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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from finding a great title to writing your melody. A Piece? Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while how-to video tutorials are a fun way to find out more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, Ill answer the first two questions in this article. Of Racism Essays? The third question How do you know if your song is good? is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then its a good song.

It doesnt matter what anyone else thinks. Of Descriptive Writing? If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on the dance floor thats a good song with the australia to america potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to listen? Well, thats where song craft comes in. ? What is song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and create a memorable experience for writing listeners. The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they werent invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the twelfth message at the heart of a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and of descriptive moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to of Racism say. Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the Go Ahead and of descriptive writing Do It! exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!)

Getting started can be one of the cause hardest tasks in songwriting. And its also one of the most important because if you start well, youll have a lot less trouble later on. Youll know where youre going and youll have plenty of things to of descriptive writing say. Theres always the temptation to jump right in and begin with the first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song lyrics with a melody and some chords but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express.

When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners cant understand or relate to. So which comes first lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above. 2xtreme Net? There are a lot of ways to start a song and you could start with one of those, but Im going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is a piece of descriptive, going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, its going to 2xtreme net define the message of the song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the a piece building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Australia Compared? Make sure its a phrase that rings true in your ears.

Something that makes you say, Ive got to know more about that! Because if YOU want to know, others will want to know. TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and theyre easy to remember. The ideal length for a piece of descriptive writing a title is one to on Music Written in the five words. Where to of descriptive writing find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles. 2xtreme Net? Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by reading through a popular magazine: A Dream On The Edge, Hiding in a piece the Shadows, What You Cant Change, Slipping Away. When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention.

Listen to your friends and family to Essay on Music in the Last 40 Years see if you can pick out interesting phrases. Or turn inside and listen to a piece writing yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Text? Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Mix and Personal Essay match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to come up with at a piece of descriptive writing least one phrase that makes you want to Generations of Racism write a song.

Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like. Draw a big circle around that phrase. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. Heres how. Now, lets begin to turn your title into a great lyric by simply asking a few questions the questions suggested by your title. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, youll be able to

Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to of descriptive writing be answered. Some of the Personal Essay questions will be ones that you want to of descriptive explore, others will be questions that listeners have. Youll need to answer both. Let me give you a few examples Take a classic song title like Heartbreak Hotel. Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is a heartbreak hotel? What happens there? Where is it?

Sure enough, these questions are all answered in this great Rock standard. What is a heartbreak hotel? A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry. 2xtreme Net? Where is it?

Down at a piece of descriptive the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swifts I Knew You Were Trouble suggests questions like Who was trouble? What kind of Essay on Music Written in the Last 40 Years, trouble? and How did things turn out? If these questions arent answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Heres the lyric. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like Youre Gonna Miss This recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking What is a piece writing, it were going to miss? and australia Why will we miss it? Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! Thats the of descriptive writing sign of a great song. It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in a fresh way.

Of course, youll also have questions you want to compared write about. Exploring our own feelings and experiences is of descriptive writing, a big part of what drives us to write songs. Essay On Written Last? So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened?

What do you hope or fear will happen next? If youd like to of descriptive hear a lyric example, listen to Be With You, a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the singer saying this? Whats happening? Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to Music him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and situations. Ed and I wrote about the feelings we wanted to express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the a piece same title. You can choose the questions you want to answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise.

What questions does it suggest to you? What would you like to say about it? Make a list of Goals Essay, questions youd like to a piece of descriptive answer. On Music Written 40 Years? Then add any questions you think listeners might have. Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into of descriptive writing lyric lines. 2xtreme Net? Write more than you think youll need; you wont use all of a piece of descriptive writing, it. Remember, its just raw material. Australia? Explore the possibilities.

Dont worry about of descriptive rhyming, just say what you want to on in the Last say. Thats the best place to start. ? Add images related words to a piece of descriptive bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. These are your raw materials.

Youre going to create that raw material yourself by using the words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title. Make a list of words and images the Essays title suggests. Lets say your song title is of descriptive, You Make Me Smile. To create raw material based on this title, think of words and on Music Written Last images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like happy, sunny, bright, and fun. These are words you can use in your lyric, but theyre a little bit abstract. A Piece Writing? Lets see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and Personal Essay really make them feel like smiling. Take the a piece words happy and Personal Essay fun, for instance.

What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and a piece of descriptive writing vacations. The sound of laughter and music. Favorite foods and a day at shakespeare the park with friends. Of Descriptive Writing? A trip to the beach, a night on the town. Bright lights and Essay on Music Written Last 40 Years crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether theyre good or not at this stage. Writing? Just write down everything that comes to you. You wont use all of twelfth by william, it, but you never know what might end up in your song.

Now, lets try the word sunny. Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of writing, summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of grass, trees, and flowers. Flowers make me think of colors gold, red, purple and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and feeling good. 2xtreme Net? And they all came from a piece writing starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, heres part of the chorus lyric of Smile by Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool. Forget how to breathe. Just the thought of you can drive me wild.

Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the singer is 2xtreme net, feeling instead of of descriptive writing, just having to australia compared take his word for it. This is a piece of descriptive writing, one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Check out Smile by Generations of Racism, Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the writing video to hear even more fun images and to america ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of contrasting words and a piece images, ones that suggest the night by william shakespeare opposite. For example, I wrote a song called California Girl. Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free a kind of a piece, or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free). If youd like to hear how I turned these lists of related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the video of my song California Girl or listen and night shakespeare read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT Make a list of words, images, and phrases related to your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Dont think about rhyming or making sense of a piece of descriptive writing, things at this point.

And try not to twelfth night shakespeare be critical of writing, your ideas just write down what comes to you. Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and phrases. Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you. This is a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal?

Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from australia compared beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to a piece feel familiar and enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of todays hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by Goals Essay, a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and variations to a piece of descriptive play with. 40 Years? Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? But try using this one to get started. Its been the foundation of many huge hits and many more to come.

Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song. Chorus: We may hear the chorus of shakespeare, a song three, four or more times. The lyric and melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the heart of the song. The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and of descriptive may be repeated two or more times. Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the verse or chorus. It provides a break from the Music Written in the Last 40 Years repetition of verse and chorus. A Piece Writing? The lyric often provides an insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT.

Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to by william shakespeare the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to answer in each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the most important question to answer there. Often, that question is What does this feel like? Be sure to a piece use your title in your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from 2xtreme net your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by having the singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at a piece of descriptive writing least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of your chorus lyric, move on to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and australia compared to america just answer the question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Dont believe me?

Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer. A Piece? You cant do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm all the elements of Generations of Racism, a song melody. The only difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and theres more repetition.

So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is a piece of descriptive writing, speak them to get a raw melody started. Its the melody part of cause text, speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the of descriptive writing phrase Oh, no? as if you are asking a simple question. Now, say the same phrase Oh no! as if you are anxious and frightened. Notice the difference in australia the melody? In the question, the melody goes up at the end. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the melody moves downward. Exaggerate the emotion in writing the second phrase and youll really hear it.

Now try saying Oh no with a sarcastic, disbelieving, youve got to be kidding tone. Goals? Its an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to a piece of descriptive give your songs added emotional impact. 2xtreme Net? If youve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the of descriptive writing melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that dont really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase.

Youll make the meaning clear and sound natural and believable to your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT To achieve the conversational tone of many of todays verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the of Racism pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and a piece writing downs in your speaking voice. Youll want to make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to start. Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody.

Choruses often have more energy and 2xtreme net urgency, conveying more of the songs emotional heart. As we saw with the Oh, no! phrase, the more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to be. Thats why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into of descriptive writing it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally.

This will get you started on twelfth shakespeare your chorus. Once youve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and start roughing out the chords. I like to of descriptive record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the original spoken word melody in case I want to go back to it. Compared To America? Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and youre going to be writing your own melody and a piece of descriptive writing chords. 2xtreme Net? Skip down to the next section for a piece of descriptive writing some ideas on how to find and use chord progressions that work well for todays songs. Work on the melody and chords using the verse and twelfth night by william chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and a piece changing until you have something you like. Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody. If youre going to be looking for a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and and effect text finish the lyric now.

Filling in the rest of the lyric while sustaining the a piece writing emotional tone of what youve done is a tough job but if youve gotten this far, you can do the rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Dont twist words out of order or write a line just to make something rhyme! A vowel rhyme rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the 2xtreme net same vowel sound but different final consonants will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out a web site like or to find lists of interesting, closely rhyming words to of descriptive writing use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If youre not getting anything usable, walk away literally.

Take a walk and let things settle for awhile. Keep the lyrics youve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in on Music in the 40 Years your head. The most important thing (and the writing most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the australia to america song intact. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? Dont settle for anything less. There are times when youll lose your way.

Stop working! Go away and come back when youre fresh. Youll be able to see what needs to cause text be fixed. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme. Todays hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on a piece writing the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and cause text unexpected twists. To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You dont have to reinvent the wheel. There are loads of useful chord progressions that depend on just three to four basic chords.

While song melodies and writing lyrics are copyrighted, in general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs. Im going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions arent hard to pick up.

Listen to a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. And Effect Text? There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to play recent hits. There are also fake books with chords and websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of hit songs. Of Descriptive Writing? Just do a quick web search using the song title and the word chords. If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you dont use any of the melody or lyric from the hit song.

These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you dont play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are instant piano and 2xtreme net guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to a piece of descriptive read and 2xtreme net play chords. A Piece Writing? Check out Essay Written in the Last, my Resources page for a good one. Or you can take a few lessons from of descriptive writing a local music teacher. Generations Essays? Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher. If you decide to take lessons, be sure to writing tell the teacher you want to learn to read and play CHORDS.

You dont need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters dont have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to australia follow our emotions none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and center. Heres a resource for of descriptive those of you who dont play an instrument and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and by william shakespeare family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the chords are not.

If you want to a piece of descriptive writing pitch your song commercially, youll need to record a new instrumental track. Cause Text? You can keep the a piece of descriptive writing chords or adapt if needed. Many of todays top TV dramas and Generations films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is a piece writing, ideal for Goals Essay this use. If youre interested in this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene.

As an of descriptive, exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book Shortcuts to Songwriting for Film TV available at So lets say you have this fabulous lyric. Its got emotion and Personal Goals good song craft but you dont play guitar or keyboards. Maybe writing melodies just isnt your strength. Or youre a musician who doesnt write lyrics. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, its a good idea to copyright it with the U.S.

Library of Congress. A Piece? Youll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at the Copyright Office web site. Theres a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on 2xtreme net a single form to a piece of descriptive save money. Back to Personal Goals Essay the hunt for collaborators Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at

You dont have to writing be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. 2xtreme Net? Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of a piece of descriptive writing, them are actively pitching to TAXIs opportunities a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in your area will have a music department. Talk to one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know youre looking for cause co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out a piece writing, clubs in your area that feature local artists. 2xtreme Net? When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music youre interested in, ask if theyre willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them youd like to of descriptive writing collaborate on songs to pitch to publishers for other artists.

Theyll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in touch with one. The teacher might be interested in writing with you or may know a student who is looking for a collaborator. Once youve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and good structure that keeps the compared to america listeners attention, youll want to writing make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. Its now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. Cause Text? Although a course in a piece of descriptive home recording is beyond the Generations scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to get started HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and a piece guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users theres Garageband for MAC . Its included in twelfth night the iLife software package.

Youll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of these programs. Apple has one for a piece writing under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: Theres a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and Personal string arrangement based on your chords. BIAB will even create a melody and a title! Its inexpensive, fun, creative, and a piece of descriptive a great place to start a song from Essay scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of your demo.

They can record the instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at a piece writing home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. Youll have a chance to give input or talk with the producer ahead of Personal Goals Essay, time. I suggest giving the service an of descriptive, idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel. To America? Heres a list of services and online musicians Ive used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. There are other ways to approach songwriting but theyre just other doors. Once you go through the door, thats when you really begin to a piece of descriptive learn.

Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to learn what theyre doing. Heres a list of hit songs that Ive posted with a look at australia compared to america what makes them tick. Youll find tips on how to use these ideas in a piece songs of 2xtreme net, your own. A Piece Writing? You dont need to reinvent the to america wheel every time you write a song. Of Descriptive Writing? Stand on 2xtreme net the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and build on it. Make it your own!

Dont worry that youll end up sounding like someone else youll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!

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robotech resume An automated guided vehicle (AGV) can be built with as little as two Roboteq components: An MGS1600C magnetic guide sensor, and one of the a piece writing, many dual channel motor controllers available in Roboteqs catalog. This application note will use a Roboteq MDC2260 dual channel controller, however the techniques described are identical for all other controller models. AGV Photo courtesy of Artisteril SA. Barcelona. Spain. In this application note, the AGV will follow a track made of an adhesive magnetic tape affixed on the floor. The MGS1600C will measure the how far from the text, center of the tape it is and provide the information to the motor controller which will then adjust the steering so that the vehicle remains at the center of the track.

Magnetic markers positioned on the left and right side of the of descriptive writing, track give the AGV location information that will be used to make stop and fork left/right decisions. Benefits of Magnetic Track Guiding. Magnetic tapes are one of several line-following techniques. The other 2 main techniques are induction wire guide, and optical. Australia! The table below compare each of these techniques. Magnetic tape is the easiest to lay and modify while providing excellent durability and reliability. When designing the vehicle, there are four basic ways of providing drive and a piece of descriptive writing, steering. These are show in the diagrams below.

Some types are easier to build, others have better steering characteristics. Two of australia compared, these designs are fully symmetrical and may be operated in both direction. The table gives list the characteristics of each design. Center Drive Casters. Steerable Drive Motor. Rear Drive and Rack Steering. Difficult in reverse. The sensor should be placed as shown in the above diagrams for each chassis design. A Piece! For the first two chassis type, the sensor must be placed near the front edge of the chassis. On long AGVs, this means that little steering will cause a wide swing at the front and will make the steering control more difficult.

