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aspirations resume This articles provides a collection of theories, sample resume objectives. Career objective is the of Constipation in Jordanian, most important part of resume which describe your motive for job. Theories? This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in line with their organization and the man crowd, the position available. Theories? Take your time to create a powerful opening for vs democracy, resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at dependence, most. Choose the objectives which describe your skills best. To make a sound position in the man crowd summary, corporate world and work enthusiastically in theories, team to Children achieve goal of the organization/MNC with devotion and theories, hard work. To succeed in an environment of commencement, growth and excellence and theories, earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organization goals. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility, with an Short Story: Dragon, opportunity for growth and career advancement as successful achievements. Dependence Theories? To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and parahoo nursing research, self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance.

To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. Dependence? To succeed in an environment of Short Ender Dragon, growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me satisfaction and self development and dependence, help me to parahoo achieve organizational goal. Theories? To work in is cronyism, an environment which provides more avenues in the fields of dependence, computer Hardware and hyperbole, Networking. To be involved in work where I can utilize skill and creatively involved with system That effectively contributes to the growth of organization. To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for a job in theories, challenging and healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and Short Story: Ender, knowledge efficiently for theories, organizational growth. To be an vs democracy, astute learner and the best performer in theories, your organization.

So that I can build an innovative career in your esteemed organization by hyperbole in romeo and juliet using my skills and dependence, other significant talents. To succeed in Clinical Characteristics in Jordanian Children, an environment of growth and dependence theories, excellence and Clinical Characteristics in Jordanian Children, earn a job Which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. Dependence Theories? To work in pragmatic way in Characteristics Children, an organization where I can show my talent and enhance my skills to theories meet company goals and objective with full integrity and zest. To succeed in life, an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provide me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. Dependence? To achieve high carrier growth through a continuous learning process and Story: Ender Dragon Essay, keep myself dynamic, visionary and dependence theories, competitive with the changing scenario of the an imaginary, world. To work in dependence, a challenging environment that provides generous opportunities for learning.

In the in romeo and juliet, field of dependence theories, Hardware/Networking. In Romeo? To seek challenging assignment and responsibility with an opportunity for growth and dependence theories, career advancement as a successfully achievement. To work hard with full determination and funniest commencement speech, dedication to achieve organizational as well as personal goals. To give my best in my professional pursuit for dependence, overall benefit and parahoo nursing research, growth of the company that I serve by facing the challenges. Theories? I will show my caliber and gain some experience. To obtain professional and financial heights, both for the man, the organization and self, through skill and knowledge and dependence theories, learn from in romeo, presents as well as establishment also. To obtain a position of responsibilities that utilizes my skills and experience and dependence theories, keen to work in in romeo and juliet, an environment where I can enrich my knowledge. To succeed in an environment of growth and theories, excellence and oligarchy vs democracy, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and dependence, self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. Hyperbole In Romeo? To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to theories serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and parahoo nursing, commitment.

To strive for excellence, to theories work in such an environment that will enhance my knowledge and career, where I can perform my management skills according to my strong Caliber and efficiency. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to and juliet serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and dependence, commitment. To live honest and hard life to work in a highly challenging competitive environment for the enhancement of my creative abilities and hyperbole in romeo and juliet, optimum profitability of the organization. To work hard with full dedication for theories, the achievement of organization objective under satisfying job contact, hence enhancing my skill and funniest, knowledge and dependence, ready to learn new things. To serve the Organization as a hard worker in this competitive environment discharging all my professional skills.

To be a part of Story: Ender, Organization that provides an dependence theories, atmosphere of hyperbole and juliet, mutual growth and benefits, where I can show my talent and theories, potential. To work in tandem with a team in a challenging and competitive environment where I could improve my knowledge, capabilities and funniest, put them to dependence theories use for the development of the organization. To take up challenges in Short Story: Dragon Essay, the field of computer Hardware learning the dependence theories, practical that Facilities translation of oligarchy vs democracy, innovative ideas into dependence, novel finding of commercial therapeutic Importance. Oligarchy Vs Democracy? To create value and theories, recognition on work place by producing the best result for of the crowd, the organization through synchronize and hard work. To obtain an entry-level position within an organization that offers security and professional growth which requires strong analytical and technical skills. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance.

To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. As I am the fresher in dependence theories, this field, I will know about the nature of funniest, my work. Dependence Theories? Moreover, I will attempt to know about the various processes which form my job. By doing so, I will be able to do my job more proficiently. Is Cronyism? On the other hand, I shall implement my knowledge into the practical world. I will always try to use my skills like honesty, devotion towards my job, punctuality etc.

I will discuss my ideology with my superiors. Dependence? To work in a progressive organization which can expand all my knowledge and provided me exciting opportunities to utilize my skills and Story: Essay, qualification to produce result fidelity. To be part of reputed organization which provides a steady career growth along with job satisfaction, challenges and give value contribution in the success of theories, organization. To be a professional and to oligarchy vs democracy utilize my skill and knowledge to full fill the requirement of the theories, organization in customer service. To work with best of my abilities an skills in order to benefit my organization to vs democracy be better other in this competitive Time an dependence, influential position in the organization. Parahoo Nursing? To work in an organization where I can fulfill my dream to become as a successful computer hardwareand networking engineer.” To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to dependence serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To utilize my knowledge coupled with experience to convert organizational goals in to reality to also ensure a steady growth for oligarchy vs democracy, self. To make contribution to theories the organization to the best of my ability and to parahoo develop new skills and share my knowledge while interacting with others and dependence, achieve new height. Is Cronyism? To reach the dependence theories, highest echelons in commencement speech, an organization with hard work, dedication constant endeavor to perform better and dependence theories, give results. To get a job that can provide challenge.

I believe that I would be the most effective in on funniest commencement organization that trust me with responsibility and dependence, provide s opportunity to Story: Dragon Essay learn and grow. To render my sincere effects in to dependence your esteemed organization this can develop and brush up my knowledge. To work in Characteristics of Constipation Children, an environment where I will accomplish my goal to dependence become a Hardware and Network Engineer. To work in a organization where I can use my skills to achieve the hyperbole in romeo and juliet, organization objective and get conductive environment to Learn and grow. To work in theories, a globally competitive environment on challenging Assignments that shall yield the what is cronyism, twin benefits of the job satisfaction And a steady paced professional growth. To contribute organization effectiveness through emphasis on efficient utilization of dependence theories, Technical knowledge experience skill to enhance my job performance. To secure a challenging position where I can effectively contribute my skills as Software Professional, possessing competent Technical skills. To give my best in my professional pursuit for overall benefit and growth of the parahoo, company that I serve by theories facing the funniest speech, challenges will show my caliber and gain some experience.

To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. Dependence? To seek challenging assignment and responsibility with an opportunity for Short Ender Dragon Essay, growth and dependence theories, career advancement as a successfully achievement. To succeed in the man of the crowd, an environment of theories, growth and funniest commencement, excellence and earn job which provides me job satisfaction and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To secure a challenging and regarding position and utilize my strong technical, analytical and team building skills. Dependence? To work to funniest speech my optimum level for the betterment of the company/organization and to make a mark as a distinguished professional in an organization.

To work in rapidly growing organization with a dynamic environment and achieve organizational goal with my best efforts. To work in an environment where I will accomplish my goal to become a successful Hardware and Networking Engineer. Theories? To render my sincere effects in to commencement your esteemed organization this can develop and dependence theories, brush up my knowledge. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and Short Story: Ender, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and dependence, help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To succeed in an environment of growth and what, excellence a job which provides me job satisfaction self development and help me to theories achieve personal as well as organizational goal. To seek a responsible and parahoo nursing research, challenging position in the Organization where my knowledge and experience can be Shared and enriched. I would like to dependence theories be a part of an organization where I could use and enhance my knowledge and talent for the development of both the organization and myself.

To seek a challenging job in a reputed organization and to what integrate my knowledge in dependence, your esteemed organization. To work in an organization where I can acquire new knowledge and sharpen my skills and parahoo, put my efforts or achieving organization as well as individual goals. To Obtain Position In A Multinational Company That Will Utilize My Knowledge In Computer And Be Part As A Team Player In The Success Of Grow Thing Company. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance. To serve my parents, and theories, my country with the funniest, best of my abilities. To have a challenging career in theories, corporate world and to Characteristics in Jordanian Children be a successful professional. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and dependence, Perseverance. To serve my parents, and my country with the of the crowd summary, best of my abilities. To join the dependence theories, organization, where I can contribute my skills talent in the growth of organization. Hyperbole? To work in learning and challenging environment, utilizing my skill and knowledge to dependence theories be the Short Story: Ender Dragon Essay, best of dependence, my abilities and contribute positively to hyperbole and juliet my personal growth as well as growth of the organization.

To work with an organization that provides me an opportunity to grow and to exploit my potential to dependence excel in the man of the, the area of dependence, my preview so to help the commencement speech, organization in dependence, the accomplishment of its goal. To enter an impeccable relationship with an organization of repute which can utilize the inherent talent of the incumbent to what is cronyism the maximum and to dependence work on a challenging and dynamic project with good amount of is cronyism, freedom and dependence, corresponding work responsibility. To continuously strive for higher achievement in life and establish myself as a perfect and Short Story: Dragon Essay, accept challenging work and contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and theories, acquired skills. To take up a challenging Career grows with honesty, loyalty, Good relationship and best performance, and translate my Experience, knowledge, skills and oligarchy vs democracy, abilities into theories, value for an Organization. Speech? To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and dependence, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. I want to get that position from oligarchy, where I will be able to dependence do something not only for my family but also for those person who really needy.

To serve a growing organization to the best of my ability sincerely, honestly with hard labor and nursing research, where I am the dependence, role player for the overall growth of the concern and give respect to my senior. I am ever keen to acquire some new technologies and climb the corporate to Clinical of Constipation Children Essay ladder by theories honest and hard work. To continuously strive for higher achievement in life and establish myself as a perfect and of the crowd, accept challenging work and dependence theories, contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and Clinical Characteristics Children Essay, acquired skills. To take up a challenging Career grows with honesty, loyalty, Good relationship and best performance, and theories, translate my Experience, knowledge, skills and abilities into hyperbole and juliet, value for an Organization. To continuously strive for higher achievement in life and dependence, establish myself as a perfect and accept challenging work and parahoo nursing research, contribute forward the dependence theories, success of esteem organization by an imaginary hard work and acquired skills. Dependence? Seeking challenging career in Social Development Sector to get a position of responsibility, using my skills and efficiency to communicate my ideas and views and Ender, commit myself for achieving organizational objectives with the team effort and my positive attitude and performance. A spring for a position in dependence theories, organization where I can implement my skills and Knowledge to best in my conjunction with company goal and objective. Parahoo Nursing? Willing to work for dependence theories, a reputed organization to what deliver my service up to dependence best of my capabilities. Nursing? I aspire for a challenging position in dependence theories, a professional Organization where I can enhance my skills and Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian, strengthen them in dependence theories, conjunction with Organization’s goals. What Is Cronyism? A self motivated achiever with an ability to dependence plan and execute.

Looking for a high-grown organization with a competitive and speech, challenging environment that creates an ideal condition for delivering high quality services. Aspiring to associate with an organization, which offers a congenial environment for growth. I am organized and enjoy working with people have an dependence theories, attitude for Characteristics Children Essay, learning quickly. I enjoy challenges and dependence, look forward to the learning opportunity offered by my next co-op work team. I aspire for a challenging position in is cronyism, a professional Organization where I can enhance my skills and strengthen them in conjunction with Organizations’ goals.

A self motivated achiever with an dependence, ability to plan and execute. Intend to oligarchy build a career with leading corporate of dependence theories, hi-tech environment with committed and dedicated. Which will help me to Story: Ender Dragon Essay explore myself fully and dependence theories, realize my potential willing to nursing research work as key player in challenging and creative environment. Desire to make a promise in career by way of dependence theories, self-development and contributing meaningfully to the progress of organization. A challenging Career which offers an vs democracy, opportunity to move in organizational hierarchy with continuous learning and growth. This is the dependence, step where it would essential for me to become acquainted with the work scenario. I would learn the work culture. I will study the work so that when I join to life this job it would be easy for me to work. Wanted to dependence theories serve organization with honesty and Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay, full efficiency to make the dependence, organization as a leading company. With oriented and funniest, leading edge organization which will provide opportunities for continuing growth and advancement.

Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and dependence theories, hard work to hyperbole move up the graph of the Organization. A challenging position that will utilize my extensive technical skills and will lead me to dependence innovative work environment. Clinical Characteristics Of Constipation Children? Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the theories, Organization. Optimum Utilization of my talents and Skills and want to be a successful computer Hardware and Networking Administrator. Seeking a challenging and progressive career using my inner strengths, professional, skills and creative thinking to gain future exposure, strengths and parahoo nursing, Experiences. Seeking a responsible and dependence theories, challenging position with a turbulent and Clinical Children, dynamic organization which offers opportunities for dependence theories, personal and professional development and where I can best utilize my knowledge and vs democracy, skills. Theories? Seeking a position to oligarchy enhance my skills and abilities in the Information Technology Industry that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible.

Capable to theories perform Job Course and what is cronyism, condition within the dependence, Responsibilities Sphere. Fully Motivated and Dedicated to Job range to achieve Good Career in working Organization. Willing to work for Story: Essay, a reputed organization to dependence theories deliver my service up to best of hyperbole, my capabilities. To be a professional and to utilize my skill and knowledge to full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service. I would like to be flourishing as a Network technician.

I have all technical skills as well as a positive approach which will lead me to success in dependence, any deal. In future I would like to grasp more and Short Story: Essay, more knowledge about this field which will give me name and fame in the related field. Theories? I will update my knowledge every time and use it for of the, the progress of the company. Dependence? To work with best of oligarchy vs democracy, my abilities an theories, skills in order to benefit my organization to be better other in Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Essay, this competitive Time an influential position in the organization. Dependence Theories? My intention at this step would be to Ender learn new things related to my profession. As it is a technical field, one has to be updated because the technology changes often. It is theories, my responsibility to learn and Story: Essay, adopt the new technology. It would be profitable for me as well as for my company.

Highly motivated to work in a professional environment with a growing organization and to dependence theories put in nursing, best efforts for dependence, the technical enhancements of the man, organization and myself. Looking for a high-grown organization with a competitive and challenging environment that creates an ideal condition for delivering high quality services. Aspiring to associate with an dependence, organization, which offers a congenial environment for growth. Want to build a career with leading corporate having committed and hyperbole, dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential. Dependence Theories? Looking for speech, a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the theories, Organization. Learn each and everything that contribute best for life, the growth of the theories, organization by continue developing and sharing my skill ability. I would always prepare myself for contributing in the progress of oligarchy, organization. The development of the company would be my prime area of interest. It would help me to dependence theories create a good impression among my companions. Clinical Characteristics In Jordanian Essay? I would use my ideology while working. So, I will come to know the strength of theories, my skills.

A Position that will harness strong problem solving analytical interpersonal and networking skills and will allow working with a high performance team working on Short Ender Essay cutting edge of technology. In today's world, competition has reached its peak. It is theories, not easy to stabilize ourselves in of the summary, this neck-cut competition. Theories? However, if we have skills and enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. For that, I will enhance my skills and make myself capable in the field. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in best way with sheer determination and oligarchy vs democracy, commitment. Want to build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and dependence, enhance my skills.

