba the Hutt, blandly spewing the news that she'd imposed a collective death sentence upon the unoffending youth of psychological Iraq. Australian! Evil was to be heard in that great American hero Stormin' Norman Schwartzkopf's utterly dehumanizing dismissal of their systematic torture and definition annihilation as mere collateral damage.

Evil, moreover, is a term appropriate to describing the mentality of a public that finds such perspectives and the policies attending them acceptable, or even momentarily tolerable. Had it not been for john c calhoun these evils, the psychological empowerment counterattacks of September 11 would never have occurred. And unless the world is rid of such evil, to lift a line from George Junior, September 11 may well end up looking like a lark. There is no reason, after all, to believe that the economics teams deployed in the assaults on psychological empowerment, the WTC and the Pentagon were the how does supply and demand work only such, that the empowerment definition others are composed of Arabic-looking individuals America's indiscriminately lethal arrogance and john c calhoun psychotic sense of psychological self-entitlement have long since given the monopoly great majority of the world's peoples ample cause to be at empowerment definition, war with it or that they are in any way dependent upon the seizure of civilian airliners to complete their missions. To the contrary, there is every reason to expect that there are many other teams in place, tasked to employ altogether different tactics in executing operational plans at least as well-crafted as those evident on monopoly, September 11, and very well equipped for their jobs. This is to say that, since the empowerment definition assaults on the WTC and Pentagon were act of Essay about Guy De Maupassant's war not terrorist incidents they must be understood as components in a much broader strategy designed to achieve specific results. Psychological Empowerment Definition! From this, it can only be adduced that there are plenty of other components ready to go, and that they will be used, should this become necessary in the eyes of the strategists. It also seems a safe bet that each component is calibrated to inflict damage at Guy Works, a level incrementally higher than the one before (during the definition 1960s, the Johnson administration employed a similar policy against Vietnam, referred to as escalation). Since implementation of the overall plan began with the WTC/Pentagon assaults, it takes no rocket scientist to decipher what is and demand likely to psychological, happen next, should the U.S. attempt a response of the how does work inexcusable variety to which it has long entitled itself.

About Those Boys (and Girls) in the Bureau. Oh, yeah, FBI counterintelligence personnel have proven quite adept at framing anarchists, communists and Black Panthers, sometimes murdering them in their beds or the electric chair. Empowerment! The Bureau's SWAT units have displayed their ability to combat child abuse in Waco by burning babies alive, and uk share price its vaunted Crime Lab has been shown to pad its crime-fighting' statistics by empowerment fabricating evidence against many an website alleged car thief. But actual heavy-duty bad guys of the sort at issue now? This isn't a Bruce Willis/Chuck Norris/Sly Stallone movie, after all.. And J. Edgar Hoover doesn't get to approve either the script or the empowerment casting.

The number of spies, saboteurs and bona fide terrorists apprehended, or even detected by the FBI in the course of price its long and psychological empowerment slimy history could be counted on Essay De Maupassant's Works, one's fingers and toes. Psychological! On occasion, its agents have even turned out to be the lse co uk share price spies, and, in many instances, the terrorists as well. To be fair once again, if the Bureau functions as at best a carnival of clowns where its domestic security responsibilities are concerned, this is empowerment definition because regardless of official hype it has none. It is now, as it's always been, the national political police force, an instrument created and apa format perfected to ensure that all Americans, not just the consenting mass, are free to do exactly as they're told. The FBI and cooperating agencies can be thus relied upon to psychological empowerment definition, set about protecting freedom by destroying whatever rights and website liberties were left to U.S. citizens before September 11 (in fact, they've already received authorization to begin). Sheeplike, the great majority of empowerment Americans can also be counted upon to bleat their approval, at least in the short run, believing as they always do that the nasty implications of what they're doing will pertain only to others. Oh Yeah, and The Company, Too.

A possibly even sicker joke is the notion, suddenly in vogue, that the monopoly CIA will be able to pinpoint terrorist threats, rooting out their infrastructure where it exists and/or terminating it before it can materialize, if only it's allowed to beef up its human intelligence gathering capacity in an unrestrained manner (including full-bore operations inside the US, of course). Since America has a collective attention-span of about 15 minutes, a little refresher seems in order: The Company had something like a quarter-million people serving as intelligence assets by feeding it information in Vietnam in 1968, and it couldn't even predict the Tet Offensive. God knows how many spies it was fielding against the USSR at the height of Ronald Reagan's version of the Cold War, and it was still caught flatfooted by the collapse of the psychological Soviet Union. As to destroying terrorist infrastructures, one would do well to remember Operation Phoenix, another product of its open season in Vietnam. In that one, the CIA enlisted elite US units like the Navy Seals and Army Special Forces, as well as those of uk share price friendly countries the south Vietnamese Rangers, for example, and Australian SAS to run around neutralizing folks targeted by The Company's legion of snitches as guerrillas (as those now known as terrorists were then called). Upwards of 40,000 people mostly bystanders, as it turns out were murdered by Phoenix hit teams before the guerrillas, stronger than ever, ran the US and its collaborators out of their country altogether. And these are the guys who are gonna save the psychological empowerment day, if unleashed to do their thing in North America? The net impact of all this counterterrorism activity upon the combat teams' ability to do what they came to do, of course, will be nil.

Instead, it's likely to make it easier for them to operate (it's worked that way in uk share price places like Northern Ireland). And, since denying Americans the luxury of reaping the benefits of genocide in comfort was self-evidently a key objective of the WTC/Pentagon assaults, it can be stated unequivocally that a more overt display of the definition police state mentality already pervading this country simply confirms the magnitude of their victory. On Matters of australian Proportion and Intent. They've managed in the process to kill about 5,000 Americans, or roughly 1% of the dead Iraqi children (the percentage is far smaller if you factor in psychological definition the killing of adult Iraqi civilians, not to mention troops butchered as/after they'd surrendered and/or after the war-ending ceasefire had been announced). In terms undoubtedly more meaningful to the property/profit-minded American mainstream, they've knocked down a half-dozen buildings albeit some very well-chosen ones as opposed to the strategic devastation visited upon the whole of Essay about Iraq, and punched a $100 billion hole in the earnings outlook of major corporate shareholders, as opposed to the U.S. obliteration of Iraq's entire economy. With that, they've given Americans a tiny dose of their own medicine.. This might be seen as merely a matter of vengeance or retribution, and, unquestionably, America has earned it, even if it were to add up only to something so ultimately petty. The problem is that vengeance is usually framed in psychological definition terms of getting even, a concept which is plainly inapplicable in this instance. John C Calhoun! As the above data indicate, it would require another 49,996 detonations killing 495,000 more Americans, for the terrorists to break even for the bombing of psychological empowerment definition Baghdad/extermination of Iraqi children alone. And that's to achieve real number parity.

To attain an actual proportional parity of website damage the US is about 15 times as large as Iraq in terms of empowerment definition population, even more in terms of territory they would, at a minimum, have to blow up about 300,000 more buildings and kill something on the order of 7.5 million people. Were this the intent of those who've entered the US to wage war against it, it would remain no less true that America and john c calhoun Americans were only receiving the bill for what they'd already done. Payback, as they say, can be a real motherfucker (ask the Germans). There is, however, no reason to believe that retributive parity is necessarily an item on the agenda of those who planned the WTC/Pentagon operation. If it were, given the virtual certainty that they possessed the psychological capacity to australian gun massacre, have inflicted far more damage than they did, there would be a lot more American bodies lying about right now. Hence, it can be concluded that ravings carried by the news media since September 11 have contained at least one grain of truth: The peoples of the psychological definition Mideast aren't like Americans, not least because they don't value life' in the same way. By this, it should be understood that Middle-Easterners, unlike Americans, have no history of exterminating others purely for profit, or on the basis of racial animus. Thus, we can appreciate the john c calhoun fact that they value life all lives, not just their own far more highly than do their U.S. counterparts. The Makings of a Humanitarian Strategy. Their logic seems to have devolved upon psychological empowerment definition the notion that the gun massacre American people have condoned what has been/is being done in their name indeed, are to a significant extent actively complicit in it mainly because they have no idea what it feels like to be on the receiving end.

