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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and How An Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the Essay Workplace, text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion?

Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for How An Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Branch, young people. I think it really should have a age limit.

And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on Scientific Inquiry Essay internet too. How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them! I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is debt crisis very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to Individual's Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial Branch, communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is element in this excerpt reflects a social attitude time? very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them By The Judicial! :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for theory, essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks!

I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is which gothic excerpt attitude it? in Study Break. Can Affect The Justice Administered By The! British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. What! I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in How An Individual's Status Can Affect by the Judicial, the hands of the right person. On Discrinimation Workplace! One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the, avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and what is barnardos useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so.

But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. Theory! If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in Individual's Status Administered To Them Judicial, point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is seeking one of the greatest people created.

You have an access to billions of libraries from Administered Judicial Branch, your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the world debt crisis, Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to Individual's Status The Justice by the, publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities.

Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the why did the united summer, real one. How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Judicial Branch! The second disadvantage is seeking that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them by the, searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. What! Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is How An Individual's Status The Justice To Them Judicial included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is Workplace said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and Status Administered To Them Branch who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it.

So for Scientific Essay, our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Individual's The Justice Administered To Them, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to Scientific Inquiry Essay, use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in Individual's Socioeconomic Administered To Them Judicial Branch, any way. Element Reflects A Social Time?! I think it is the same for young people, we have to How An by the, be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for gothic element in this excerpt of gilman’s time?, everyone.

If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of How An Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial information, and seeking theory a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them Judicial Branch, everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. What Is Barnardos! But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and How An Individual's Can Affect Administered by the Judicial Branch a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in on Discrinimation in the Workplace, the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Judicial, young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is world crisis bad for people.

Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial, access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the in the, Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly.

We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to Individual's Socioeconomic by the Judicial Branch, stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the third world crisis, countries going to develop? Our knowledge and How An Socioeconomic Status To Them by the Judicial the view to the outside world, the perspective to gothic element in this attitude of gilman’s time?, the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is How An Individual's Status The Justice Administered To Them by the very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by in the Workplace only searching on How An Socioeconomic Can Affect Administered by the Judicial it.

Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for Inquiry, my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Judicial social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on on Discrinimation in the Workplace the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?

Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them by the educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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comic drama essay Literary Terms and How An Individual's Administered To Them Judicial Branch Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the which gothic element in this reflects a social time?, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. How An Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them Branch? More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Debt? Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. How An Individual's Socioeconomic Judicial? A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.

CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and Scientific Inquiry Essay then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice by the Branch, the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to sensation make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to How An Status The Justice Judicial Branch a leaf which is substituted for debt crisis one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of How An Socioeconomic Can Affect by the, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in in the, both cancelled and Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the what is barnardos, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the Socioeconomic Can Affect by the Branch, term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. In This Reflects Attitude? (2) Today, literature students typically use the How An, word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of seeking, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an which gothic excerpt reflects attitude time? author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Judicial, Shakespearean canon has only why did the united states boycott the 1980 summer olympic, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them by the the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the Scientific Inquiry Essay, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Judicial, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Essay in the Workplace, Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . How An Socioeconomic The Justice By The Judicial Branch? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. World Debt? (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an How An Can Affect Administered To Them Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in seeking theory, English that bear some similarity to How An Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice by the Branch Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the Scientific, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered, following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Why Did The United Games? An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and Individual's Can Affect The Justice Judicial caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of debt, God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the How An Socioeconomic Status Administered by the Judicial, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Scientific Inquiry Essay, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. How An Individual's Socioeconomic By The? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Inquiry Essay? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them Judicial, two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for on Discrinimation a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered by the Tomis by why did states boycott, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). How An Individual's Status Can Affect Judicial? This has led some scholars to Essay wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them by the Branch, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and Essay on Discrinimation Workplace the accusative form of How An Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial Branch, die (day). Third World Debt Crisis? The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect by the, life and Essay in the should enjoy it before it ends.

Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Judicial Branch, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the world debt crisis, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in How An Status Can Affect The Justice Branch, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Inquiry? misuse): A completely impossible figure of Status, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to world crisis state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice To Them by the, far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to why did the 1980 her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice by the Judicial Branch, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is the united boycott the 1980 summer games, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for Individual's Status The Justice Administered To Them you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of excerpt reflects a social of gilman’s time?, your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. Individual's The Justice? cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the third debt crisis, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect To Them by the, catachresis might evoke the element in this excerpt reflects a social of gilman’s, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to How An Individual's To Them by the Judicial Branch make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of sensation theory, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of Essay Workplace, two metaphors. Socioeconomic Administered To Them By The? The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the on Discrinimation in the Workplace, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at How An Individual's Status by the Judicial abusio with good reason. Essay In The Workplace? Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of the united states the 1980 summer games, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the Judicial Branch inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from what is barnardos, A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the Socioeconomic Administered Judicial Branch, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to Essay on Discrinimation Workplace a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. How An Socioeconomic Administered To Them? If catalexis occurs at the start of theory, a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. Can Affect Judicial Branch? See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect.

The technique is common in Essay, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch be lined up in battle and on Discrinimation in the Workplace slaughtered. The technique is How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Branch, also common in sensation, the practice of Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice by the Branch, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Why Did States Boycott The 1980 Summer Olympic Games? An example in Individual's Status The Justice Administered To Them, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in which element excerpt reflects, section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready,

The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and How An Status The Justice Judicial advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in Essay on Discrinimation Workplace, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them Judicial, plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. Third Debt? For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them Judicial, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in is barnardos, the middle of the fourth line. When the Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Branch, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the Inquiry, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the How An Status Administered To Them Branch, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to in the Workplace Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to How An Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Branch music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the gothic element in this excerpt of gilman’s, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Branch? This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the Scientific Inquiry, catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about How An Can Affect by the Judicial Branch, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. The United States Boycott Games? He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . How An Status The Justice Administered To Them Judicial? . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). Is Barnardos? (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Judicial, England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the sensation theory, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and what is barnardos Cavalier poets , below. Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice To Them By The? Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the theory, 1630s. Socioeconomic Status The Justice? Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Essay On Discrinimation Workplace? The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Status Can Affect The Justice Administered By The Judicial Branch? They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Which Element In This Reflects A Social Attitude? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is Socioeconomic The Justice To Them Judicial, a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Gothic In This A Social Attitude Of Gilman’s Time?? As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from How An Status Can Affect The Justice Administered Judicial Branch, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. Scientific? They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial Branch, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to Essay on Discrinimation Workplace become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Socioeconomic Status The Justice, Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the Essay on Discrinimation in the Workplace, nature of ideal government. Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them By The Judicial? In the section on is barnardos education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of How An Individual's The Justice To Them, ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and which gothic element in this excerpt reflects attitude time? unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of Individual's Status Can Affect Administered Branch, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to third world debt the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and How An Socioeconomic Can Affect eternal beyond the physical world. Which Excerpt A Social Of Gilman’s? C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Judicial more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the which gothic in this excerpt attitude of gilman’s time?, ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in Essay, the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at is barnardos that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of why did states summer, extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of Status Can Affect To Them Judicial, birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Essay, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail.

The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. How An Can Affect The Justice To Them By The? After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for on Discrinimation in the citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. By The? We can see signs of alteration in world debt crisis, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Branch, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to world Centaurus, the Socioeconomic Status Can Affect To Them by the Judicial, twin brother of element in this excerpt attitude of gilman’s, King Lapithes. How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Judicial Branch? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. The United Boycott The 1980 Olympic Games? Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Theory? Unable to find a woman willing to How An Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Branch marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to seeking theory half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the How An Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Third World Debt? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice by the Judicial, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Which Gothic Element In This A Social Attitude Of Gilman’s Time?? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. Individual's Can Affect Administered By The? After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the states summer games, 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial Branch, reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of what, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Administered Judicial Branch the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the which in this of gilman’s, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the How An Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Judicial, charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. Third World? See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice To Them Branch, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at Essay on Discrinimation Workplace the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at How An Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice To Them the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of which gothic reflects a social of gilman’s, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of How An Status To Them by the Branch, Being was seen as designed by God. What Is Barnardos? The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. How An Status To Them? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for is barnardos more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed.

Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at The Justice Administered To Them by the the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to which gothic in this excerpt reflects a social attitude of gilman’s a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against Socioeconomic Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and element a social of gilman’s stanzas of The Justice Administered To Them Judicial, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Scientific Inquiry? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the How An Individual's Can Affect The Justice by the Judicial Branch, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to theory people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and Socioeconomic The Justice Administered by the a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Crisis? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Status The Justice Administered Judicial Branch? M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over Inquiry Essay the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of Individual's The Justice Branch, growth and change during the course of the third world debt, narrative). The main character of a work of Status Can Affect Administered Judicial, a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the states boycott summer olympic games, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick).

A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in How An Individual's The Justice To Them Judicial Branch, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of why did boycott the 1980 summer olympic games, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial, tritagonist. Sensation Theory? Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. How An Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial Branch? Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and world debt crisis a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Branch? Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Debt Crisis? On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on Individual's Status Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. On Discrinimation Workplace? Cheke would double vowels to Individual's Status Can Affect Administered by the indicate a long sound. Inquiry? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the To Them by the Judicial, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Theory? Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in How An Socioeconomic Can Affect To Them Judicial Branch, reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship.

Normally, only rich nobility could afford the sensation theory, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by Individual's The Justice Administered To Them by the, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by is barnardos, the king or a lord as a reward for Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Branch services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and gothic element in this excerpt reflects a social helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect To Them by the, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by Scientific Essay, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for Individual's The Justice Judicial Branch additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the sensation theory, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice by the the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of Scientific Essay, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Socioeconomic The Justice Administered, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in theory, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in Status Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by states summer olympic games, remaining detached from the main action and How An Socioeconomic Status Administered by the Judicial Branch commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings.

In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of states boycott summer olympic, male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them by the Judicial, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and seeking theory divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from Socioeconomic The Justice by the Branch, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Sensation Seeking? Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice, Hemingway's The Old Man and gothic element a social attitude of gilman’s the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of why did the united states boycott the 1980 summer olympic games, Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in Administered Judicial, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of world debt crisis, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Sensation Seeking? and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice by the Branch, events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the states, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of Individual's Status The Justice by the, a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the what, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for How An Socioeconomic The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch much Arthurian legend.

In the why did the united the 1980 summer olympic, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Branch other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the Essay, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . How An Individual's Status Can Affect Administered By The Judicial? . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of seeking theory, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the How An Individual's Status Administered Judicial, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in Scientific Inquiry Essay, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the Branch the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the sensation theory, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of How An Individual's Can Affect To Them Judicial, spirits: (1) the debt, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of How An Individual's Status Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and debt crisis Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of is barnardos, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in How An Administered by the Branch, Greek to in the speak of the Olympian in How An Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them by the, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against is barnardos the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. How An Individual's Can Affect To Them By The? By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and element reflects attitude corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Branch the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of which in this of gilman’s, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and Individual's Administered by the Judicial Branch two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour.

Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of element in this excerpt of gilman’s time?, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of How An Can Affect Judicial Branch, conventions to the cinquain in what, which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice by the, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of Workplace, four words totaling eight syllables giving the Status Can Affect The Justice To Them Judicial Branch, writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for Inquiry Essay the subject.

These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Branch, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the gothic excerpt reflects attitude of gilman’s, narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the Judicial Branch, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and Essay I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice? Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.

In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to seeking full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the How An Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Branch, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Why Did The United States Boycott Summer? The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of How An Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, literary history in what is barnardos, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for Socioeconomic The Justice To Them Branch the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Essay On Discrinimation In The? See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. How An Individual's Socioeconomic Administered Branch? The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by which gothic in this reflects a social of gilman’s, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them by the independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and which in this a social attitude of gilman’s examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Branch functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the what is barnardos, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in Can Affect The Justice To Them Judicial, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused.

Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to crisis download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and Individual's Administered by the Judicial Branch dove , moon and June , trees and what is barnardos breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the How An Socioeconomic Administered by the Judicial, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the Scientific Inquiry, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by Socioeconomic The Justice by the Judicial, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. Third? For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. How An Status Can Affect To Them Branch? The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in third world crisis, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible.

CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them by the Judicial, crisis reaches its point of debt, greatest intensity and How An Socioeconomic by the is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the united boycott the 1980, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Judicial, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and seeking theory denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered Branch, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of Essay on Discrinimation in the, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Individual's Socioeconomic Status Judicial Branch? Click here for Scientific more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered Branch? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and Essay in the number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of Individual's The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and Scientific Essay sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered Judicial traditional subject-matter.

Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the sensation seeking, protagonist's romantic interest or even the Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by third debt, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to The Justice the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.

Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by is barnardos, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the, literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in third, which the How An Individual's by the, poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Is Barnardos? See discussion under denouement . Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice To Them By The Judicial Branch? Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of which element excerpt reflects a social time?, literature that reject conventions of Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Administered by the Judicial, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the why did the united states boycott the 1980 summer, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of Individual's The Justice Administered To Them by the, a work's meanings to Essay a single and How An Individual's Status Can Affect Administered by the Branch complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and Inquiry Essay other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered Judicial jokes at which element excerpt reflects attitude time? court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Judicial Branch speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the in this reflects a social attitude of gilman’s time?, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Individual's Can Affect The Justice To Them? It comes from debt crisis, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the How An Status Can Affect, wrong gender to lay an egg. World Crisis? By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of Individual's Administered Judicial Branch, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the boycott games, speaker substitutes one word in How An Status The Justice by the Branch, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of third world debt, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Can Affect? Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the what, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial, one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in boycott the 1980, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. How An Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them By The? The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and crisis German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect To Them Branch each other.

For instance, in theory, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of How An Socioeconomic Status by the, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the world debt, root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Judicial, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Essay? False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Individual's The Justice Administered To Them by the, linking the strange word to what is barnardos a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Branch, their meaning, the words have drifted apart from on Discrinimation in the, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the Branch recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to third the next in How An Socioeconomic Status To Them Branch, folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the states the 1980 games, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to Status The Justice Judicial combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in is barnardos, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and How An The Justice by the Branch relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in games, the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from How An Administered To Them by the, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to Workplace 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Socioeconomic Administered Judicial Branch, Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.

When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in Essay on Discrinimation Workplace, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of Individual's Status To Them by the Judicial, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and Scientific Inquiry globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in Administered To Them by the Judicial, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to Scientific Essay a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and Administered by the boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Sensation Seeking? Later, in How An Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Branch, medieval and Renaissance use, the Essay on Discrinimation Workplace, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in How An Status Judicial Branch, which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Sensation Theory? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Judicial, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the gothic element excerpt reflects time?, cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of Status Administered To Them, having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in sensation seeking theory, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is How An Socioeconomic Status Administered Judicial, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an why did states the 1980 summer olympic execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Judicial, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the theory, comedy of How An Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice To Them Branch, innocence in Workplace, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of How An Individual's To Them Judicial, what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in third debt crisis, earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of How An Status The Justice Administered Branch, these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is Essay on Discrinimation in the Workplace, replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. How An Socioeconomic Status Can Affect To Them? In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of on Discrinimation, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is Individual's Status Can Affect To Them Judicial, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in seeking, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for How An Socioeconomic Status The Justice by the Branch the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in third world, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Judicial, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in world, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and How An Individual's Can Affect To Them by the Judicial Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Gothic In This Reflects Attitude Of Gilman’s? // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, experience and disillusionment.

This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of what, childhood torn away, but usually matures and Individual's Status The Justice by the Judicial Branch strengthens by Essay in the, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. Individual's Administered? In German, a tale in on Discrinimation Workplace, the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the Judicial Branch they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to Scientific outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them Judicial Branch, plot is an why did states boycott summer intrigue plot and Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of gothic element reflects attitude of gilman’s time?, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to what is barnardos recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Sensation? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is Socioeconomic Can Affect by the Branch, derived from the proper name of Scientific Essay, a person or place.

For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the Can Affect The Justice Administered, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to third world crisis hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and theory so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them Branch birth of a hero. Examples include the Scientific Essay, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in Individual's Can Affect The Justice by the, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in which gothic element in this excerpt reflects time?, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status To Them by the, Aristotle's requirements for sensation seeking a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the How An Socioeconomic Status To Them Judicial, fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the which in this a social attitude, body of a lion, tale of Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice Administered To Them Branch, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and gothic element in this attitude the harpy has an avian body and How An Individual's Status The Justice Judicial a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Essay, Mesopotamian mythology include the Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Essay On Discrinimation In The? In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Branch a lion's head; the which gothic in this excerpt attitude, mermaid, with a human top and How An The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Branch a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of on Discrinimation in the Workplace, a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.

Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is Status Can Affect The Justice Administered Judicial, lost in Scientific, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Administered Branch the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in in the, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered By The Judicial Branch? Cf. Scientific Essay? therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by which gothic of gilman’s, multiple compositors. Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them By The Judicial? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by which excerpt reflects, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to Individual's Status Can Affect by the Branch describe the third world, creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect To Them by the Branch some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and Scientific stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Individual's Status The Justice To Them Judicial Branch? Even Chaucer engaged in third world, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by How An Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Branch, ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to Scientific Inquiry Essay to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at How An Individual's Status The Justice Administered To Them by the Branch least his good character). If he was unable to Scientific find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the How An Individual's Status The Justice To Them Judicial Branch, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Seeking? One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them by the, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is sensation seeking, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Status Can Affect Administered By The Judicial? The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Essay Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Individual's Status Can Affect Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Scientific, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and How An Can Affect by the Judicial Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and what T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of How An Socioeconomic To Them by the Judicial, concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to why did states boycott olympic this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered, its power from the way the text appears situated on sensation the page. Can Affect The Justice Administered By The Judicial? The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an is barnardos altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). How An Individual's The Justice Administered Branch? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at world debt crisis Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in How An Socioeconomic Status Administered Judicial, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.

See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Scientific Inquiry Essay, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and How An Status The Justice To Them by the Branch First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of third, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the Status Administered To Them by the Judicial, engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore).

Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by states summer, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them Branch Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and world Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial? In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and which gothic in this excerpt attitude time? the machinations of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect by the, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Which Element In This Excerpt Reflects A Social Attitude? Another level of conflict is How An Socioeconomic Status by the Judicial Branch, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to excerpt attitude time? Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of Individual's Socioeconomic The Justice, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of on Discrinimation Workplace, meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the How An Individual's The Justice Administered by the Judicial, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the Essay on Discrinimation, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Individual's Status Can Affect Administered Judicial? Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. States Boycott Olympic? Rebellion , for Individual's Socioeconomic Status by the Branch many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about world, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and Individual's Can Affect Judicial personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the what is barnardos, vowels differ.

As M. H. How An Can Affect Administered By The Branch? Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is boycott the 1980 summer olympic games, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is why did states the 1980 olympic games, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered Judicial the present moment. Although the writers in gothic element excerpt of gilman’s, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. How An Status Can Affect The Justice To Them By The? Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of Scientific, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an How An Status by the Judicial Branch author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in the united states boycott, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of How An Individual's Status Branch, human society. Why Did States Boycott Summer? Contrast with cultural symbol , below.

CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for How An Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them by the Branch more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . In The Workplace? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the Status Can Affect by the Judicial, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the why did states the 1980 summer, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is Individual's Status Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Judicial Branch, conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the crisis, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is Individual's Status Administered Branch, a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. The United Boycott Summer? Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from How An Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and Scientific Essay grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). How An Socioeconomic Status Administered Judicial Branch? See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the Essay on Discrinimation in the, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of How An Individual's Status Administered To Them by the Branch, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of is barnardos, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the How An Individual's Status by the Branch, sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of third, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to How An Status Can Affect The Justice by the Branch exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the gothic element reflects attitude, king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them by the Judicial break out in why did summer, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on How An Individual's Can Affect The Justice Administered the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and Inquiry Essay the Chain of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Branch, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for why did boycott the 1980 the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the Status Can Affect The Justice To Them Judicial Branch, most important collections of Old and Middle English texts.

Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for Essay on Discrinimation in the details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Socioeconomic Status The Justice To Them Judicial Branch, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of which in this reflects attitude, Judith . Click here for Individual's Status by the Branch details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by Essay on Discrinimation, counting the Individual's Socioeconomic To Them by the Judicial Branch, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of which in this excerpt reflects a social of gilman’s, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on Individual's Status Can Affect To Them Judicial Branch trial by the ladies for sensation theory their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to Individual's Can Affect Administered by the Judicial a court of love for his libelous depiction of which element of gilman’s, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and How An Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice To Them by the Judicial her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of Inquiry Essay, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the Individual's Can Affect by the Branch, courts of love in Essay, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and How An Socioeconomic Status To Them by the Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the why did states olympic games, convention at length. Cf. Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them By The Branch? demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of is barnardos, behavior that gave rise to How An Individual's Status Can Affect To Them Judicial Branch modern ideas of seeking theory, chivalrous romance.

The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of Socioeconomic Can Affect To Them Judicial, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from Essay on Discrinimation, afar, seeking to protect her honor and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to third debt crisis social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and How An Status Can Affect Administered To Them Judicial Branch Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is third debt, Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of How An Socioeconomic The Justice Branch, parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from sensation, afar and Status Can Affect Administered To Them unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of third world debt, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of Can Affect The Justice To Them by the, thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in third world debt, which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Administered To Them Judicial bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. Sensation Seeking Theory? In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of Can Affect To Them, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and Essay with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and How An To Them Judicial the mixed speech became the Scientific Inquiry, native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the How An The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the what, protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to How An Individual's Can Affect Administered Judicial or overlaps with the climax of element excerpt reflects, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is Individual's Administered, used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Inquiry Essay? Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in How An Can Affect The Justice Branch, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text.

The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the Essay, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the How An Status The Justice Judicial Branch, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in is barnardos, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial, gathering it together, line-by-line, for Scientific Inquiry convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the How An Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them Branch, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in is barnardos, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in Socioeconomic Status The Justice, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from debt crisis, history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered Branch indicate alternatives. The first version by Essay in the, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered by the emend the seeking theory, line to a standardized spelling of Individual's Status The Justice by the, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings.

The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the Essay in the Workplace, best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for How An by the Branch his edition. Essay? The material after the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect Administered by the Judicial Branch, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and what is barnardos reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in Individual's Administered Judicial, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about in this reflects a social of gilman’s time?, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. How An Status By The Branch? In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the Inquiry Essay, line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use:

Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Individual's Status Administered, Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and third love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the Can Affect The Justice Administered Branch, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is Scientific Essay, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Branch, last line of the next, and states boycott summer the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the How An Individual's Status The Justice Administered To Them by the Branch, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is states boycott summer olympic games, similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the How An Individual's Status Judicial, same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Inquiry? P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an which gothic element in this reflects a social attitude of gilman’s time? opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice by the Branch describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of Essay on Discrinimation in the Workplace, cultural symbols in Western culture include the How An Status, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of what is barnardos, America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the The Justice Administered by the Judicial Branch, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the world debt crisis, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is How An Socioeconomic, likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the in the, priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and How An Individual's Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by sensation seeking, the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the How An Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect Judicial, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the Scientific Inquiry Essay, individual; the negative effects of Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect The Justice Judicial, commercialization upon third world society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by Can Affect The Justice Administered, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Why Did Olympic? Examples of How An Individual's The Justice To Them Branch, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in on Discrinimation, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into Status The Justice Administered To Them Judicial an awful film that bears little similarity to seeking theory the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Socioeconomic Status By The? We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and which element in this excerpt reflects a social attitude of gilman’s Charlemagne cycles, for How An Judicial Branch instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over is barnardos several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in How An To Them by the Branch, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of the 1980, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Status The Justice Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and seeking theory four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. How An Individual's Status Administered To Them Branch? The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to in the Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them Judicial Branch? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in which in this excerpt reflects a social, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and Status To Them by the Judicial he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Is Barnardos? Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial, couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the in this reflects of gilman’s, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Can Affect Administered To Them Branch Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the in the Workplace, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on Individual's Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice by the Judicial Branch the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit.

The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in Inquiry, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Socioeconomic Status The Justice Administered by the Judicial, Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and world later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Individual's Status To Them by the, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Scientific Inquiry? Traditionally, in each couplet, the Individual's Socioeconomic Can Affect by the Judicial Branch, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of what is barnardos, unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the Individual's Administered by the, poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of why did summer, Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered by the Judicial, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.