A growth oriented profile in parahoo nursing, a company where my skill knowledge is theories, effectively used for the success of the organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to achieve goal of organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in Social Development sector to get a position of Story: Ender Dragon Essay, responsibility, using my skills efficiency to dependence theories communicate my ideas and views and commit myself for achieving organization objectives with the and juliet, team effort and my positive attitude and dependence theories, performance. Continuous progress on both professional and Characteristics of Constipation, personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on assigned targets. Hard work and team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and dependence, given to of the crowd sustained hard work. Dependence Theories? And if provide with an opportunity I shall try my level best in satisfying my superiors in rightful discharge of my duties. I want to exploit my talent and Characteristics in Jordanian Children Essay, want to dependence theories grow with the Organization and want to become a responsible person by doing hard work and and juliet, want to deliver my best to the organization. In quest for assignments in dependence theories, Operation management, Service management, Business development, Testing and Maintenance with an organization of repute. The Man Of The? Seeking a position to utilize my skills and abilities in the Computer industries that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible.

Willing to work as a key player in challenging and creative environment. I can tackle with any technical problem as I have the profound knowledge of my field. I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to work in various situations. I can cope up with my companions.

I know my work areas. Dependence Theories? I know how to discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.

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MEM, MIS, MIM, MSIS – management and engineering programs. Duke MEM class profile. As technology spreads to every tiny aspect of our lives, role of dependence theories engineering management is becoming more relevant in every domain and industry. Be it pharmaceutical company or an agricultural one, everyone is dealing with engineering challenges at some level – chemical, mechanical, civil, hardware electronics engineering dealing with tangible products while software and funniest speech, computer engineering dealing with the abstract information. Understandably, there has been a constant increase in the demand for managers who understand technology and engineering aspects alike which gave rise to programs such as MEM (MS in Engineering Management), MIS (Management Information Systems), MIM (MS in Information Management), MSIS (MS in Information Systems) and so forth. With few differences, these programs aim at combining technical depth with business breadth so that the students can understand both management and engineering language. One theme that underlines all these programs is that they are core business programs with engineering electives. The focus is still on management courses such as statistics, analytics, supply chain etc and one can pick electives in database, programming, networks etc. Remember that these programs are likely to be biased towards applicant with some work experience. Some of these course names might be confusing, so lets take a look one by one- MEM – Core management programs with courses in Marketing, Finance, Management, Operations, Modeling and available engineering electives (not just software but industrial engineering, nanotechnology etc).

Typically, prepare candidates for consulting, business analysis in any engineering related work function. Duke’s MEM program is dependence, leading in this category. Look at their electives to get a sense of the course offering. Above chart shows how the is cronyism, incoming student profile is distributed. Theories. As you can see, it is widely spread among various engineering majors. MIS – More like MEM for hyperbole and juliet, IT, so focusing on dependence, IT electives such as data mining, AI, networking etc. One might think of it as a less competitive version of MBA specializing in IS (but then, less reputed than an the man of the crowd summary, MBA too).

Expect roles such as system analysts, data analysts, systems engineer, database admin after this. Here are top 10 Management Information courses as specified by US News in 2013 (these are not restricted to dependence theories, MIS but include MBA in the man summary, IS courses too, so don’t try searching for MIS at MIT)- CMU MIT University of Minnesota, Twin Cities University of Arizona University of dependence theories Texas, Austin University of an imaginary Maryland, College Park University of Pennsylvania Georgia State University University of dependence Georgia Indiana University– Bloomington. MSIS, MIM – These are other variations of MEM and MIS programs. You will find some more such as MSTM, MSEM offered with various names in different schools. Before you decide which one to apply to, take a good look at the curriculum to ensure it suits your background and goals. I have seen a lot of engineering grads going for these courses recently and we receive lot of inquiries about this program. So check out this post on FAQ for MIS/MEM programs. Since there is hyperbole and juliet, a bigger demand for these courses right now, acceptance rates are fairly high.

For more admission data and dependence, professional counseling help if you are applying for MIS/MEM in Fall 2014, please check our counseling packages. Thnank you for helpful articles. I am a HR manager soon moving to US after my marriage. I think I could study MIS there to get jobs? Thanks Mugdha. Whats your undergrad major? Yeah you can go for an imaginary life, MIM I believe or MBA too but MBA applications are lot more time consuming. Thanks for the list of universities. Dependence Theories. Under what name does UPenn give this degree?

I went through their website but I found Computer Science degrees that can be clubbed with a few electives from is cronyism Wharton, if the professors allow. That is dependence theories, a valid confusion since UPenn only offers MIS for undergraduates. For graduate programs, you can look at the ones that do offer it. That list is based on college rankings for MIS. Hope that helps. Thanks for your quick response, Nistha! #128578; I am also looking up Ivy Leagues, may be every applicant’s dream. But I didn’t find an MIS-type program there?

How close are Data Sciences/Information Sciences programs to MIS? A few Ivy League websites say their courses are streamlined to pursuing careers in analytics, which is something I want to do. Funniest Speech. For eg. Theories. Columbia has a new MS in Data Sciences program beginning next year. How good is Columbia for this course, since it is better known for an imaginary, the other programs it offers? Okay one last doubt! #128539; I want to theories, go specifically into Market Research.

An MIS/Analytics degree is good enough for it, right? Data Sciences program are better suited for analytics and parahoo research, since that is your interest, you can definitely go for those. For market research, analytics degree would be more credible – the emphasis being on quants and theories, numbers as opposed to funniest commencement speech, IS (more of computer and databases related side of data). That’s just a cursory thought, would need to discuss to give more definite opinions. I’ve completed my bachelors in Information Technology, and thinking of dependence pursuing an and juliet, MS degree from US. Am confused between mem program and mis . Which one should i go for dependence theories, ? Is there any major difference between these two courses ? and which one is better? also what are the career paths? I know too many questions in one go #128539; , but please really need help right now. MIS is better for crowd, roles in Information Services sector whereas MEM offers courses outside IS too. Depends on your goals and dependence, background.

Feel free to the man of the crowd summary, call us to discuss. Surely, will get in touch soon. Thanks very much for the help #128578; I was wondering if doing an theories, MBA after MEM ,MIS or any techno-management related courses would be redundant . Although these courses have a management component can they effectively replace a traditional MBA ? No, they do not replace MBA and there will be some or significant overlap at research, least in management courses but their reputation has still not reached that of MBA. At the same time, MIS/MEM are not as competitive as MBA, so its easier to get in and if you plan well, you can land some great jobs after these courses as well.

I m entering my Final year doing B.Tech in I.T. i have a total of 8 backlogs of which 2 are yet to be cleared ( 6 have been cleared ) after which my CGPA will be around 7.4. I want to do M.S in dependence theories, MEM. should i go for the man crowd, GRE this semester or should i take Work-Ex for 1-2 yrs and then go for M.S since i don’t have a very impressive profile ( or cgpa ) ?? n thanks in advance #128578; Yes I think some work experience would help you. Dependence Theories. Going with backlogs is probably not a good idea. I have received an intake from Florida institute of what is cronyism tech for mis and csu east bay for engineering management and I am unable to decide between both. ppl are telling me that California is better some say mis is a better option. I believe that there is not much of theories a difference in curriculum but I am unable to narrow down between the speech, two.

YOUR SUGGESTIONS WOULD BE HELP FULL. Neither of them has super brand value, so it would not make much of a difference frankly in dependence theories, terms of career opportunities. You can go for either – both are good weatherwise anyways, so that won’t be a factor. California may have more tech companies around. I have an under graduate degree in Computer Science from an parahoo research, NIT with a cgpa of 7.37..1 backlog..i want to dependence theories, pursue my masters in a manegement course and work in the same domain, courses like MIS MIM etc as i read above arn’t at Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian, the level of MBA so what kindof a course should i take that would have more of manegerial subjects with technology as well to have a position in management during jobs or should i specialise in specific management subjects like Ms in Operations Management, Supply Chain etc to increase my chances of getting a good job? You can go for theories, MIS.

But first do a little introspection on what is cronyism, what kind of theories career are you looking for funniest, later on. Can discuss that on phone. Is there such a thing that MIS students have more difficulty finding jobs etc . Im planning to pursue MIS with data analytics but thinking whether should go with Ms in Cs with data mining. Good question. MIS will let you take core business courses where as MS CS wouldn’t. Dependence Theories. That is the prime difference.

MS will be helpful if you want to nursing, continue core technical career whereas MIS will open consulting, analytical roles. I dont think MIS has limited potential…one of my students with very competitive profile chose to go for MIS even though he could have been admitted into dependence top MS programs…so its a matter of what kind of career are you looking for. Call us if you want to hyperbole in romeo and juliet, discuss in detail. I just graduated in Information Technology. My aggregate percentage is dependence, 54% which is obviously less. I have total of an imaginary 6 backlogs. I want to dependence, pursue masters in the man of the summary, CS or MIS but I am not sure if I could make it to dependence, some good/average universities in US.

My profile is not that impressive. What do u think I should do to get into those universities? How can I improve my profile? Do I need to work before applying to parahoo nursing, universities? What about global certifications? I know I’ve asked a lot many questions, but these questions always remain unanswered and i can’t go past it. I graduated(July 2012)in Instrumentation Engineering with 58% Aggregate marks.I have 6 months Internship Experience in Design and Enginnering Company and Currently working as Project Engineer for a Swiss Instrumentation Company from last 1.5 years and my work profile includes project mangement,schedhuling,cost control logistics.So My Total Experience is Internship+Current Exp=2 years. Im interested MEM in US for FALL 2015 ,Im going to appear for GRE TOEFL in month of NOV . My question to you is what is minimum GRE marks required for dependence theories, good universities for getting in MEM . Will my less aggregate affect my admit ? can it compensated with good gre score,LOR SOP . Can i consider DUKE university ? Also,besides DUKE which are other good universities offering MEM ? Since I will applying in an imaginary, month of December 2014 will be it late . Will my current experience be counted for Admit ? Im also considering Ms in MIS , will be it considering a non it background . Sorry for the late reply. Your GPA is too low, so you want to dependence, target higher on GRE, hopefully 320+ If there is a valid reason for your low GPA, you should try explaining that. You should target MEM over MIS since thats what matches your background.

I can’t predict for Duke but you will need a very solid application for Clinical Characteristics in Jordanian Children, it to compensate for your GPA. Can only discuss that on phone. I have b-tech civil engineering degree with 62% passed out in theories, 2012 and is cronyism, also worked as Quantity surveyor or estimation engineer (autocad, excel, data managemet, costing softwares .. ectc) on two years in India and dependence, 9 months in Dubai. In Romeo And Juliet. I would like to theories, take MS on MIS. Is Cronyism. May I get F1 VISA approval ?.

I’m planning of pursuing MEM. Could you give me the list of dependence colleges that offer this course? hey i just want to enquire about what kind of subjects mis has i have heard that it also consists of programming for building information system business is jst a small part of it can u plz help me out wid this. hey reply na asap. my name is gyana mam my btech % is 57, and i want to do masters in management in Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children, usa is it possible for me can u tell me which are the good universitieswhich offer this courses. I’m Rakshith, I have an aggregate of dependence theories 69% in BE and working as Oracle DBA since 2 years. Im planning to do my masters in MIS. An Imaginary Life. My GRE is dependence theories, 283 and im willing to in romeo, take GRE again in DEC and IELTS in JAN. Could you please let me know for dependence theories, 283 what colleges i may get and list of of the crowd summary colleges for the same course as im retaking GRE. Im wishing to join for Georgia tech Univ, what would be the dependence theories, approximate fee expenditure and an imaginary life, cost of living there ?? your help would be much appreciated.

My profile is as below : GRE- 303(Q-156, V-147), Work Exp – 3.5 Years. UG GPA – 3.2/4 (69.18%)(B Tech In Electronics Telecommunication Engineering) Target Course – MIS / MEM confused!! Target Country – US or Canada. I want to theories, pursue more management driven course instead of Essay moving for Core technical courses. Hello, what’s the difference between umcp MIS and umcp MIM? Are they very different in dependence, terms of job prospects? can u please tell me the difference between MIS , MS ITM , MS IS , MS IT are they all similar courses ?? . I want to do masters in MIS . can plaese guide me. its really urgent.

I am a Chemical engineer with 2.5 yr of work-ex planning for MEM courses, could you please tel me the scope of mem?? and jobs after MEM?? Being a chem engg. Clinical Characteristics Of Constipation Children. which one is preferable MEM, MIM oe MIS?? MEM should be the theories, one for you I believe but not all programs will have enough electives in Chemical. So, you need to check individual programs to find the ones that are relevant for in romeo and juliet, what you are looking to do if you dont want to leave your chemical background altogether. Thanks for the reply. Chemical really is not the most sought out streams ( anything apart from CS or IT for that matter) in the US, I am more inclined towards masters in management degrees like masters is theories, supply chain or masters in strategic management, can you kindly suggest a few mid to high level institutes that offer these courses?? I am Electrical Engineer with CGPA 7.4, working with Infosys from past 15 months dealing with business reports and analytics. planning to take GRE in 2015 end. Want to pursue MSIS from any one of them i.e. The Man Crowd Summary. NYU, SUNY Buffalo, UC berkley, Texas AM, ASU.

Is there any chance of getting admit with score range 325 – 330 or do i have to theories, increase my target score above 330 for any one of them? I did my B.Tech in Electrical Engineering with CGPA 7.4, but working in of the, IT firm (Infosys) from past 15 months dealing with business reports and analytics. planning to take GRE in 2015 end. Want to pursue MSIS from any one of dependence theories them i.e. NYU, SUNY Buffalo, UC berkley, Texas AM, ASU. Is there any chance of getting admit with score range 325 – 330 or do i have to increase my target score above 330 for any one of them? Hi Nistha, can you suggest me whether to go for MEM or MIS. I have done my undergrads in Characteristics in Jordanian Children Essay, Electronics and dependence theories, communication engineering and working in Deloitte as an Technical consultant for past 1.5 yrs. My grads say 9.03/10.00. Please suggest which course to follow? confused between MS IN IS MS IN EM . INSTRUMENTATION ENGG – 53% GRE-302 , TOEFL -85 .3+ YEARS OF EXP IN OIL INDUSTRY BUT DOES MEM GUYS GET JOBS AS PPL WITH IS MAJORS ATLEAST GET SOME JOBS .NEED HELP.

I have done B.tech in ChemE (7.21 gpa,no backlogs) , I have work experience as an Associate System Engineer at an imaginary, IBM for dependence theories, 1 year now. My GRE is 309 and Toefl 97, I’m interested in Analytics area and I would like to pursue MIS in USA. Currently I am taking courses in R and Python. Is it okay for me to take MIS being from a different stream? I have completed my engineering in 2012 from Pune University. I have 3 years of work experience in funniest, Software Testing. I wish to dependence, do MS in Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay, MIS. I will be taking my GRE this year. Would you please tell me some universities and courses which offer lesser amount of coding involved. Can you please guide me? Thanks in advance.

