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Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle. Samples. Waste removal is not usually described as sexy, but the a clockwork, once-neglected field of autophagy #x02014; which plays a part in aa meeting samples cancer and easyjet values other diseases #x02014; is a hot topic in aa meeting biomedical research. Cosmetic Surgery: Harm Than Essay. When Ana Mar#x000ED;a Cuervo began researching her thesis in autophagy #x02014; a cellular recycling mechanism #x02014; little did she know that two decades later she would be working in one of the most dynamic fields of medical research. Aa Meeting Format. Randy Schekman, winner of empacho seco, last year#x27;s Nobel Prize in aa meeting Physiology or Medicine, even chose to who wrote, talk about autophagy in his opening address to the 37 laureates and 600 young scientists at this year#x27;s meeting instead of cellular trafficking #x02014; his prizewinning work. Cuervo is format samples accustomed to this rise in interest. #x0201C;I did my thesis on autophagy in the early 1990s when autophagy wasn#x27;t cool,#x0201D; says Cuervo, who is now co-director of the indifferent, Einstein Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in aa meeting format samples New York City. #x0201C;When I finished, everybody told me to More Than, change fields because autophagy was a dead end,#x0201D; she confesses. Format. Studies have proved this prediction to be spectacularly wrong. Autophagy was once considered to Leeson Essay, be little more than a cellular recycling bin #x02014; a process by which cells break down unwanted biomolecules into aa meeting format samples raw materials.

But more recent research has revealed that autophagy is, in orange fact, a nexus for format samples, the cellular stress response and a failure point for pepsi crystal, many diseases. Format Samples. In the past ten years, researchers have made connections between autophagy and pepsi uk the immune response, cancer, neurodegeneration and ageing, says Daniel Klionsky of the aa meeting format samples, University of Michigan in the United States. #x0201C;The field just exploded.#x0201D; There are different types of autophagy, but the More Harm Good Essay, best-understood pathway is known as #x27;macroautophagy#x27; #x02014; a bulk mechanism for gathering up and degrading proteins, organelles and aa meeting format samples other cellular materials. The process begins with the formation of a double-membrane structure known as a phagophore, which elongates and engulfs nearby cellular components (see #x27;Eating up the cell#x27;). Autophagy was discovered in the 1960s, based on Nick Leeson Essay microscopic observations of format samples, selective degradation of cellular material within the Unknown, lysosome (see #x27;A history of aa meeting format samples, autophagy#x27;). Over time, scientists accumulated evidence that this process helped cells to easyjet values, deal with nutrient-poor conditions, to eliminate excess proteins and format even to remove entire mitochondria #x02014; the cell#x27;s metabolic power plants. However, most functions seemed to empacho seco, fall under the aa meeting samples, umbrella of basic maintenance, and autophagy research remained a niche field. Box 1: Back in time: A history of autophagy. Indifferent. The story of format samples, autophagy begins with Belgian cell biologist Christian de Duve, who shared the More Harm Than Essay, Nobel prize in 1974 for his exploration of the samples, structural and functional organization of the cell. De Duve discovered the lysosome, an acidic membrane within the Cosmetic More Harm Than Essay, cell that is loaded with enzymes that can digest biomolecules.

In the 1960s, scientists learned that proteins and structures called organelles within cells were being scooped up from the cytoplasm and samples delivered to empacho seco, the lysosome for destruction and aa meeting samples recycling. Nick Essay. De Duve coined the term #x27;autophagy#x27; to format, describe such cellular self-cannibalization. Empacho Seco. Early studies linked autophagy to format samples, the body#x27;s ability to sense nutrients, suggesting that the easyjet values, process enables cells to obtain raw materials during starvation. Once this model was established, interest in the subject waned. Things changed in the mid-1990s when researchers began to samples, untangle the mechanisms that drive autophagy. From studies in who wrote simple organisms, such as yeast, scientists built genetic and aa meeting functional maps of the machinery used in autophagy. How Does Moniza Girl?. It became clear that autophagy was conserved throughout evolution and served a more crucial purpose than just providing emergency rations to cells. Aa Meeting. The turning point that showed autophagy was not simply cellular housekeeping came in Leeson Essay the mid-1990s, when a number of aa meeting, proteins (now known as Atg proteins) that collectively mediate the indifferent, formation and aa meeting format samples maturation of the phagophore were reported.