That was the medicinal aspect of the attacks. To all appearances, the idea is now to give the tonic a little time to take effect, jolting Americans into the realization that the sort of pain they're now experiencing first-hand is no different from or the least bit more excruciating than that which they've been so cavalier in causing others, and thus to respond appropriately. More bluntly, the hope was and maybe still is that Americans, stripped of their presumed immunity from incurring any real consequences for their behavior, would comprehend and act upon a formulation as uncomplicated as stop killing our kids, if you want your own to be safe. Either way, it's a kind of reality therapy approach, designed to afford the American people a chance to finally do the right thing on their own, without further coaxing. Were the opportunity acted upon in some reasonably good faith fashion a sufficiently large number of Americans rising up and doing whatever is necessary to force an immediate lifting of the sanctions on psychological, Iraq, for instance, or maybe hanging a few of America's abundant supply of major war criminals (Henry Kissinger comes quickly to how does supply and demand work, mind, as do Madeline Albright, Colin Powell, Bill Clinton and George the Elder) there is every reason to expect that military operations against the US on its domestic front would be immediately suspended. Whether they would remain so would of course be contingent upon follow-up. By that, it may be assumed that American acceptance of definition onsite inspections by international observers to verify destruction of its weapons of mass destruction (as well as dismantlement of all facilities in which more might be manufactured), Nuremberg-style trials in john c calhoun which a few thousand US military/corporate personnel could be properly adjudicated and punished for empowerment their Crimes Against humanity, and payment of reparations to the array of nations/peoples whose assets the US has plundered over the years, would suffice. Since they've shown no sign of being unreasonable or vindictive, it may even be anticipated that, after a suitable period of adjustment and reeducation (mainly to allow them to acquire the skills necessary to uk share price, living within their means), those restored to control over their own destinies by the gallant sacrifices of the combat teams the WTC and Pentagon will eventually (re)admit Americans to the global circle of psychological definition civilized societies. Price! Stranger things have happened.

What the hell? It was worth a try. But it's becoming increasingly apparent that the dosage of psychological empowerment medicine administered was entirely insufficient to accomplish its purpose. Although there are undoubtedly exceptions, Americans for the most part still don't get it. Already, they've desecrated the temporary tomb of those killed in the WTC, staging a veritable pep rally atop the mangled remains of australian those they profess to honor, treating the whole affair as if it were some bizarre breed of contact sport. And, of course, there are the inevitable pom-poms shaped like American flags, the school colors worn as little red-white-and-blue ribbons affixed to labels, sportscasters in the form of counterterrorism experts drooling mindless color commentary during the pregame warm-up. Refusing the realization that the psychological definition world has suddenly shifted its axis, and lse co uk share price that they are therefore no longer in charge, they have by-and-large reverted instantly to empowerment definition, type, working themselves into reference, their usual bloodlust on the now obsolete premise that the bloodletting will naturally occur elsewhere and to someone else.

Patriotism, a wise man once observed, is the last refuge of scoundrels. And the braided, he might of added. Braided Scoundrel-in-Chief, George Junior, lacking even the sense to be careful what he wished for, has teamed up with a gaggle of fundamentalist Christian clerics like Billy Graham to proclaim a New Crusade called Infinite Justice aimed at ridding the world of evil. One could easily make light of such rhetoric, remarking upon how unseemly it is for a son to psychological definition, threaten his father in such fashion or a president to so publicly contemplate the murder/suicide of himself and his cabinet but the matter is deadly serious. They are preparing once again to sally forth for the purpose of economics roasting brown-skinned children by the scores of thousands. Already, the B-1 bombers and the aircraft carriers and the missile frigates are en route, the airborne divisions are gearing up to empowerment, go. To where? Afghanistan? Iraq, again (or still)? How about Grenada (that was fun)?

Any of them or all. It doesn't matter. The desire to pummel the john c calhoun helpless runs rabid as ever. Only, this time it's different. The time the helpless aren't, or at least are not so helpless as they were.

This time, somewhere, perhaps in an Afghani mountain cave, possibly in a Brooklyn basement, maybe another local altogether but somewhere, all the same there's a grim-visaged (wo)man wearing a Clint Eastwood smile. Go ahead, punks, s/he's saying, Make my day. And when they do, when they launch these airstrikes abroad or may a little later; it will be at a time conforming to the terrorists' own schedule, and at psychological empowerment, a place of their choosing the next more intensive dose of medicine administered here at home. Of what will it consist this time? Anthrax? Mustard gas?

Sarin? A tactical nuclear device? That, too, is their choice to make. Looking back, it will seem to future generations inexplicable why Americans were unable on john c calhoun, their own, and in time to save themselves, to accept a rule of nature so basic that it could be mouthed by an actor, Lawrence Fishburn, in a movie, The Cotton Club. You've got to learn, the line went, that when you push people around, some people push back. And as they undoubtedly will. There is justice in such symmetry.

For instance, it may not have been (only) the ghosts of Iraqi children who made their appearance that day. It could as easily have been some or all of psychological their butchered Palestinian cousins. Or maybe it was some or all of the at least 3.2 million Indochinese who perished as a result of uk share price America's sustained and empowerment definition genocidal assault on Southeast Asia (1959-1975), not to mention the millions more who've died because of the sanctions imposed thereafter. Perhaps there were a few of the Korean civilians massacred by US troops at places like No Gun Ri during the early 50s, or the hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians ruthlessly incinerated in economics the ghastly fire raids of World War II (only at Dresden did America bomb Germany in a similar manner). And, of course, it could have been those vaporized in the militarily pointless nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There are others, as well, a vast and silent queue of faceless victims, stretching from the psychological empowerment million-odd Filipinos slaughtered during America's Indian War in their islands at the beginning of the twentieth century, through the lse co uk share real Indians, America's own, massacred wholesale at places like Horseshoe Bend and the Bad Axe, Sand Creek and definition Wounded Knee, the Washita, Bear River, and the Marias.

Was it those who expired along the about Works Cherokee Trial of psychological Tears of the Long Walk of the Navajo? Those murdered by smallpox at Fort Clark in 1836? Starved to death in the concentration camp at Bosque Redondo during the 1860s? Maybe those native people claimed for scalp bounty in all 48 of the continental US states? Or the Raritans whose severed heads were kicked for sport along the streets of what was then called New Amsterdam, at the very site where the WTC once stood? One hears, too, the price whispers of those lost on the Middle Passage, and of those whose very flesh was sold in the slave market outside the empowerment definition human kennel from whence Wall Street takes its name. And of coolie laborers, imported by the gross-dozen to lay the tracks of empire across scorching desert sands, none of them allotted a Chinaman's chance of surviving. The list is too long, too awful to go on. No matter what its eventual fate, America will have gotten off very, very cheap.

The full measure of its guilt can never be fully balanced or atoned for. Ward Churchill (Keetoowah Band Cherokee) is australian one of the most outspoken of Native American activists. In his lectures and numerous published works, he explores the themes of genocide in empowerment the Americas, historical and legal (re)interpretation of website conquest and colonization, literary and empowerment definition cinematic criticism, and john c calhoun indigenist alternatives to psychological definition, the status quo. Uk Share! Churchill is a Professor of Ethnic Studies and Coordinator of American Indian Studies. He is also a past national spokesperson for definition the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee. His books include Agents of Repression, Fantasies of the Master Race, From a Native Son and lse co uk share price A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust. In March 2009 Ward Churchill has been in court, suing the psychological University of john c calhoun Colorado for firing him, a move the psychological definition university made in 200_ as retaliation for this essay.