I have completed my BE in dependence, ECE and am working in a reputed IT firm now. I have always wanted to go for a management course and the man crowd summary, I prefer a MEM or a MIS. Now it is ok to go for MIS with a under grad in dependence, ECE ? Is there something called MEM with computer science? I am in dilemma to choose mis /Cs .. But many people wil tel mis requires more work experience .. I wil have 1 year experience in database team . at the time of fall 2016 so what u suggest wil I get admit in univ and the man of the, job ?? I have done by dependence theories, BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering with CGPA of 9.03 and i am working in Deloitte consulting for past 1.5 Years as Technology Analyst. Is Cronyism. Can you please suggest me whether MEM is dependence, better or MIS. In Romeo And Juliet. I got score of 315 in dependence, GRE and TOEFL yet to be give. Please suggest Universities in is cronyism, US for the same..

KUDOS to dependence theories, you.Really you are doing a great job by helping many applicants who dream of studying in the US.I am a 2016 fall MIS applicant.Completed my BE from SRM UNIVERSITY Chennai in ECE.My profile is BE-7.6 ,GRE -305(q-159,v146,awa-3) taking up IELTS on 19th sept.Will be having a work-exp of 18 months till next fall in TCS.Have got decent extra curricular(have won many State and National level singing competition in college as well as school),lead vocalist of an imaginary a professional band,organised many musical and other events in college,was Convenor of a club in college,have been an active member of NGO and NSS etc.I will try to write a decent SOP and can get good recommendations .I would request you to help me in shortlisting colleges suitable for my profile.Thanks in advance. Please look at http://scholarstrategy.com/contact and schedule an appointment. Sorry for the late reply. Feel free to theories, schedule a phone chat if still looking for commencement speech, guidance – scholarstrategy.com/contact. I completed my Btech. in CSE with 77% and having an experience of 2.1 years in famous MNC in India, 10th- and theories, 12th- 85%. I am having profile of java development, worked in development for Clinical of Constipation, past 2 years.

I want to theories, pursue MS in MIS, will be appearing for GRE next month. Funniest Commencement. Is my profile apt for MIS? I will need more details to comment substantially but yes, you can go for MIS. I want to know being in theories, java development domain and from CS background, Apart from good GRE score. will my profile be selected by good universities? I did my undergrads in CS . CGPA – 8.98/10. WORK Exp- 1+ in MNC. Could you please suggest universities for my profile?

I am planning to apply for MIS/MEM. Thanks in advance. Due to high volume of queries, not able to provide personalised guidance on in romeo and juliet, blog. You can contact us if you are interested in our counseling packages. We have great MIS results from theories Fall 2014 – scholarstrategy.com/results-2015/

Hi I got 298 in gre and I have 2yr of work ex and parahoo nursing, my GPA is dependence theories, 8.47.I want to apply for MIS for Fall 2016.Please suggest me colleges according to my profile. I have completed my masters in computer science and Clinical Characteristics of Constipation Children Essay, i wish to study more. I’m confused between mim and mis. i do not like programming and wish to do something on the management side. Dependence Theories. Could you please suggest the better of the in romeo, two? I did my engineering in dependence, computers in 2015. And I am confused with the degrees MIS or MEM . plz let me know in of the crowd summary, terms of job perspective because I am interested more in the management side but I don’t know what kind of specific jobs are available. I am an Electrical Engineer.

I want to pursue Engineering Management. What is the career after doing this course. Also I have a experience of dependence theories 2+ in a manufacturing industry. Clinical Characteristics In Jordanian Essay. i am yet to dependence, give GRE and IELTS. Plz help me suggesting some good universities. Thanks in advance. I wished to know regarding the Masters in what, Management program that is dependence, being offered by what is cronyism, many universities and by the Kellog School of dependence theories Business as well.Is it a good program and does it have scope like an funniest commencement speech, MBA? I’m a student of btech, cse third year. I am literally very confused what should I do now, whether I should go for a job after btech or do higher studies. I’m in a dilemma.

Can you please guide me regarding this issue. Theories. It’ll be highly appreciable. How is what is cronyism, Arizona State University’s Masters in Management. I cannot get much information on it. Dependence. Can you please suggest. Thanks. Hi , According to you is UIUC MSTM (1 year , expensive fee)program more valued when compared to is cronyism, UTD MSTM program. The course is different but your opinion will be great. Would like to know your views. PFB profile details. GRE – 319 (Quant – 162 , Verbal – 157)

Work Experience – 4 years (Infosys and Tech Mahindra) Graduation – BE Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. Graduation University – University of Pune. Graduation Aggregate (Avg. of all 4 years) – 67.1 (Distinction) University of Texas Dallas (considered safe as per dependence theories, Edulix and Stupid Sid ) Any higher ranked university which can be applied with reasonably good chances ? Hii, my gre score is 300. Is is life, possible that i could northeastern . First of all thank you so much for this useful information. this is theories, very helpful. I got admit to Syracuse MEM to fall2016 with 30% Scholarship.

and IIT Chicago MSCS with no scholarship. but i am not able to decide between these two. could you please share your view about this. (pls give some idea about parahoo nursing research MEM job scenario also for international student) Thanks in advance for your valuable input. Hi.

Thanks for sharing the information. I want your suggestion for something. I have done B.tech in ECE and Mba in marketing from India and i am working in Sales job based on my mba campus recruitment. Now i want to further study MS in usa. Theories. Which course do you think i should choose? MS in Cs or MIS or MEM?? I have interest in computer related subjects but i have never done programming as a core subject. What would you suggest?. Thanks.

Hi Nistha Tripathi, I completed my BE in hyperbole, information science in theories, 2016, I’m not much interested in programming, coding i mean technical part. But i want to continue in my field doing MIM, Which course is best in management ? MIS? Digital Marketing? etc.. Is France good to do MIM? Please do reply. Hello How can I know which universities include MIS in STEM Course.I searched many sites but that does not give clear idea about the university which include mis in stem. Of Constipation In Jordanian Children. Please help me out. We're not around right now.

But you can send us an email and dependence, we'll get back to you, asap.

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Troubleshooting VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) View with Adobe Reader on a variety of dependence, devices. This document provides information on how to troubleshoot VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP). There are no specific requirements for this document. This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware versions. Refer to nursing research Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions. This section discusses some common troubleshooting situations for VTP. Unable to See VLAN Details in the show run Command Output. Configuration changes in dependence theories, CatOS are written to NVRAM immediately after a change is made. In contrast, Cisco IOS ® Software does not save configuration changes to crowd NVRAM unless you issue the theories, copy running-config startup-config command.

VTP client and server systems require VTP updates from other VTP servers to be immediately saved in NVRAM without user intervention. The Man Crowd? The VTP update requirements are met by the default CatOS operation, but the Cisco IOS update model requires an alternative update operation. For this alteration, a VLAN database was introduced into Cisco IOS Software as a method to immediately save VTP updates for VTP clients and servers. In some versions of dependence, software, this VLAN database is in the form of a separate file in NVRAM, called the vlan.dat file. You can view VTP/VLAN information that is stored in hyperbole in romeo and juliet, the vlan.dat file for the VTP client or VTP server if you issue the show vtp status command. VTP server/client mode switches do not save the entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the startup config file in the NVRAM when you issue the copy running-config startup-config command on these systems. It saves the configuration in the vlan.dat file. This does not apply to systems that run as VTP transparent. Dependence Theories? VTP transparent systems save the entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the startup config file in NVRAM when you issue the copy running-config startup-config command. For example, if you delete vlan.dat file after the configuration of the VTP in server or client mode and reload the switch, it resets the VTP configuration to speech default settings.

However, if you configure VTP in theories, transparent mode, delete the vlan.dat and reload the switch. This retains the VTP configuration. This is an example of a default VTP configuration: You can configure normal-range VLANs (2 through 1000) when the switch is in either VTP server or transparent mode. However, you can only configure extended-range VLANs (1025 through 4094) in VTP transparent switches. In order to display all the VLAN configurations, the VLAN ID, name, and so forth, that are stored in the binary file, you must issue the show vlan command. You can display the VTP information, the mode, domain, and Characteristics in Jordanian Essay so forth, with use of the show vtp status command. The VLAN information and the VTP information are not displayed in the show running-config command output when the dependence theories, switch is in the VTP server/client mode. This is normal behavior of the switch. Switches that are in VTP transparent mode display the funniest, VLAN and VTP configurations in the show running-config command output because this information is also stored in the configuration text file. Note: Extended-range VLANs are not supported by dependence theories, 3500XL . Hyperbole In Romeo? The 2900XL and dependence theories 3500XL can use only VLANs in the range of 1 to 1001, and parahoo research they do not support extended-range VLANs.

If you upgrade the software of the switch, it does not bring an enhancement to support the configuration of extended-range VLANs. Catalyst Switches Do Not Exchange VTP Information. VTP allows switches to advertise VLAN information between other members of the same VTP domain. Dependence Theories? VTP allows a consistent view of the switched network across all switches. There are several reasons why the VLAN information can fail to of the crowd summary be exchanged.

Verify these items if switches that run VTP fail to exchange VLAN information: VTP information only passes through a trunk port. Make sure that all ports that interconnect switches are configured as trunks and are actually trunking. Make sure that if EtherChannels are created between two switches, only Layer 2 EtherChannels propagate VLAN information. Make sure that the VLANs are active in all the devices. One of the switches must be the VTP server in theories, a VTP domain. All VLAN changes must be done on Clinical Characteristics Children Essay, this switch in order to have them propagated to the VTP clients. The VTP domain name must match and it is case sensitive. Theories? CISCO and cisco are two different domain names. Make sure that no password is set between the server and client. If any password is set, make sure that the password is the same on both sides.

Every switch in the VTP domain must use the parahoo, same VTP version. VTP V1 and VTP V2 are not compatible on switches in dependence theories, the same VTP domain. Do not enable VTP V2 unless every switch in the VTP domain supports V2. Note: VTP V2 is is cronyism, disabled by default on VTP V2-capable switches. When you enable VTP V2 on a switch, every VTP V2-capable switch in the VTP domain enables V2. Dependence Theories? You can only what is cronyism, configure the version on switches in dependence theories, VTP server or transparent mode. Switches that operate in transparent mode drop VTP advertisements if they are not in hyperbole in romeo and juliet, the same VTP domain.

The extended-range VLANs are not propagated. Therefore, you must configure extended-range VLANs manually on each network device. Note: In the future, the Catalyst 6500 Cisco IOS Software switches support VTP Version 3. This version is able to transmit extended-range VLANs. So far, VTP Version 3 is only supported on CatOS. Refer to theories the Understanding How VTP Version 3 Works section of Configuring VTP for more information on VTP Version 3. The Security Association Identifier (SAID) values must be unique. SAID is a user-configurable, 4-byte VLAN identifier. The SAID identifies traffic that belongs to a particular VLAN. The SAID also determines to which VLAN each packet is switched. The SAID value is hyperbole, 100,000 plus the VLAN number.

These are two examples: The SAID for VLAN 8 is theories, 100008. The SAID for VLAN 4050 is 104050. The updates from a VTP server do not get updated on an imaginary, a client if the client already has a higher VTP revision number. Also, the client does not allow these updates to flow to its downstream VTP clients if the dependence theories, client has a higher revision number than that which the hyperbole and juliet, VTP server sends.

Catalyst Switch Automatically Changes VTP Mode from Client to dependence theories Transparent. Some Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches change the VTP mode automatically from client to the man of the crowd summary transparent with this error message: Either of dependence theories, these two reasons can cause the automatic VTP mode change in these switches: More VLANs run on what is cronyism, the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) than the switch can support. Catalyst Layer 2 and dependence Layer 3 fixed configuration switches support a different maximum number of in romeo and juliet, instances of STP with the use of per-VLAN spanning tree+ (PVST+). For example, the Catalyst 2940 supports four instances of STP in PVST+ mode, while the Catalyst 3750 supports 128 instances of dependence theories, STP in PVST+ mode. If more than the maximum number of VLANs is defined in the VTP, the VLANs that remain operate with STP disabled. If the number of instances of STP that is already in use is greater than the what is cronyism, maximum number, you can disable STP on one of the VLANs and enable it on the VLAN where you want STP to run. Dependence Theories? Issue the parahoo nursing, no spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in order to dependence theories disable STP on a specific VLAN.

Then, issue the spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in order to enable STP on the desired VLAN. Note: Switches that do not run STP still forward the bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) that they receive. In this way, the other switches on the VLAN that have a running STP instance can break loops. Therefore, STP must run on enough switches in order to break all the loops in the network. For example, at the man summary least one switch on each loop in the VLAN must run STP. You do not need to run STP on all switches in the VLAN. However, if you run STP only on dependence, a minimal set of hyperbole in romeo and juliet, switches, a change to the network can introduce a loop into the network and can result in dependence, a broadcast storm. Reduce the number of VLANs that are configured to a number that the hyperbole in romeo and juliet, switch supports.

Configure the IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP (MSTP) on the switch in order to map multiple VLANs to a single STP instance. Use switches and/or images (Enhanced Image [EI]) which support a greater number of VLANs. The switch receives more VLANs from a connected switch than the switch can support. An automatic VTP mode change also can occur if the switch receives a VLAN configuration database message that contains more than a set number of VLANs. This normally happens in Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches when they are connected to a VTP domain that has more VLANs than are supported locally. Configure the dependence theories, allowed VLAN list on the trunk port of the connected switch in order to restrict the number of VLANs that are passed to the client switch. Enable pruning on the VTP server switch. Use switches and/or images (EI) which support a greater number of VLANs. Data Traffic Blocked between VTP Domains.

Sometimes it is required to connect to switches that belong to two different VTP domains. What Is Cronyism? For example, there are two switches called Switch1 and Switch2. Dependence Theories? Switch1 belongs to VTP domain cisco1 and an imaginary Switch2 belongs to VTP domain cisco2. Dependence Theories? When you configure trunk between these two switches with the Dynamic Trunk Negotiation (DTP), the trunk negotiation fails and the trunk between the switches does not form, because the DTP sends the VTP domain name in a DTP packet. Because of this, the data traffic does not pass between the switches.

It is possible that you can also see this error message. Note: Some of the switches do not show this error message. The solution for this issue is to manually force the trunking instead in order to rely on the DTP. Configure the trunk ports between the switches with the in romeo, switchport mode trunk command. CatOS Switch Changes to VTP Transparent Mode, VTP-4-UNSUPPORTEDCFGRCVD: A recent change in CatOS incorporated a protective feature that causes a CatOS switch to go into VTP transparent mode in order to prevent the possibility of a switch reset because of a watchdog timeout. This change is documented in these Cisco bug IDs: How Do I Determine If My Switch Might Be Affected? The watchdog timeout can occur if these two conditions are met:

The Token Ring VLAN (1003) is translated to theories VLAN 1. You make a change in VLAN 1. Issue the funniest commencement speech, show vlan command on dependence theories, the Catalyst in order to observe the Token Ring VLAN translation. This is an example of show vlan command output: How Does CatOS Version 6.3(3) Protect My Switch from a Watchdog Timeout? There is a protective feature in order to prevent a watchdog timeout in this CatOS version.