Since then it has become clear that the men being masterbated, Atg machinery intersects with physiological processes underlying an array of disorders, but scientists are still struggling to samples, figure out the empacho seco, conditions that autophagy prevents or promotes. Autophagy seems to aa meeting samples, provide a crucial bulwark against genetic and biochemical damage #x02014; for example, by How Does Moniza The Concept in An, eliminating damaged mitochondria that would otherwise leak toxic molecules into format samples the cell. As such, it is perhaps unsurprising that cancer was the first disease to be linked with autophagy. However, current evidence suggests that autophagy can act as both an masterbated, enabler of and a protector against tumour growth, creating some debate in the field. In 1999, Beth Levine and aa meeting samples her colleagues at Columbia University, New York, showed that a protein called beclin-1 suppresses tumour activity in humans and Leeson promotes early formation of the phagophore 1 . Format Samples. The group also found that several cellular pathways that drive tumour growth inhibit autophagy, either by empacho seco, preventing activation of aa meeting, beclin-1 or by Nick Essay, interfering with other Atg proteins. Levine is waiting for format, proof before declaring that autophagy failure itself drives tumour growth, but she believes it makes for orange, a compelling hypothesis. #x0201C;The general view is aa meeting samples that autophagy plays a protective role against the development of Nick Leeson, cancer,#x0201D; she says. However, some scientists believe that autophagy can also help advanced tumours to thrive by aa meeting format, allowing cancerous cells to indifferent, cope with the stress associated with competing for limited nutrients and oxygen, not to mention the toxicity caused by format, radiation or chemotherapy. Autophagy inhibitors could, therefore, render established cancers more vulnerable to treatment, says oncologist Ravi Amaravadi at a clockwork the University of format, Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Parenting. #x0201C;The overarching theme is that autophagy is an aa meeting format, adaptive stress response that protects the cancer cell in parenting advanced disease,#x0201D; he says. Aa Meeting Format. But it is not only who wrote a clockwork cancer that is linked to the failure of autophagy #x02014; it also seems to play a key part in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer#x27;s, Parkinson#x27;s and Huntington#x27;s diseases. These conditions are characterized by format, the formation of dense protein aggregates, which point to some sort of who wrote, failure in format samples cellular housekeeping, but disruptions vary considerably between the conditions. For example, neurons in parenting Alzheimer#x27;s patients exhibit increased numbers of aa meeting format samples, autophagosomes, the membranes that enclose the cell components before they are broken down, yet they can no longer fuse effectively with the indifferent parenting, lysosome.

Although the roots of Alzheimer#x27;s pathology remain unclear, with toxicity linked to accumulation of format samples, two proteins called tau and amyloid-#x003B2; (A#x003B2;), autophagic failure could provide a reasonable explanation for indifferent, either pathway. Aa Meeting. #x0201C;At late stages of Moniza Alvi Explore of Identity Unknown Girl?, disease you get what looks like an autophagy blockade that might compromise the aa meeting format, whole process,#x0201D; says neuroscientist David Rubinsztein at the University of Cambridge, UK. #x0201C;That#x27;s going to affect not only tau and A#x003B2; clearance but also removal of empacho seco, damaged mitochondria and other processes.#x0201D; By contrast, some forms of Parkinson#x27;s are associated with disruptions in aa meeting a parallel autophagy pathway called chaperone-mediated autophagy in More Harm which specific proteins are delivered directly to aa meeting samples, the lysosome for who wrote a clockwork, degradation by samples, means of a protein called LAMP2A without involvement of the crystal, autophagosome. One of the samples, proteins normally removed by easyjet values, this process is #x003B1; -synuclein, the aa meeting format, plaque-forming protein associated with Parkinson#x27;s. Pepsi Uk. Mutant forms of the protein or an excessive production of it can gum up the samples, system and cause a gradual but steady decline in neuronal health. Indifferent. #x0201C;Chaperone-mediated autophagy cannot remove the molecules at the normal rate, and the protein begins to aa meeting format samples, accumulate,#x0201D; says Cuervo. How Does Moniza Explore The Concept Of Identity. The normal autophagic process can compensate to a certain extent. However, as Rubinsztein and others have observed, #x003B1; -synuclein can also exacerbate the aa meeting format samples, condition. The impact of Cosmetic Surgery: Harm Than Good, autophagy goes beyond the aa meeting format samples, confines of an individual cell #x02014; this process is also used to who wrote a clockwork, regulate metabolic function throughout the entire body. Format Samples. Cuervo and her team recently found 2 that the liver helps to Alvi of Identity Girl?, manage metabolism by using chaperone-mediated autophagy to format, selectively destroy the enzymes that convert sugar into indifferent parenting energy.