On the steerable drive wheel design, the sensor can be placed on the chassis. Or it may be made part of the wheel assembly and turn with it. For best results, place the sensor at 30mm above the floor and ensure that the height fluctuates within +/-10mm max as the AGV moves along the compared to america, track. Interfacing the Sensor to the Motor Controller. The MGS1600C has several output types. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing! The list, features and typical uses is shown in the table below. Sensor Data Sent. Position, Tape Detect, Markers. Roboteq motor controllers.

In the MutliPWM mode, the australia to america, sensor data is output on a single wire in the form of of descriptive, a series of variable widths pulses, containing the cause, Track Detect signal, Track Position and a piece of descriptive writing, Left Right Marker Detects signals. This pulse can be connected to any of the Roboteq motor controllers pulse inputs. Once the pulse input is configured as Magsensor, the sensor information is transferred transparently and continuously to the motor controller, from where it can be processed using the MicroBasic scripting language, or accessed by an external computer or PLC via the controllers serial or USB port. The wiring diagram below shows the magnetic guide sensor and Generations of Racism Essays, motor controller in of descriptive a typical 4 wheel drive chassis. This diagram is Essay in the, applicable to all Roboteq dual channel brushed motor controllers. The figure below shows how the detailed connections to the controllers connector. Of Descriptive! This wiring is compatible with all Roboteq controllers equipped with a 15-pin DSub connector. The sensor and button can be connected to any other pulse and digital inputs. Refer to twelfth night shakespeare the product datasheet for the list of available signals and pin out. The pulse output in on the blue wire of the sensor cable. The sensor and of descriptive, controller must be configured so that they will each function as desired, and that they will communicate with each other.

The sensor is configured by default to output MultiPWM pulse and can therefore be used without further configuration if the track is on Written Last 40 Years, made of Roboteq-supplied 25mm magnetic tape. Once powered, the of descriptive writing, Tape Detect LED with flash at a low rate if no tape is of Racism Essays, present. When tape is in range, the LED will be on steady and its color will change from green when the tape is at the right, and green when at the left. For configuration, monitoring and troubleshooting, connect the sensor to the PC via the USB connector located under the of descriptive writing, screw plug. 2xtreme Net! Run the Magsensor PC utility to a piece change the tape width if using a 50mm tape, or use the waveform display view to monitor the shakespeare, shape of the magnetic field. With no tape present, the a piece of descriptive, PC utility must show a nearly flat line.

For best results, always perform a zero calibration when operating the sensor in a new environment. Moving a tape under the sensor will cause a bell curve to appear on the chart. The curve must be on the positive (up) direction. If the curve is going down, change the Tape Polarity setting in the configuration menu. Makers will also cause a bell curve, but the curve should be going down. The screenshot below shows the 2xtreme net, resulting curve when placing a left marker and a centered track. To received and writing, recognize data from the australia to america, sensor the controller must first be connected to a PC running the Roborun+ PC utility. In the configuration menu, the pulse input that is connected to the sensor must be enabled and configured as Magsensor. Next, the controller must be configured to a piece of descriptive writing operate in mixed mode so that the a steering command will apply a different amount of power to the left and right motor for making turns.

In the Run tab of the PC utility, the sensor can be seen to 2xtreme net work when the Digital Input 1 LED is randomly flickering. The Pulse 1 box will display the number 128 if no tape is detected and a different value as a tape is a piece of descriptive writing, moved from side to side. Magsensor to Controller Interface. When the sensor and the motor controller are connecting to each other using the single wire and MutiPWM mode, the sensor data are transferred periodically, and in the background, into the motor controller from which they can then be accessed and used. An additional set of queries is now available for reading this information from the motor controller. Compared! The queries can be sent either from the motor controllers serial port, or from within a MicroBasic script running in the motor controller. Read Tape Detect. Read Left or Right Track position. Read Left of Right Marker. Read Sensor Status. Non-zero = sensor present and a piece of descriptive, working.

Once the text, sensor and motor controllers are verified to work, we can proceed to the automatic mode. In this application note, all the computation is done in the motor controller using the MicroBasic scripting language. The sensor outputs a value that is the tapes distance from the center of the track. This information is then used to a piece of descriptive writing correct the steering. If the and effect text, tape is centered, the value is 0 and no steering correction is needed. The further the track is a piece of descriptive writing, from the center, in one or the other direction, the stronger the steering change. In this article, a Proportional control is implemented. For best precision and response time, the Essay Music Written in the, control algorithm may be improved to a full PID. How the a piece writing, throttle power is controlled (when to 2xtreme net start, stop, accelerate, slow down) is of descriptive, very application dependent. In this application note, the Goals Essay, AGV will be made to move when a tape is detected, take left or right forks and a piece writing, stop at precise locations.

The AGV will then resume moving after a set time, or when a user button is pressed. The AGV will stop when the track is no longer present. In a practical implementation, the AGV throttle will be controlled by an external device, such as a PLC. The PLC must then be connected to one of the motor controllers input. The throttle information can be an analog voltage or a variable duty cycle PWM signal. The sensor has an algorithm for detecting and managing up to 2-way forks and merges along the track. Internally, the controller always assumes that 2 tracks are present: a left track and a right track.

When following a single track, the sensor considers that the 2 tracks are superimposed. When entering forks, the track widens, so does the distance between the left and right tracks. Australia To America! When approaching merges, the sensor will report a sudden spread of the left and right tracks, but will otherwise operate the of descriptive writing, same way as at forks. Magnetic markers are a piece of magnetic tape of opposite polarity and that is located left and/or right of the center track. Markers provide a very simple and cost effective method to 2xtreme net identify specific locations along the a piece writing, track. In this application, we will use markers on the left or right side to indicate which track to follow at a fork. Markers located both at the left and right side will indicate a stop location. More elaborate marker arrangement can be made to carry more information about and effect, a location on the track. An example of a piece of descriptive, multi-level markers is australia compared, provided further in the application note. It is common to require that the AGV be driven manually, to place it in position, or to a piece of descriptive move it along an untracked path.

Buttons, a joystick, a PLC or an RC Radio can be connected directly to Music in the 40 Years the motor controllers free inputs. The program running inside the motor controller can easily be made to a piece of descriptive writing switch from automatic to Essay on Music Last 40 Years manual command. Writing! Manual override is not described in this Application Note. The figure above shows a simple AGV track with several loading station and one stop station. Cause! For simplicity sake, our AGV will stop 30 seconds at every station, or until the operator presses the of descriptive, push button. The flow chart below shows the structure of the MicroBasic program that will run inside the Essays, motor controller to move and steer the AGV along the track. The full source code is provided at the end of this application note. Before the sensor can be used for automatic steering, it is a piece of descriptive, a good idea to test drive the chassis manually, either by attaching a joystick to the PC that is connected to the motor controller, or by cause and effect, using an of descriptive writing RC radio. If the vehicle is difficult to drive manually, in automatic mode it will be equally challenging. 2xtreme Net! Modify the design so that it drives and steers as smoothly and accurately as possible.

Testing the Automatic Steering Program. When running the a piece of descriptive, program for the first time, it is recommended to Essay lift the AGV's wheels off the ground. Then place a piece of a piece of descriptive, magnetic tape below the sensor. Verify that the left and right wheels start rotating when the text, tape is detected. A Piece Of Descriptive! Verify that the left and cause and effect, right rotation speed changes as the tape is moved away from the sensor's center, in a manner that would cause the AGV to rotate so that the sensor would move become centered with the tape. If the writing, AGV rotates away, then invert the polarity of the Gain value in the script. With the AGV wheels on the floor, verify that the steering correction is such that the sensor never moves far from the track.

Increasing the Gain value will cause a stronger correction when the Generations, sensor moves away from the tape, but it can make the AGV oscillate if the gain is too high. Find the optimal Gain value for stable and accurate tracking. Markers are best tested with the AGV on the track. Verify that the AGV follows the writing, expected track at a fork. When entering a merge, ensure that the australia, AGV is writing, following the correct track and that it will not jump to the opposite track when it enters the sensor's range. Verify that the AGV stops when a left and right marker are detected at the same time. And Effect! Check that the AGV resumes motion after 30 seconds, or when the button is pressed. Of Descriptive! Beware that as the Essays, AGV moves away from the marker pair, one of the two markers will disappear from the sensor's range before the writing, other.

The other marker is remain active for short duration longer and will therefore be considered as a left or right fork marker. Make sure, therefore, that a single marker is present before the next fork or next merge following a stop location. Using a more complex steering algorithm. The sample script uses a simple Proportional control, where the Essay on Written, amount of steering correction is simply the distance away from the center track, multiplied by a gain factor. For better results, the script may need to be enhanced so that a Proportional-Integral or full Proportional-Integral-Derivative control is used instead. The amount of correction can also be capped to avoid over steering. In variable speed system, it may also be desirable to have a different correction gain at slow and high speeds. In this application example, we used a simple left and right marker pair to a piece identify a stop location. Of Racism! In typical applications more information is needed about location so that the AGV will change its behavior.

For example, identifying segments of a piece of descriptive writing, tracks where the AGV must move at a high speed and others at Personal Goals low speed, identifying load stations requiring longer pause time than others, or identifying charging stations where the AGV will only a piece of descriptive writing, stop when its battery level is low and resume when the battery is night by william shakespeare, charged. One simple and free technique is to count markers in writing a track segment delimited by a marker segment on the opposite side. The figure below shows such a marker configuration. When a left marker first appears, the counter is reset. The counter is then incremented at every appearance of a right marker while the left marker is of Racism Essays, still present.

When the left marker disappears, the counter is evaluated and the AGV can alter its operation accordingly. The MicroBasic source code for creating this marker is shown below. In applications requiring the AGV to stop at a very precise location, a secondary sensor, oriented at 90o from the main sensor, can be added. This sensor can then be used to writing locate another magnetic guide with a 1mm position accuracy. Compared To America! The figure below shows the of descriptive, sensors and twelfth night by william shakespeare, guides arrangements. Improving AGV Localization and Safety.

For safety reason, it is writing, typically necessary to australia fit the a piece writing, AGV with an infrared or a laser range finder so that it will stop if a person or obstacle is detected along the Personal, track. Range finders typically provide a digital signal which can easily be connected to an input on the motor controller, or to a PLC if one is present. If more information is needed by of descriptive, the AGV about Goals Essay, its location along the track, RFID tags positioned in key locations are a good solution. However, RFID tags typically imply the presence of a microcomputer or a PLC on the AGV in order to process the data and make navigation decisions. The source code below is written in Roboteq's MicroBasic language and runs inside the motor controller to perform the AGV functionality described in this application note.

' This script provide basic control for an AGV. ' Motor will turn on upon the presence of a track and a piece, stop when track disappears. ' The track position information is used to provide left/right steering. ' At forks, the AGV will follow the left or right track depending whether the last. ' marker detected was on the left or right side of the track. ' Make sure you precede merges with a marker so that the AGV remains on by william the main track. ' The presence of writing, a left and right marker simultaneously will cause the AGV to stop for. ' 30 seconds or until the operator presses the Essay on Music Last 40 Years, button. dim Gain as integer. dim DefaultThrottle as integer. dim TapeDetect as boolean.

dim MarkerLeft as boolean. dim MarkerRight as boolean. dim Throttle as integer. dim Tape_Position as integer. dim LineSelect as integer. dim Steering as integer. dim GoButton as boolean. dim RunState as boolean. dim NotOnStopMarker as boolean. dim PauseTime as integer. Gain = -7 ' Use negative value to invert steering command.

DefaultThrottle = 250 ' Motor power level while the AGV runs. LineSelect = 1 ' Use left track by default. PauseTime = 30000 ' in miliseconds. ' main loop to a piece of descriptive repeat every 10ms. ' read sensor data. TapeDetect = getvalue ( _MGD ) MarkerLeft = getvalue ( _MGM , 1) MarkerRight = getvalue ( _MGM , 2) ' Read button state.

GoButton = getvalue (_DI, 2) if (GoButton) then SetTimerCount(1, 0) ' Pressing the button will clear the pause timer. if GetTimerState (1) then RunState = true ' When pause timer is cleared, AGV is Essay on Music Last, allowed to run. ' Use TapeDetect and Pause Timer to apply throttle or not. if (TapeDetect and GetTimerState(1)) ' Check Marker presence to select Left or Right track. if (MarkerLeft) then LineSelect = 1. if (MarkerRight) then LineSelect = 2. ' Detect when transitioning onto stop markers.

if (NotOnStopMarker and MarkerLeft and MarkerRight) NotOnStopMarker = false ' Mark stop marker detection so that it is a piece, not detected again until AGV moved away. SetTimerCount(1, PauseTime) ' Load stop timer timout value. Tape_Position = getvalue( _MGT , LineSelect) ' use tape position multiplied with gain as steering. Steering = Tape_Position * Gain. ' Send throttle and steering to controller Configured in Mixed mode. setcommand ( _G , 1, Throttle) setcommand ( _G , 2, Steering) ' Log output. Useful for troubleshooting.

Comment out when done. print (r, TapeDetect,t, Tape_Position,t, MarkerLeft,t, MarkerRight,t, Throttle,t, Steering,t,RunState,t,LineSelect)

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alarm business plan Sometimes we get so caught up in of descriptive writing, running an and effect text, electrical business and trying to make ends meet that we forget the a piece writing importance of planning. Compared To America? It is important to a piece take the time to evaluate your business and decide which areas need improvement and where new business can be developed. Essay On Written Last? Have you ever asked yourself, What are our core strengths? Have you evaluated the strengths of your management and technical staff? You obviously are in the electrical business already. And maybe you dabble in writing, fire alarm system installations when they happen to wind up in your electrical contract. Personal? But if your core strengths include highly qualified and motivated technical staff that could easily focus on building your fire alarm systems installation and service business, why havent you built that business?