The Catalyst switch switches from VTP server or client to VTP transparent mode. How Do I Determine If My Switch Has Gone to VTP Transparent Mode in Order to Protect Against a Watchdog Timeout? Your switch has gone to VTP transparent mode if the crowd, logging level for the VTP is raised to 4. You see this message when the switchover occurs: What Are the Negative Effects When the Switch Goes to VTP Transparent Mode? If pruning is enabled, the trunks go down. If the trunks go down and no other ports are in that VLAN, the VLAN interface in the installed Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC) goes down. If these effects occur, and this switch is in theories, the core of your network, your network can be negatively affected. Where Does the Unsupported VTP Configuration Come From? Any Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as the parahoo nursing research, switches in this list, can supply the unsupported VTP configuration:

A Catalyst 2900/3500XL. A Cisco IOS Software Catalyst 6500. A Cisco IOS Software-based Catalyst 4000. These products translate the dependence theories, 1003 VLAN to VLAN 1 by default. The solution in CatOS-based switches enables the switches to handle this translated information properly. Hyperbole? The solution for the Cisco IOS Software-based switches is to remove this default translation and match the dependence theories, behavior of the CatOS-based switches. These are the the man of the crowd summary, integrated fixed versions that are currently available: If you cannot upgrade to images that have these fixes integrated, you can modify the configuration in theories, the Cisco IOS Software-based switches. Use this procedure if the switch is a VTP server: The 1002 VLAN can be translated, but you can also remove it if you include this in your configuration: When Exactly Does My Switch Change to VTP Transparent Mode?

Some confusion exists about when this switchover to commencement VTP transparent mode occurs. The scenarios in this section provide examples of when the switchover can happen. These are the dependence theories, initial conditions: Both the Catalyst 6500 and the Catalyst 3500XL are VTP servers with the same VTP configuration revision number. Both servers have the same VTP domain name and the same VTP password, if the password is configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the translated Token Ring VLAN. You start the servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to in romeo and juliet VTP transparent mode.

Of course, this also happens if the Cisco 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the theories, Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Funniest Commencement Speech? Moreover, if the switch to VTP transparent mode occurs when you physically connect the two switches, you can reasonably assume that the change would also occur if you booted the Catalyst 6500 for the first time while the switch was already connected. These are the initial conditions: The Catalyst 6500 is a VTP server. The Catalyst 3500XL is theories, a VTP client. The Catalyst 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Both switches have the same VTP domain and the same VTP password, if the password is life, configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the dependence, translated Token Ring VLAN.

You start the servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to VTP transparent mode. In this scenario, if the Catalyst 3500XL has a lower configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not switch to VTP transparent mode. If the is cronyism, Catalyst 3500XL has the same configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not go to dependence VTP transparent mode. Essay? However, the translation is still present in the Catalyst 3500XL. What Is the Quickest Way to Recover After I Notice the Translation in My Network? Even if you correct the Token Ring VLAN information in one switch, such as the switch that malfunctioned, the information can propagate throughout your network. You can use the show vlan command in order to determine if this occurred. Therefore, the quickest way to recover is to perform these steps: Take a Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as a Catalyst XL that is dependence, connected to parahoo nursing research the network, and dependence change the switch to a VTP server.

Remove the translated VLANs. After you apply the change in the switch, reconnect the switch to the network. The change should be propagated to all the other VTP servers and commencement clients. You can use the theories, show vlan command in order to verify that the translation is gone in research, the network. At this point, you should be able to change the affected CatOS 6.3(3) switch back to a VTP server. Note: The Catalyst XL switches do not support as many VLANs as the Catalyst 6500s support. Dependence? Ensure that all the VLANs in the Catalyst 6500 exist in the Catalyst XL switch before you reconnect them. For example, you do not want to connect a Catalyst 3548XL with 254 VLANs and a higher VTP configuration revision number to a Catalyst 6500 that has 500 VLANs configured. How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems. This problem occurs when you have a large switched domain that is all in hyperbole and juliet, the same VTP domain, and theories you want to add one switch in the network.

This switch was previously used in the lab, and a good VTP domain name was entered. The switch was configured as a VTP client and was connected to the rest of the network. Then, you brought the nursing research, ISL link up to dependence theories the rest of the hyperbole and juliet, network. In just a few seconds, the whole network was down. How did this happen?

The configuration revision number of the switch that you inserted was higher than the configuration revision number of the VTP domain. Theories? Therefore, your recently introduced switch, with almost no configured VLANs, erased all VLANs through the VTP domain. This occurs whether the switch is a VTP client or a VTP server. A VTP client can erase VLAN information on a VTP server. You can tell that this has occurred when many of the ports in your network go into inactive state but continue to be assigned to a nonexistent VLAN. Quickly reconfigure all of the VLANs on one of the VTP servers. Always make sure that the configuration revision number of all switches that you insert into nursing, the VTP domain is lower than the configuration revision number of the switches that are already in theories, the VTP domain. If you have the output of a show tech-support command from your Cisco device, you can use the Output Interpreter (registered customers only) in order to crowd display potential issues and fixes. Complete these steps in order to see an theories example of this problem:

Issue these commands in order to see that clic has 7 VLANs (1, 2, 3, and the defaults), clic is the VTP server in the domain named test, and port 2/3 is in VLAN 3: Connect bing, which is a lab switch on which VLANs 4, 5, and 6 were created. Note: The configuration revision number is 3 in this switch. Place bing in the same VTP domain (test). Configure the trunk between the parahoo nursing research, two switches in order to integrate bing in the network. Bing erased the clic VLAN, and now clic has VLANs 4, 5, and 6. However, clic no longer has VLANs 2 and 3, and dependence theories port 2/3 is inactive. Recently Added Switch Does Not Get the VLANs From the VTP Server. Make sure that the newly added switch has a configuration revision number that is less than the current revision number of the domain. See the parahoo research, How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems and theories Reset the Configuration Revision Number sections for more information. The new switch might not immediately receive the list of configured VLANs from the VTP server.

In order to overcome this, make any of these modifications to the VLAN database: Create any VLAN. Delete any VLAN. Modify the what is cronyism, properties of any current VLAN. Make modifications to dependence theories the VLAN database at any VTP server of the same domain. Once the modification is completed, the the man of the crowd summary, newly added switch receives the VLAN information from the VTP server. Reset the Configuration Revision Number.

You can easily reset the configuration revision number by either of the two procedures provided in this section. Reset the Configuration Revision using Domain Name. Complete these steps in order to reset the configuration revision number with the change of the domain name: Issue this command in order to theories see that the configuration is empty: Configure the nursing, domain name, which is test in this example, and create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to 2:

Change the domain name from test to cisco. The configuration revision number is back to 0, and all the VLANs are still present: Change the VTP domain name from cisco back to theories test. The configuration revision is 0. What Is Cronyism? There is no risk that anything can be erased, and all the previously configured VLANs remain: Reset the dependence, Configuration Revision using VTP Mode. Complete these steps in an imaginary, order to reset the configuration revision number with the change of the dependence theories, VTP mode: Issue this command in order to see that the configuration is empty: Configure the domain name, which is test in the man of the crowd, this example, and create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to 2: Change the VTP mode from server to transparent. The configuration revision number is back to 0, and all the VLANs are still present:

Change the VTP mode from transparent to server or client. The configuration revision is 0. There is no risk that anything can be erased, and all the previously configured VLANs remain: All Ports Inactive After Power Cycle. Switch ports move to the inactive state when they are members of VLANs that do not exist in the VLAN database. A common issue is that all the ports move to this inactive state after a power cycle. Generally, you see this when the switch is configured as a VTP client with the uplink trunk port on dependence theories, a VLAN other than VLAN 1. Because the switch is in parahoo research, VTP client mode, when the switch resets, it loses its VLAN database and causes the uplink port and any other ports that were not members of VLAN 1 to go into inactive mode.

Complete these steps in order to solve this problem: Temporarily change the VTP mode to transparent. Add the VLAN to which the uplink port is assigned to the VLAN database. Note: This example assumes that VLAN 3 is the VLAN that is assigned to the uplink port. Change the theories, VTP mode back to client after the uplink port begins forwarding. After you complete these steps, VTP should re-populate the VLAN database from the VTP server. The re-population moves all ports that were members of VLANs that the VTP server advertised back into Clinical Characteristics, the active state. Trunk Down, which Causes VTP Problems. Remember that VTP packets are carried on VLAN 1, but only on theories, trunks (ISL, dot1q, or LAN emulation [LANE]). If you make VLAN changes during a time when you have a trunk down or when LANE connectivity is down between two parts of your network, you can lose your VLAN configuration.

When the trunk connectivity is is cronyism, restored, the two sides of the network resynchronize. Dependence Theories? Therefore, the switch with the an imaginary, highest configuration revision number erases the VLAN configuration of the lowest configuration revision switch. VTP and dependence theories STP (Logical Spanning Tree Port) When you have a large VTP domain, you also have a large STP domain. VLAN 1 must span through the whole VTP domain. Funniest Commencement Speech? Therefore, one unique STP is run for that VLAN in theories, the whole domain. When VTP is used and a new VLAN is created, the VLAN is propagated through the entire VTP domain. The VLAN is hyperbole in romeo and juliet, then created in all switches in the VTP domain. All Cisco switches use PVST, which means that the switches run a separate STP for each VLAN.

This adds to the CPU load of the switch. You must refer to the maximum number of logical ports (for the STP) that are supported on the switch in order to dependence have an idea of the number of STPs that you can have on each switch. The number of logical ports is roughly the funniest speech, number of ports that run STP. Note: A trunk port runs one instance of STP for each active VLAN on dependence theories, the trunk. You can perform a rapid evaluation of this value for what is cronyism, your switch with this formula:

This number, which is the maximum number of logical ports for STP, varies from dependence, switch to switch and is documented in the release notes for each product. Research? For example, on a Catalyst 5000 with Supervisor Engine 2, you can have a maximum of 1500 STP instances. Each time you create a new VLAN with VTP, the VLAN is propagated by default to dependence all switches and is subsequently active on all ports. You might need to prune unnecessary VLANs from the trunk in order to avoid inflation of the in romeo and juliet, number of logical ports. Note: Pruning unnecessary VLANs from the trunk can be performed with one of two methods: Manual pruning of the unnecessary VLAN on the trunk —This is the best method, and it avoids the use of the spanning tree. Instead, the method runs the pruned VLAN on trunks. The VTP Pruning section of this document describes manual pruning further. VTP pruning —Avoid this method if the goal is to dependence theories reduce the number of STP instances. VTP-pruned VLANs on a trunk are still part of the spanning tree.

Therefore, VTP-pruned VLANs do not reduce the number of spanning tree port instances. VTP pruning increases the available bandwidth. VTP pruning restricts flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use in order to access the appropriate network devices. Hyperbole In Romeo? By default, VTP pruning is theories, disabled. The enablement of VTP pruning on a VTP server enables pruning for the entire management domain. The set vtp pruning enable command prunes VLANs automatically and stops the inefficient flooding of frames where the frames are not needed.

By default, VLANs 2 through 1000 are pruning eligible. VTP pruning does not prune traffic from pruning-ineligible VLANs. What Is Cronyism? VLAN 1 is always pruning ineligible; traffic from VLAN 1 cannot be pruned. Note: Unlike manual VLAN pruning, automatic pruning does not limit the spanning tree diameter. All devices in the management domain must support VTP pruning in order for VTP pruning to dependence be effective. On devices that do not support VTP pruning, you must manually configure the crowd summary, VLANs that are allowed on trunks. Dependence Theories? You can perform manual pruning of the VLAN from the trunk with the clear trunk mod / port command and the clear trunk vlan_list command.

For example, you can choose to only allow, on each trunk, a core switch to the VLANs that are actually needed. The Man Crowd Summary? This helps to reduce the load on the CPUs of all switches (core switches and access switches) and dependence theories avoids the use of STP for those VLANs that extend through the an imaginary life, entire network. This pruning limits STP problems in the VLAN. This is an example: Topology —The topology is two core switches that are connected to each other, each with 80 trunk connections to 80 different access switches. With this design, each core switch has 81 trunks, and each access switch has two uplink trunks. Dependence? This assumes that access switches have, in addition to the two uplinks, two or three trunks that go to a Catalyst 1900. This is a total of four to five trunks per access switch. Platform —Core switches are Catalyst 6500s with Supervisor Engine 1A and Policy Feature Card 1 (PFC1) that run software release 5.5(7). According to the Release Notes for Catalyst 6000/6500 Software Release 5.x, this platform cannot have more than 4000 STP logical ports.

Access switches —Access switches are either: Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 2, which do not support more than 1500 STP logical ports. Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 1 and 20 MB of DRAM, which do not support more than 400 STP logical ports. Number of VLANs —Remember to use VTP. Funniest Commencement Speech? A VLAN on the VTP server is created on all switches in the network. Dependence Theories? If you have 100 VLANs, the core must handle roughly 100 VLANs x 81 trunks = 8100 logical ports, which is Characteristics Essay, above the limit. The access switch must handle 100 VLANs x 5 trunks = 500 logical ports.

In this case, Catalysts in the core exceed the supported number of logical ports, and access switches with Supervisor Engine 1 are also above the limit. Solution —If you assume that only theories, four or five VLANs are actually needed in each access switch, you can prune all the other VLANs from the trunk on the core layer. For example, if only VLANs 1, 10, 11, and 13 are needed on trunk 3/1 that goes to that access switch, the configuration on the core is: Note: Even if you do not exceed the number of allowed logical ports, prune VLANs from a trunk. The reason is that an hyperbole in romeo STP loop in one VLAN only extends where the VLAN is allowed and does not go through the entire campus. Theories? The broadcast in nursing research, one VLAN does not reach the switch that does not need the broadcast. In releases that are earlier than software release 5.4, you cannot clear VLAN 1 from dependence theories, trunks. In later releases, you can clear VLAN 1 with this command: The Case of VLAN 1 section of parahoo nursing research, this document discusses techniques on how to keep VLAN 1 from theories, spanning the whole campus. If two switches, A and parahoo nursing research B, are connected with one port of Switch A, which is dependence theories, configured as trunk, and is connected to an IP phone, then the VTP joins the messages that pass from Switch A to Switch B. Hyperbole In Romeo? Therefore, Switch B is not able to prune the unused VLANS. This issue can be resolved if you configure the port connected to IP Phone as an access port voice VLAN . You cannot apply VTP pruning to VLANs that need to exist everywhere and that need to be allowed on all switches in the campus, in order to theories be able to carry VTP, Cisco Discovery Protocol [CDP] traffic, and other control traffic.

However, there is a way to of the crowd limit the extent of VLAN 1. The feature is theories, called VLAN 1 disable on trunk. Parahoo Nursing? The feature is available on Catalyst 4500/4000, 5500/5000, and 6500/6000 series switches in CatOS software release 5.4(x) and later. The feature allows you to prune VLAN 1 from a trunk, as you do for dependence theories, any other VLAN. This pruning does not include all the an imaginary life, control protocol traffic that is still allowed on the trunk (DTP, PAgP, CDP, VTP, and dependence others). However, the pruning does block all user traffic on that trunk. With this feature, you can keep the VLAN from spanning the entire campus.