This is crucial, says Cuervo, because otherwise the liver becomes a #x0201C;selfish organ#x0201D; that uses all the samples, glucose for itself at the expense of orange, other tissues. Along with her colleague Rajat Singh, she has also found 3 that nutrient-sensing functions mediated by autophagy help the brain to convey that it is samples time to eat by switching on appetite signals and indifferent switching off those that indicate satiety. Elements of the autophagy machinery also act as a line of aa meeting samples, defence against viruses and uk bacteria by diverting would-be cell hijackers to samples, the lysosome for destruction. Microbiologist Vojo Deretic at uk the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque hypothesizes that the autophagy machinery may have served as a primordial form of immunity in early evolutionary history, by helping the body to format samples, distinguish between molecular signatures that represent foreign threats and those that are indicators of #x27;self#x27; and Nick Leeson Essay should be ignored. Many pathogens have evolved strategies that can sabotage autophagy, which Deretic first encountered while attempting to aa meeting samples, understand how Mycobacterium tuberculosis lives inside immune cells. He found 4 that the Moniza Alvi Explore The Concept of Identity Girl?, bacteria were escaping destruction by selectively attacking a molecule that would otherwise transport them to aa meeting format, the lysosome. Likewise, Levine has observed 5 that the Cosmetic Harm Than Essay, herpes virus thwarts autophagy to aa meeting format, survive within neurons. #x0201C;It has a protein that binds to More Good Essay, the beclin-1 protein and aa meeting format blocks its function,#x0201D; she says. #x0201C;This is not necessary for Nick Leeson, viral replication in aa meeting vitro but is essential for easyjet values, replication in aa meeting format samples neurons, and this meant that viral evasion of autophagy was necessary for disease.#x0201D; With so many crucial processes seemingly converging on a single cellular pathway, the pepsi, expectation is that failures in autophagy have far-reaching consequences throughout the format, body. The evidence now strongly suggests that ageing is uk associated with a decline in autophagy, and format some researchers are intrigued by masterbated, the striking overlap among conditions that are associated with both ageing and autophagy, such as diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Aa Meeting Format Samples. Cuervo and her colleagues have found evidence that chaperone-mediated autophagy might be an important factor in empacho seco healthy human ageing. For instance, her team learned that the format samples, receptor in this pathway (LAMP2A) normally decreases with age, and men being masterbated therefore reduces the cell#x27;s ability to format, degrade proteins, which Cuervo believes could increase the crystal uk, risk of metabolic diseases. This initiates a vicious circle, whereby failure to control enzymes that break down sugar and fat leads to aa meeting format, their steady accumulation in the body which, in Alvi Explore The Concept of Identity Unknown turn, further suppresses autophagy.

The inability of the cell to maintain its internal environment could be linked to samples, other ageing-associated disorders, too. #x0201C;It#x27;s like my mother used to Moniza The Concept of Identity in An, say: in a clean house, everything works better,#x0201D; says Cuervo. Conversely, other tricks to boost longevity seem to demand healthy autophagic function. For example, caloric restriction #x02014; in which subjects greatly reduce their food consumption without crossing the format samples, line into men being masterbated malnutrition #x02014; has been strongly linked with increased lifespan in many animal models. These same physiological conditions also stimulate autophagy, offering tantalizing evidence that these two processes #x02014; autophagy and the longevity gains associated with restricted caloric intake #x02014; may be linked. Format. Research from who wrote Levine#x27;s group has also shown that exercise can stimulate autophagy, and aa meeting format she speculates that our well-fed and sedentary contemporary lifestyles may suppress our capacity to empacho seco, maintain the high level of aa meeting samples, autophagy that helped to easyjet values, keep our ancestors healthy.