Is your mission to focus on customer service combined with unparalleled technical capabilities to a piece of descriptive ensure your clients receive the most appropriate and cost-effective solutions possible? In this age of technological advances, you often need to be at the top of your game just to of Racism stay even. Some owners look at electrical contracting as something anyone (who is licensed) can supply and, therefore, tend to treat it and you as a commodity. A Piece? How do you differentiate your company from the rest? First, you might want to evaluate who your customers are.

You may answer that you work for owners and general contractors. But do you or could you specialize in an area of business, such as servicing the electrical, fire alarm and communication needs of compared to america colleges and universities or manufacturers? Second, you need to decide if you want to expand your business to recession--proof it by doing more with clients who are themselves somewhat recession--proof. A Piece Of Descriptive? It may be that you have not attempted to cause and effect text develop a service business because it takes too much organization and attention, which impacts your installation business. But if the installation business is trending toward being treated as a commodity, can you afford not to a piece of descriptive investigate other areas of business, such as fire alarm service? What are some of the key facts about your customers today? Are they leaders in their field? Do they demand quality and solutions to their problems? Do they need those solutions fast? If you can meet those needs, you have differentiated yourself already.

Now the only problem is finding more challenging customers who need a responsive company like yours. What about your service leadership? Do you go beyond what is expected, accepting responsibility for australia to america, your work and providing leadership on the job? Participating in community development often is of descriptive writing a good way to find like-minded individuals with whom you can market to while working beside them on a community project. Have you thought about the fact that when you install fire alarm systems, you are saving lives? Understanding the part you play in the life safety equation is important to understanding your core strengths and how to better market your company in the fire alarm business.

This also will help you and your staff to develop a passion for working in the fire alarm industry. You probably have a relationship with a fire alarm system equipment supplier. Goals Essay? If you dont, and you really want to expand your fire alarm business, develop one. Once you have a good relationship with a supplier, consider developing it to a piece writing the next step by becoming a partner in marketing efforts. For example, work with your fire alarm equipment partner to sponsor training events for local fire marshals. Maybe the 2xtreme net supplier has a fledgling service business or cant keep up with the a piece of descriptive demand.

If you establish a positive relationship with that supplier, you could offer your technicians a subcontract role to assist in supplying those service needs. Cause Text? Become a local resource for your local fire inspectors. Of Descriptive? When they have questions about the correct way to wire or install a fire alarm device, share your knowledge. Focus on quality. The National Fire Alarm Code requires a large amount of documentation with every fire alarm system installation. Become the recognized leader in providing all correct documentation on twelfth night by william shakespeare, time. Expect the best from your installation technicians, and provide the a piece of descriptive writing best service to your customers. That feat seems to elude most contractors. Generations Of Racism? Create a customer-focused culture. If you ensure that your customers needs are met, you earn the customers trust.

If you become a problem solver for the customer, you establish credibility by being an a piece of descriptive writing, integral part of helping the Essay customer. Using a marketing partner who has the a piece of descriptive same focus and ideals as you do will ensure more growth in the fire alarm systems installation and service business. 2xtreme Net? By evaluating your core strengths, you will be better able to position yourself as a key provider of life safety systems. Understanding your core strengths and developing partnerships will increase your business. Its up to you. MOORE , a licensed fire protection engineer, frequent speaker and an expert in the life safety field, is a co-editor of the a piece of descriptive current National Fire Alarm Code Handbook.

Moore is a principal with Hughes Associates Inc. at the Warwick, R.I., office. Cause And Effect? Recently, a number of inquiries were made to our office regarding the a piece of descriptive writing topic of delaying or preventing the. It never ceases to amaze me just how much people in Last, our industry have been either misled or. How often does something go wrong on of descriptive, a project? I bet your answer is, Too often. Of course.

Throughout my career, I have found contractors that attempt to perform fire alarm system installations by the seat. For years, there has been concern about the waking ability of fire alarm audible notification appliances. In general. Electrical contractors work hard to learn their business and understand how to complete a project professionally and Personal Goals, make. Renovating commercial buildings that require fire alarm system updates presents many challenges. First, the upgrade that is writing designed. Many contractors work on building tenant fit-outs or reconfigurations of on Music Written Last 40 Years existing spaces where an existing fire alarm system. Many designers of the notification portion of a fire alarm or mass notification system (MNS) seem unaware of. Jim Dollard has an a piece of descriptive, extensive background in codes and standards. If you have a query about the National. Integrated systems solutions arent reserved solely for australia, surveillance, intrusion detection and fire-signaling technology.

Audio is the bright star. Strobes are essentially the only lights available for of descriptive writing, fire alarm notification. They have been misunderstood and even misused.

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CNC Conversion: RF-45 Milling Machine. This page chroni cles the CNC conversion of my Industrial Hobbies RF-45 milling machine. It's written blog style, with the newest entries at the top. Of Descriptive Writing? You may prefer to read it bottom to top if you want to see events unfolding in chronological order. CNC Conversion Blog. Limit/Home Switch Noise. I recently got my Home Switches going and decided to go ahead and enable them to act as limit switches too. That's when I became aware of just how much noise there was on the lines. I was getting a gratuitous limit fault from Essay Music in the 40 Years noise about every 2 to 3 minutes. No worries, I did what I should have done to start and writing, grounded the foil inside my cables to the CNC electronics cabinet via their connector.

The noise went away immediately and life has been good since. If you didn't think you had much noise in your system, maybe its because you didn't have a way to check? Ground the cables at Generations of Racism the electronics cabinet end (not the machine end, that can create ground loops). Mach3 Users: Make all of a piece of descriptive writing your Accelerations the night by william Same on a piece of descriptive, your Axes! I discovered this was a problem while making my tapping arms. Due to the high rate of 2xtreme net feed (50 IPM) and some abrupt changes of direction to follow the profile, I hadn't really encountered the problem before.

I had heard on one individual having an issue with wildly different motor tuning on a knee versus his X and Y axis. It had been said this was a bug in Mach. In any event, as I discovered early in my machining of the axis arms, it isn't a good idea to have different accelerations on two axes. I wouldn't have noticed it had it not been for easing back the accel on the X axis because it was faulting too much when I run with two 6 vises on the table. I lowered the a piece of descriptive writing X axis accel to Written 40 Years match the Z and forgot about it. A Piece? This latest job making a tapping arm reminded me in short order that something needed tending to. It seems odd to me that Mach3 doesn't account for this, and it ought to be classified as a bug.

Mach's trajectory planner should be able to properly choreograph a coordinated move across n-axes with a different acceleration and top velocity on each. Generations Of Racism Essays? If nothing else, the a piece writing lazy algorithm would simply limit all the coordinated axes to the least acceleration and velocity of any axis involved at the time. In any event, if you think you're doing yourself a favor by finding each axis's maximum performance envelope, you might in fact be doing the opposite until Mach learns to 2xtreme net deal with it better. BTW, the symptom will be that the tool follows the coordinated move's path in of descriptive writing, a very sloppy way. To America? Going around the a piece of descriptive writing pivot point on the tapping arm swing block it was painfully obvious to the naked eye something was wrong--no calipers or micrometers needed.

Finally: Home and Essay on in the Last, Limit Switches. The X-Switch with cover off so you can see how it works. Machine Tuning as Preventative Maintenance. I like to fiddle a bit with my machines every now and a piece of descriptive writing, again to Personal Goals make sure they're adjusted to tip top condition. The CNC mill seems to benefit from this the most. For example, the gibbs and a piece of descriptive, sometimes the Mach3 motor tuning parameters benefit from periodic adjustment.

Perhaps surprisingly, the of Racism Essays tuning varies depending on conditions. When its cold (like it is right now in my area), the mill is stiffer and seems to require lighter settings. When I load the a piece of descriptive writing table with two 6 Kurt vises there is enough weight to slow it down too. Right now I have the and effect combination of a piece of descriptive writing both, so things are kind of worst case, at least until I decide to throw a cylinder block up on the table and try to machine on that! In addition, Z is the most sensitive (being the heaviest), followed by X, followed by Y. So my current settings, which I regard as a worst case, are as follows: X 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. Y 120 IPM, 15 acceleration. Z 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. I generally just leave Z right where it is.

However, if the weather is Essays warm and the table is lightly loaded, I may bump X up to 120 and 15. It's concievable things can be made to run faster, but I like to keep my gibs very tight as well. BTW, they sometimes need readjusting too. The original owner of of descriptive IH, Aaron Moss, once told me he retuned his gibbs every season. I can definitely believe that. Something else that helps is a machine warmup. When I get my home switches finished, I will write a machine warmup program. The idea is to move the axes through their full range of travel for 2xtreme net a period of time, and warm up the spindle bearings as well. This practice is common on full-sized VMC's, and there is no reason it wouldn't be helpful for my little mill too. A Piece Writing? In fact I'm quite sure it would be because I've learned to do it through manual jogging already. Compared To America? It would be even nicer to a piece of descriptive have a program run while I pump the text oiler every so often to make sure plenty of way oil is being spread over all the surfaces.

Calling it Done! I'm writing this in September, having realized I never declared the mill done. I just got busy making things with it. As near as I can tell, it was finished sometime in May. Writing? My last work involved trying to get it all dialed in to be as accurate as possible, one of the last aspects of that was squaring the column, so I'm going to use that as my reference for calling the 2xtreme net job done. Squaring Your Mill Column. I squared my mill column a few weekends ago as part of an accurizing process I'm going through on of descriptive, the mill, but I only 2xtreme net, just took the pix off the camera and of descriptive writing, processed them today. I used a cylindrical square to measure how far off I was, leveled the table, and then shimmed the mill column to take care of the remaining error until I was just a few tenths off. The details are on 2xtreme net, my Mill Tips and Techniques page, but here is a teaser picture: Leveling the table.

All right then, two teaser pix! Even More Fun Stuff: Ballscrew Mapping With a DRO. I got my DRO installed on the X-axis of the mill and was able to do a little mapping action. Full details on my Mill Tuneup page, but here are some teaser pix: Scale mounting bracket. DRO control panel. The error map for my X-axis ballscrew. What can we tell from that error map?

The left axis shows the actual move of writing each commanded 0.5000 move as measured by night, the DRO. If the a piece writing ballscrew were perfectly accurate, the graph would be a straight line centered on 0.5000. You can see the righthand 40% of the 2xtreme net ballscrew is a piece writing qutie a bit more accurate than the of Racism left, although the first maybe 10% on the left is quite good too. Nevertheless, the writing whole screw moves to well under a thousandth of accuracy. You can also see that the errors are not cumulative, but are more periodic. The total error in 24 inches of motion was 5.6 thousandths and the screws are advertised as having less than 3 thou per 12, so this screw is 2xtreme net within spec. Mach 3 has the ability to take a map like that and writing, correct for by william these errors. A Piece Of Descriptive? I haven't tried that yet, but it would be an entertaining experiment!

Getting My HEDS On Straight. Since getting the mill back up and running, I've been working on tuning it up for accuracy. My test case has been some parts I signed up to make for a team build of Generations of Racism Essays Elmer's Comber Rotary steam engine. I've touched and a piece writing, tuned a lot of Essays different things, and I'll write up the tuning process at some point as a coherent page. Of Descriptive Writing? Meanwhile, I wanted to cause and effect pass on one thing I did that made quite a difference. Mariss F. A Piece? has been saying that there is a problem with servos that use HEDS encoders. These are the usual cheap US Digital encoders, and they're exactly what I have in my homeshopcnc servos. Some folks have said they had no problem with their encoders, others have said they have all kinds of problem.

Mariss proposed a fix that involves some simple bypass capacitors, so I took it on 2xtreme net, myself to install the a piece of descriptive writing capacitors on my servos. On Music Written In The Last 40 Years? Here is what it takes: 3 Allen-head bolts hold the rear cover on the servo. Here's what the innards look like. The HEDS encoder is connected by a simple little harness. We're bypassing the power supply to filter out noise, so the capacitor goes between pins 1 (Gnd) and 4 (+5V). The easiest thing is a piece of descriptive writing just to bend the capacitor leads, insert into the connector, and then reinstall. The ceramic 1uF capacitor goes across the HEDS power supply terminals at shakespeare the encoder.

Use Digikey BC1151CT-ND capacitors. They cost $1.80 for a piece of descriptive writing a package of 10 pieces and night shakespeare, Digikey was happy to send them to me without requiring a minimum order. The result? I immediately noticed my servos were quieter when not moving--less dithering. Some odd glitches and faults that would happen every now and again while jogging went away. Best of all, my part was suddenly being more accurately made--I was getting some false feedback from the encoder due to noise. This is a quick and a piece writing, easy fix: highly recommended if you have HEDS encoders! Finally, the 2xtreme net Mill is of descriptive Back Up and Running! That power surge was really painful, but I finally got the 2xtreme net mill running again on all 3 axes late last weekend. A Piece Of Descriptive? Turns out on Written in the Last 40 Years, I had blown the Smoothstepper and 2 out of the 3 Geckodrives. Having gotten the 2 drives and Smoothstepper replaced, the a piece of descriptive writing worst part was just figuring out what was wrong.

It's one thing to start with all new board you can assume are working, and figure any problems are your own wiring errors. It's quite a bit harder to debug a system where you have no idea what works or what doesn't. Having gotten the axes nominally going, my next task was to tune each axis. Servos have to be tuned. I followed a manual by ear tuning process first, and then went back and checked on that result with my oscilloscope. Full details are on my servo tuning page, but here are a few photos I snapped for your enjoyment: Oscilloscope is connected, but the axis isn't moving yet. I also haven't set everything up or you wouldn't see that trace without a moving axis!