STP loops are limited in extent, even in VLAN 1. Configure VLAN 1 to be disabled, as you would configure other VLANs to be cleared from the trunk: UDLD uses native VLAN in order to talk to the neighbor. So, in life, a trunk port, the native VLAN must not be pruned in order for UDLD to work properly. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Revision Number Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. VTP is dependence, designed for an administrative environment in what, which the VLAN database for dependence theories, the domain is changed at only one switch at any one time. It assumes that the new revision propagates throughout the domain before another revision is made. If you change the what is cronyism, database simultaneously on two different devices in theories, the administrative domain, you can cause two different databases to be generated with the Clinical of Constipation, same revision number.

These databases propagate and overwrite the existing information until they meet at an intermediate Catalyst switch on the network. Dependence? This switch cannot accept either advertisement because the packets have the same revision number but a different MD5 value. When the switch detects this condition, the switch increments the No of crowd, config revision errors counter. Note: The show vtp statistics command output in this section provides an example. If you find that the dependence, VLAN information is not updated on a certain switch, or if you encounter other, similar problems, issue the show vtp statistics command. Determine if the life, count of VTP packets with configuration revision number errors is increasing: If you observe a configuration revision error, you can resolve this problem if you change the theories, VLAN database in some way so that a VTP database with a higher revision number than the revision number of the competing databases is commencement speech, created.

For example, on the switch that acts as the primary VTP server, add or delete a false VLAN in the administrative domain. This updated revision is propagated throughout the domain and overwrites the dependence theories, database at all devices. Parahoo Nursing Research? When all the theories, devices in the domain advertise an funniest commencement identical database, the error no longer appears. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Digest Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. This section addresses how to troubleshoot VTP configuration digest errors that you see when you issue the dependence, show vtp statistics command. This is an funniest commencement speech example: The general purpose of an MD5 value is to verify the dependence theories, integrity of a received packet and to Clinical Characteristics of Constipation Children detect any changes to the packet or corruption of the packet during transit. When a switch detects a new revision number that is dependence, different from the currently stored value, the an imaginary life, switch sends a request message to the VTP server and requests the VTP subsets. A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN information.

The switch calculates the MD5 value for the subset advertisements and theories compares the life, value to the MD5 value of the VTP summary advertisement. If the dependence, two values are different, the what, switch increases the dependence theories, No of config digest errors counter. A common reason for these digest errors is that the VTP password is parahoo research, not configured consistently on all VTP servers in the VTP domain. Troubleshoot these errors as a misconfiguration or data corruption issue. When you troubleshoot this problem, ensure that the error counter is not historical. The statistics menu counts errors since the dependence, most recent device reset or the VTP statistics reset. Unable to Change the VTP Mode of a Switch from Server / Transparent. If the switch is a standalone (that is, not connected to the network), and you want to configure the VTP mode as the client, after reboot, the switch comes up either as a VTP server or VTP transparent, dependent upon the VTP mode of the the man crowd summary, switch before it was configured as the VTP client. The switch does not allow itself to dependence theories be configured as a VTP client when there is no VTP server nearby.

OSPF Hellos Blocked in a VTP Domain. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Hellos can get blocked and the adjacency can be dropped if a switch in the VTP domain is an imaginary life, changed from the server or client mode to transparent mode. This issue can occur if VTP pruning is theories, enabled in the domain. Use any of these options in in romeo and juliet, order to resolve the issue: Hard code the OSPF neighbors. Disable VTP pruning in theories, the domain. Revert the VTP mode of the of the summary, switch to server or client. This section talks about the commonly occuring variants of this error message: %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Version 1 device detected on dependence, [int] after grace period has ended. By default, the Clinical of Constipation Essay, VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Version on Cisco switches is Version 2 and is compatible with Version 1. This message is just a notification that indicates that there is dependence, a switch connected on port Gig0/10 that runs VTP Version 1. Everything continues to work fine, unless you run IPX, and there is nothing harmful for the switch. In order to resolve this issue, change the VTP version with these commands.

For Cisco IOS switches, use these commands: For CatOS switches, use this command: %SW_VLAN-SP-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: MD5 digest checksum mismatch on is cronyism, receipt of equal revision summary on dependence, trunk: [int] %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Error detected in VTP Revision Number for VTP Domain Index [dec] Single Switchport Trunk That Allowed the vlan command Appears as Multiple Commands in the show running-config command Output.

When the number of allowed VLANs extends past a certain number of characters, which is the default terminal width, the show running-config command wraps the line and adds the switchport trunk allowed vlan add command to the line. This is the way Cisco IOS handles long lists in the switchport trunk allowed vlan command. The output of show running-config looks similar to this: You can also notice that the VLAN list has been order in ascending order and displayed in funniest speech, the output. Remove VLAN 1 from the allowed list so you can disable VLAN 1 on any individual VLAN trunk port in order to reduce the risk of spanning-tree loops or storms. When you remove VLAN 1 from a trunk port, the interface continues to send and receive management traffic, for example, Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), and VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) in VLAN 1. The no form of the allowed vlan command resets the list to dependence the default list, which allows all VLANs. All packets sent to the EARL must be prefixed by a VLAN ID, because that is the packet format the what is cronyism, EARL expects. Routed ports do not have a visible VLAN ID since one is not explicitly configured, so the switch borrows a VLAN from the pool of 4096 that it has.

You can instruct the Catalyst 6500 series switch to start to borrow VLANs from the top, and dependence theories descend from 4096, or from bottom, and ascend from 1006, with the use the global config mode vlan allocation policy command. Thus it is normal behavior for internal VLAN to what be utilized with routed or WAN interface.

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2007 law day essay I#8217;m not sure that I would have put the time or thought necessary to write this essay had it been offered during the time when I attend college. Dependence? I#8217;ve read Perlstein#8217;s essay several times since I was notified about this essay at the beginning of July. Only now at the beginning of August have I committed myself to sitting down and organizing my thoughts into a manner that others might follow. The reason for hyperbole and juliet my hesitancy to address this issue stems from my anger at being judged from afar and being asked to theories defend myself. When Perlstein asks #8220;What#8217;s the Matter with College?#8221; I read #8220;What#8217;s the Matter With College Students?#8221;. The institution ceases to exist without students, and so, since I am among those who allow colleges to exist, I see this essay as a direct challenge to who I am as a person. #8220;Is the college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago?#8221; It is patently absurd to define the #8220;college experience#8221; when you consider the plethora of parahoo nursing research, diversity among individuals attending college today. This was obviously not so in the 1960#8217;s, and there is no common denominator for comparing the dependence theories, events of the #8217;60#8217;s with the events of today. The world is a strikingly different place than it was in in romeo, the #8217;60#8217;s. The fact that a generation ago a gubernatorial campaign was centered not upon dependence the education of college students but upon their behavior indicates two things to me: 1) the lack of integration of technology most are connected with today and 2) a political scam to direct the commencement speech, nation#8217;s attention away from more pressing concerns. In the latter regard, politics has not changed so much.

As far as the dependence theories, first is concerned, however, technology, most notably, the Internet has revolutionized the way people absorb life. It allows the opportunity for rapid communication through e-mails, instant messages, and the uploading of pictures. The inherent downfall of rapid communication is that it is not a forum for is cronyism all types of communication as thought should be put into dependence, some messages. We must put more time into our messages because our audience has expanded and become much less precise. In order to produce a message that leaves a profound mark, a mark that will not be easily reversed when the next generation of an imaginary, leaders comes around, college students must accept the role that money plays in dependence, society. Nurturing ideas based on is cronyism intellectual merit is only the first step because ideas cannot put food into dependence, the stomachs of starving children or medicine into the system of individuals ravaged by a disease that has yet to find a cure. An Imaginary? It is not enough to understand material at an advanced level and discuss this understanding with colleagues. Ideas must be presented in a manner that incites action.

Being aware of the commercial potential of ideas when one begins college allows one more time to ponder which action is theories, best to take. Along those lines, Perlstein mentions the Internet#8217;s affect on students in that most experience their #8220;first forbidden book#8221; and such before experiencing college. Experiencing more of an imaginary, life before attending college allows one to discard unwanted paths before traveling too far down them. Conversely, one may explore avenues already traveled in more depth once granted the freedom that college offers. If the Internet allows individuals access to more information, then #8220;Why aren#8217;t people paying attention to the campuses?#8221; Perlstein asks. In the 1960#8217;s, college was an dependence, asylum for eighteen-year-old boys assigned a number to protect freedom thousands of miles away from their home. There was hardly a person who didn#8217;t know someone who was fighting in an imaginary, Vietnam, or who wasn#8217;t hoping that their brother, son, friend, sweetheart didn#8217;t get drafted. Naturally, college campuses would be a central place for political activism. I don#8217;t know anyone who is fighting in Iraq. But I can recall at least two marches that took place locally in Sarasota last year while I was attending school. It would have been around this time that the forum would have been flooded with e-mails as people voiced their opinions regarding the dependence theories, status of the war.

Activism no longer occurs solely on college campuses or with regards to only American problems. People are aware of the life, crises that plague the world at a younger age and because of the theories, influence of the media more people are becoming involved. Since campuses are no longer asylums, people are looking to the man of the themselves for answers. A collective effort from individuals of dependence theories, all ages and backgrounds creates a solidarity that perpetuates action. Because colleges are more integrated into society, more people can become involved in putting their beliefs into what, actions, and theories college students can extend the an imaginary life, work they#8217;ve begun in their undergraduate years after they#8217;ve graduated from college.

So is what college students experience truly less critical to the nation? Perhaps for theories some students, college is no longer a break from society. However, assuming college no longer is a drastic break from society allows students to channel restless enthusiasm into hyperbole in romeo and juliet, concrete action. Higher education is no less based on intellectual merit because students are conscious of how they are going to apply their knowledge. I will grant you that the college experience is different but not that it is less critical to the nation. The next leaders will come from this generation. Our college experience is different because society is rearranged differently. Dependence? The battles of the #8217;60#8217;s are not our battles. Although there are aspects of society that demand reform, if college continues to be a radical break from society as we know it, the time it takes graduates to adjust to society again is valuable time lost. A four year hiatus from society creates apathy in Clinical Characteristics, response to the problems of society. We cannot advocate making love and not war when the threat of deadly STD#8217;s ravages so many.

The adage that ignorance is bliss rings true in most circumstances. Because of theories, our increased awareness of life outside of Characteristics in Jordanian Essay, our claustrophobic sphere, we must accept responsibility for our actions and look forward to a long-term solution that is in the best interest of everyone involved. Dependence? Jim Morrison said, #8220;There can#8217;t be any large-scale revolution until there#8217;s a personal revolution, on an individual level. It#8217;s got to happen inside first.#8221; An institution cannot be responsible for liberation. An Imaginary Life? It must come from within. College matters because it still offers that opportunity for growth, for liberation. By serving as a stepping point rather than an escape from dependence theories life, college possesses an of the crowd summary, ability to dependence influence individuals to imagine and take action.

It is not enough to imagine the life, world the way one would like. How easy when detached from society it is to become trapped in one#8217;s imagination so that it appears as if action is dependence, futile. Perhaps college campuses are not the focus of the nation#8217;s attention. That has not deterred individuals from taking action. Hyperbole In Romeo? We#8217;re not going to wait around for dependence theories society to notice what we#8217;re doing. Of Constipation In Jordanian Children? We don#8217;t need acknowledgment from the media to confirm our accomplishments. We#8217;re moving forward.

There#8217;s no need for imitation. We#8217;re creating our own style, and we#8217;ll add our signature as we go. It was a cheerful spring day, and I was a cheerful admitted student, enjoying the switch from being judged, to passing judgment. Having been deferred in November, I strolled around the University of Chicago admitted student reception piling pastries on my plate, enjoying the sweet taste of dependence, acceptance. Soon after the is cronyism, reception they herded us into another well-embellished room for a question and answer session. As I listened I swelled with pride, thrilled to be surrounded by the quirky, curious minds I hoped would inspire my own.

In the first several questions, forty waving hands demanded to know about dependence theories, their pre-med program, the internships they offered, and what GPA was necessary for some award or another. Amidst the furious scribbling, I detached from my long-harbored dreams and wondered what I had wished for in the first place. Now, I am a rising junior at an imaginary life a small liberal arts school, which won me over entirely with its student body. Theories? The campus seemed free of the competitive, suffocating air that filled the Q#038;A. Students genuinely appeared to be invested in searching for and improving upon themselves rather than viciously trying to one-up each other for trophies to hyperbole in romeo and juliet add to their resumes. While ordinarily I might happily report that in the last several years my school has edged up the rankings in the annual college U.S. Dependence? News #038; World Report, to use market speak: the value added to research my degree from the increased ranking is outweighed by the consequent depletion of interesting future students, who are quickly being replaced by dependence theories, more competitive #8220;organization kids.#8221; Both alumni and current students have fought the administration#8217;s efforts to homogenize incoming classes without success. This leads directly, I believe, to what the true heart of the theories, problem. In Romeo And Juliet? Students are no less intellectual, curious, or interesting than they were in the 1960s and 70s when they stormed the streets, raised hell, and caused parents and politicians alike to dependence grind their teeth in bed. Hyperbole And Juliet? The real culprit is the dependence theories, increasing, nearly unachievable admissions standards set by top tier schools. Clinical Characteristics Of Constipation Children? To be admitted to dependence a school like University of Chicago, or any of its peer institutions, a student essentially has to be an #8220;organization kid.#8221; I#8217;m tempted to resent the upcoming freshman for infiltrating what was a creative, open-minded community.

Then, I recall that my class was similarly ill-received by what, older students and the freshmen become hard to blame. With such rigorous admissions processes, genuinely interesting and interested students are basically forced into the organized majority if they want to theories attend the most competitive schools. While college admission accounts largely for the diminishing midnight debates in crowded college dorms, it doesn#8217;t tell the whole story. Unlike the youth of the and juliet, 60s and 70s, my generation lacks a defining struggle. This is not to say that our country is not at war, the facts, of course, stand strongly to dependence theories the contrary. However, unlike wars of the past, the effects of this war on the home front are almost entirely unfelt except for commencement speech the media coverage.

For the fortunate many who don#8217;t know anyone serving in Iraq, this war is happening somewhere else, against a constantly changing, intangible enemy. There is no draft. Dependence Theories? There are no demands for hyperbole in romeo and juliet material sacrifices. Although it may be discouraging, it is hardly surprising that few campuses are up in dependence, arms over a war that the general population would hardly be aware of if they didn#8217;t watch the news. As disconnected as many students are from in romeo and juliet our engagements abroad, compared to our predecessors, we hardly have a culture war at home. My generation has no banned books and no forbidden music. The most oppressive law most students face is the drinking age, a law which has been broken since 1920. While an infinite amount of dependence theories, societal ills still stand to be corrected, we have little to rebel against.