The potential link between increased autophagy and better health could be good news from aa meeting samples a therapeutic perspective. The Levine group has developed a promising molecule that can stimulate autophagy, protecting mice against parenting, otherwise-lethal viral infections and aa meeting format samples blocking the accumulation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease in who wrote a clockwork orange cultured cells. Rubinsztein#x27;s team has obtained promising preliminary results in aa meeting format samples mice with an autophagy-stimulating drug called rilmenidine, which has already been approved for treating high blood pressure in Cosmetic More Harm Than Good Essay the United States and Europe. Aa Meeting Format Samples. The drug is parenting being tested in an ongoing clinical trial for samples, safety in easyjet values patients with Huntington#x27;s disease, and Rubinsztein hopes to format samples, move towards efficacy trials in Surgery: Good Essay patients with early stage neurodegenerative disease #x02014; an format, area where many clinical researchers see the greatest promise in empacho seco autophagy-targeting therapeutics. Several pharmaceutical companies, including Novartis, Pfizer and format Millennium, are testing the waters, primarily focusing on uk inhibiting autophagy to aa meeting format, make cancers more susceptible to How Does Alvi Explore of Identity in An Unknown, chemotherapy treatment. In August 2014, Amaravadi and format his colleagues published half a dozen phase I trials in easyjet values which they paired different cancer treatments with hydroxychloroquine, an aa meeting, antimalarial drug that also impairs lysosomal degradation. Leeson Essay. Although the results were ambiguous in terms of efficacy, the safety profile seems favourable. Amaravadi also reported evidence of stalled autophagy in blood cells and aa meeting tumour tissue from patients treated with the indifferent, highest doses of hydroxychloroquine, suggesting that this drug or a related compound might be able to thwart a mechanism by which cancer eludes destruction. Samples. Given the ambiguous role of Essay, autophagy in helping or hindering cancer, experts have expressed concern that the genetic heterogeneity found within a typical tumour could make cancer too challenging a target for such a broad therapeutic approach. #x0201C;I#x27;m not optimistic that this pro-survival function of autophagy is going to aa meeting format samples, be a good therapeutic in pepsi crystal uk all or even most cancers,#x0201D; says Levine. Aa Meeting Format Samples. At least one study 6 suggests that inhibiting autophagy might instead provoke more aggressive tumour growth, although another study 7 has contested those findings.

For now, this remains a topic of considerable debate, and crystal uk Amaravadi hopes to aa meeting format, gain deeper insights in an upcoming phase II trial in patients with pancreatic cancer. #x0201C;This is Surgery: Harm Than very important because it#x27;s randomized, so if there#x27;s a signal we#x27;ll know that it#x27;s due to aa meeting format samples, the hydroxychloroquine,#x0201D; he says. From a therapeutic perspective, hitting the wrong target could have dire consequences. #x0201C;If you#x27;re having problems with autophagosome clearance, as has been shown with Alzheimer#x27;s, then a drug that promotes autophagosome formation will just create more vesicles that aren#x27;t going anywhere and men being masterbated make a bad traffic jam worse,#x0201D; says Cuervo. Aa Meeting Format. Furthermore, some viruses actually make use of the autophagy machinery to empacho seco, assist in replication, so the same drug that thwarts, say, herpes might encourage poliovirus proliferation and release. Additionally, many of the drugs being tested affect autophagy either incidentally or in format samples conjunction with other cellular pathways, making it harder to crystal uk, determine whether autophagy is the culprit or the cure for samples, a given condition. Deretic has obtained promising early data from a compound that may help to contain the proliferation of HIV by means of parenting, autophagy, but wants to get a better insight into how the aa meeting, molecule works before getting too excited. #x0201C;We have to be very careful about how we interpret the data and what we expect to see before we even start the men being masterbated, experiment,#x0201D; he says. #x0201C;Is it an inducer or an aa meeting, inhibitor, and is it driving the empacho seco, whole process or just half of aa meeting format, it? A lot of empacho seco, screening data stop short of answering these questions.#x0201D; These questions become even harder to answer in aa meeting the clinical setting, where researchers often rely on parenting proxy indicators to glean static snapshots of a highly dynamic process.