I use the circle pocket wizard's g-code for servo tuning. 2xtreme Net? Set a small diameter circle and of descriptive, a relatively high feed rate and you'll get lots of 2xtreme net direction reversals to use for tuning. I got my mill X and Y axes up to 50 in/sec/sec or 0.13g's acceleration with the o-scope. Without it, I could only get to maybe 40'ish by ear. Z has the heavy mill head, so about half this much acceleration is available.

The X-axis right after o-scope tuning. Full clockwise current, nearly full gain, a little bit less damping. Your tuning settings will definitely be something different! Tough Week for CNC Electronics: Smoothstepper Lost to Storm. Man, it has been a tough week.

I wanted to do some more chip cutting this weekend. Seems we had a big storm and it blew the power all over town. I didn't think much of it, and I was not even running the CNC machine at the time. However, I went down to the shop this morning expecting to dive in and discovered the happy red flashing light on the Smoothstepper would not longer flash. A Piece Of Descriptive? I can't figure out what else could have nuked it, because all was well when I shut down. Looks like I should have unplugged the unit entirely for the storm.

I have a new Smoothstepper on order. Man, these little electronics failures are not cheap! Being desperate to do some work in the shop, but not having the working mill, I decided to mount the VFD in its NEMA enclosure: I'll be wanting to control the spindle via Mach3 soon, and I'll also want to australia compared to america mount my more powerful and writing, faster motor, so this was a good move. I didn't have a lot of time available in the shop anyway with some other commitments.

Blew Up a Geckodrive. I started out twelfth night by william, tonight after work to a piece of descriptive make some more chips. I wanted to square up 2 pieces of Generations 1/4 MIC6 so they'd be 2 x 6 for writing a steam engine team build I'm participating in. I discovered the Z was faulting off and on so I decided to crank up the tuning on all 3 axes. I had done a basic tuning job, but I hadn't really spent a lot of time fiddling with it. The mill head is very heavy, so I wanted to be sure it was really tuned up well to stop the australia to america faulting.

I knew I had a tuning problem because it was only a piece, faulting when I wanted to raise the head, and then only Goals, when I did so rapidly. I turned down the acceleration a bit, and that was happier, but I'd still get a fault every now and then. So, I decided to redo the servos. I got out my screwdriver and started tuning. I was following a by a piece, ear approach based on several articles I found on the web. In general, I did the twelfth night shakespeare following: 1. Of Descriptive? Start with gain and damping turned all the way down. 2. Start bumping up gain, and bump the axis back and forth until you get oscillation. You'll know when you get it, it can be pretty strong. 3. Increase the of Racism damping until the oscillation goes away and the servo is quiet.

An occasional tick is supposed to be okay, that's just a bit of dithering, but make sure it is occassional. This procedure was actually not all that hard, and before long I was ready to start machining again, or so I thought. I set up a 1/4 2 flute in an R8 holder, zeroed the X, Y, and Z on my 2 plates in a piece of descriptive writing, the vise, and Generations of Racism Essays, fired up the Mach3 surfacing wizard. It came back with some g-code it said would take about 12 minutes so I cut it loose, and a piece, sat back to watch. It seemed to be running along fine, but about 10 minutes into australia compared to america it, I got up off my stool and decided to a piece of descriptive go try to and effect listen closely to each servo motor. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? I checked the Y, and it was good, but when I got to the X something looked odd. It sounded fine (hard to hear it clearly over the noise of the cutter), but the print on twelfth night shakespeare, the timing belt looked slightly fuzzy. I decided I was seeing some oscillation and of descriptive writing, headed back to Essay on in the Last the controls to shut down. Before I could get there, poof! The really nasty smelling magic smoke was released from the X-axis Gecko. It had been oscillation and it had burnt up the a piece of descriptive servodrive.

I shut down, went upstairs, and Essay in the, ordered 2 new Gecko 320's via 2nd day air. I was determined to make some real chips this coming weekend! Servos are closed loop, and a piece writing, the oscillation they can get into is not unlike feedback on a PA system or electric guitar. Of Racism Essays? Left unchecked, it can cause problems. A Piece Of Descriptive? In this case, even though the axis hadn't oscillated during tuning, it wasn't properly damped and somehow broke into oscillation while running. Night By William Shakespeare? I was surprised at how quiet it was, but then the cutter and spindle were fairly noisy at the time. Lesson learned: it may not be necessary to tune in the maximum possible gain! I have a Tektronix oscilloscope that I will try again at a little later date when I get some time. Meanwhile, I will manually tune a bit less aggressively.

Cut First Chips Under CNC Control! Towards the end of of descriptive writing this weekend I got the machine all back together and was able to cut my first chips under CNC control. Exciting stuff! I spent quite a lot of time on Essay Music in the 40 Years, what appears to writing be a dead motor. I took it apart and tested the capacitors.

Looked like a bad starting cap. Of Racism? So I found another starting cap and tried that. Of Descriptive? Still nothing but a buzz when I flicked it on. At that point I was too eager to get going, so I just swapped the motor off the manual mill onto night by william shakespeare, the CNC mill. Nice to have that extra mill! I spent a little bit of time calibrating the Z-axis travel (I had already gotten X and Y calibrated earlier) using a 1-2-3 block and a piece writing, my Z-axis touchsetter: Z-Axis Presetter: When the needle is on zero the cutter is Generations of Racism exactly 2.500 above whatever the a piece writing presetter is text sitting on.

Yep, I got it from 800watt on eBay. There is the mill in all its glory. Sun is setting Sunday night, so we need to get this show on the road! I also tried a touch off with paper between the 1-2-3 block and the cutter. I like the Z-axis presetter better.

First chips were nothing special, I just surfaced the aluminum jaw of a piece of descriptive writing my vise. After that I cut some 1/4 MIC6 aluminum plate in preparation for a steam engine team build I am participating in. Unfortunately, that's all I had time for, more chips will have to wait for next weekend! Dinked Around Modifying the Spindle Mounting Bolts. I spent about 40 minutes in the shop dinking around with the square head bolts I got from McMaster Carr. I ordered 3 3 long 5/8 11 TPI square head bolts.

To make them fit the mill Z-axis saddle you have to grind off the corners a little bit. 3 bolts are also a tad too long. With the bolts in the saddle I measure that I needed to shorten the Generations of Racism Essays bolts about 5/8 for a comfortable clearance. That would mean that 2 1/2 bolts might have worked out okay. Calibrating My Axis Steps per a piece writing Inch and Checking the Backlash on the Mill.

I had an compared to america, electrician come by, so I now have 220 for the mill (and a big compressor and a few extra outlets for other things). Writing? The next logical step is to mount the spindle head, but i'm stuck until I get some parts I ordered from McMaster-Carr. I need the square head bolts needed to Music in the 40 Years secure the a piece spindle to night the Z-axis. A Piece Writing? They got misplaced somehow from the box of parts that came with the mill. I didn't discover this until the work week had begun so naturally they aren't here yet this weekend. So, I was casting about for something else to do on twelfth night shakespeare, the mill in writing, the meanwhile, and Generations Essays, I decide to calibrate the X and of descriptive writing, Y axis. This is not too hard to do and makes a big difference for the accuracy of the australia compared mill. Here is a little video that Hoss just published that tells how he went about it: Hoss calibrating his mill's steps per inch in Mach 3.

I followed a pretty similar procedure. It went like this: First I trammed in a 2-4-6 block so that the back edge was exactly parallel to the travel of the X-axis. Here I am picking up the starting point. When doing this test you want to make sure you travel in one direction only so there is no possibility of backlash. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? If you change directions accidently, you have to start over.

I jogged slowly up to Goals the indicator until the needle registered about a piece of descriptive, half a turn, then I zeroed the indicator. Then I jogged, being careful to move entirely in one direction until the indicator registered zero against the 1-2-3 block I'm using as a back stop. In Mach3 you can job in thousandths or tenths. On Music Written In The? Try that with your handwheels! Now read the of descriptive distance off the Mach3 X-axis DRO and compare it to cause and effect text the actual length of your 2-4-6 block. Mine turned out to be 6.0014 long. The X distance travelled was 5.9653 according to the DRO. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? The difference between the two tells me how much I need to increase my steps per inch with a simple ratio calculation. The steps per inch I had based on the leadscrew pitch and timing belt pulley ratio was 28,240, but after putting in a value of 28,409.9 and trying again it came out exactly right! Here I am tramming in to do the same thing on Goals, the Y-axis.

I won't bore you with all the details, but this one required a little different factor of 28235.8 steps per a piece inch. Note that in theory X and Y should have been identical. They both have the same pitch leadscrew and the same timing pulley ratios. The fact that they're different shows how important this calibration step can be! Next I measured my backlash on both axes. This is easy. Job up to Written Last 40 Years the 1-2-3 block until the indicator ticks.

Zero the a piece writing indicator and the DRO for australia that axis. Back off an inch and a piece writing, then jog back in twelfth by william, until the indicator zeros. Whatever the writing DRO reads is Personal you backlash. I got 0.0003 for the Y-axis and 0.0006 for the X-axis. That's not bad, but I'll bet I need a little more preload to get the X-axis tuned up even better. I didn't bother with the Z-axis since I don't have the heavy spindle head mounted yet. I want real readings based on of descriptive writing, how the australia compared mill will be operating, although it shouldn't make a difference. Newsflash: All Three Axes Are Running! I made an a piece of descriptive, adapter for the servo shaft and got the Z-axis running today. Minor tuning was needed, but the Z runs pretty smoothly. Not a lot left to be cutting chips: - Mount the mill spindle head.

- Get 220V over to it (easier said than done!). - Tune the servos for real. - Get out the dial indicators and get everything calibrates: steps per by william inch, backlash, squaring the mill, etc. At that stage, I could cut some chips on a provisional basis, and a piece, I sure do plan on it! X and Generations of Racism Essays, Y Axis are Alive! Plus, New Servo Page. Between the wee hours Friday night and the morning today I've gotten the a piece of descriptive writing X and Y axis servos mounted and running. The servos are really not tuned yet, but even in their rough state I was able to move the table at 180 IPM! I am not suggesting that is something that will be accurate or even usable, it was just play, but it was fun! I tried for 200 IPM, but the servos started faulting again and I didn't want to spend too much time tuning for a scenario that isn't real anyway.

Meanwhile, I added a new page that gathers up all the stuff I had to do to australia adapt the HomeshopCNC servos to the IH Mill CNC Kit. My next problem is to adapt the servo for the Z-axis, which is going to require a little stronger medicine: I love the performance of the HomeshopCNC servos, but the shafts are really short for this IH kit! Mounting Timing Pulleys on of descriptive writing, the Servo. I'm going to use 1/8 roll pins to mount the timing pulleys to the servos.

This is the method Gene told me is used by 2xtreme net, Industrial Hobbies on their turnkey systems, and it will provide a very solid mounting--much more so than a couple of set screws. Here is where the hole needs to a piece writing go on the X and Y axes when the compared timing pulley is oriented properly to mesh up with the pulley on the ballscrew: I can use the shoulder of the pulley and the end of the motor shaft as my datum reference points. I need an identical offset of 0.220 from either point to locate the hole in the shaft and a piece, the pulley. Before I Forget: IH Limit Switch Wiring. I spent an hour and Personal Goals Essay, a half tracking this down just now on CNCZone. Here is how the a piece IH optical limits are supposed to be wired to a breakout board: This schematic calls for a 270 ohm resistor, but another fella on the thread found a 330 worked better. Lots of Fabrication, Wiring, Testing, and Diagnosing Went on This Weekend. Result? 3 Servos a-Spinning!

My goal for this weekend was to have the enclosure mounted on the rolling tool cabinet and be able to spin all three servo motors. Easier said than done! Mounting the enclosure was pretty easy, as was installing the electronics and axis modules. Here are some shots of how things looked just now when I was downstairs in the garage: Messy! It sure is nice that I can use a laptop with the 2xtreme net Smoothstepepr. Very messy wiring.

After I get everything working, I'll be milling new panels (using this CNC mill of course) and I'll take that opportunity to build some real wiring harnesses that clean this up! The wiring is a piece pretty messy, but I'll be rejiggering it to on in the make some real wiring harnesses and clean it up on a future pass. Right now I just want to make it work. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? Most of my difficulties have been with the C17 card and getting it to reliably deal with servo faults. I haven't yet decided whether the board is flaky, or whether I'm just using it wrong. I do know I have seen it do some pretty odd things. When I got everything into this cabinet, for example, it completely quit closing the relay during the startup sequence. That meant the Geckos would just immediately fault out, which is a bad thing. If you read my diagnosis page, you'll see I keep having this problem over and over.

Each time the fix is a little different. Essay? This time I got things going again by connecting the switched side of the Start button to the DC supply relay. That ensures it gets closed during the Start cycle regardless of a piece what the C17 chooses to do. As is cause usual for me, I didn't think of this solution until after I'd slept overnight from a frustrating earlier session. Now I've got all 3 servos spinning. X tends to fault out, but that's just because I don't have the servos in a very good state of tune. There's liittle point in it until I can get them mounted on the machine anyway because they'll just need returning. Therefore, I will be turning my attention to assembling the servos on the mill. I plan to mount the timing pulleys onto the servo shafts using 1/8 roll pins.

This is how IH does it on a piece of descriptive writing, their turnkey systems and it'll be a lot more solid than trying to use setscrews on the powerful motors I've got. Towards that end, I was researching the proper hole sizes to drill and came across a page from night by william shakespeare SDP-SI on it here. It's been a busy, but fruitfull weekend! Axis Modules Are Done Pending 2 Cables. All three axis modules are now assembled and tested.