Our parents don#8217;t stop us from pursuing our interests; in fact, they encourage us to do so at an incredibly early age. When you consider the big three, our parents embraced rock #038; roll, tried drugs some of hyperbole in romeo, us haven#8217;t even heard of, and dependence forced books with funny pictures on us to begin our sexual educations before we were old enough to read. Yes, for some this might be an exaggeration but undoubtedly our parents and society afford our generation more freedoms than our parents ever dreamt of before they escaped to college. And so, inevitably, the gap between childhood and college has decreased. That said, the gap between college and the real-world has never been so expansive. Students are not the only group that has changed due to increased competition; colleges must compete with one another for what applicants to boost those beloved selectivity ratings, the popularity contest used to determine the value of a degree. As colleges work to gain a competitive edge with students, and dependence theories more importantly with their parents, they become more student-friendly, or according to some, more juvenile. On a typical college tour, parents and their offspring will hear about the school#8217;s strong academic support systems, their caring advisors, the parahoo research, RA who will live in their dorm and serve as a surrogate parent, the student counselors and advisors who will be on every floor in case a student needs any kind of helpthe changes alumni may note when they visit their alma-maters are no accident. Colleges, especially the smaller schools, strive to hand-hold. This year an alumnus of my college returned to dependence teach two whirlwind courses on jazz and the art of criticism and I was fortunate enough to be his student.

After our final class, I guided him to a meeting across campus and on the way he recounted stories from his college days. His memories sounded more like tall tales than genuine recollections of four years at my college: swearing at Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay the college President when he refused to give an dependence, honorary degree to hyperbole in romeo Louis Armstrong, all day sit-ins on the field while desks sat empty. His stories force me to concede that the college experience is certainly different now than it was twenty or thirty years ago. But while nostalgia may tug our heart strings, the differences don#8217;t necessitate despair. Activism hasn#8217;t become extinct, it#8217;s become smarter. Dependence? Given the what, market-oriented world my generation has grown up in dependence theories, it is no surprise that we#8217;ve learned money listens to money. Nursing Research? I#8217;m confident any environmentalist could give you one thousand reasons our earth is worth saving but she also knows that if you want a company to go green, passionate, incensed speeches won#8217;t go nearly as far as financial incentives. Fewer students may be thrown in jail from theories protests, but more students are involved in micro-financing.

We may not be able to call up famous musicians and persuade them to funniest speech play impromptu concerts but we can keep our favorite artists in our pockets and listen to them at dependence any moment. True, college communities are less contentious than they once were and are no longer the hip breeding ground for youthful counterculture; but, college and its students have only naturally evolved with society and competition and that doesn#8217;t have to be a bad thing. As the poet prophet of all college generations wrote, #8220;the times they are-a-changin#8217;.#8221; As a college student in today#8217;s society, am I allowed to be a little skeptical about my generation? Am I allowed to wonder if we are all going to what be okay when all the grownups of today are replaced by theories, us?

I have to wonder, will we finally be forced to be responsible and act like we care about what is going on around the world and in this country? I can only imagine the scoffs and the eyes that are rolling as some people read this. How could I be so judgmental about my own generation? We#8217;re so different! We#8217;re so great! We#8217;re going to be just fine#8230;right? I wish I had a little more faith in life, the people that I go to dependence school with and those around the country that share my woes of trying to parahoo nursing complete an undergraduate degree. But part of me cannot bring myself to have this faith. Sure, we work hard: we get up, go to our classes, are involved in extra curricular activities, and work a part time or full time job to put ourselves through school. But who has the time for news, for politics, for caring about a war and the constant infringement of the American people#8217;s privacy that this government is signing bills to continue?

Who honestly has the time, or better yet, who actually cares? For the dependence theories, small number of in romeo, us that do, what is going on right now in this society and in this world is scary, and action is needed. Some sort of noise should be coming from college campuses where the ever so sweetly labeled #8220;leaders of tomorrow#8221; reside. But put your ear to dependence the entrance of a college campus and the only thing you#8217;ll hear are parties or nothing at all (evidence that students are studying). I guess some of us just feel untouchable. That nothing will affect us, because lets be honest here#8230;nothing has. Century to century, era to era, generation to Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian Children generation, societal issues remain constant. Nothing new is dependence theories, happening but how we address it and embrace it has changed. The students that roamed the college campuses in of the, the 60s and 70s had a purpose.

Things were different: there was a war waging that many thought should not be fought (wait, is that happening now too, in Iraq?), equal rights for dependence blacks, and women were already in the constitution but were not being practiced (isn#8217;t the Supreme Court thinking about banning a woman#8217;s right to choose?) things were just different. Or were they? The difference between then and in romeo and juliet now is theories, not the what is cronyism, institution itself, but rather the dependence, students attending and an imaginary their life experiences. College is expensive now and it seems that the government is paying for less and less of it, therefore paying for school has become increasingly more difficult. The students of today are told that without an education they will go nowhere in life and that, in dependence theories, essence, without college almost all of their sentences will be followed with, #8220;would you like fries with that?#8221; We are frightened with ideas that we could be homeless, jobless and, without the ability to do anything without a college degree. For the students of the 60s and 70s, things were different. A good job didn#8217;t require college; it enhanced the ability of gaining a better paying job and hyperbole allowed the freedom of not going into the family business. Things were just different. Most of the students that went to college in those days were the wealthy, the inspired, or the extremely intelligent. Most of the time the dependence, college campuses of yesteryears were filled with students that wanted to be there, and that wanted to change the world they lived in. These days, college students want a way to make money, a way to have some stability in life, or are being forced by parents that want this kind of stability for their children.

There are some that are inspired, there are even some that are extremely intelligent and there will always be those that are wealthy. But let#8217;s just say that these days a lot of kids go to college because it is what is expected, not because it is something that is wanted. What some of the an imaginary life, students of theories, today lack is passion, and without this want to change the world, there aren#8217;t many #8220;movements#8221; on the man college campuses. In the past at Berkley, Stanford and at various other colleges there were students being beaten for their words, for their actions, for their standing up against dependence, the government. The Man Of The Crowd? Today, we don#8217;t really have that. Dependence Theories? Not many march and gather for what they believe is right and true. We never watched our parents fight or march or gather against a war or a proposed bill that they didn#8217;t believe in. Our parents woke up, went to work and made money so that us kids could go to school and have it easier. Our parents were fighters, but a different kind. So yes, college campuses may be different.

College as was known to the people of the past is drifting away and breaking apart. But some of us on these campuses are trying to make a difference. Clubs and organizations on campuses are trying to parahoo nursing research inform the dependence, student body of what is going on around the world and in our environment. We are trying to open the eyes of the students on campus but it is hard to inform a student body that doesn#8217;t want to be informed. Is Cronyism? I have heard several of my peers state that they don#8217;t worry about the future. Dependence? The fear of no social security does not plague them. The fear of women not having the hyperbole, right to choose or countless amounts of soldiers going overseas to fight a war that seems never ending does not make them lose sleep. These are the students that don#8217;t want to dependence know and don#8217;t care to know about the genocide in Darfur and the bombings that occurred in Lebanon. What a surprise it will be for my generation when the problems of this world cannot be solved with as much ease as they believe.

A friend of mine once said, #8220;Why should I worry? The grownups are handling it.#8221; I failed to mention to her that one day, we would be the grownups and that we would have all of these responsibilities to deal with. As was brought out in the article #8220;What#8217;s the Matter with College?#8221; by Rick Perlstein, the college campuses of the 60s and 70s and the students that populated them are long gone. Now this society is stuck with us, my generation, that we can only hope will grow up sooner or later. Those of what is cronyism, us that do worry about our society and dependence theories about this world, might be those that help save it. Commencement? Maybe we#8217;ll be the journalists that inform the people (that by theories, that time will want to be in the know), or the environmentalists and parahoo nursing research scientists that will be working to better our world physically, or maybe my generation will produce the honest politicians that will work their hardest to theories better this world and this country.

I guess the cliched phrase of #8220;only time will tell#8221; holds true here. A few weeks into my second semester at Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian Essay college, a close friend of mine attending Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute called me one afternoon and greeted me with a declaration: #8220;I decided that college is basically just high school, only you live away from home.#8221; I immediately agreed with her. In our suburban high school, every student was encouraged to work hard, apply to several colleges, and plan on attending at least community college after graduating. Consequently, instead of escaping all the intellectually and culturally deprived people with whom we had grown up, we simply met new ones. Theories? Why? Because today, going to college is just what you do. Students are now taught that to be successful, a college degree, not the college experience, is necessary.

Perhaps this is parahoo nursing, true, but one must consider the dependence, truth in the fact that both the college experience and the college student of today are extremely different from those of thirty or forty years ago, and the college experience is no longer as culturally or intellectually relevant in students#8217; lives. The 1960s and crowd 1970s marked a time of revolution both political and dependence cultural on the national stage. JFK and the Space Race, Communism, The Graduate, the parahoo, Vietnam conflict, The Beatles, Edward Albee, the theories, Civil Rights Movement, the an imaginary life, Beat Generation, Woodstock, The Godfather, the Kent State shootings, #8220;blaxploitation#8221; films, and countless other events and creative revelations took the country by storm, and the youth promptly embraced the good and dependence theories protested the bad. #8220;The times, they are a-changin#8217;,#8221; sang Bob Dylan, and, riding the crest of the wave of what, change, the youth united. From their parents, the Baby Boomers developed a strong work ethic; from society, they received encouragement to speak their minds and dependence theories focus that work ethic on instigating change. Today, society does not encourage us to use our minds to change the world, but to use our education to of the summary achieve financial stability and theories material success. The radicals of forty years ago are now the adults of today, advising all students to attend college, #8220;earn#8221; a degree, and funniest commencement speech enter the work force. However, these students lack not only the motivation to broaden their horizons, but they also lack the work ethic and sense of unity characteristic of the Boomers. With the further advances of technology, the youth have grown more and more disinterested in the world around them. The Boomers grew up watching news reports on new color televisions each night with their families; today, children grow up playing video games, watching reality television, and sitting at the computer.

There is little political or social awareness in dependence, students, and often, even when there is awareness, there is no interest. Hyperbole In Romeo And Juliet? Also advancing with technology is the isolation of today#8217;s youth. The college students of the #8217;60#8217;s felt alienated from the older generations, but contemporary young adults are alienated from each other. Technology assists young adults in communicating without ever seeing each other, which is evident at colleges. Students meet each other online through community websites like Facebook. Dependence? They talk with their professors through emails, and with each other through instant messaging, even if they#8217;re in rooms across the hall from life each other. During breaks in class, students don#8217;t talk to each other they stick their ear bud headphones in and switch their iPods on, or step outside to use their cell phones to call someone else. These students simply don#8217;t have the sense of community that students forty years ago had that was formed by both society and dependence theories college. The college experience is as different now as the students are. The college life that Mr. Perlstein and Mr.

Mitchell recall #8220;revolved around the dorm lounge,#8221; where students would argue and debate with each other and with the is cronyism, great minds of the day. Today, the college experience often revolves around the party. Students aren#8217;t skipping class to argue about various issues of the day they#8217;re skipping class because they have hangovers. The youth of today don#8217;t go to college anticipating cultural and intellectual stimulation they go expecting to do whatever they want, when they want to do it. No one makes pushing creative limits their priority. The average student#8217;s state of mind isn#8217;t looking for growth and fulfillment; it#8217;s avoiding responsibility and dependence theories growing up for as long as possible. Mediocrity is not only accepted: it#8217;s desired. Those looking for cultural, social, and political enlightenment are the minority, not the hyperbole in romeo and juliet, majority, and theories this is where college actually hinders the students#8217; growth. Colleges view books advertise (rather shamelessly, one might add) all their impressive resources and spotlight their most successful students, but these booklets are deceiving, and, as one student Mr. Perlstein interviewed pointed out, aimed at parents, not students.

The students featured in such marketing schemes are always intelligent, creative, and ambitious. The problem is, these students do not represent the majority of undergraduates. These students are the ones who have managed to overcome the banality of and juliet, college today to seek cultural and intellectual fulfillment on dependence theories their own. Mr. Perlstein noted that, #8220;You used to have to go to college to discover your first independent film, read your first forbidden book, find freaks like yourself#8230; Now, for even the most provincial students, the Internet, a radically more democratic and diverse culture and what those hip baby-boomer parents take care of the problem.#8221; However, even though many students do arrive at college having been exposed to new material already, they are still all at incredibly varying levels both intellectually and dependence culturally. Mr. Clinical Of Constipation Children? Perlstein#8217;s interviewees are evidence of this: Ms. Ouwerkerk is a #8220;cog in the organization#8230;the bureaucracy that schedules students#8217; self-exploration#8221; that has been described as while Mr. Morris is an artist who finds his fellow students to be #8220;so insanely uncreative#8230;and proud of it.#8221; This lack of creativity is especially difficult to overcome.

Preparation for college has become almost solely academic, not intellectual, and while admissions committees claim they look for creativity and originality in their students, the theories, emphasis is life, still placed heavily on SAT scores and grade point averages. Thus, the focus in high school is on scoring high on that standardized test and passing with high grades at the expense of the arts. At the same time, colleges have ceased to dependence operate primarily as schools: as small businesses, they are all about the funniest, numbers. Their priority is no longer education it#8217;s how many students apply, how many they accept, how much tuition and room and board are, how many students continue to graduate school. Such changes seem small and irrelevant to the college experience, but they really have stunted it quite significantly. College and the American public#8217;s perception of it have changed by leaps and bounds over dependence, the past forty years. No longer the center of political and cultural movements, colleges only appear in Clinical of Constipation Children Essay, the media when money, sports, or catastrophic events are concerned. The changes in the today#8217;s youth, society, and colleges themselves have ended the era of the old #8220;college experience.#8221; Emersion in culture used to be the norm; now it is the dependence, exception. Perhaps in nursing, time, the theories, students who still revel in cultural and intellectual exploration can revitalize college, bringing it back to what it used to Essay be: enlightening, illuminating, and actually relevant.

Rick Perlstein argues in #8220;What#8217;s the matter with College?#8221; that college campuses have lost their centrality largely due to theories the lack of radicalism that is generated on campus compared to the vibrant, radical, take-over-the-administration-building late 1960#8217;s and early 1970#8217;s. Nursing? College students, Perlstein laments, have become hyper-aware advocates of business-speak and dependence difficult admissions standards. Colleges have lost their place as incubators of radicalism, and no longer provide a #8220;discrete experience#8221; that provided a #8220;radical break#8221; between childhood and the #8220;real world#8221;. Yet Colleges and the man crowd Universities are perhaps more significant socially, culturally, and economically than they ever have been before. Theories? With no raiding of campus buildings to what do, how can the modern college student possibly prove his/her worth to society at dependence large? If politicians fail to rail against crowd, the depravities of college campuses, then how can they be relevant?This past fall, nearly 18 million college students were enrolled in dependence theories, the 4,216 institutions of higher education that grant degrees in the United States alone, up from the 12 million 25 year ago. Parahoo? And it#8217;s not just the number of students that have increased: between 1993 and 2003, minority college enrollment rose nearly 51 percent. This year alone, colleges and universities in dependence theories, the United States are estimated to confer nearly 3 million degrees. In Romeo? On campus, there are more clubs and organizations for a college student to dependence theories get involved in than ever before.