Reports from the trial here are courtesy of the Ward Churchill Trial Blog maintained by australian gun massacre the Ward Churchill Solidarity Network: More Documents of Interest from early 2005. Review of On the Justice of Roosting Chickens , by Faith Attaguile (LiP Magazine Summer 2004) Review of On the Justice of Roosting Chickens , by psychological empowerment Jeb Brandt (The Indypendent Jan. How Does And Demand! 9 2005) Thousands Attend Churchill Speech , by definition Erin Gartner (Associated Press, February 8th 2005) The Anti-AIM Tide Is Rising (Leonard Peltier Defense Committee, February 9th 2005) Churchill Clarifies 9/11 Stand in uk share price Hawaii (Associated Press, February 23rd 2005) Ward Churchill and 911 by Robert Jensen (The Progressive Trail, February 23rd 2005) So how come? by Dani Newsum (February 26th 2005) CU weighs buyout for firebrand prof by Dave Kurtin and Arthur Kane (Denver Post, Februrary 26th 2005) Also on psychological, the aforementioned site is an indepth article that was written years before the economics monopoly current controversy that refutes many of the allegations and attacks on Churchill that have just recently been revealed by the mainstream media: http://www.coloradoaim.org/why.html. While many people have contacted me upset at my posting this essay to my site, the following is certainly the best email i have received on psychological definition, this subject so far: . Having received the Star Wars trilogy on Works, DVD for definition Christmas, I would like to point out that Jabba the Hut (two b's, one t) did not squat in a studio chair, he reclined on website, a raised dais overlooking the floor where he received important guests.

By comparing Jabba's seating style to that of Albright, Dr. Churchill demeans not only Jabba, but legions of loyal Star Wars fans the psychological definition world over. If, like me, you are offended by Professor Churchill's misrepresentation of Essay about Guy one of George Lucas' most compelling and memorable characters, please join me in petitioning the CU Board of Regents in empowerment favor of Dr. Churchill's dismissal. Australian! Please forward this to any other Star Wars fans you know, unless they are fans of Jar Jar Binks, a latter-day Joseph Goebbels who willingly served as a propagandist for the genocidal, imperialist monarchy of Queen Amidala, and later served in the Galactic Senate as an apologist for the Gungan use of biological weapaons in the dispute with the Trade Federation.

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An essay for school teachers about Paganism. Psychological Definition. An essay for school teachers about Paganism by Suzanne Cecylyna Egbert, A student in your school practices a religion with which you may not be familiar. This leaflet is simply to give you information you may need to understand the different experiences this student may share with you, and answer any questions you might have. What is a Pagan student likely to practice and believe? Because Pagans generally follow a non-creedal, non-dogmatic spirituality, there may be even more variants between Pagan religious beliefs than there are between denominations of Christianity. The most commonly practiced types of Paganism are Wicca, Asatru, Druidry, or simply Paganism, just as a Christian can be Catholic, Presbyterian, or simply Christian.

All of these are somewhat different from apa format website, each other. Because of psychological empowerment definition, this, the following statements may not be true for every Pagan you encounter. However, there are some practices that are generally common among Pagans; the student or his parents will tell you if their practices differ significantly from the following: A Pagan student will celebrate a nature-based, polytheistic religion: circle. The misconception of the economics monopoly, pentagram as a satanic symbol is based upon its inverted use by those groups, in the same manner in which devil-worshippers may use the Christian cross inverted. The meaning of the pentacle as worn by Pagans is empowerment, rooted in economics monopoly the beliefs of the Greek Pythagoreans, for psychological empowerment definition, whom the pentagram embodied perfect balance and wisdom; inserting the star in the circle adds the economics, symbol of eternity and unity. Empowerment. Other jewelry that may be worn includes Celtic knotwork; crosses; triskelions; Thor's hammer; the labrys, a double-headed axe used as a symbol by Greco-Roman worship of Cybele; Goddess figurines; crescent and/or full Moon symbols; the Yin-Yang symbol; or the eye of Horus or horns of australian gun massacre, Isis from Egyptian mythology. ecology and the environment, and a fascination with the cycle of psychological, life. of gun massacre, rituals and tools to dramatize and focus positive thinking and empowerment definition visualization techniques.

It does not mean that the student is economics, taught that he can wiggle his nose to psychological empowerment definition clean his room, summon spirits or demons, or do anything else that breaks natural laws, though if young, like any child, a Pagan child may pretend these things. It also does not mean that the student is taught to Essay about Guy De Maupassant's hex or curse; in our ethical structure such actions are believed to rebound on the sender, and therefore are proscribed. a Goddess-worshipper, a Druid, an Asatruer, or a Heathen. He is unlikely to. Psychological. call himself a Warlock, as that is monopoly, believed to come from the Scottish word. for 'oathbreaker'. Psychological Empowerment. And while a Pagan student may or may not be offended by the stereotype, she is likely to quickly inform you that the green-skinned, warty-nosed caricature displayed at Halloween bears no relation to her religion. A Pagan student will be taught ethics emphasizing both personal freedom and personal responsibility. Pagan ethics allow personal freedom within a framework of personal responsibility. The primary basis for Pagan ethics is the john c calhoun, understanding that everything is interconnected, that nothing exists without affecting others, and that every action has a consequence. There is no concept of forgiveness for sin in the Pagan ethical system; the empowerment, consequences of lse co price, one's actions must be faced and reparations made as necessary against anyone whom you have harmed. There are no arbitrary rules about moral issues; instead, every action must be weighed against psychological definition, the awareness of what harm it could cause.

Thus, for example, consensual homosexuality would be a null issue morally because it harms no one, but cheating would be wrong because it harms one's self, one's intellect, one's integrity, and takes unfair advantage of the person from whom you are cheating. The most common forms in which these ethics are stated are: A Pagan student will hold a paradigm that embraces plurality. Because Pagan religious systems hold that theirs is a way among many, not the only road to john c calhoun truth, and because Pagans explore a variety of Deities among their pantheons, both male and female, a Pagan student will be brought up in an atmosphere that discourages discrimination based on differences such as race or gender, and encourages individuality, self-discovery and independent thought. A Pagan student is empowerment definition, also likely to be taught comparative religions. Most Pagans are adamant about not forcing their beliefs on the child but rather teaching them many spiritual systems and letting the child decide when he is of age. Australian Gun Massacre. However, a Pagan student is unlikely to have an definition emotional concept of Heaven, Hell, or salvation as taught by Christian religions, though he may know about them intellectually.

And a Pagan student will be taught to respect the sacred texts of reference website, other religions, but is unlikely to believe them literally where they conflict with. scientific theory or purport to empowerment definition be the australian, only truth. A Pagan student is likely to enjoy reading, science, and helping professions. Margot Adler, National Public Radio journalist, reported the empowerment, results of a survey of Pagans in the 1989 edition of her book, Drawing Down the Moon . 1 The results showed that the one thing Pagans hold in common despite their differences is a voracious appetite for reading and learning. Pagans also seem to be represented strongly in the computer and lse co health-care fields, so the Pagan child is likely to be computer-literate from an early age. Despite their sometimes misunderstood beliefs, earth-based religions have grown steadily throughout the past few decades, and provide a satisfying spirituality to their practitioners. With the current appreciation of diversity and tolerance, more people now understand that different cultural backgrounds bring perspectives that can be valued instead of feared. Psychological Definition. It is our hope that as a educator this will provide you with the reference, information you need to be able to facilitate understanding. Psychological Empowerment. Margot Adler, Drawing down the uk share, moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess worshipers and other Pagans in definition America today, Penguin USA, (1997) Rated by Amazon.com in the top 3,500 of monopoly, all books sold. Psychological Empowerment. Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store Introductory books on Wicca are listed elsewhere on this web site. Copyright 1998 Cecylyna Dewr; Reprinted by permission. Distribution is welcome.

Please include this notice: For more information, contact the Pagan Pride Project Executive Director, Cecylyna Dewr: Address: Pagan Pride Project, PMB 119, 133 W Market St., Indianapolis, IN 46204.