As I was finalizing the last of the a piece writing three modules, I decided I wanted a quick disconnect on the signal wires, so I made up a cable out of a male and female DB9, and that looks like it will work well. Generations? I just need to make 2 more of of descriptive writing those cables for use with the other 2 axis modules. Here is Personal Essay what a finished module looks like with the quick disconnect: To install an axis module in the enclosure requires 2 connections--the quick connect is a piece of descriptive all the signal level stuff, and then there are the main DC power supply + and - that go to bus bars. It should be pretty quick and easy to install one or switch one with another to clear up some issue. I could've skipped the quick connect, but I got to thinking about poking and prodding inside that enclosure on my hands and cause, knees and wanted to make it easier.

1. Writing? I need to finish making the other 2 quick connect cables. That'll be easy to do during the week, I hope. 2. I need to clean up the enclosure itself, get it mounted on the side of the rolling chest, and get the electronics mounted inside and tested. 3. 2xtreme Net? Last step is I need to install the servos on the mill and then see the axes move. We're getting closer!

Major Milestone: Spinning a Servo! (When Debugging, Whatever Can Go Wrong Will Go Wrong) I just now got 1 servo spinning on the bench after 2 1/2 days of trial and error debugging. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? If you want the full story of how I debugged this silling thing, I captured it on a page so you can see how I went about it. It's a painful process as not all of the relevant information you will need is Generations of Racism Essays captured in one single place. Some of it was out there, but a lot of it I just had to a piece of descriptive figure out on my own. Here is a concise list of 2xtreme net all the things I had to change from my original attempt to run: Set CNC4PC Master Control Board DIP switches for G320. It acts funny on the other board types whether or not Err/Res is writing connected. Discovered I had mislabeled the leads from australia to america my front panel for the Start and E-stop, so they were connected backwards.

Reverse the motor connections because they were backwards compared to what the encoder indicated, causing an immediate servo fault. In doing #3, I reversed the wrong leads and had to replace the power supply rectifier. A Piece Of Descriptive? I don't think I blew the Gecko, amazingly! Connect a 47K ohm resistor across pins 1 and 3 of the G320 to ensure the bridge initializes properly. Generations Essays? This was buried in a piece writing, a hard to find Mariss note on CNCZone. Now I was getting the Generations Essays servo to hold position, so I played with the of descriptive writing tuning trimpots a bit. In Mach3, set Step/Dir to ActiveLo. Set pulse width to 5 (the pulse width may be ignored for Smoothstepper). Night By William Shakespeare? Connect Common on G320 to +5V on writing, breakout card instead of Ground. Another one that's easy to miss unless you read a lot of posts on twelfth by william shakespeare, various boards!

Set up the proper motor tuning parameters on Mach3. IH says 115 IPM speed and 0.15g of a piece of descriptive writing acceleration, according to another post I found. I also needed 28,240 steps to move 1. Set the Smoothstepper jumpers to actually provide +5V to 2xtreme net the breakout board. Of Descriptive? Otherwise, the terminals marked +5V are 0V! Now I can spin the servo this way and that with Mach3. 2xtreme Net? It can still fault if I rapidly change directions at full jog, but that's just tuning and I need to set it properly on the actual machine instead of with servos flopping around on the floor. I must admit that per the discussion on a piece of descriptive writing, the Cookbook Blog on the Eternal Servo vs Stepper Jihad, it was a lot harder to spin a servo than a stepper. In general, I encountered a lot of less than obvious things including the CNC4PC DIP switch settings, need for the 47K ohm resistor (that's going to be built into the next generation Gecko servo drives), and bizarre experiences with Common, which has to be +5V, and which didn't get +5V until the Smoothstepper jumpers were enabled.

Here are some photos of Essay 40 Years my CNC electronics testing lab on the dining room table (my wife is a piece of descriptive writing glad it seems to be working and I'm cursing a lot less!): Figuring Out Mach 3 Parameters for My Servos. I have 500 CPR encoders on my servos, which means 500 x 4 = 2000 steps per and effect motor revolution. It takes 5 (leadscrew pitch) * 2.824 (timing belt ratio) rotations to move the X or Y axes 1. So, I need 2000 * 5 * 2.824 = 28,240 steps per inch of axis motion. IH runs at 100 IPM, so I'll set this maximum speed initially. Wiring Continues, and of descriptive writing, Powder Coat is Essays On Order. I have been busily making cables and wiring up the a piece enclosure. There are a lot of connections here! I have my wiring diagram and I am coloring in each connection as I finish making it. Everything is text point to of descriptive writing point, so I am making little wiring harnesses and trying to keep it neat.

At the moment I'm just trying to get to on Music in the the point where I can make one axis module active and spin a single servo motor. If that all works, I will assemble and test the other 2 axis modules. After that it will be time to finish up the enclosure. I got a neat powder coating kit from my brother for Christmas, and a piece writing, I just ordered some Ocean Blue powder coat from Caswell Plating. I think the Ocean Blue will match the Music Written Last IH mill blue pretty good. Powder coat is very durable. Not really necessary for this application, but I thought it would be fun to try it out! Progress: Wiring Diagram, Board Mounting, et al.

You can be forgiven if you don't think I've been doing anything for 3 weeks. Reallity is I've actually been pretty busy. It takes a ridiculous amount of research to a piece figure out how to wire up one of these CNC projects right, so that's a big part of what I've been doing. Ordering various ancillary parts and mounting my various little sub-circuit boards to a big mounting plate that goes in the enclosure would be the other part. Today I got started wiring up. 2xtreme Net? I want to a piece writing do just enough wiring to verify I can spin one servo sitting on and effect, the bench before I do too much else. Meanwhile, here are some tidbits: Compare this to the diagram directly below. Notice I am reversed. That's intentional, I decided to a piece mount the NEMA enclosure on the side of the rolling cabinet that will be closest to 2xtreme net the mill.

Getting Geared Up to Wire the Box. I've been getting in writing, a plethora of odds and ends to start wiring up the enclosure. By William Shakespeare? I've now got everything except a relay I will use for the E-stop circuit and the master AC on/off switch for the front panel. I also did a number of versions of the overall schematic. The latest is on the enclosure page. Based on a piece of descriptive writing, my latest schematics, I've done a layout for Personal how I'll go about mounting the various sub-boards in a piece, the enclosure:

My goal this weekend would be to get the enclosure to the point I can actually mount the boards and and effect, begin the wiring process next weekend, and hopefully try spinning some servos (though not on the machine) next weekend as well. There's quite a bit of work to writing do there, but if I get enough hours I should reach that stage. Fingers crossed! I still need to make an arm to support the keyboard and monitor, I need to Personal mount the enclosure to the rolling cabinet, and a piece of descriptive, I also need to paint it. There's still a lot of cause fussing.

I haven't spec'd or ordered any of the auxilliary panel connectors, for example. I have some sitting around the parts bin that will hopefully work. Have to look at them as well. If need be, I can delay VFD and coolant wiring until after the a piece servos are running and it would be no big deal. New VFD Spindle Control Page. After spending a couple of hours last night and this morning studying my VFD and controller board, I wanted to start a new page for the VFD work. The work required to control the mill spindle from Mach3 is not terribly hard, but there are a lot of 2xtreme net details, so I've split it off to a different page to make it easier to follow this subsystem. 2 Hours of Progress this Morning.

Two hours this morning, and while I did a lot of different things, it doesn't feel like all that much progress. Doh! I started out with my new treppaning hole cutter from SPI. I've had so much trouble make large holes in metal sheet over the years I finally sprung for a professional tool. I started out trying to finish the of descriptive writing meter hole on the 3rd axis module. Things got off to a good start and then got progressively worse until the little tool snapped clean off! Fer cryin' out loud!

I am now convinced the evil mystery metal I got from the 2xtreme net hardware store is some sort of steel that work hardens very easily. Writing? I can find no other explanation for how difficult it is to work with. In any event, before it broke the cutter almost got through, so I knocked the disk out with a ball peen hammer. I need to australia compared clean up part of the hole with an abrasive grinder of some sort, but it'll be fine. I turned from of descriptive that to mounting the Antek power supply in the enclosure box. That was no big deal: set supply in position, mark holes, drill holes, done! So that's ready to go when it's time.

I'll leave the supply out Essay Written Last 40 Years, of the box for the time being because there is still more cutting and drilling to do there. Next I turned my attention to the 8 standoffs used to mount the Gecko drive and heatsink to the axis module panel. These 8 had not yet had holes drilled and tapped in of descriptive, either end. So I stuck 'em in the lathe, faced as necessary, center drilled, and drilled with the proper bit for the tap. When all 8 were done, I went over to Essays the mill and a piece writing, power tapped each hole with a spiral flute tap. That's two hours of my morning and australia compared to america, now it's lunch time. Nothing worth taking a picture of even. Got Most of the of descriptive writing Cutouts in the NEMA Enclosure.

I will still need holes for the cooling fan, but I want to make sure I understand the clearances and location of everything else before I try to position the fan. My current thinking is to put it in the door next to 2xtreme net the hinge and up high to exhaust the of descriptive writing warm air. Written In The 40 Years? Wish I had a louver punch! Here are some piccys: The panel inserts cover the holes.

4 axes on front, with a master control panel at the top. I could possibly also exhaust the fan at writing the right side of that control panel. Three rear panel cutouts. Top 2 are for 2 more axes. Bottom will be for all the Essay Written in the Last auxilliary connectors for limits, coolant relay control, and VFD control. More detail on the enclosure page about how I did the cutouts. Some Progress on the Axis Modules. I've got one pretty well mocked up with all the parts mounted: As you can see I have an a piece of descriptive, issue with meter clearance and the mounting bolts, so I made an oversized hole to try to create some wiggle room. This happened due to an error in laying out the big square face during the CAD design. What I need to do is relocate the whole meter 1/4 down the panel and all would be well.

I've gotten it close enough, I think. Written In The 40 Years? I can't go much further or I'll lose the mounting holes for the meter as you can see in this behind shot. In the end, I'm planning to remake these panels anyway once the CNC is up and running. I'll make them out of 1/4 aluminum plate and put some engraving and other decorative touches on so they'll look a lot nicer. Soldered the Cables on the Servo Motors. The servo motors come from Homeshopcnc with just a short tail on a piece of descriptive, them, so you'll need to attach a longer cable back to you electronics cabinet. I decided to use IES-style power cords for mine. These are the of Racism Essays same power cables a PC uses. A Piece Writing? I chose them becaues they're cheap, the 2xtreme net servo only has 3 conductors like a power cord, and they're designed to carry current. A Piece Writing? My one reservation would be that they're not shielded, so the noise from the servos will escape.

That means I need to take care the Generations of Racism Essays rest of the cables, for example the limit switch and encoder cables, are properly shielded for noise and the shields are grounded. I put 10 foot power cords from CableWholesale on the motors. Homeshopcnc Servo Encoder Pinout. Got a note back from my query to Homeshopcnc on pinout for the encoders. They say the 5 pins on the encoder correspond to of descriptive the top 5 pins on australia compared to america, the DB connector. A Piece? According to US Digital, that pinout would be: Also worth noting is that I have specified 500 CPR encoders on these servos. With quadrature, that means 2000 steps per revolution. Miscellaneous Mill Progress Updates: Timing Belts, Martian War Machine Axis Modules, Limit Switches, and Sheet Metal Templates. Tonight was a productive evening in and effect text, the shop!

I discovered some time back that the a piece 72 tooth timing belts I ordered for the X and Y axes were too small. Doh! Turns out I made a minor miscalculation in Generations Essays, the geometry involved. I was very concerened I would discover the timing pulleys I had ordered were also not going to a piece of descriptive work as you can only Essay on Written Last 40 Years, get belts in certain sizes. Of Descriptive Writing? Fortunately, luck shined on me and I found that a 75 tooth belt works fine. In addition, I got a bunch of legs turned on the lathe so I could start assembling the heat sink modules: Meanwhile I have received a bunch of IES electrical sockets for the servo power cables, a bunch of 3AG fuse holders, and a bunch of female DB-9 connectors, as well as 4 15 amp panel ammeters. It's time to start thinking about the sheet metal panels. I picked up some 22 ga stainless sheet at Orchard Supply and twelfth night, I drew up a template in my CAD program:

About this time I got thinking about the one big round hole and the two square holes. A Piece Of Descriptive? Painful to make with my current equipment. I'll have to Personal Goals Essay go buy a hole saw for of descriptive the big round hole (for my load meter), and the squares have to be made by drilling out the corners as marked on my template and them milling or perhaps nibbling across to connect up the holes. All in all its a bit of 2xtreme net a nuisance, and a piece of descriptive writing, its got me thinking about Personal Goals Essay, punch and die work. I'd need 3 punches: one for the meter hole and 1 each for the DB-9 and a piece of descriptive, IES power connector square holes. I have a 50-ton H-frame press, so it would be a matter of throwing together some form of punch and die tooling. Realistically, that's even more work than just making the panels the original way I had planned, but it sure is 2xtreme net more interesting work.

Gotta think about whether to go there or just git 'er done! Lastly, I got my Industrial Hobbies optical limits installed. They sure are cool. Here are some pix: There is the X-axis limit. It installs in the existing 2 holes on the saddle and is triggered by the table stops in the side T-slot. As the IH directions suggested, you have to put a washer behind the table stops to keep them from wiggling around. Here is a piece a shot of the Y and Z-axis limits as they're being installed. These 2 use long rods with collars. An aluminum block such as you see on the Z-axis is bolted to the moving axis and 2xtreme net, when it contacts a collar on writing, the shaft it actuates the switch. Here's a closeup of the insides of one of these nifty switches.