At Purchase College (SUNY), a relatively small (approx. 4,000 undergraduates and a handful of graduate students) public university where I attend, students can choose from an ever-growing list of extra-curricular activities: The History Club, Students in Free Enterprise (a business club that works with the local high school students), Concerned Students Against the War, The Cheese Club (for those interested in what, the appreciation of fine cheese), a student run a cappella group, three newspapers (two of them entirely student run), The Philosophy Society, The Root Beer club (for those interested in the appreciation of fine root beer), a student run radio and television station, a gay and lesbian student association, a swing dancing club, The Organization of African Peoples in theories, the Americas, Hillel (a Jewish student group), and an imaginary a host of other organizations that I#8217;m sure I#8217;ve forgotten. What#8217;s more, these groups are open to dependence any student regardless of skill level, sexual orientation, gender, race, creed, or religion. Colleges have done more than adopt the language of cultural inclusion; real cultural inclusion and nursing immersion (defined as exposure to identities and traditions that are not your own) have become an important part of the college experience in the 21st century. Had Douglas Mitchell gone to, say, Princeton instead of The University of dependence theories, Chicago in and juliet, 1965, he would have found eating clubs that refused to admit women to their ranks (not officially connected to the University, but an integral part of the Princeton experience, even today). Perlstein is correct on one count: the college campus of today no longer acts as an dependence theories, incubator for radicalism; an island paradise that allows students to prolong exposure to the #8220;real world#8221;. Yet colleges, as well as society at large, are better off for this shift and as a result, colleges have become more, not less, central to the world around them. In 2005, 30 percent of hyperbole and juliet, college students volunteered in their local communities, an increase of nearly 20 percent from 2002. Dependence? According to nursing The Corporation for dependence theories National and community service, nearly one third of the is cronyism, time college students spent volunteering in dependence theories, 2005 was spent in educational or youth service organizations. Student volunteerism is not simply a spring break activity: 44 percent of college student volunteers spend 12 or more weeks a year with the is cronyism, same organization.

Cultural and Societal change need not be vocal; college students in 2005 may spend less time talking with beatnik scholars, isolated on their island free from dependence adult responsibilities, but the college experience is increasingly about assisting others, and using University resources to do so. What Is Cronyism? Increased volunteerism by college students is a situation where all parties involved benefit: college students learn about other cultures and use their skills to help their communities, the community gets assistance from a willing army of volunteers, and theories the college campus itself becomes a symbol for real socioeconomic change within the community. A college or university that situates itself at the center of the commencement, volunteerism movement becomes more relevant, not less, to the community that surrounds it and to the country at large. What#8217;s more, college students increasingly find creative ways to bring the culture of campus to the outside world. Facebook.com, a social networking site for college and theories high school students was started by an imaginary, Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard. In just over a year, facebook claimed more than 11 million users worldwide, with the dependence, number increasing daily. Thanks to the internet, the importance of college campuses isn#8217;t restricted locally, or even nationally; college students can affect change internationally in a remarkable amount of time.

It is still on and juliet campus, though, where young entrepreneurs find their business partners, develop their business models, and theories perhaps even find their first investors. Perlstein laments the infiltration of the hyperbole, business world on theories to college campuses, but perhaps the opposite is true. Parahoo Nursing? Today, the dependence, business world is as influenced by is cronyism, the day-to-day activities on college campuses (and not just consumption, either) than vice versa. Rick Perlstein is correct: the nature of colleges (and college students) has changed in America. Dependence? Perlstein views this change as a fundamental loss of is cronyism, innocence among America#8217;s young people, and argues that this loss of dependence theories, innocence will ultimately result in negative consequences for both college students and American culture in the aggregate. Yet Perlstein#8217;s logic of noise and discontent equaling progress and centrality fails to hold up to a fundamental 21st century reality: college is still college, but the an imaginary, experience of a quarter century ago can not be replicated, even if that was the intention of a college or university.

The change that college students effect today may not be as politically exciting as building takeovers and university-wide sit ins, but is ultimately more culturally, economically, and socially significant than the dependence theories, changes of and juliet, our forebears. The college campuses of the 21st century are teeming with life, diversity, and theories cultural significance. We need them now more than ever before. Clinical Characteristics Of Constipation In Jordanian Essay? I#8217;m in dependence, the office by 8:30, even on funniest commencement the mornings I#8217;ve hit snooze a half dozen times and dependence theories finally managed to drag myself out of bed only ten minutes before the bus comes. If I haven#8217;t hit a Starbucks before I arrive at nursing research work (there are two on my way), I stop first at the industrial coffee maker in the break room. I can#8217;t figure out how to make the coffee stronger than brown water, so I load it with sugar, to ensure I get at least some sort of chemically-induced energy kick. Reading and responding to emails carries me through 9:30, when I begin to work on whatever project I didn#8217;t finish the day before. My boss continues to send me documents that might be helpful in my summer report. A brilliant professor once told me to dependence #8220;Always be done#8221; with whatever assignment I was working on, in case a deadline was suddenly moved forward (great advice). With this in mind, I spend the morning frantically struggling to incorporate the new material into my text, preemptively answering the questions I#8217;ll get thrown when I defend the an imaginary life, project, while still keeping the Executive Summary to the standard one-page maximum.

It is a futile effort, though; things have the propensity to be meeting#8217;d to death, and theories regardless of what new brilliant evidence I manage to present, approval will still always be one meeting away. As an intern, you often get only one chance to hyperbole in romeo and juliet present your work to upper management. My opportunity is dependence theories, scheduled for this Thursday: in a half an hour of my boss#8217;s boss#8217;s time, I#8217;ll stumble through my proposal and, if it#8217;s the slightest bit out-of-the-box, hear, #8220;That#8217;s a really unique idea. But I don#8217;t think it could work in this company as it is. Bring it to me again next month.#8221; So you do, and if you#8217;re lucky, you get another shot. My #8220;first-chance meeting#8221; will be a phone conference, which makes it frighteningly difficult to gauge the reaction of my audience and appropriately adjust my tone. Silence could mean the senior manager on the other end is thoughtfully pondering my ideas, that I#8217;ve completely offended him and funniest the entire organization on dependence top of it, or simply that our connection has been dropped.

Any of those three options is, to say the least, less than ideal. My second meeting will be more of the same: Good work, but not here, not yet. The Man Summary? Try again, come back in dependence, a month. Then you have to bitterly remind your boss, and his boss, that you can#8217;t try again in month, because you#8217;ll be back at school and no longer their summer intern. Does anything ever change? Does anyone ever pick up where the intern leaves off? Could it really be a complete waste of forty hours a week, for ten weeks? I check the internet news headlines to is cronyism see if hell#8217;s broken loose in the real world and dial into the noontime conference call. As I listen to the weekly call and try my best to decipher what#8217;s going on so I can construct the minutes, I pull on my sweater to dependence theories fend off the over-air-conditioned clime and think about how excessive all these meetings are. What? No one will read my minutes, save my boss, who will check them for glaring errors before distributing them; no one will get around to implementing the project I#8217;ve been prepping all summer. There are positive aspects to the internship, though: I#8217;m absorbing interesting and useful information, and theories I enjoy being part of the camaraderie of my coworkers.

And, this experience will likely flesh out my purely theoretical knowledge from summary classes and books. But, there#8217;s always a little voice in my head who chants, most audibly during all the theories, meetings, #8220;You#8217;re wasting your time.#8221; After the meeting I grab lunch from the food court in the mall that inhabits the is cronyism, first two floors of dependence theories, my oversized building, watching people not too much younger than I mill about with their friends. I flirt with the guy serving me lunch to remind myself that I, too, am young, still a college student. For ten minutes I cling to my youth, pretend to not care about the resume I#8217;m trying to build, and parahoo dash outside to warm up in the July sunshine. The rest of the afternoon drags on uneventfully. At 3:30, emails begin to fly back and forth from friends still in dependence theories, the city for funniest commencement the summer, most of whom are interns as well. Plans for dependence the evening slowly take shape: open air concert at Millennium Park, someone brings the wine, someone else brings the Characteristics in Jordanian, cheese and crackers.

The distribution list is oddly formal, with some variety of dependence, [email protected] and [email protected]; no one uses the typical [email protected], as is the life, usual during the year. During the day we talk about corporate policy, management efficiency, and certifications. After 5o#8217;clock, I walk to the public transit station, ride the El to the lush green lawn of the park, and go home to dependence my super energy-efficient apartment (no a/c). Nursing Research? I live the personal version of the dependence, corporate environmental policy I propose day in commencement speech, and day out. I enjoy being responsible for my activities, instead of having to run them through meetings; knowing my impact on the world around me, rather than guessing at electricity consumption from dependence theories 100 global locations; interacting as part of a thriving, positive urban experience, and not as another worker bee in a 37-story, glass hive. I revel in in romeo, summer life as a carefree intern, in theories, a city I have only known as a deadline-driven college student. Clinical Of Constipation? After the concert, we end up at dependence theories our apartment for a late dinner. The progress of the graying charcoal in the grill mirrors the path of our conversation from research local politics (grey around the edges), to our philosophical place in dependence theories, the world (hot enough to cook the food), to what finally whatever pop culture report came through the tabloids that day (disintegrating into a dust pile on the bottom of the dependence theories, grill). Is Cronyism? We all begin to feel the exhaustion from a life we are not used to: early mornings, eight hours at a desk, the daily commute. We draw out the last hour, sad to end our evening and break up the surrogate family gathering.

The first eight hours of my day makes me feel worn and tired, while the second eight reinforce my youth and vitality, the true college experience. Dependence? I can dream and work hard and pretend like I#8217;m denting a gigantic company, but it#8217;s like throwing pebbles at an elephant. The elephant will probably not feel the the man of the, sting of the pebble, and even if it does, it will take a lot more force to dependence change its direction. It#8217;s a completely ineffectual exercise, unless I find something else to take away from life it. New knowledge, life experience, the opportunity to dependence theories discover myself and my interests; those are all worthwhile things to gain, from both the intern experience and the student experience. There will be time to redirect elephants in the years to come, and for an imaginary now I#8217;m content to just test my aim. Why vote or otherwise be politically active? Many college students do not see the use, even if they care about what is happening in the world. The culture inside the Beltway is theories, largely culpable for this widespread political apathy amongst today#8217;s undergraduates.

College students are faced with two unfortunate options when going to the polls: they can vote for the party that makes lots of campaign promises, but in the end accomplishes nothing because they are cowards who would rather get re-elected than actually take a hard line and stand up for American moral and ethical standards; or they can vote for the party that reminds them of the takeover of the Galactic Senate in Star Wars. In many ways, Dick Cheney resembles Chancellor Palpatine always hiding in the shadows, and manipulating the government, in twisted ways that the nation has never witnessed, towards his own personal gain. Parahoo Nursing Research? He is even damaging his own health with the overwhelming prevalence of dark energy flowing through his body this might explain some of his heart problems. George W. Bush resembles Palpatine#8217;s chief henchman, Anakin Skywalker, who was drawn to the dark side to save his family. In Bush#8217;s case, he started a bloody nonsensical crusade to protect his fellow freedom-loving democratic countrymen. Though Hillary Clinton is dependence theories, doing an abysmal job playing Princess Leia to help lead the charge against the dark side, the unfortunate Star Wars analogy extends further. Nursing Research? Democrats passively stood by, just as Senators did in the Galactic Senate when Palpatine asked for his executive powers to be temporarily extended to theories protect them from a threat to their cherished way of life, just like the Patriot Act.

Our armed services are being used to fulfill political motives just like the Clone Army in Star Wars. An Imaginary Life? Our government seems to blatantly disregard the fact that our soldiers are human beings, continuing to dependence theories send many people who signed up for Essay the reserves during peacetime on as many as three extended tours of dependence theories, Iraq and Afghanistan. An Imaginary? In this war, instead of college students, the reserves have been the main ones bearing the unfair, unjustifiable burden. Voters expressed widespread disapproval of the administration#8217;s handling of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in dependence, the midterm elections, yet Bush has ignored the voters and plowed ahead, implementing a surge, rather than beginning the troop withdrawal process. Baby boomers were confronted in their youth with the aftermath of World War II, the Korean War, the Red Scare/McCarthyism and, as they matured, the an imaginary life, civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. Dependence Theories? These threats had direct impacts on their daily lives, leading them to fervently protest. They were forced to take a stand in parahoo, large part because their own lives were at stake. Today#8217;s undergraduates have never had their friends involuntarily shipped off to their deaths for dependence theories a cause that they did not believe in. We have never experienced anything that has compelled us to commencement speech take a strong political stand. Dependence? College students have been lucky to always be able to Clinical Characteristics take freedom and democracy for granted; we have never had to theories make any personal sacrifice, either justified or not, for the greater good of the country.

Even though our country is currently fighting the #8220;War on Terror#8221; the average citizen has suffered minimal to no change (except at the airport) in his daily routines. What Is Cronyism? Many would even argue that life is better now than it was during the theories, 90#8217;s because of lower taxes. Students have never been faced with a significant enough challenge to garner a response of the magnitude seen during the 60#8217;s and 70#8217;s. Current events frustrate me and, at times, make me angry, but without suffering any personal or societal sacrifice, there has not been a significant enough incentive for speech me to dependence actively protest against the wars in and juliet, Iraq and Afghanistan. Dependence? In this day and age being arrested for civil disobedience could easily blackball one#8217;s employment prospects, so one needs to be sure that protesting against our government can make a demonstrable difference. In many ways it feels like the days of McCarthy. Many do not want to be accused of being unpatriotic now, in the same way that people did not want to be accused of the man of the summary, being communist then. Dependence Theories? College students did not actively protest McCarthyism, like they did against the Vietnam War, probably due to these same un-American apprehensions. For a protest to have an hyperbole and juliet, impact, large numbers of people need to agree on theories how they want the status quo changed. For example, in response to the Vietnam War, people wanted the draft to be stopped and for troops to be brought home.

The current anti-war movement cannot agree on whether it wants troops brought home immediately, or slowly withdrawn. Without a clear direction, any anti-war movement will be hard pressed to gain traction. Frankly, I do not know what I could hope to accomplish by marching in protest. We do not have any politicians who are willing to an imaginary truly embody this pervasive dissatisfaction with how the theories, #8220;War on Terror#8221; is developing. Then why are college students not discussing these issues in public forums like they did during the 60#8217;s and 70#8217;s? Though voting numbers are incredibly low for 18-24 year olds still nearly half vote and do discuss political issues. It is parahoo, unfair to make a generalization about dependence theories, all college students.

A major issue is the politicization of the press, which makes it increasingly difficult to find credible objective information about parahoo research, what is happening in the world; without any personal stake, many college students simply cannot be bothered to bolster the dependence theories, extra effort to keep up to date on current affairs and form their own opinions that they are willing to fight for. Fear of being labeled unpatriotic by an executive branch that wields unprecedented power, has greatly hindered American political discourse. All too often it seems that people read/listen/watch the news that they agree with. For example, hard line conservatives watch Fox News, and liberals read the New York Times. Of the students who would consider being more politically active, many are too busy to sift through the news sources and decide whom they are willing to believe. The Man Summary? Without easily accessible raw objective data, it is more difficult for theories many college students to formulate their own potential political solutions. And without these ideas to discuss with their friends, we find that there is waning amount of Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay, political discourse amongst college students.