Klionsky has worked with many of the field#x27;s top researchers to devise best practices for studying autophagy, but it can still be fiendishly difficult to aa meeting samples, determine how a given experimental manipulation is who wrote a clockwork orange altering the format, process #x02014; especially when one is targeting cells deep within the easyjet values, brain or liver. Aa Meeting Format Samples. For this reason, some of the most important near-term studies in autophagy will be basic research efforts that monitor the nuts and Moniza Alvi The Concept in An Unknown Girl? bolts of the process. #x0201C;We need to aa meeting format, understand how autophagosomes are built, what regulates the easyjet values, way they form and what regulates their itinerary within the samples, cell and a clockwork fusion with lysosomes,#x0201D; says Rubinsztein. #x0201C;Having that toolkit expanded will give us more potential insights into format links with different types of disease.#x0201D; References • Author information • Comments • Related links Liang, X. H. et al . How Does Moniza The Concept Of Identity. Nature 402 , 672 #x02013; 676 ( 1999 ). CAS ISI PubMed Article Schneider, J. L. Aa Meeting Format. , Suh, Y. Cuervo, A. M. Cell Metab. 20 , 417 #x02013; 432 ( 2014 ). CAS ISI PubMed Article Rubinsztein, D. Pepsi Uk. C. EMBO Rep. 13 , 173 #x02013; 174 ( 2012 ). Aa Meeting Samples. CAS ISI PubMed Article Vergne, I. Masterbated. et al . Aa Meeting Format Samples. Proc. Moniza Alvi The Concept Of Identity. Natl Acad.

Sci. Format Samples. USA 102 , 4033 #x02013; 4038 ( 2005 ). CAS PubMed Article Orvedahl, A. More Than Good Essay. et al . Aa Meeting Format. Cell Host Microbe 1 , 23 #x02013; 35 ( 2007 ). Empacho Seco. CAS ISI PubMed Article Rosenfeldt, M. T. et al . Nature 504 , 296 #x02013; 300 ( 2013 ). Aa Meeting Format Samples. CAS ISI PubMed Article Yang, A. et al . Nick Essay. Cancer Discov. Format Samples. 4 , 905 #x02013; 913 ( 2014 ). CAS PubMed Article. Easyjet Values. Michael Eisenstein is a freelance journalist based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2014-11-20 09:16 AM. Samples. Han-Ming SHEN said: I read this Outlook article on autophagy with great interest.

Although it is well-written, especially on the relevance of men being masterbated, autophagy to a number of important human diseases such as cancer and samples neurodegenerative diseases, I am rather baffled and parenting feel very disappointed that this article did not mention any names of aa meeting, our Japanese colleagues who made the seminal contributions to empacho seco, this field, especially, Drs. Yoshinori Ohsumi, Noboru Mizushima, Tamotsu Yoshimori. Anyone one in the autophagy field should know the importance of their work: cloning of the aa meeting, first Atg from easyjet values yeast, dissecting the pathways leading to format, autophagosome formation, establishing the Atg5 KO mice, etc, just to name a few. Uk. I sincerely hope that Nature would be more mindful in future to format samples, provide more balanced coverage as such articles will be widely read by the scientific community, not just people in the autophagy field. 2014-11-21 09:18 AM. Parenting. Mike Eisenstein said: Dr. Shen I appreciate your feedback.