Electronics Enclosure Planning Sketch and Opening Key. This evening after I got done with work I made a key to open my surplus Rittal NEMA enclosures with. It was just a bit of lathe work, some cross drilling on twelfth night shakespeare, the mill, and a 1/8 roll pin to a piece of descriptive writing make it work. I doubt if it took more than 10-15 minutes: First look inside the box. This should work out pretty well, I think! Having gotten the silly think open, my thoughts turned to how to stuff my planned electronics into it. I came up with this quick and cause and effect, dirty planning sketch using Rhino3D: You can see I am planning for up to 6 of what I call Axis Modules, as well as the Antek DC Power Supply. Of Descriptive Writing? I'll need to squeeze a few other things in there as well, but it looks roomy enough to Essay do so, eh?

In addition to this planning sketch I've mapped out which other electronics cards I need to order to provide all the a piece of descriptive writing functions of my CNC control enclosure. Full details on the electronics page. I'm Declaring the One Shot Oiler Done! Got the pump mounted and the Z-axis plumbed. There are minor improvements I might make, but in general, it works well! Here is a roundup of pictures: The pump mounted to the column. Shot of the saddle circuits.

And the Z-axis circuits. Ordered a 1000 Watt DC Power Supply to Run the Servos Today. I ordered a PS-10N70 power supply from Antek today to power the servos on my mill. Essay Music In The? Here is a photo: It was $150 + $10 shipping, which seems very reasonable. This is a 70V supply, which leaves a little margin for the 80V limit on the Geckodrives. Antek is run by a fellow named John Ango. I've ordered toroidal transformers from him before and he's a good guy to do business with.

For this price I can save my self some effort and be that much closer to running this mill sooner! Block Off and Oil Pump Mounting Plate. Here's a quick shot, details here. Ordered Timing Belts and Pulleys From SDP-SI and Musings About Encoders and Accuracy. The stock timing pulleys for of descriptive the IH CNC kit are HTD series (semi-circular teeth), 5mm pitch, and 15mm wide. But, the pulleys that came with the kit have a tiny little 8mm bore designed for the servos IH sells.

As I am using HomeShopCNC servos that have a 1/2 bore, they just won't work. There isn't enough meat on them to bore out that much. So, I had to figure out Personal Essay, a new plan. After some fooling around to measure the shaft center distance on the bracket (it doesn't adjust, so you had better get it right!), I came up with a distance of 3.769. I plugged this into a Rhino3D drawing as a sanity check along with pulley diameters and actually drew up the stock arrangement. I came up with the small pulley having 12 teeth and the bigger one having 48 teeth for a 4:1 reduction ratio.

Measuring shaft to shaft with my 850 oz in HomeShopCNC servos. I knew there was a reason I had those big giant calipers! Okay, so what's the closest pulley for the motor that will fit my shaft and work with an off-the-shelf timing belt without having to change the shaft to shaft distance or modify the of descriptive writing bracket? Turns out SDP-SI has a nifty little calculator for this purpose. It didn't take too much fooling around before I figured out that a 72 tooth belt (instead of the stock 70 tooth belts) and a 17 tooth motor pulley would do the job. I ordered these from SDP-SI at Personal Essay a total cost of about $40.

Not cheap, but the belts were half that and making 2 timing pulleys would consume a lot of of descriptive writing time that I could not spend elsewhere. Note after the australia to america fact (10/30/08): The 72 tooth belts don't fit but a 75 tooth works great with this pulley combination. My reduction ratio on the X and Y axis will now be 48/17 or about 2.824:1 instead of 4:1. A Piece Writing? The stock IH kit comes with 410 oz/in servos but I'm running 850 oz/in, so I doubt I'll run short of to america torque. I'm running the 500 resolution encoders, but they're on the motor instead of on the ballscrew like the IH kit. So, IH gears down 4000 cpr encoders (I deduce given their 50 millionths resolution figure, hmmm) by 4:1 getting a resolution of a piece writing 4000/4 = 1000 counts per motor revolution and 4000 counts per ballscrew resolution. Here is Personal Goals a thing about this 50 millionths figure from IH: none of the likely encoders from US Digital come anywhere near 4000 counts per revolution. 1000 was the highest I could find. How can they get to the 50 millionths figure then?

The answer is a piece of descriptive writing not so hard, we use quadrature inputs which give us 4x the resolution for the encoder. So, if IH uses an expensive 1000 count per revolution encoder in quadrature mode, they get 4000 counts per revolution. Let's assume I run my 500 count encoders in quadrature mode. Cause And Effect? I'm running the equivalent of 2000 * 2.824 = 2824 counts per a piece writing ballscrew revolution and 2000 counts per motor revolution. So I appear to Music in the have about a piece of descriptive writing, 70% of the resolution of the IH kit. Instead of text 50 millionths, I'll be at 0.7 of a tenth. That's still pretty good! And note that this is of descriptive writing actual resolution an encoder can see and cause text, a servo drive can do something about. Steppers, by comparison, are commanded to move a step and have to a piece writing just assume the proper motion occured.

For comparison, let's look at the Tormach, which uses stepper motors instead of 2xtreme net servos. I'm not claiming one mill is more accurate than the other, I'm just taking a look at how the numbers work out. Tormach claims resolution of a tenth. Of Descriptive? That is defined as, The minimum discrete position move is 0.0001, this is the resolution of motion. What can this mean if we investigate closely? Given their definition, it means that 0.0001 corresponds to one step on Essay on Music Written 40 Years, their stepper motor. A typical stepper has 200 steps in a rotation, so that implies the gear train from step to table motion is a piece 1.000 / (200 * 0.0001) = 50:1.

That's a very big reduction, in fact it sounds too big. The IH reduction is 4:1 via pulleys and night shakespeare, another 5:1 via the ballscrew, or 20:1. Tormach says their rapids speed is 65 ipm. Let's plug these numbers backwards and see what we get: 65 inches / 0.0001 = 650,000 ten thousandths = 650,000 steps per minute. 650,000 steps per minute / 200 steps per revolution = 3250 rpm. Maybe they can rapid the machine while running the stepper motors at 3250 rpm, but that seems really fast for a stepper motor. Most of them in this kind of size range have a torque peak much lower than that.

Tormach's Design Analysis talks about torque falling off rapidly in just a few hundred rpm. My assumption would be that the 0.0001 resolution is a piece of descriptive writing not realizable in practice and is based on Personal Essay, something such as microstepping (the Tordrive has 10x microstepping, for example which would mean divide everything by 10 if we're talking microsteps). A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? If I am right about the microstepping, the real resolution is Generations more like 0.001, which is a piece writing fine, and Goals, completely in keeping with the mill's stated performance. Why doesn't microstepping count? Because you can't maintain full torque on a microstep unless it corresponds to a full step. They're largely about smoother acceleration and motion more than they are about accuracy. I like the Tormach mill, BTW, I was just curious to work through the figures and see what I could learn. Update on Tormach. I confirmed a few things from some Tormach owners on a piece writing, CNCZone.

The Tormach direct drives the ballscrews with no reduction, and the lead on compared, the ballscrews is the same as IH: 5 turns to the inch. So, at full rapids, the Tormach is doing 325 rpm as suspected. And also as suspected, you have to assume 10x microstepping to get to the 50 millionths resolution. A Piece Of Descriptive? My understanding was that you shouldn't count on microsteps for increased resolution because the torque was very low. That turns out to have been wrong. There is a great series of posts by Mariss F. on CNCZone that lay it all out. Of Racism? The long and the short of a piece writing it is Generations that you can take advantage of up to 10x microstepping and of descriptive, still have about 70% of the torque and on Written, full positional accuracy. Of Descriptive? Therefore Tormachs 50 millionths resolution claim is quite defensible.

Now of course there are other issues that prevent the machine from Goals Essay being that accurate in general, but Tormach only claims about 0.001 precision, which is very plausible provided you run the system in a way that loses no steps. A Piece Writing? A servo system still have the 2xtreme net potential to be more accurate because it can get back on track after the fact. Of Descriptive? Whether that's acceptible or not to your application is a whole other question I won't delve into here. It was gratifying to 2xtreme net see that my math all worked out of descriptive, properly with the real data on the Tormach that I didn't have access to! Getting Closer: Mill Column Installed.

With the Music Last 40 Years help of my brother and a piece, an engine hoist, we got the column up onto the base. This thing weighs 275 lbs before you put epoxy granite in it! Starting to twelfth night shakespeare look like a mill now! Cruel Teaser Sketch. Just the one spy photo of a piece of descriptive writing a little something I'm designing: Curious how thee are two different kinds of tool holders, eh? Too premature to say more!

State of the Union: One Shot Works for X-Y and X and Y are On the Bracketl. There's been quite a lot of progress I've been slow to report on, so this is a catchup post in pictures in no particular order: X-Axis is assembled and australia compared, on-bracket. One shot oiler for a piece of descriptive writing the X and Y axes is now up and running well. Cause And Effect? Between the way lapping and of descriptive, the one shot, I can tight the 2xtreme net gibs as tightly as they can go with a screwdrivers and the axes still move like velvety smooth butter. Here's Where We Stand: One Shot Works Great on X-Y. Ballscrews and Brackets are Mounted on X-Y. Next Step: Mount the of descriptive writing Column.

I made a change from IH's directions. If you mount the column and then try to install the ballscrew, it is Essay on Music Last hard to access the top of the column without a ladder unless your machine is on the floor. So I mounted everything temporarily and then disassembled it. As soon as I can get my brother over on his day off and we can rig a hoist, we'll put the column up. The holes for the mounting the ballscrew and servo are all drilled and tapped, so it should be fast. After that, I need to: - Plumb the of descriptive writing Z-axis oiling--note that there is a plugged outlet on the other side of the one shot pump for that. - Make a mounting plate for the One Shot Pump that goes in the opening for the hand crank on the Z-axis. It'll do double duty blocking off that opening and to america, mounting the pump. - Mount the servo motors.

My NEMA34 frame motors fit the IH brackets just fine (yay!). I need to look at what's required to mount the timing pulleys to these servos, however. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? I also need to get a set of belts from IH. - Mount the optical limit switches on all 3 axes. - At this point I'll be mechanically complete on the conversion and twelfth night by william, it'll be time to start looking into a piece of descriptive writing the electronics. Things are getting close enough it may be worth trying to 2xtreme net push hard through completion! Sears Labor Day Sale Yields CNC Cabinet For the Mill.

I've ordered a Sears Gladiator Modular GearBox: Inside is of descriptive a cabinet with 1 shelf on slides. I plan to store heavy stuff like the 2xtreme net rotary table, vises, angle plates, and the like inside the cabinet. I'll be attaching my NEMA electronics box to the side or rear (haven't decided which I like better). The PC and all the mill's electronics will go inside that NEMA box. I'll also attach a swing arm to carry the touch screen, keyboard, and any control panel I wind up building for the mill. I have a spot in the shop right adjacent to where the a piece of descriptive writing mill sits that is cause and effect perfect for this little rolling cabinet. A Piece Writing? Should make for a very neat and professional installation. As I am making great progress installing the 2xtreme net ballscrews, it won't be long before I need to a piece turn my attention to the electronics piece.

After the mill is operational, I may get industrious and make some tool holder racking for this cabinet too. More Y-Axis Work: Oil Passage for Ballnut and Casting Relief for Extra Travel. To deliver oil to the cup atop the 2xtreme net ballnut mount, I simply connected the oiling groove to the cup using a cold chisel and some gentle tapping. I only a piece writing, had to go about 1/8, so it wasn't hard to do. The Industrial Hobbies install instructions mention it might be necessary to grind the underside of the casting to get full travel. They are right--there is Generations a travel obstruction. Rather than grind the a piece of descriptive underside, which is particularly hard to do with my epoxy granite fill, I simply sliced out about 3/4 more on the opening. This works great and yields all the travel you can use with no interference. Finished Up the New Y-Ballnut Mount.

The ltitle center hole drops oil onto the ballscrew through a hole in the way above. Just in Generations, Time to a piece Start Installing the Generations of Racism Kit: We're On Bracket for writing the Y-Axis! Very spiffy looking, eh? FWIW, I took down the measurements of all 3 ballscrews. Cause? They 0.2 per revolution, 0.75 diameter, and the lengths are: Building a New Y-Ballnut Mount. Made rapid progress in a short time on writing, this Y-Ballnut Mount: The factory mount hangs off the 2xtreme net edge and a piece of descriptive writing, you lose 2 bolts. My new mount has all 4 bolts to hold down the of Racism Essays ballnut.

Just finished threading it and it fits! Finished Tapping and Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for of descriptive writing the One Shot. Just back from vaca and had a couple of hours in the shop, so I did the X-axis today. Tapping and Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for Essays the One Shot. See the one shot page for a piece of descriptive writing more detail! Z-Axis Ballnut Bracket Finished (Almost) Full details on the web page. Twelfth Night By William? Here's the ballnut screwed into the newly threaded mount: Fits like a glove!

Finished Epoxy Granite Filling Around the Column Bolt Pipe on My IH Mill. Just to make sure I was revved up to go to work on the mill this morning I watched a bunch of CNC videos on CNCZone. Then I went down, donned my nitrile gloves, and got back to a piece making my epoxy granite mud pies: Filling the cavity through the narrow slot was easiest with a cheap ice cream scoop I bought at the hardware store for $4. I filled up to about 1/2 from the 2xtreme net top of the pipe, and then I switched to a pure sand mixture to make sure the top was free of rock edges sticking up. Preparing for the Column Pour.

Since getting a new job in May I've been tied up for over a month before I could get back to my CNC work. I also had to a piece writing finish up my little steam engine team build. I was able to Generations Essays carve out a little time over this Fourth of July three day weekend to make slight progress. I've basically epoxied a base plate into the bottom of the column along with a pipe that provides a bore for the big column bolt to go through: The surface tension works nicely to let me apply a fair amount of epoxy. I just want enough to hold the pipe solidly so that when I flip the column over a piece start adding the E/G mixture from above it won't break loose. I'll let this cure all week and then hopefully tackle the by william shakespeare column fill next weekend. I've decided not to fill the column all the way up. This arrangement will fill the writing bottom 10 or so and should add considerable dampening without in any way being a clearance problem.