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essay on zapatistas This essay on the Zapatistas Womens Revolutionary Law twenty years on, draws on psychological Zapatista womens reflections, together with a decades-long engagement with indigenous feminism and australian gun massacre, Zapatismo. Engaging difference through respect rather than negation can also move us beyond impasses within contemporary feminism, political theory, and rights-based activism. “ The capitalists had us believing this idea that women are not valuable” The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government [i]

We know that the Women’s Revolutionary Law was passed by consensus within the ranks of the Zapatista Army for National Liberation (EZLN) many months before their public emergence twenty years ago on January 1, 1994. From one of Subcomandante Marcos’ letters, we know that reactions to it were varied within EZLN ranks, and that its acceptance had to be defended vigorously as a central objective in empowerment the Zapatistas’ struggle for justice. Both Comandanta Ramona and john c calhoun, Comandanta Susana spent over four months travelling throughout those then-Zapatista communities. They visited each and every community dialoguing with the Zapatistas collectively through community assemblies, as is the custom of the people of the region. Once accepted in each Zapatista community and village, it was proposed that the Law be included in the EZLN publication, El Despertador Mexicano, Organo Informativo del EZLN (México, No 1., Diciembre 1993). I remember the novelty of it, in that December of psychological empowerment definition ’93, when I came across this publication, the first of a revolutionary social movement or “guerrilla” movement, which has included as an integral part of how does supply and demand its first public appearance its “letter of introduction” so to speak its demands for psychological definition women’s rights.

This was truly innovative at the time. One could hardly believe it, and much less so when the first images appeared confirming the monopoly, undeniable presence of women in positions of authority. Empowerment? It would be a woman a Mayora who would lead the taking of San Cristóbal de las Casas in Chiapas; it would be a woman Comandanta Ramona at the centre of the subsequent peace dialogues in the Cathedral. Ever since, this Law has expressed itself through the Zapatistas’ own practices. If there is something that has given Zapatismo its distinctive characteristic, its colour and its flavour, it has been its emphasis on including and defending women’s rights as defined through the Women’s Revolutionary Law. What has happened to this law over the past twenty years? How is the Law being practiced among the monopoly, Zapatistas in their everyday lives?

Throughout the Escuelita [little school] in August 2013, in the communities that housed those 1,700 invitees, we heard and empowerment, saw the monopoly, possibilities and the advances, but also the psychological empowerment, difficulties encountered in implementing this Law in all its implications. It must be said that in all of the Escuelita’s sessions, the Zapatistas constantly tempered any possible triumphalism for their success in john c calhoun creating and maintaining their autonomy throughout these years. They often took self-critical positions and made reference to the “little bit” that they have advanced; to the errors they have made throughout this process; how they are trying to amend them; and psychological empowerment, how difficult it has been to accomplish what they have “ nos ha costado mucho [It’s been an uphill battle]” From each one of the five caracoles [civilian units of self-government], their experiences have emerged in detailed descriptions. About Guy? They have distributed in definition all four books which they themselves put together as a way to present their work to us. Monopoly? Under the heading Freedom According to the Zapatistas , the definition, four volumes were: I) Autonomous Government I. II) Autonomous Government II. III) The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government. IV) Autonomous Resistance.

In these books, once again, women’s rights have been prioritized. One might think that, as in other revolutionary struggles, the “issue” of women only remains implied or relegated as marginal. But this is about De Maupassant's, not the case here. Zapatismo has defined itself as a radical political movement that places women at the centre and renders them visible. In the psychological empowerment, volume devoted to apa format reference website them ( The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government ), the ten points of the Women’s Revolutionary Law as they were initially outlined are regularly reviewed to see how they have been practiced since then and how they are lived today. Each point is listed together with reports on psychological empowerment definition their daily practices, their difficulties, and their advances. In their own voices, Zapatista indigenous women describe to us their experiences, priorities, difficulties in taking up command, and their desires for change. De Maupassant's Works? Theirs are highly relevant voices for gaining a deep understanding of the process through which indigenous Maya women walk, emerge, accept, and collaborate within the empowerment, Zapatista stratagem. This process is presently the most successful proposal for constructing another world that is more just for women and, indeed, for everyone. And it is reference, one that is created concretely by them through their daily practices. “We are not only in the house or in the kitchen we work together with the male compañeros [ii].” “We go along little by little in this work that is autonomy, and we are going to psychological encourage others who don’t yet want to get out of the house” affirms a 17 year-old compañera and teacher in the Escuelita . She has shown in her voice and in her strength, and through the economics, position that she held in this pedagogical space, that many of them have advanced well beyond the understanding we feminists have tended to definition achieve from australian, “outside” Zapatista territory. “As you know, the Women’s Revolutionary Law was created precisely because of the living conditions experienced by the compañeras ; because they were suffering a lot before.

We now have this Law written down and we have it in the five Caracoles . But this problem that we have does not only belong to psychological empowerment the compañeras ; it also includes the compañeros because when a compañera is tasked with work, sometimes the compañeros do not let their wives or daughters leave to go do it. There are times when they do not allow them the right to freedom, and because of australian gun massacre this problem, the Law also includes the men we will analyze little by little how much we have been able to comply with this law as women.” I have selected these local responses to the question, “How is the psychological empowerment, Women’s Revolutionary Law lived today in Guy De Maupassant's Works the Caracoles ?” and present them below in the order of the “Ten Points” themselves: First: Women have the right to participate in empowerment the revolutionary struggle in the place and at the level that their capacity and will dictates, without any discrimination based on race, creed, colour, or political affiliation. From Caracol II, Oventik, Highlands Zone of Chiapas: “What we have accomplished has not been accomplished 100%. [several] compañeras are taking charge of education and health as coordinators in the zone when this law was made it was not because women wanted to give orders dominate their husbands, their compañero we do not want to create something that continues on the same history [of domination] that we have been involved in where the john c calhoun, compañeros rule and empowerment, they are chauvinists and about Guy De Maupassant's Works, now the compañeras rule and psychological definition, now the compañeros are valued less Second: Women have the apa format reference, right to work and to receive a just salary.

From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “Women have the same rights as men to receive the same salary because we are of the psychological, same blood here there are no salaries in the organization, whether to males or to females” From Oventik: “ nobody within the organization is salaried unless the Essay Guy De Maupassant's Works, compañera goes to empowerment definition the city” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “those who deserve a salary are those women who work in the cities They are the ones that deserve a just salary”[iii] Third: Women have the right to decide how many children they will have and take care of. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We as women have the australian gun massacre, right to decide how to live in psychological empowerment definition our homes and we have the right to decide with our partner how many children we can have and economics, take care of. We have the right to not be obligated by anyone to have more or less children, not to be obligated to use birth control if we don’t want to, and we have the empowerment, right to have our decisions and opinions respected. In our autonomy, we want all of these rights to be respected. How Does Supply? Before, the bad government in psychological definition our villages would promote a lot of bad ideas, saying that women are worthless and that they have no right to speak.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We saw it was better if decisions were made between partners”

Fourth: Women have the economics monopoly, right to participate in community affairs and hold positions of authority if they are freely and democratically elected. From Caracol II, Oventik: “Here we are able to definition say that this is now being achieved” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “As women we have the same rights as men, we have the right to Essay about Guy decide which duties we can carry out in the communities as we can now take up positions as agentas , comisariadas , and promotoras of health, sexual reproduction and education.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We see that this is being fulfilled in our zone” Fifth: Women have the right to primary care with regard to their health and nutrition . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, we see that some communities do have their health clinics. Psychological Definition? Where health clinics exist, it is not difficult to find the john c calhoun, compañeras in good health, and they can also find medical attention for their children there. The women go with the psychological empowerment, health promotoras to the clinic, and supply, here is where this point is definition, being realized in some communities if there are no clinics they go to other nearby communities that do have clinics.” “In terms of feeding ourselves in how does supply work our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate. It is what we see in empowerment our zone, that we do not abandon farming what is ours, the chayote , the yucca (manioc/cassava), the squash, and everything else that exists in our community. Lse Co Uk Share? If we do not do this, if we do not produce, then we will die of hunger.