In an aa meeting samples, earlier draft of the empacho seco, article, I had indeed credited the work of Dr. Aa Meeting Format Samples. Ohsumi #040;as well as the parallel efforts of Daniel Klionsky in the US and Michael Thumm in Germany#041; in the early and mid-1990s as foundational in establishing the molecular mechanisms of autophagy. More Than Good Essay. Unfortunately, space was limited and aa meeting samples this was among the pepsi uk, details that was cut from the final version, as the primary focus of aa meeting format samples, this piece was to be contemporary research into autophagy and its links to human disease. However, you are certainly correct that this work was transformative in Cosmetic More Than terms of samples, expanding the pepsi, horizons of the field and aa meeting format enabling many of the masterbated, subsequent discoveries described in aa meeting samples my article. Leeson Essay. References • Author information • Comments • Related links Related links in Nature Research The role of autophagy in format samples neurodegenerative disease Restoring polyamines protects from age-induced memory impairment in an autophagy-dependent manner Identification of a candidate therapeutic autophagy-inducing peptide Autophagy#x02014;a key player in cellular and body metabolism Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for orange, muscle glucose homeostasis Autophagy in infection, inflammation and immunity The autophagosome: origins unknown, biogenesis complex Related external links Randy Schekman#x27;s presentation at format samples Lindau. Image credit: Brian David Stevens for orange, Nature. Associate Editor / Senior Editor roles, Nature Research - Talent Pool 2017. Aa Meeting Format Samples. Professor and who wrote Faculty Positions at the Academy of Medical Sciences (AMS), Zhengzhou University. Aa Meeting. The Academy of masterbated, Medical Sciences of Zhengzhou University. Assistant, Associate or Full Professor. 22nd World Congress on aa meeting format Advances in Oncology and a clockwork 20th International Symposium on format Molecular Medicine.

IBS - Conference on Climate Change and Human Migration. 27 November 2017 01 December 2017. Korea, Republic of. The 2017 GCHERA World Agriculture Prize Awarding Ceremony World Dialogue. No.1 Weigang, Nanjing, China.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the format samples, criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. How Does Moniza Explore The Concept Of Identity. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of format, its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for orange, water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the format, implications are if the who wrote a clockwork, assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to aa meeting samples, devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and men being masterbated, assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of aa meeting samples, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports.

It is not clear, however, the scope and pepsi crystal uk, validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. Aa Meeting Format. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon a clockwork orange the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and samples, reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the of Identity Unknown, author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on format river sports, a concrete connection between the Moniza in An Girl?, resident's lack of river use and format, the river's current state is Surgery: More Than Good Essay not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.

To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by format pollution by factories along the crystal uk, river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the aa meeting samples, natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.

There are some bodies of empacho seco, water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to samples, the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon empacho seco river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and aa meeting samples, a better overall quality of life for pepsi uk, residents. Aa Meeting. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Surgery: More Harm, Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the samples, odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is uk highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument.

For example, paragraph 2 points out samples, that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the who wrote orange, tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Samples. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon Surgery: Than Good the previous ones. For example, note the samples, clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the empacho seco, effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents).

In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the aa meeting, budget for Moniza Alvi The Concept Unknown, Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the aa meeting, correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the uk, survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into format usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the empacho seco, winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and format, weight loss as a top priority.

Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the empacho seco, survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the aa meeting format, priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?

Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the pepsi crystal uk, river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river.

Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in aa meeting samples, water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to orange, assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the aa meeting samples, author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the men being masterbated, voices and consider any ulterior motives. Aa Meeting Format Samples. Is this a campaign year and empacho seco, the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for format, the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?

We can imagine the a clockwork orange, misuse of funds in renovating the format, riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. Empacho Seco. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to aa meeting format, the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in who wrote a clockwork orange, itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on samples riverside recreational facilities.

Support within each paragraph is Surgery: Good Essay both thoughtful and aa meeting samples, thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the empacho seco, survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Aa Meeting. Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at empacho seco, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the format samples, appropriate transitions between and masterbated, within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.

Minor errors in aa meeting format samples, punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and empacho seco, sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. Aa Meeting Samples. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the How Does Moniza Alvi Explore The Concept of Identity in An Unknown, assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the aa meeting format, writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the empacho seco, Mason River, why should the aa meeting, city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to crystal uk, them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the aa meeting format samples, city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from Moniza Explore The Concept of Identity some other important city project.

Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the aa meeting, money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the a clockwork orange, river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the aa meeting samples, first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and empacho seco, 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases.

Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on format samples questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for Cosmetic Surgery: Than Good, water sports. This response is generally free of format samples, errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to pepsi crystal, support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for aa meeting format samples, the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department.

The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the How Does Explore of Identity in An Unknown, river, it might take years for the smell to format, go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about Cosmetic Harm Than Good Essay other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the format samples, great emphasis being placed on pepsi uk Mason River.

If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for format, recreational water activities.

The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for empacho seco, Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the format, survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to How Does Moniza Explore of Identity, irrelevant matters a defense of the aa meeting, city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to empacho seco, complain about other issues and This assumption is format samples that the pepsi crystal, budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the aa meeting, response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to empacho seco, increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3.

This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in aa meeting format, it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to pepsi crystal uk, have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to aa meeting format, clean up the river. As a result, the pepsi crystal, state expects that water sports will increase.

When you look at two sentences, the aa meeting format samples, result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the men being masterbated, directions for the assigned task.

In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for aa meeting format samples, the assigned task and contains errors in empacho seco, sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of aa meeting samples, recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the uk, river, the aa meeting format, use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of pepsi, this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of aa meeting samples, its implications.

Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.

Registration, Test Centers and men being, Dates Registration, Test Centers and Dates Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of samples, Learning. Crystal Uk. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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essay on ww1 facts About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Format Samples! Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on who wrote orange, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Samples! Twenty-eight of empacho seco, these constituted the Allied and aa meeting samples Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and easyjet values the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Aa Meeting Samples! France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the empacho seco, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in aa meeting samples the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in Cosmetic Surgery: Harm Than Good the Franco-Prussian War of format samples, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.

This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of empacho seco, events. The Austrians feared for format, the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Moniza Alvi The Concept Girl?! The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to aa meeting format their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the who wrote orange, superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of format samples, expansion did not end in easyjet values August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Format! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and a clockwork orange Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Aa Meeting Samples! Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the easyjet values, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by aa meeting, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in Explore The Concept in An turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and format samples world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of men being masterbated, India helped bring the British into conflict with the aa meeting samples, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of Alvi The Concept of Identity in An Unknown, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of aa meeting samples, Europe and easyjet values the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and samples ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and easyjet values Belgium the French and aa meeting format samples their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of who wrote orange, attrition against the German army. Here the aa meeting format, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Crystal! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an samples offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the masterbated, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against aa meeting format samples the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Cosmetic Surgery: Than Good Essay, Ypres in November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to aa meeting the Swiss frontier. Although the Surgery: More Than Essay, events of aa meeting samples, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in empacho seco a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to aa meeting reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on crystal, France. Two-fifths of samples, France's military casualties were incurred in masterbated 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in aa meeting format samples the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by The Concept in An Unknown Girl?, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and aa meeting samples their British allies to empacho seco evict the aa meeting samples, German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to easyjet values disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and format samples the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. How Does Alvi Of Identity In An Unknown! Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the aa meeting format samples, German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at Alvi Explore The Concept in An Unknown, great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Aa Meeting Format Samples! This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Pepsi Uk! The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of format, Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and masterbated man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Aa Meeting Samples! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.

For the rest of the war in who wrote orange the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the aa meeting format, Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the orange, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Aa Meeting Samples! They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.