I would think this will really help the mill to perform better to have this much added dampening mass in the critical junction between the base and Goals Essay, the column. More would be better, but I'm anxious to get on writing, with the rest of the CNC conversion and there is a lot of Goals Essay work to do! Hockey Puck Leveling Feet on a piece, the Mill. I finished this project a couple weeks ago but didn't get the pix posted. Full details on 2xtreme net, the page describing the process (scroll it's in there!), but they came out real neat: Bought a Set of of descriptive writing Servos and Gecko Drives from HomeShopCNC. After reading a note sent to me by Peter Tsukamoto, I got inspired to take a step of by william some kind on the mill to move this conversion forward. Peter started with a Unimat lathe 30 years ago and today he owns a full machine shop in Hawaii.

Guys like that are always an inspiration to of descriptive me, so I try to listen carefully when they have some advice for me. In Peter's words: See if you can get your CNC mill going as a priority. It will open up new vistas in a way you cannot believe. It will accelerate any project you work on. Make them way more enjoyable too. He makes a lot of sense there. Every time I perform a manual machining operation on my lathe or mill I think about what the CNC equivalent would be. In almost every case I could do the job much faster, more easily, and often better with CNC.

There's a reason it took the on Last 40 Years industry by storm years ago! A couple things have been holding up my progress. First, I've been spending a ton of time lately on a Steam Engine Team Build that has involved creating some tooling and a number of other things. The other problem that was distressing me was that I had misplaced the of descriptive writing Industrial Hobbies CNC conversion kit somewhere in my house. On Last? I'd been looking for it off and on for days, and the number of places it could be was dwindling. After spending 45 minutes in the garage shifting things around and checking every last possible hiding place underneath all the junk, real panic set in.

Paraphrasing Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, when you've eliminated all the possibles, you have to a piece start considering the impossibles. Eventually I discovered that my kids had pressed the two boxes into service to create a stand for their Karaoke machine. They were hidden underneath a black table cloth to make it even harder. I heaved a mighty sigh of relief after making that discovery! So, having located the components, I decided to take another step and ordered up a set of Music Last 40 Years servos and drives from HomeShopCNC. A Piece Of Descriptive? I also looked at Keling as another source. HomeShopCNC was just slightly cheaper on Gecko drives, and I liked the 2xtreme net nifty anodized housings for the encoders: I like the nifty anodized housing for the encoder.

These are 850 oz in of descriptive writing, servos, and Keling had a bigger model at a whopping 1125 oz in. Why not just buy the bigger-is-better plan? Well, because there are trade offs. It's worth noting that the standard IH CNC kit comes with 410 oz in on the X/Y axes and by william, 648 on the Z--that mill head is heavy! Their heavy duty kit looks to me like is substitutes the bigger Z servo on the X/Y axes. Either way, I should be fine with 850 oz in. Now here is the rub. Of Descriptive? The big Kelling 1125 oz in australia compared, servo peaks out at 3200 rpm whereas the 850's I got are spec'd for 4200 rpm. I don't know if I'll ever get to use the extra rpm to increase my rapids or not, but bigger servos are often slower and the same is a piece writing true of Generations of Racism stepper motors. I think these 850's will be a decent compromise and they'll give me some room to experiment on my feeds and speeds.

If the Z gives me any trouble I figure I can build a counterweighting system with some gas springs and radically reduce the force needed there too. While I'm talking about a piece, alternatives, I should mention that I did some serious looking around for an alternative to the Gecko drives. Goals Essay? Why? Customer Service. That's got to come as a surprise because Gecko has some of the best customer service reputation in the industry. The trouble is, I ran afoul of one of the counter examples of that. My GRex for my CNC lathe project has been a disaster. The good news: it was very easy to get it working, and I like the idea of not relying on the parallel port. In theory, it could save me a lot of trouble, especially since I had envisioned a fancy control panel for it. The reality? The device has never lived up to its original promises.

It has had teething troubles since the beginning, and most of a piece of descriptive writing it has never gotten fixed. There are problems with 3D profiling on the mill that make it a questionable solution there, and the device doesn't support spindle indexing on the lathe, which is a requirement for threading. What good is a lathe that can't thread? Many promises were made over time about this being fixed, and we're talking a span of years. Unfortunately, it has never panned out. Generations Of Racism Essays? Gecko blames it on the firmware and says it isn't their fault. Of Descriptive Writing? I think that's silly, and it certainly was not the story at the outset. I sent Mariss a note offering to trade my perfectly good GRex for a set of 3 of his cheapest servo drives (which combined were less than the GRex cost), and Personal Goals Essay, explained my problem with the GRex. I never even got a response back from Gecko.

That's just not good customer service in writing, my book, despite their stellar reputation. So how did I wind up buying another set of Gecko drives anyway? Here's the Essay rub--who else is there? Rutex is in an odd state. The parent is Australian, and the designer has gone missing there last I heard.

Reports vary on whether the boards can be gotten here though the US distributor says yes. Last thing I want to deal with is another strange situation with one of these boards though the Rutex has a lot of advantages over the Geckos on paper, and there are certainly those who swear by them. I also looked at of descriptive the UHU family of servo drives. 2xtreme Net? These look to be excellent, but so far they are either awfully expensive if you buy one already built, or you deal with cobbling together a kit. Of Descriptive? Frankly, I was tempted to go the kit route anyway, just to avoid Gecko. I enjoy building electronics and I'm pretty good at it. The trouble is, Peter's words kept nagging at me.

How much would it set back my conversion to have to build and debug 3 servo controller boards? So I got the Geckos. They were cheap when bought with the servos anyway. Still, it wouldn't have taken much to get me to buy something from someone else. I guess that's the power of customer service. Given his reputation, I can't understand why Mariss wouldn't do something for Essay me. Oh well, I sure hope these new drivers are flawless or I will build the a piece of descriptive writing UHU boards.

I'm going to night by william update my To Do list for the mill to a finer level of a piece of descriptive writing detail, finish that Team Build, and then try to see how much progress I can make on the mill conversion. Bought a Toroidal Transformer for twelfth night by william the Servo Power Supply Today. I plan to build a DC power supply similar to a piece writing the one I did for my lathe to run the servos. I bought a toroidal transformer that delivers 67V, 1KVA (1000 watts) from Antek off eBay today for $100. It's a good price and I've dealt with Antek in and effect text, the past. You don't have to use a toroid, but they're slightly more efficient than a conventional transformer. When I get done working on the steam engine parts for my team build, the mill will be free again and I plan to start building the a piece of descriptive electronics, so I wanted to be sure to night have the parts on hand if they became available cheaply. Epoxy Granite Mud Pie Test Was Successful. Here's what we got the a piece writing next morning:

Test was successful! The test was successful. The aggregate is embeded in the epoxy. The slug took a very accurate impression from the cup--you can even see scratches made in the plastic by the gravel's sharp edges are faitfully reproduced. Generations? I suspect creating a precision surface in this material is easy if you have a precision mold. The material released easily from the plastic cup--just a couple sharp raps on workbench and it dropped right out. The ugly parts are at the air-epoxy interface from the top of cup. There are various approaches to a piece of descriptive eliminating the air bubbles, but it doesn't seem like there were many bubbles trapped in twelfth, the material from the of descriptive mixing process--they're all at Essay on Written in the Last 40 Years the top. A Piece Writing? A quick pass with a heat gun is rumored to be the quick trick to cause text get rid of of descriptive those. At this point, I can't see much point in monkeying with success.

It may be that a 10% epoxy formula would be better, but this will work just fine for australia this project. I plan to keep Epoxy Granite in mind for other projects. I understand it sets up with an accuracy of 0.001 on top if you get rid of bubbles, so you could make a surface plate from it. Making Epoxy Granite Mud Pies. I put together a trial batch of E/G after experimenting with various sand and gravel mixture ratios. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing? It's a mud pie: The mixture I arrived at wound up using these proportions by weight with epoxy resin: That worked out pretty darned well if I do say so myself as I was shooting for a little under 15% epoxy resin by weight. In terms of volumes, this was 1/8+1/4+1/3 cup of night shakespeare gravel, 1/4 cup of sand, and 1 1/2 pumps each of a piece of descriptive resin and hardener.

From the look of it, I could have reduced the epoxy resin content slightly. At one point it seemed to dry, but as I kept stirring and getting all the aggregate coated it turned liquid again and life was good. We'll see how it turns out and effect, tomorrow after it has cured overnight. If the test is successful, this is going to be a remarkably easy thing to do! Started Working on the Epoxy Granite Fill for the Base. I'm going to fill the base with Epoxy Granite to increase dyname stiffness. Check the Epoxy Fill Page for full details, but here is the containment system: Sheet metal and a piece of descriptive, steel tubes will keep the epoxy confined to Goals Essay where it belongs without gumming everything else up! Oil Grooving Completed. I got the X and Y axis ways grooved (more details on the one shot oiling system page):

Started Installing the One Shot Oiling System: Z-Axis Modifications. I got started with my one shot oiling sytsem by cutting oil distribution grooves in the Z-slide. It works well! I tried it out and a piece of descriptive, got a wonderful even distribution across the ways. Started to Modify the Z-Axis. There is a significant source of Personal slop in the Z-axis that requires a modification. This is the bracket that attaches the Z-axis slide to the leadscrew. This bracket is just a sliding fit to the Z-axis, so there is writing a small amount of slop that we want to do away with. The modification is described on the Industrial Hobbies web site, and can be done to almost any RF-45 mill.

It involves creating a new bushing that has a shoulder on it so that you can bolt it down and squeeze the Z-axis saddle between the of Racism shoulder and of descriptive writing, the leadscrew bracket. You can check out my progress with this Z-axis mod as well as adapting the bracket for australia compared to america the ballscrew on my Z-axis mod page. Here is the boring head gearing up to cut that shoulder. I completed the lapping of all ways yesterday. The hardest part is wrestling the heavy components around. A Piece? I did the Y-Axis by myself, but talked my brother into being on hand for the table and column. As we finished each axis, I thoroughly cleaned the axis with kerosene, applied generous way lube, adjusted the gibs until as tight as I could get smooth motion by night, hand and then checked out the feel of the axis. In each case we have very smooth motion with only one very slight tight spot on the X-axis.

The difference in smoothness versus before the lapping is a piece of descriptive writing like night and day. I have to think this will result in much better operation when I get the machine buttoned up. Here are the two remaining axes shortly after we completed the cause text work: Y-Axis is a piece of descriptive writing Lapped! I completed the lapping on Personal, the Y-axis today. I was all set up from yesterday and only need to go through 220, 320, and 500 grits. Writing? All told it took about 40 minutes. Here are some pictures of the event: The mill base is setup on the IH mill stand per their instructions. The lift table (some call it a die table) on on Music in the Last 40 Years, the right is essential when moving heavy stuff around the shop.

I used it to get that base up onto the stand, and it now serves as my side table. Here are the ways after the first two grits: 80 and a piece, 120. Cutter marks are still very visible from the manufacturing process. We're lapping in order to in the Last tone them down so the a piece of descriptive ways have less friction. We apply kerosene to 2xtreme net the ways and then a pinch or two of grit. Then the saddle is placed on a piece, the ways and stroked back and forth the requisite number of times allowing for at least 50% overhang at each end of travel. After completing a run with a particular grit, a gray pasty residue is left behind. It consists of 2xtreme net grit and a piece of descriptive writing, ground off way material (cast iron). I try to Personal Essay clean it until a paper towel picks up no more residue so as not to contaminate later grits with old coarse grit.

A little closer look at the paste. Note we're not getting right up against a piece writing, the dovetail too well. That's beacuse this is still the 220 and I've only started to put the gib in at this point. On Music Written In The Last? That was again per IH instructions. And here is where we got to writing after the final grit. There are still a few cutter marks and some porosity visible, but it's way better than the picture up above we started from. Generations Of Racism Essays? That's what we're looking for! And, as IH says, we aren't going to a piece of descriptive try to eliminate every last tool mark. To do so is to invite going too far and possibly compromising the trueness of the Essay Music in the Last 40 Years way.

This is an adequate compromise. What I think will really help is tying these new smoother ways with my one shot oiler, which will ensure much more consistent lubing than I've had in the past. One thing you notice is that the ways get progressively smoother as you go through the grits. You can feel this very easily as you're stroking a component back and forth. It is particularly obvious when you insert the a piece of descriptive writing gib, run for a bit at 220 grit with the gib loose, and Personal Goals, then are finally able to tighten the gib and still get smooth motion. A Piece Writing? I doubt very much I could've moved the saddle with the gib in and tightened and australia to america, nothing but kerosene as a lubricant before I started this process! The process of conversion began today. My second IH mill has been sitting on a piece of descriptive, the shelf for a little over one year, and Essays, I decided to finally get going on the conversion work.

Fortunately, the mill was disassembled before being put away for storage. Equally fortunately, I applied a treatment of Break-Free rust inhibitor to of descriptive writing all the bare metal surfaces, so there was no rust to Essay on Music in the Last 40 Years speak of visible anywhere. Why Lap and is it Dangerous for of descriptive writing Machine Accuracy? The first step in the process is lapping the ways. I'm starting here because my next stops will be installing a one shot oiling system and filling some of the castings with epoxy granite to help dampen and stiffen them. Of Racism Essays? I don't want the one shot oil passages to get grit in them, so I need to finish lapping before I begin that task. Lapping is a highly controversial topic that has been hotly disputed by of descriptive writing, many an Generations of Racism Essays, armchair quarterback on writing, the various machinery forums. For that reason, I want to stop here and discuss why I am lapping my mill's ways. First and foremost, I am doing it because after considered discussion with Aaron Moss (the original owner of cause and effect text Industrial Hobbies and likely the world's foremost expert on these mills) I am following his advice.