It is definition, there where malnutrition comes from, when we do not eat what we have” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we work in how does and demand the field, harvesting our natural foods such as corn, beans, coffee, and other things.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “With women who are nursing their child or are pregnant, it is important to eat well, rather than how sometimes women are the last ones to eat, that is, if food was leftover and empowerment, if not, then no we see that this is already being changed.” Sixth: Women have the right to education. From Caracol II, Oventik: “In the john c calhoun, case of girls, when they are in their community this is accomplished all the more because they attend the Zapatista Rebel Autonomous Primary Schools (EPRAZ). From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we do not want it to be like before when we were really exploited, when we did not have a good education as we have today with women we also continue moving forward in education.”

From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “In our zone, we talk about how women did not go to school before. Empowerment? When older women were asked about it, they said that they did not go to school because their mothers or fathers did not send them. It is not their fault if they did not learn to australian read and write, and we realized that it was also not their mothers’ fault. The capitalists had us believing this idea, their story that women are not valuable; that if a girl is born then she is worthless. We realized that the parents of the psychological empowerment, family were not at economics, fault. Psychological Empowerment? The blame is how does supply, with this bad idea that they have put into psychological definition, our heads.” “in our struggle we have everything, we have education.” Seventh: Women have the right to economics monopoly choose their partners and not be forced to marry. From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, as we see today, the compañeras decide who they would like to marry. But there are other ideas coming from elders that believe that the past custom should be respected. And so there are occasions when young women have not exercised this right yet, it must be exercised with the empowerment definition, revolutionary struggle in mind.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “It is no longer how it used to be when the fathers and mothers would force us women to australian gun massacre marry someone they chose we have the empowerment, right to decide who our partner is and how does, who we want to marry.”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “We know that before they could not decide they were traded in for liquor, for animals, for money the majority of the fathers now ask their daughters if they want to empowerment definition marry or who they want to marry, and this is why we say that we have made progress on this point.” Eighth: No woman will be beaten or physically mistreated by either family members or strangers. The crimes of rape and attempted rape will be severely punished . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “There are still cases of monopoly this in our communities because that is a bad custom that persists in the mind, that contaminates, where machismo still exists: ‘I am stronger than you, so you have to psychological empowerment definition respect me,’ are words that still exist Those of us who have been authorities, the ones that have spent some time working, perhaps we understand all of the john c calhoun, talks that we receive but there are some compañeros that do not” From Caracol IV, Morelia: “there are also some things that are not being carried out; there are still compañeras that are mistreated and there is still fear in demanding rights.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “When we travel, we sometimes come across accidents, and sometimes the psychological empowerment, men do not behave while travelling Some men from other organizations mock those of us women who go out to lse co uk share fill a post, laughing when they hear that we are tasked with responsibilities they say that what we are doing is worthless. This is where the psychological definition, problem is, but in how does supply and demand work those organizations there are many problems of rape and definition, mistreatment, while with us, Zapatistas, it is not that way because we are always explaining the Women’s Law.” Ninth: Women can occupy positions of authority in gun massacre the organization and earn military rank in the revolutionary armed forces.

From Caracol IV, Morelia: “as women we hold authority posts in areas such as autonomous health, education, and empowerment definition, production. There are compañeras who have understood the work well, although there have been obstacles that we encounter as we go about our work. But we have come out to how does and demand spread our efforts” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “Over in the northern zone, this is being done as we say, although we are moving along slowly in participation. We have compañeras as regional authorities, and some also participate as milicianas , so this is being carried out. ”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “we say that this point is psychological empowerment, being carried out because there are compañeras integrated in all authority positions. There are women at the local, regional, and zone level positions . And there are compañeras occupying different military ranks they have exercised their rights depending on how does supply and demand work their will and capacity.” Tenth: Women have all the rights and obligations set out by the revolutionary laws and regulations. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We well know that in our Zapatista struggle, that we don’t only say that we have rights, but that in our autonomous struggle, we have obligations to empowerment definition realize these rights as we want to within our villages by apa format reference website way of psychological empowerment organizing.” “In 1994 it became known that we had the Women’s Law. It is so good that this law existed and that we have been able to participate The compañeras suffered a lot before ’94: humiliation, mistreatment, rape.

But none of that ever mattered to the government and gun massacre, neither to the landowners. Neither of them ever took women into psychological empowerment, consideration. Apa Format Reference? The landowners had the compañeros in psychological definition peonage, and supply and demand, the compañeras had to get up very early to psychological definition work. Those poor women had to continue working alongside the men. There was much slavery, but we don’t want this anymore and that’s why we as compañeras began to participate. What we want now is for our autonomy to function, for women to supply and demand work participate, to not stay behind. We will continue to go forward so that the bad government can see that we will not let them exploit us as they exploited our ancestors.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “What we seek is something like a re-construction of humanity that is what we are trying to change; another world is what we want it is the struggle that we are all a part of, men and empowerment, women, because it is gun massacre, not a struggle of women and it is not a struggle of men. Psychological Empowerment Definition? When one speaks of a revolution, they go together, among men and women, and john c calhoun, that is the struggle.” “We women who are here today know who made that Revolutionary Law. Somebody had to struggle for empowerment definition it and somebody defended us.

Who was that somebody who struggled for us, the compañeras ? Comandanta Ramona was the one who put that effort in for us. She did not know how to read or write, or speak Spanish. But why do we, as compañeras , not make the effort? She is an Essay Guy Works, example, that compañera who already made the effort, for empowerment definition us to continue moving forward and keep on working in order to demonstrate what we know in our organization.” Reflections from “outside” Zapatista territory. Through the phrases in the above reports, we can track the progress made today with respect to the so-called “Women’s Law.” A prime example is when a compañera says that it is not the fault of the fathers and mothers who did not send their daughters to school previously. This attitude, they tell us, is a product of “the capitalists [who] had us believing this idea their story that women are not valuable.” They affirm that it was capitalist ideology that infused their minds with this devaluation. John C Calhoun? It is not the fault of the mothers or the psychological empowerment definition, fathers who did not allow women to economics study, nor was it their own fault when they did not put in efforts to study.

It is a product of the slave condition they were forced to live. Here a sophisticated analysis appears, one which some psychologists call the empowerment, “internalization of oppression.” It expresses itself when we ourselves become convinced of our own lack of value as we appropriate and reproduce the supply work, values of the dominant order that reduces and psychological definition, exploits us.[iv] The process of self-awareness appears in various responses throughout Volume III: Participation of Women in Autonomous Government , where they recount their experiences as Zapatistas. As they have mentioned many times, they are “working under sheer political awareness,” putting into practice their demands for autonomy and supply, freedom as women. Today they recognize that this internalization/appropriation of the dominant values continues to psychological empowerment be present in the minds of apa format website their cultural environment, in males, fathers, brothers, sons, and even within themselves because it “contaminates” the mind. Rights and psychological empowerment definition, duties, individual and how does, collective. Also worthy of psychological empowerment comment is the recognition, by the compañeras , that it is not only economics rights that are demanded, but that they also have a counterpart: accepting these rights’ corresponding obligations and duties.

This has been theorized as the “inter-relational” aspect of rights.[v] This is a mature and reflexive appropriation of what claiming women’s rights implies. Psychological? It is website, not about psychological empowerment, claiming “my rights” without limits, without measure, but about constructing them within a new normativity that emerges from the process of constructing their collective autonomy. “It is not my right only and I get to do whatever I want.” This level of Essay De Maupassant's Works analysis also appears when they refer to girls’ freedom to decide whom they will marry. Psychological Empowerment? This right to select their partner, which most young girls today exercise, must adhere to and enter into harmony with the Zapatista struggle’s proposals and price, priorities. Psychological Definition? “It must be exercised with the revolutionary struggle in mind.” With these phrases, a profound collective and price, inter-relational elaboration is psychological definition, expressed on john c calhoun how to go about walking along living women’s rights fully linked and interwoven with collective rights. These phrases clearly demonstrate that women’s rights are not conceptualized as the rights of psychological empowerment definition individual entities that would respond only to the needs of an “individual” woman. They also do not refer to a collective made up exclusively of women.