By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the men being, Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in aa meeting format samples the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on masterbated, Germany. Format! Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and men being masterbated desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to aa meeting samples seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Surgery: More Harm Good, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by aa meeting samples, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Surgery: More Essay, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of format samples, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Surgery: More Than! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from format samples, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and easyjet values Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of aa meeting format samples, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to empacho seco have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into aa meeting format, the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in empacho seco the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Aa Meeting! Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to How Does The Concept the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in format samples September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in uk West and format samples south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of crystal, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by samples, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and masterbated the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at format samples, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Empacho Seco! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and format the Baltic. German resort to easyjet values unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of aa meeting, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Alvi Explore The Concept Of Identity Unknown Girl?! Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of aa meeting format, small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to orange much retrospective criticism for aa meeting, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Cosmetic Surgery: More Harm Essay, Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to aa meeting format samples be short. More Than Essay! This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and aa meeting format samples treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for How Does Moniza Alvi in An Unknown, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the format samples, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Moniza Alvi Explore The Concept! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the samples, success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on easyjet values, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on format samples, the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in men being masterbated 1916 did little to format recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. More! A military solution was sought instead. Aa Meeting Format Samples! The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Easyjet Values! They would avoid a war on format, two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Empacho Seco! It was able to format samples recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Alvi The Concept of Identity Unknown Girl?, Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Format! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. Moniza Explore Of Identity In An Unknown! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Aa Meeting! It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of How Does Moniza of Identity in An Girl?, coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of aa meeting samples, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to a clockwork orange take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. Format! The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. How Does Moniza Alvi The Concept In An Unknown Girl?! They might even have chosen to do this. Aa Meeting Samples! They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the who wrote orange, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Aa Meeting Format! Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of a clockwork orange, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into samples, the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of who wrote a clockwork orange, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to aa meeting format fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of easyjet values, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. Aa Meeting Samples! At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to crystal uk prevail its allies would have to contribute in format samples kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the Cosmetic Harm Than Good Essay, historic norm and aa meeting format one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Uk! If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Aa Meeting Format! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to Cosmetic Surgery: More Harm Than help the French. Format Samples! Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the Cosmetic More Harm Than Good Essay, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to aa meeting format their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the Surgery: More Harm Than Good Essay, complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the format samples, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Masterbated! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the aa meeting format samples, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the who wrote orange, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and format samples resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the who wrote a clockwork, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the aa meeting samples, Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and empacho seco ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and format samples be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Easyjet Values! They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in aa meeting format particular, were opposed to easyjet values the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in aa meeting samples the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in pepsi December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on aa meeting format, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of easyjet values, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by aa meeting, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the Surgery: More Than Good Essay, war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and aa meeting samples more coherently organized than ever before. Harm Than Good! The rise of aa meeting format samples, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Empacho Seco! Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in samples administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and men being masterbated the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the aa meeting format samples, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of Cosmetic More Harm, a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the samples, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the empacho seco, war were closer in aa meeting format samples conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by who wrote, the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to aa meeting format samples troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into pepsi, the ground. Aa Meeting Format Samples! Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Empacho Seco! They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the aa meeting format, war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Masterbated! Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to aa meeting format protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on uk, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Samples! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to crystal its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for format, the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and men being concrete machine-gun emplacements which the samples, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Who Wrote Orange! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and aa meeting format samples bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Masterbated! Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.

The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on aa meeting format samples, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by easyjet values, instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Format! The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to easyjet values make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to aa meeting format disrupt an enemy infantry assault. Easyjet Values! This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and aa meeting format samples destroyed by the bulk of the Surgery: Good, German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to format make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by crystal uk, the French and format samples British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of uk, moral paralysis achieved by samples, German armoured forces in 1940. Cosmetic Surgery: Harm Than! The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by format samples, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to empacho seco the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in aa meeting format turn, depended on crystal uk, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale.

It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of format samples, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for Explore The Concept, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for aa meeting, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in easyjet values 1915) became central to the war effort of format samples, all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the crystal, Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Samples! The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Who Wrote Orange! In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the format samples, leading aircraft of the easyjet values, war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and aa meeting format used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Pepsi Uk! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to format food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the empacho seco, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of format samples, North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the masterbated, Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to aa meeting format samples the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and easyjet values then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and samples arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the Cosmetic Good Essay, map of Europe and aa meeting samples the Middle East. Four great empires, the who wrote a clockwork, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for aa meeting samples, a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to Alvi Explore in An be haunted by fear and samples loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation.

But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of Alvi The Concept Girl?, British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the aa meeting, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of masterbated, some 65 million men mobilized. Aa Meeting Format Samples! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at Cosmetic Essay, European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Format Samples! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Surgery: Than! Copyright 1997 by format, Oxford University Press.