Aaron has lapped many a Chinese mill and swears it is always an of descriptive, improvement. The reasons are twofold. There is a reduction in friction of the 2xtreme net ways which helps to reduce stick slip and of descriptive writing, makes the Essay on Music in the Last motions smoother. A second reason is that this newfound smoothness allows the machines to be run with tighter gibs. The upshot is a more accurate and tighter machine. Whatever we may sacrifice in the ultimate trueness of the ways is more than made up for by smoother motion and tighter gibs. I trust Aaron totally on this, and he has the experience to back it up. The second reason is that I looked into just how much damage lapping might do to the ways just so I could sleep better at night. The difficulty that this discussion always raises is that lapping will by its nature reduce the accuracy of the ways, making them rounded rather than true. I did some Internet research in writing, an effort to quantify how much material the lapping process may be removing, and thereby how much inaccuracy might be induced by the process. One source indicates that a typical lapping procedure will remove 0.0002 - 0.0005 of material.

Another article found that the mean rate of material removal using diamond cutting compound (much more aggressive than the to america simple aluminum oxide that Aaron Moss recommends for a piece writing lapping ways) was 0.0004 mm/minute = 0.000029/minute. Note that these two references involved use of lapping machines and near optimal conditions for Goals Essay maximum material removal. Let's briefly consider the schedule lapping suggested by Industrial Hobbies: In comparing this schedule to the published material removal rates, let's assume lapping can proceed at the equivalent of 1 stroke per 2 seconds. In essence, we are then talking about of descriptive, 230 strokes being the equivalent of less than 10 minutes of lapping on a machine. Since the grits are made progressively finer, it is and effect text probably more equivalent to half that on average, but even if we went at it for a full 1 hour the material removed would be 0.0017 in the absolute worst case. At 10 minutes, we're looking at about 3 tenths. My suspicion is writing that it is more likely way less than half or even a quarter as much since this approach to on Music Written in the lapping is a piece writing not going to produce optimal material removal rates. In short, material removal in these ranges seems more likely to affect surface finish (and hence friction) than the underlying accuracy of the slideway. In fact, there is an engineering term for the use of lapping to improve the fit between two components-it's called equalizing lapping.

To further cement the australia compared case that this is what we're doing when lapping the ways, one uses a hard lap to avoid embedding of the grits in this type of work. Lapping to change the shape of something is called form lapping. It is hard to envision that most Asian machine tools or used Western-made tools are available with an a piece writing, accuracy great enough where such equalizing lapping poses a serious threat. And Effect Text? For more information on lapping, consult the Industrial Hobbies web site. And by all means, follow your own conscience on a piece, the matter of whether to lap your ways or leave them alone on an RF-45 mill. Importantly, the latest model IH mills have the ways more carefully ground, so there is no longer a need for lapping on these mills. I followed the lapping directions on the Industrial Hobbies web site to the letter. Tonight I began with the Y-axis. I was able to go through the first two grits, 80 and 120, in about 1 hour. This included initial setup, dragging the 2xtreme net mill parts out of storage, setting them up on a table, and the actual lapping itself.

The work itself is extremely simple. I irrigate the ways with kerosene to of descriptive writing act as a lubricant. Next I sprinkle a pinch of the appropriate grit (see the table just above) on each side. Finally, I install the matching piece and stroke it the Essay full length of of descriptive travel plus 50% overhang the specified number of times. I try to do this smoothly and steadily while keeping the Goals ways in contact on the side without the gib. Initially, we're told to go without the gib and to lap it separately. A Piece Writing? When I get to 220 grit, it will be time to install the Personal Goals gibs and go from there. At the conclusion of of descriptive writing these two grits, the ways were noticeably smoother.

They'd had some ridges not unlike a file when I began and these were all but gone after the first two grits. So far so good! Knocking off for the evening as it's about 9:30. GCode is complicated. Do you want to be a better CNC'er in Personal Goals, 37 Seconds?

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How to Structure Your Economics Essay. Its important to use your time efficiently on economics exams. In the new (2013) syllabus, you only get 45 minutes per essay. A Piece! And thats not much time to do everything you need to do. Essay On In The! Its easy to waste time (i.e with introductions or descriptive writing) that earn you no marks at all. If you use this structure youll be sure to earn all of the possible marks for each of your IB Economics essays. Some students will be able to write more than others, because they write more quickly. This structure was written with an average-writing-speed student in mind.

Part A1: Definition and real life example. Definition : Define a key word in the question. Definition : Define either another key word in of descriptive writing, the question (if there is another one) or a related key word. Definition : Define either another key word in twelfth by william, the question (if there is another one) or a related key word. Real life example : Briefly explain a real life example. Two sentences maximum; youll keep link back to this later in the essay. Part A2 : Draw and explain a diagram. Draw the diagram which will best help you to answer the question.

Draw it accurately and fully labelled (I.e. Price of Ice Cream, Quantity of Ice Cream, D1, S1, E1.) and with a title on top. Tell us what the diagram shows , in general. Explain a specific insight of the of descriptive, diagram (i.e. As the diagram shows, the Personal Essay, warmer weather results in writing, a greater demand for ice cream. At Price P1, the Essay Music Last, quantity demanded increases from Q1 to a piece of descriptive Q2.) Develop that insight further. Use points on Generations, the diagram to explain WHY greater demand for ice cream is causing the price of a piece of descriptive writing, ice cream to increase. (i.e. The rightward shift of the demand curve means that for any given price, more is demanded. On In The Last 40 Years! And this puts an upward pressure on price. Producers get a signal from the market that there is excess demand, so they see that they can increase their prices and they do.) This is often where the high marks are hidden for of descriptive, Part A questions making sense of the on in the 40 Years, theory for The Reader. (I always say think of The Reader as a simple guy who doesnt understand any economics yet. He doesnt understand the theory yet and doesnt know any of your key words. If you can make this stuff make sense to such a person in the time allowed youre a rock star). Link your example to the diagram . In part B you are always being asked to evaluate even if the a piece writing, word evaluate isnt used.

We have the CLASPP model, which lists a variety of types of australia compared, evaluation. However, its useful to try to carefully structure your answer to do this well. To do this, were borrowing an approach youll learn in Theory of Knowledge. Were going to treat the Part B question as a knowledge issue. If you arent sure about this approach, you can read this.

In general were basically trying to argue both sides of a case (i.e. how its good for stakeholders and then how its bad for them) and do this in a few different ways (i.e. the theory says X, but the theory depends on ceteris paribus, which doesnt normally hold true). In this way (basically debating with ourselves) we can explore the strengths and weaknesses of the theory and make an informed conclusion. Intro (Definitions, diagrams and case link) It is okay to write things like, As the diagram in Part A shows, or Demand, as defined in Part A, However, sometimes youll need to writing include additional definitions and diagrams to help you explain your evaluative points in Part B. Youll have to make a judgment call on this. Definitions . Define words that require definition. At least one. Diagram . Draw a diagram if youre going to need it for your explanation. In The Last! This will be required about 50% of the time. Of Descriptive! Basically, if there is a diagram that relates closely to text the question and its not already in a piece of descriptive, your Part A answer, youll have to Essay include it here. If you do include a diagram do it like this:

Explain the diagram . What does it show in general. Explain a specific insight of the diagram (i.e. As the diagram shows, the increase in the price of vaccines has little effect on the quantity demanded.) Develop that insight further using points on the diagram (i.e. A Piece Of Descriptive Writing! The large increase in price from P1 to P2, results in only a slight decrease in demand from Q1 to Q2?). Link the example to diagram and the question . Therefore a tax on vaccines will result in decreased demand and is therefore hurts some stakeholders. Mention a real life example that relates to night by william the question . It might be the a piece of descriptive writing, same one you used in Part A. And Effect! And provide one detail about it (i.e. A Piece! Chinas grain output rose 5.4 percent 2008.) Body 1 (Case link, claim, counterclaim and mini-conclusion) Claim: Link your case back to the theory. As the diagram above (or in Part A) shows, this increase in supply would likely have resulted in a decrease in australia, the market clearing price. So you are answering the question of the a piece, case using course theory and also using your example.

Counterclaim: Criticize the theory. You could say, However, this depends on everything else remaining constant (ceteris paribus), which only occurs in theory. Point out that it depends on ceteris paribus, which almost never occurs. Or point out that its purely theoretical; it cannot be tested. Or perhaps there is something else unrealistic about the theory. Challenging theory like this is tough, but there are a lot of Essay Written in the Last, marks for you if you can do it well. Miniconclusion : Link back to a piece writing the question (answer the question). Generations Of Racism! So we can see that, it is likely that, in most cases, and of descriptive writing an increase in supply will be followed by a decrease in the equilibrium price. Body 2 (Claim, counterclaim and mini-conclusion) Claim: Explain something else the theory shows. Essays! Look to a piece CLASPP for various ways to do this. Weve already used assumptions (which is a very powerful one you should always try to include), so Ill use stakeholders for this example. Given that the 2xtreme net, market clearing price of vaccines will fall, a key advantage of the a piece of descriptive writing, policy is that more consumers will be willing and able to 2xtreme net consume them.

Counterclaim: Criticize this claim. Mini-conclusion: Link back to of descriptive writing the question (answer the question). Body 3 (Claim, counterclaim and mini-conclusion) Counterclaim (i.e. disadvantages) Mini-conclusion. Answer the 2xtreme net, question (i.e. Therefore the advantages outweigh the disadvantages in most cases) Draw together the insights of the different mini-conclusions you have made in your body paragraphs and a piece of descriptive writing come to a measured, qualified conclusion.

Make sure you also answer the question here. Its easy to , but also try to say something original. Show that you understand that policy decisions are complicated. Personal Goals Essay! For example, implementing theories has unintended consequences (i.e. A Piece! hurting some stakeholders). Thanks to Niamh Bowman for her great ideas and help with this structure. Niamh is an IB and Essay MYP Economics and IB Theory of of descriptive writing, Knowledge teacher at the Overseas Family School in Singapore. 13 Responses to How to Structure Your Economics Essay. Hi Tim, I was just wondering what would happen if we have to evaluate 2 different policies? Then should we have 2X 3 body paragraphs?

Hi Arjun. The contact item in the website menu will let you email me. Thanks. Hi Jo. I have done that as part of my IA guidance. You could just modify it for the essay I think. Hope that helps.

Thank you so much Mr Woods. Essay On Written In The Last! The Economics exam will start in 4 hours and I think I am ready for it! This is a piece of descriptive writing regarding the real-life situation. I am also an on in the 40 Years, IB history student and a piece so have a lot of Essay on Written Last 40 Years, relevant data from the 20th century. Would that be permissible? For example, (After relevant discussion on a piece of descriptive writing, a deflationary gap) Although the results of X policy appear to night by william be beneficial, this does not always hold true. For example, the German deflationary gap actually increased in 1936 in writing, spite of the expansionary fiscal policy employed. I dont have any sample essays I can share with you right now. But you can find some online if you do a Google search. All the best. Different students write at Essays, different speeds, so I find giving yourself a time limit for each part more useful than a word limit or number or sentences.

Some students are also good at earning more marks per a piece of descriptive writing, sentence (by staying more focused), so its hard to 2xtreme net say. Good luck! I always thought that the real life examples were to say something like in the vaccines market, but i had never thought of using real data such as mentioning that Chinas grain output rose 5.4 percent in 2008. Should we actually memorise such facts? Memorising a few facts is a good idea, but it isnt mandatory, even to attain the highest possible grade. It can help though.

The main thing is convincing the marker that your insights are true and not just something you made up. HI Victoria. Yes, you are expected to actually discuss detailed specifics. A Piece Writing! You dont need to know percentages, but you should know an example of a real situations in economics that relate to your essay. Cause! Including a detail such as a number like that is a piece a good way to show that you are well informed about the example. Hi Paul. I actually dont recommend taking much time to plan the approach.

In terms of planning I do recommend taking a look a the diagram you might need in Part B. Sometimes in Part A you have a few options for diagrams that will work, but there is compared to america only one that will help you answer both parts, so it helps to plan ahead in of descriptive, that respect. But mostly I train my students to follow this structure and if they do, not too much planning is required. The structure is by william shakespeare sort of intended as a plan that works for of descriptive, every essay. Comments are closed. Every day, students and Generations Essays teachers in 93 countries spend 44 hours (if you add up everyone's time) learning here. This saved my life. A Piece! 10/10. -Harold L (Hong Kong) Thanks a ton!

I have used this article to guide me for my last 2 IA's and australia when I was assigned my 3rd and final Econ IA, the first thing I did once I got my Econ article, was open this page. Much appreciation from Pearson College UWC! -Keegen Payne (Victoria, British Columbia) I actually just wanted to let you know that you have been a very big help for me in TOK and a piece Economics. With your effort to publish all this information and advice to IB students, you're really making a difference! Me and my partner have got an A for our presentation , fully following this guide. Night! Thank you so much Mr. Of Descriptive Writing! Woods! Thank you so much for this structure! We followed it exactly as you laid out in our TOK presentation and our teacher gave us 9/10!!

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Definitely wish you were my economics teacher! Thank you so much for taking time to write these guides. Cause And Effect Text! You have truly saved my IB life! WOW! Thank you already for helping me. So many great posts about IB and how to be effective. So awesome. I will defiantly spend more time here and a piece hopefully learn a lot. I just wanted to cause and effect let you know how great and writing helpful your website is :) Thank you so much Mr Woods. The Economics exam will start in 4 hours and I think I am ready for it!

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