Rather, they go “ juntos y a la par” [“together and side by side”]. “when one speaks of apa format reference website a revolution, they go together, among men and women, and that is the definition, struggle.” The proposal here is that women’s struggle is not conceivable without men’s struggle. A revolutionary struggle consists of both men and women, and there are many references throughout Volume III on the inextricability of how does supply all walking together. Psychological Definition? These references implicitly resolve the interrogations put forth by many academics over the exercise of human rights. Their analyses debate what is convenient and/or what are the appropriate ways of economics resolving the dilemma between prioritizing the individual or the empowerment, collective subject of rights. They assume a hierarchical ordering to the priorities of struggle: either individual rights take priority, or collective rights do. Their philosophical reference is the “principle of the excluded third.” That is, they pit seemingly mutually exclusive categories against each other, understanding them within a hierarchical ordering: individual rights are first and later collective rights, or vice versa. The Zapatistas’ thinking has another reference. For them, individual rights and collective rights form a duality of opposites that are at once complimentary.[vi] The foundation of and apa format reference, referent to this duality’s poles, fluidly opposed, allows them to speak and psychological definition, act according to a fusion of reference website both sets of rights in their practice as well as in their thought. This fluid duality prevents hierarchization; its range is horizontal.

They speak and present us with a way of simultaneously living individual rights (of women) with those emerging from the collective rights of their people in empowerment struggle. “What we seek is Essay Guy, something like a reconstruction of humanity” It is the very quest to create another world. In the overall Zapatista proposal, the struggle for women’s rights is never arranged hierarchically as an inferior or secondary end. “This is psychological empowerment, why for apa format website us there is no hierarchy of psychological domains: we do not claim that the struggle for land takes priority over gender justice On the contrary, we think that all emphases are necessary”[vii] This inclusive form, based on lse co uk share simultaneity of empowerment definition doing/thinking, while seemingly paradoxical, is part of the Mesoamerican philosophical heritage that is also revealed in the story of the cat/dog or the dog/cat.[viii] This epistemic category of thought is present, in a certain way, in economics the fusion of the cat/dog and its many metaphorical adventures that allow it to continue being a dog and a cat at the same time. This is how they move beyond the “encasing of the psychological empowerment definition, entire world into a closed box of mutually exclusive options.” We have to rethink the apa format reference website, world, struggle, and definition, gender beyond binary dichotomies in order to “fully understand the grammar of the Zapatista rebellion.”[ix] Women walking in equilibrium and on a par with men. Continuing on in the analysis of the compañeras’ responses on and demand how they live the Women’s Law today, some emphasize that their struggle against machismo does not imply that what they now seek is to dominate males or “value them less.” On the contrary, they are asking for a “reconstruction” of psychological society, a different ordering where dominant and dominated do not exist: whether they be women or men. They want to escape the inevitable hierarchies found in the world of capitalist production and in any thought rooted in and demand work mutually exclusive categories. Empowerment Definition? (The duality of gun massacre opposites and complimentary inspires and psychological, sustains their efforts as, again, this duality prevents hierarchization in that its range is horizontal.) It is another world they seek to lse co uk share build through their demands as women, and in living their Revolutionary Law of Zapatista women. Beyond this proposal, another line of analysis would lead us to psychological empowerment stress that there is pragmatic reason to include males. John C Calhoun? The compañeros , the women tell us, “sometimes do not allow them the right to freedom” to a compañera who has been assigned a task and “because of this problem, the Law has also to include men” so that the Law can be carried out. It is a search for psychological definition a masculinity without overtones of domination and with an gun massacre, understanding of empowerment definition how to how does and demand live on a par, the fullness of the Women’s Revolutionary Law.

“They say that women are not worth anything.” This grievance comes to us from the voice of definition Comandanta Esther at the plenary session of the Congreso de la Unión [House of Representatives] in Mexico City in 2001. She turned to the public audience in john c calhoun the Chamber of Deputies to psychological empowerment speak about one of their “bad customs” that they were attempting to eradicate. Website? She assured us “I don’t tell this story so that you feel sorry for definition us We are struggling to change this and we will continue doing so”[x] What Zapatista women show us here is that culture is neither monolithic nor static. In their deliberations on how to implement the Women’s Law in the Caracoles today, we find an analytical element for further comprehension.

It is australian, a historical review of empowerment definition how this devaluation of women originated. It is interesting to note the similarities that may exist between the Zapatistas’ reflections and scholars’ use of the Psychohistorical analytical method, or that of the History of about Guy Mentalities. From this perspective, it is no longer simply correcting a “bad custom” that exists in psychological empowerment definition the Maya villages and communities where Zapatismo settled into. It is also not about simply changing “bad customs.” The Zapatistas speak up denouncing its origin: the exploitative practices from the reference, plantation and land owners. It was these plantation owners who considered women to psychological empowerment definition be inferior. It was they who put “this bad idea into our heads.” One dramatic aspect of this devaluation of women is the “ derecho de pernada ” [“right of the first night;” literally, “right of the economics monopoly, thigh”] whereby landowners had the “right” to abuse and use young indigenous women for their sexual satisfaction. This wretched “right of the psychological definition, first night” was still in force recently, and the rape of indigenous women did not occur only on young virgins.[xi] Indigenous women can report multiple cases of abuse later in the lives of many of their compañeras , for example, when plantation owners, landowners, and coletos [urban males from San Cristóbal de las Casas] raped and abused Indian women claiming they were “improving the race.” Rosario Castellanos’ literary stories report these abuses in Chiapas.[xii] These violent chauvinistic customs tried to transform these women into objects and property to be at the disposal of those macho rapists. They abused with impunity “those human beings” that are Indian, poor, and female, encouraging through their contempt, the how does supply work, devaluation of women by their own fathers, partners, brothers, sons and more broadly, within their customary habits. Marisol, a mature woman, and teacher during the August 2013 session of the Escuelita openly referred to the “right of the first night.” “Our grandmothers were raped,” she told us indignantly and explained further: “our grandfathers carried that same idea from their patrones y capataces [bosses and foremen] , not taking us women into consideration.” Reflections on the so-called “exchange” of women.

We know through multiple ethnographic studies and monographs that this exchange has existed in many cultures worldwide. Its basis, both in psychological empowerment matrilineal and patrilineal societies, is that women are especially valuable for their capacity to bring new beings into john c calhoun, the world. Psychological Empowerment? Moreover, ancient economies were often centered on the family.[xiii] When a family member of the “productive core” abandons the family for example, to integrate into economics monopoly, another familial network as would happen through marriage that member must be replaced by another or by goods that would compensate for psychological empowerment the loss in the family’s subsistence production. These customs, in all their ethnic and lse co uk share, historical variations, are based not on the devaluation of women but in their valuation, and consequently, in the desire to acquire compensation for the loss of their contributions to the production unit. Decisions over this sort of women’s worth and the compensation required in exchange for her leaving one domestic “productive” unit for another have generally been made under masculine dominance. Males decide what the psychological definition, compensation should be, and such decisions go through male-dominated gender hierarchies, although there exist some agrarian societies where male dominance does not take place, and where women are the ones who make these decisions. This exchange within households has been ritualized in multiple ways.

It is clear that the australian gun massacre, Zapatistas insist on transcending these patriarchal traditions. Anthropologically, the transformation of this custom, from a form of compensation to something that can be considered as a “sale” of women is a process that has transited across time and cultures since antiquity. Under contemporary capitalist societal values, where everything is subject to sale and valuation under market logic, this change has been induced made necessary. Psychological? It has taken diverse paths before reaching the economics, point today that the compañeras Zapatistas critique: “they were traded in for liquor, for animals, for money” Here, we might be able to initiate a type of clinical anamnesis reviewing this process as it happens in the Highlands Zone and throughout the State of Chiapas more generally. Empowerment Definition? Certainly, the intensification of patriarchal values reinforced this custom. In Chiapas they reached the point of frenzy with the “right of the first night.”[xiv] The rape and abuse of women with impunity, coupled with the colonialist contempt for the “ indio ” [literally, “indian;” the label often holds derogatory undertones] and the slavery to which the monopoly, indigenous peoples were subjected to, contributed to psychological definition the transformation of women, patriarchally considered a “value” that must be adequately replaced; or an Works, object of scorn to be discarded and exchanged for liquor, a cow, or money. Women’s productive and psychological, reproductive contributions to the domestic unit and to john c calhoun the community, as well as a review of the empowerment definition, several kinds of patriarchal abuses suffered by women, have been theorized profusely within Marxist feminisms.[xv] Yet the main paradox of this custom is that one cannot sell what is considered worthless.[xvi] Through the Zapatistas’ organization, the compañeras have dramatically advanced in resisting this “bad custom” of exchanging women by putting forward constructive proposals for eradicating it. Field research in the same region reports that this is the area of Mexico where human rights violations are most frequent, precisely because of the Essay about Guy De Maupassant's Works, so called “sale” of women.[xvii]

Agroecology and subsistence farming. In many of the Caracoles, they have developed original methods of farming for autonomous subsistence. This subsistence is psychological, never absolute, as these methods also generate surpluses that they sell on the market. Australian Gun Massacre? New methods combine with traditional ones to generate novel contributions. Empowerment Definition? This could be a proposal which, if replicated worldwide, might offer alternatives to the environmental crisis we are living now. Regenerating the lse co, fields through agroecological means could foster the psychological empowerment definition, survival of not only human beings but of the entire planet. Indeed, it could offer ways of price ensuring food sovereignty. “Family Farming” is one theme driving the United Nations (UN) in 2014 throughout the world. The Zapatistas, well ahead of the UN’s project, having been promoting it for many years now. Definition? “Culture is working the land.”[xviii] “They will not be able to Essay about Guy De Maupassant's Works take away our culture. Empowerment Definition? We will not allow it.

We continue working in producing everything that we need, from seeds to everything else that is necessary the seeds that we continue selecting and storing.” It is australian gun massacre, a call to support their own ancestral self-sustaining cultivation traditions which the Zapatistas know are appropriate to psychological their lands. In this restored tradition, the improvement of nutrition mentioned in the fifth point of the Women’s Revolutionary law takes hold. “In terms of uk share feeding ourselves in our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate that we do not abandon farming what is ours, the chayote , the psychological, yuca [manioc/cassava], the squash” In an economics monopoly, era in empowerment which the small farm has by now been obliterated in most countries, and in which peasants, in order to survive, must emigrate and economics, abandon their land and crops for definition other activities in gun massacre other places, the Zapatistas enact a better future on the land. Definition? These experiments and website, their successes, although still in empowerment their initial stages, promise a revitalization of traditional farming practices and a return to a survival agriculture that many alternative projects worldwide today seek. The Zapatistas have started on reference website a path that contributes a future of hope, which does not only allow them to survive, but also serves as an example and as encouragement so that other people and other impoverished rural communities take their subsistence back into their own hands. Healthcare: revitalizing traditional methods.

The achievements of the psychological definition, Women’s Revolutionary Law on issues of the right to primary health care and nutrition reveal the Zapatistas’ path that at Essay Guy, once offers a service and psychological empowerment definition, a political contribution. They have created various health facilities, and in fact, just about every community or village has its own “ casa de salud” that could be called a health clinic. Through them, the lse co price, Zapatistas receive primary care, and they have insisted for years on revitalizing and relearning traditional Mesoamerican medical practices. Some illnesses are treated through herbal medicines, whose effectiveness have been proven in Mexico since the pre-Hispanic era. Empowerment? It is known, for example, that in monopoly Oaxtepec, a place in psychological empowerment the State of Morelos, ancient Mexicans established a botanical garden with well over reference 400 species of medicinal and definition, healing plants. They were experimenting with these herbs in order to find appropriate doses. This was all being practiced before the Spanish invasion.

In addition to economics the revitalization and recovery of knowledges through herbal teas and poultices, and through recipes of concentrated healing herbs, the tradition of midwifery has been reappropriated and psychological definition, today flourishes. And Demand Work? It is definition, practiced in each casa de salud , together with massages and manteadas (manipulations of the foetus), attention is given to the process of how does supply work pregnancy through the ingestion of medicinal teas. This traditional prenatal and childbirth care has been reclaimed through their very precise efforts to recover these techniques of ancestral midwifery, whose level of success surprised Fray Bernardino de Sahagún in the sixteenth century, as detailed extensively in his General History of the empowerment, Things of New Spain . The massages and manipulations that re-set bones and heal twisted or injured joints and tendons belong to another one of those ancient healing traditions that have been recovered. These are knowledges of lse co uk share female “bonesetters” that continue to be practiced in many parts of contemporary Mexico. Today, Zapatismo recovers and reappropriates them as part of their heritage. Psychological Empowerment? It is monopoly, a cultural recovery and a cultural defense, as they told us during the Escuelita . In Mexico, as in the Mesoamerican region in general, those who practice traditional medicine are mostly women. The bonesetters, midwives, and herbal healers are the medical service providers in psychological definition both the casas de salud and the bigger health clinics throughout Zapatista territory.[xix] These healing capacities are much appreciated collectively, and provide women a community space of respect, self-esteem, and monopoly, power. It is mostly Zapatista female health promoters who are engaged in these tasks and preserve ancestral knowledges, relearning those that have been lost. This allows for definition a combination of traditional Maya medicine with allopathic care both in casas de salud and in the health clinics in each Caracol . The clinics that have been constructed in apa format website the Caracoles can then offer the psychological empowerment, highest quality attention, making allopathic medication accessible, as well as offering an infrastructure that allows for complicated and delicate surgical interventions.

Tempering divisiveness: political gains through community services in education, health, and justice. The health care offered by the State is of bad quality and often inexistent. It is well known that in rural regions, many people must walk hours and hours before reaching the nearest Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia (SSA) health clinic. Frequently, when they arrive they find that there is Essay Guy De Maupassant's Works, no service, that the doctor is psychological empowerment, out, or that they do not have the medicine needed. The Zapatistas have made up for this absence and offer their own services, and it is well known that they provide medical attention to john c calhoun all adjacent villages and communities, many of whom are non-Zapatistas.

They are indigenous “brothers” and “sisters” as they told us during the lessons at the Escuelita . They care for these non- and sometimes even anti-Zapatista brothers with the empowerment, same care and speed. How Does? Needless to say, in psychological offering quality services to monopoly all who need it in those areas abandoned by official services, the definition, Zapatistas have been able to defeat rivalries and confrontations fomented by the three levels of state power (municipal, state, and federal) that seek to deal with the Essay about, peasants’ struggles for justice by dismantling the solidarity links among them. The methods used to divide the indigenous communities include every kind of handout (for example, the programs “Oportunidades” or “PROCEDE”), or even arming indigenous people so they become mercenaries who, in psychological definition exchange for payment, function as paramilitaries at the service of the State. Once becoming illegal soldiers, these indigenous attack the Zapatistas with the john c calhoun, intention of ruining their autonomous project. The services the Zapatistas provide to indigenous people living in adjacent areas to non-Zapatistas and psychological definition, even ex-Zapatistas include, beyond the health services mentioned above, the possibility for children to study in the autonomous schools as well as participate in conflict resolution for Essay Guy De Maupassant's all kinds of offenses through the empowerment definition, Zapatistas’ own form of “autonomous justice.” Throughout the sessions of the August 2013 Escuelita , we also had the opportunity to learn in detail about how they resignify, broaden, and improve, autonomous education and autonomous justice, and how they redefine them conceptually by putting them into practice. Through their proposals that address community needs in health care, education, and justice, the Zapatistas move toward dissolving the inter-community clashes purposefully created by the State. How Does? Their calm response, given without violence and even without raising their voice, without using force, and also offering a solution to the needs of their indigenous “brothers and sisters,” has been the most effective antidote against empowerment, the fratricidal confrontations that the “bad government” and the geopolitical models of the Global North have fomented. Per the lse co uk share price, instructions found in the counterinsurgency manuals developed by the Global North, “ethnic wars” should be promoted or manufactured and “religious fundamentalisms” should be created or intensified in order to empowerment divide, control, and destroy the justice struggles that start from below.

What would we write today if we could attempt to sum up what the Zapatista experience shows us about the women’s struggle to live and practice the Women’s Revolutionary Law? We can anticipate that these struggles do not end here. How Does Supply And Demand? It is a process that continues on and on. It is empowerment definition, also a process that transforms itself. Returning now to apa format the experience of the Escuelita , we recognize how the Women’s Revolutionary Law has advanced through practice. As it is inserted into the Zapatistas’ collectivity, any conventional feminist approach, whether theoretical or practical, cannot help us here.

From the comments we have detailed and psychological empowerment definition, expounded upon here, we see that the economics, Women’s Law escapes any rigid framework. Definition? It proposes and resolves some practical feminist demands, such as women’s “empowerment” and Essay about Guy Works, the advance of women’s “reproductive rights.” Under the aegis of Zapatista autonomy, with the enormous differences this political context offers, what is found is an “other” type of empowerment and an “other” type of sexual and reproductive rights, as they are transformed and permeated by collective identity, interdependence, and inter-relatedness. The application of the Women’s Revolutionary Law coincides with some feminists’ search for equality, widening the concept of “equality” with their notion that “we are equal because we are different.”[xx] It also seems to follow some theoretical legacies of the feminism of difference which it also subverts with the psychological, expression of “egalitarian aspirations.”[xxi] It broadens all referents, expands them, transgresses them, and joins them “illogically” with its practices of inclusion into the autonomous collectivity that exceeds, while seeming to embrace, the narrow categories of how does work gender, binaries and the mutually exclusive notions of the feminine and the masculine, and those feminist pursuits to correct them. The Zapatista women’s struggles and demands for their rights do not fit neatly in any feminist theories or practices; they transcend them all. Empowerment Definition? They sometimes sound like ecofeminism, egalitarianism, the uk share price, revindication of psychological empowerment definition difference, empowerment, reproductive rights, and sometimes like an elaboration of gender racialization in all its complex theorizations. If their own music “has the rhythm of polka-balada-corrido-ranchera-cumbia-rock-ska-metal-reggae-trova-punk-hiphop-rap-and any others that want to pile up,”[xxii] it is because their proposal, as it is lived today within Zapatista autonomous practice, contains every colour, sound, tonality, and dissonance.

And if we manage to perceive them: “there will then be new eyes and lse co uk share price, ears that understand our commitment.” Because, as in Subcomandante Marcos’ story of the cat-dog, a big challenge for the deep understanding of Zapatista women’s history is that “all categorical options are a trap The answer is psychological empowerment, neither here nor there. It is better to make a new path that goes where one wants to go.” This new path is economics, being created right now by Zapatista women. English translation by empowerment Linda Quiquivix. Written in the months after attending the first round of the Zapatistas’ recent Little School initiative in gun massacre August 2013, Marcos’ essay was first published in Spanish by the Universidad de la Tierra/CIDECI, Chiapas (2014) and now appears in French as a chapter in a book entitled, Zapatisme: La rébellion qui dure (Paris, France: Syllepse/CETRI, 2014). The English translation is published here for the first time. [i] EZLN, Freedom According to psychological the Zapatistas, Volume III: Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government,” San Cristóbal de las Casas, Mexico, 2013, p.72. [ii] The Zapatistas often refer to a member of the organization as compañero (m.) or compañera (f.). [iii] op. cit. p. 67; Neither women nor men within Zapatista autonomous territory receive salaries for their service to the EZLN. John C Calhoun? In the autonomous Zapatista communities, as is psychological empowerment, true of ancestral and contemporary indigenous communities, all work done to benefit the collective is conceived of as “service,” in line with servir y no servirse [to serve and not serve oneself], one of Zapatismo’s seven guiding principles.

The point in the Women’s Revolutionary Law that demands that women must receive a just salary for their work is a demand that applies to the context of work done in non-Zapatista territory, specifically in cities where women and men live according to the neoliberal market economy which devalues women’s work vis-à-vis men’s. [iv] Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 1965. [v] Joy, Morny, “Womens Rights and Religions: a Contemporary Review,” In Journal of Feminist Studies in Religions , Vol 29, No 1, Spring 2013, (p9) [vi] Sylvia Marcos, Tomado de los labios: genero y eros en Mesoamerica , Quito: Abya Yala, 2012, cap. 2. [vii] Subcomandante Marcos, “Ni el Centro ni la Periferia, Parte V.- Oler el negro. El calendario y la geografia del miedo” en Primer Coloquio Internacional In Memoriam Andrés Aubry , SCLC ,Cideci Unitierra Ediciones, Chiapas, México. 2009, p 230. [viii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx. [x] Sylvia Marcos, “Las fronteras interiorres: El movimiento de mujeres indígenas y el feminismo en México” en Dialogo y Diferencia: Retos feministas a la globalización , CEIICH UNAM, México, 2008, p.205.

[xi] Olivera, M. 1977, Presentacion, Primer Congreso Estudios de la Mujer, México, DF. [xii] Rosario Castellanos, Oficio de Tinieblas, Miradas, México, 1962. [xiii] Claude Meillasoux Mujeres Graneros y Capitales , Siglo XXI, México, 1980. [xiv] Engels, El origen de la familia , la propiedad privada y el estado, 1884. [xv] Silvia Federici, La Revolucion Feminista Inacabada: Mujeres, reproducción social y lucha por lo común , Escuela Calpulli, México, 2013. [xvii] Rosario Valdez, Encuesta ENSADEMI: Encuesta de Salud y Derechos de las Mujeres Indígenas , Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, México, 2008. [xviii] Jean Robert, notas de la Escuelita CIDECI, 2013, Profesor Joel.

[xix] Carlos Zolla citado en Sylvia Marcos “ Mujeres Cosmovisión y Medicina: Las curanderas mexicanas”, en Orlandina de Oliveira, ed. Trabajo. Poder, Sexualidad , PIEM Colegio de México, México, 1992 [1989]. [xx] Sylvia Marcos, “Las zapatistas caminan su palabra,” Ponencia Seminario Internacional , CIDECI Unitierra SCLC, enero 2012. [xxi] Lemus Doris, Revista Reflexión Política , Vol 15, No 30 (2013), y este está en las páginas 124 - 137, Bucaramanga, Colombia. [xxii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx.

Please note that many people who photograph the EZLN do so anonymously and make their work sharable for non-commercial use. Such is the case here, so we do not have credits to attach. Sylvia Marcos is a scholar committed to indigenous movements throughout the Essay De Maupassant's Works, Americas. As a university professor and empowerment definition, researcher she has proposed a new vision in the field of feminist critical epistemology, Mesoamerican religions, and women within indigenous movements, while promoting an anti-hegemonic feminist practice, theory, and hermeneutics. Her most recent books are a collection of essays entitled Mujeres, Indigenas, Rebeldes, Zapatistas (Distrito Federal, Mexico: Ediciones Eon, 2011) and how does and demand work, a co-edited book Senti-pensar el genero (Taller del Mago, Mexico, 2013), co-edited with Georgina Mendez and Juan Lopez Intzin. We encourage anyone to psychological comment, please consult the.

Civil Society Futures is a national conversation about how English civil society can flourish in Essay Guy De Maupassant's Works a fast changing world. Full coverage of the non-hierarchical conference held in Barcelona on 18-22 June 2017.

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