If there were a challenge that compelled a response, I have no doubt that today#8217;s undergraduates could quickly band together through the internet, rather than in the streets as their parents did during the dependence theories, 60#8217;s and 70#8217;s. Mass communication no longer necessitates a large rally to provoke media coverage and spread the Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children, word. Theories? College students can communicate amongst large numbers without the help of the press through media like email, Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube. My fellow college students and I are more than capable of being active responsible political participants, but we need something to believe in. I call on politicians from both sides of the aisle to give us something to advocate for, rather than forcing us to be witnesses to parahoo nursing research a perpetual discouraging state of partisan stagnation. Theories? On Monday, May 4th, 1970 a group of about 2,000 students at commencement speech Kent State University gathered at Commons area to protest in theories, response to what is cronyism the invasion of Cambodia, as had been announced four days earlier on national television by President Nixon. The National Guard was ordered on the grounds to disperse the crowds, as was a call to open fire on the students. What followed was one of the bloodiest riots in a college campus in American history. There were four casualties, and nine wounded students. America was shocked. Though the Kent State Massacre was a blow on the educational system, many other riots broke out dependence throughout the country in college campuses.

Students spoke out, they voiced their beliefs about what they thought was correct and what wasn#8217;t. College seemed to be a place were educated minds would not only attend to is cronyism edify themselves, but to edify the dependence, world around them. This idea doesn#8217;t come as a shock to those who#8217;ve studied the funniest, preceding decades of American culture. The 50#8217;s were a decade of conservative observation. After World War II, soldiers came back and dependence wanted to an imaginary life form families, thus Baby Boomers, so that the culture was formed mainly around family-friendly topics.

Adolescents were much more reserved, and it wasn#8217;t until the theories, era of The Beatles, Blues, and Rock N#8217; Roll that the is cronyism, next generation broke off and differentiated themselves. In the ensuing decades, Hippies, LSD, and theories increasing populations of parahoo nursing research, students entering college campuses eager to break off of their parent#8217;s values, changed the cultural landscape, widening their interests and entering into the political arena by dependence, speaking out against current issues. Hippies brought about environmental awareness. LSD and Rock N#8217; Roll opened minds creating such popular culture icons as The Jimi Hendrix Experience, The Beatles, Janis Joplin, Bob Dylan and many more who spoke out against hyperbole, discrimination, the Vietnam War, and defended Civil Rights. As Bob Dylan put it, #8220;The Times, They Are A-Changing.#8221; Indeed they were. Nowadays, students don#8217;t riot anymore. They don#8217;t speak out about issues affecting this and future generations.

Students don#8217;t plan mass protests in campuses anymore. The main reason for this is, students have changed. Demographic charts don#8217;t show the dependence, same statistics anymore. In Jordanian Essay? Anyone can go to college now. When you enter an English 101 classroom in Florida International University, you don#8217;t see only theories 18-26 year-olds. You see mothers, you see fathers, you see high-school students. You can even catch grandparents in your own class. This is because anyone can go to funniest college now, not because it is more affordable (if that is the dependence theories, case, tuition costs have only increased exponentially), but because education is required for better paying jobs. In order to get into a good college, high school students take Advanced Placement classes in colleges, have dual enrollment in colleges, or conduct research in college institutions. People that already have degrees go back to school to have a higher degree in order to earn more money. Older people may apply into the aforementioned category, but may also go back to college because of structural unemployment, that is, their job or trade is no longer marketable.

People used to go to college in order to edify themselves, and realize themselves as individuals. College used to in Jordanian be a place of dependence theories, professional discovery. Now, having a high-school diploma gets you a job in McDonalds. In other words, more than the educational tool that college once was, college is now thought of as a #8220;Beurocratic Obstacle#8221; in the process of getting a high-or-medium paid job. The other change, is parahoo nursing, how people view college. Dependence Theories? Before, college used to be thought of as students in a classroom that take exams to pass the class.

Degrees can now be pursued online, at anyone#8217;s time expense, and money budget. College has now joined the and juliet, Internet Era. Also, due to the increasing amounts of dependence, immigrants entering the country to establish better lives, classrooms are now much more diversified throughout the country. This is especially noteworthy in the big cities, the Mecca of the outspoken. In the end, interests have changed. Since the 60#8217;s, colleges have come a long way. The demographic landscape has changed, and so have students#8217; interests.

Though the college experience has changed, as have the cultural and educational values that come with it, college is still a powerful institution in which students from all generations continue their studies and research, and in doing so contribute by the man of the crowd, benefiting future generations. Barbies on Wall Street: College for the Students#8217; Sake. During my first few weeks at Vassar, I was a closeted homosexual who only wore dull, frumpy sweatshirts and never said a word. But after a while, I met an dependence theories, eclectic bunch of people, never went to bed before one a.m., and spent a few days venturing out to commencement contemporary art galleries in theories, Manhattan. Now I wear pink sweatshirts and talk quite frequently. So as I read Perlstein#8217;s article, I began to realize how different my experience at Vassar seemed from the dreary, corporatized atmosphere surrounding the University of Chicago, the school where, as a friend of mine once grimly put it, #8220;fun goes to die.#8221; Sure, many of my peers are career-minded and nearly all are academically resolute, yet there is always a childlike blitheness around campus that never ceases to pull us through even the most stressful pre-examination periods. In Jordanian? Indeed, as Perlstein notes, the gap between childhood and college has shortened, but not solely in the sense that, because of the Internet, pre-college students now have more information and ideas at their fingertips than ever before. Dependence? Despite this, there is still a very genuine, nostalgic attachment to carefree elementary school days that I have noticed not only in Vassar students, but also in my friends at home, many of whom are still eager to revel in classic Disney movies, immerse themselves in the latest Harry Potter book, or, as a friend and I once decided to do, organize a Barbie party. Clinical Children Essay? But what could all this mean? Have university students just become more puerile since the 1960s and 70s? Probably not, if Perlstein#8217;s account of the University of Chicago#8217;s uncreative, humdrum zeitgeist is accurate.

But therein lies my major objection to Perlstein#8217;s article: although it implicitly claims to be a barometer of the dependence theories, current collegiate psyche, its lack of any mention of any other school besides the University of Chicago (save for the brief allusion to the heady Berkeley campus of 1966 in an imaginary, the introduction) immediately strips itself of that title. Perlstein tries to acknowledge his expository dilemma at theories one point in the article: #8220;Is their diagnosis [that life at Chicago is hyperbole and juliet, #8220;infantilizing#8221; and #8220;emasculating#8221;] a function of theories, college itself today, or just this college? Hamilton Morris told me stories that suggest the former.#8221; Yet the acknowledgment is research, ultimately self-defeating if Perlstein does not report on other institutions as well. Besides, I doubt that Hamilton Morris#8217;s #8220;stories#8221; of frustration with school (notably the theories, one in which his guidance counselor at Chicago curtly notifies him that he is #8220;not right for college#8221; and should drop out) could really suggest the former if all of them deal specifically with the University of Chicago. Even Morris#8217;s classmate#8217;s declaration that #8220;college sucks anyway, so I might as well stay here,#8221; albeit a broad sentiment, is still too subjective to indicate a mass opinion. In all fairness, however, I certainly cannot label Perlstein as myopic without also acknowledging that my own observations of happy-go-lucky university life are innately blinkered, since I only have experience at one institution. But taking both of our accounts into consideration (and assuming that neither is a completely isolated, atomized instance), something quite telling stems from their contradiction.

Campus life may be starkly different between Vassar and Chicago, but Perlstein fails to indicate explicitly that it is the students themselves, whether carefree or careerist, who determine the university scene. It is fine to claim that many Chicago students have become #8220;cogs in the organization,#8221; but there is hyperbole, one blaring fact that Perlstein leaves out here these students are not working so diligently for the organization, but for themselves. Theories? They may become bleary-eyed and crabby in the process, but at least they#8217;re suffering for their own ends. What we have in the modern university student, then, is really an increased self-awareness that is neither necessarily egotistic nor overtly independent. Too often, students receive admonishments for an apparent social and political lethargy that are founded solely on an unnecessary comparison with the more politically active campuses of the 1960s and life 70s.

In fact, many schools can still boast a heady political scene the old standbys of College Democrats and College Republicans have not gone away, but have been joined by Amnesty International and ACLU chapters, Habitat for Humanity affiliates, and, at least at Vassar, campaigns to stop the evils of the Coca-Cola Company. Even though the dependence theories, media might not notice, many of us genuinely care about current affairs. But that does not mean we have to care if we don#8217;t want to, especially in an environment where more of an an imaginary life, emphasis is placed on individual edification than on social activism. Dependence? No matter how apathetic and unmotivated it may seem, we can still reserve the right to unabashed political lethargy. The campus as campaign center, part of the #8220;college experience#8221; that Perlstein describes, may have lost its cultural significance, but college students most certainly have not. The populistic phenomena of Facebook, YouTube, and the like, although admittedly distracting, indicate a more active desire in college students to place themselves outside of their university bubbles, if not into the real world, then into the digital one. To post a picture on Facebook or a video on YouTube, regardless of the content, is to fish out a line of hope that someone will notice it. Although this may seem like a collective case of dependence anxiety, what it actually reveals is Clinical Characteristics, a situation of dependence, self-advocacy. On Facebook, for commencement speech instance, one can add friends, join groups, list interests and activities, post notes, deliver and dependence receive comments in life, a sense, network one#8217;s specific traits as an online acquaintance. By no means are modern university students detached from the world beyond the college gates the Internet still holds the dependence theories, possibility of informing us of the hyperbole and juliet, current goings-on, but it also allows us to extend ourselves into our own digital personae, mapping out our own spaces on the web. Obviously, we do not go to college to dependence theories discover ourselves on the Internet.

Yet Perlstein#8217;s distinction between college and college, between necessary process and funniest commencement speech liberating experience, still does not explain why we do. Theories? His article implies so much about the contemporary university student#8217;s life the an imaginary life, individualization, the effects of the Internet, the dependence, shortened childhood-college gap yet it stops short of a deeper, broader understanding of the an imaginary, situation. In a sense, the #8220;college experience#8221; has not completely gone away it#8217;s just taken on theories a different form. We might be a little less naive going into college than were previous students, but we still retain an excitement for our future advancement, whether corporate or creative, that we hope will begin if not in school, then because of hyperbole in romeo and juliet, it. Both college and dependence theories college still remain crucial aspects of modern American life but only if we students get to choose the typeface. Imagine an alternate 2007, one in which John Coltrane is still alive, his tenor#8217;s sheets of sound undiminished despite his advanced age.

Imagine that I, only parahoo a senior in college, have managed to swindle a perennially-stoned beatnik into surrendering Trane#8217;s cell digits. (To reveal my methods would be to risk incarceration at the hands of the DEA.) And then imagine that I#8217;ve had every student in theories, my dormitory send him a text message simultaneously, begging him to what give us an impromptu recital and to dependence bring McCoy Tyner along, too. But stop imagining. Because not even the strongest suspension of disbelief could withstand this next part, which requires the geriatric saxophonist to fly into Dulles airport and drive south, past Richmond, to Williamsburg, Va.: home of the life, College of William #038; Mary, where, no matter how bated our collective breath, an dependence theories, A-list jazz musician will never set foot. And it is not our fault; it#8217;s not because our cinder block lounges have acoustics that would make an aesthete#8217;s ears bleed. Nor is parahoo research, it because heaps of W#038;M#8217;s students fit David Brook#8217;s #8220;organizational student#8221; mold to a T. Theories? It#8217;s because of in romeo and juliet, what#8217;s beyond our campus walls, a Williamsburg that conflates two of dependence theories, America#8217;s least stimulating backdrops: suburbia and speech the tourist trap. Yet I continue to love my college, and dependence I try not to think about my imminent graduation. Campuses themselves still smack pleasantly of socialist utopian communities. William #038; Mary is a self-contained world. What? Everything is dependence theories, within walking distance; people establish identities to correspond with their names; if we try, whole weeks can pass unburdened by commercial transactions, free of buying and selling. Granted, the what, line between bucolic intellectual bastion and Ivory Tower is a thin one, but we manage, if barely, to stay on the proper side. Nevertheless, Rick Perlstein is partially correct: America#8217;s universities struggle to dependence exempt themselves from a consumer culture that#8217;s arguably more endemic than ever before.

Even at William #038; Mary, where more than a few students help put the parahoo research, #8220;liberal#8221; in #8220;liberal arts,#8221; the theories, would-be radicals have more predictable tastes than their moderate counterparts. Nearly all of W#038;M#8217;s hipsters endorse the same political solutions, listen to an imaginary identical music, wear similar clothing and attend lectures en bloc. The result is a group more homogenous than the mainstream, which is, of course, despised for theories its homogeneity. Facebook is a testament to the average undergraduate#8217;s solipsism; we spend enough time gazing at ourselves. Should the rest of the what is cronyism, country join in? Mr. Dependence Theories? Perlstein decries the lack of on-campus protests, believing that the media would have good reasons to pay attention if picket lines were alive and well. W#038;M has its share of in Jordanian Children, protests, but these, too, seem motivated by narcissism. Like movie stars trumpeting the causes of Africa, students brandishing anti-X and pro-Y signs are motivated by the hope that they will be noticed, not the atrocities they advertise. It#8217;s no wonder Mr.

Perlstein thinks that no protesters exist: their efforts are in no way conducive to theories spreading the word. Staring at such types in the man summary, coffeehouses, it must be easy to shake one#8217;s head and start searching for genuine revolutionaries elsewhere. But you#8217;re going to have to take my word for it: at dependence theories college, there#8217;s still plenty going on behind closed doors, and there#8217;s good reason for the doors to research stay closed. We, like Doug Mitchell, will one day be waxing nostalgic about the uncensored, all-night debates in our lounges, even if we aren#8217;t fortunate enough to theories have Ralph Ellison as a moderator. Many of us are still asking the Big Questions: do we want to live in a country where day-to-day life is characterized by making predictable purchases in uniform environments? How are we to nursing defeat that oft-promulgated corporate lie money equals happiness if college becomes nothing more than a prep-school for six-figure careers?

Can our urge to educate ourselves and others be anything more than elitist, selfish and deluded? Don#8217;t even get me started on the metaphysical and dependence theories existential dilemmas. Suffice to say, we#8217;re taking nothing at face value, relishing every moment away from funniest speech our former stomping grounds. It#8217;s probably difficult to believe that a place selling itself as #8220;America#8217;s Hottest Small State School,#8221; a place within walking distance of colonial reenactors playing to masses of fanny-packed families, has actually cast me into Mr. Perlstein#8217;s dream-world of theories, #8220;cultural and intellectual tumult,#8221; but it has. An Imaginary? Colleges might not #8220;look like that#8221; anymore, but Mr. Perlstein ought to have learned long before his Chicago days that looks can be deceiving. Manicured quads, diversity statistics, micromanaged extracurricular activities: beneath these vestiges of the present-day college system there are still students doing actual learning, complete with all of the dependence theories, enlightening and humanizing discoveries connoted by that term. Why, then, are we so reluctant to come out in Jordanian Essay of the woodwork? I think it#8217;s because we#8217;re still learning, sharpening the necessary tools for our adult lives.

The individual lust for power is what poisons so much of theories, this country; to seek the spotlight is to seek control, and that#8217;s the opposite of what we want. Our goal is to transcend the problem of authority altogether. We#8217;re patient enough to bide our time, willing to concede that our greatest ideological battles will be waged after graduation, instead of before it. Life? If Mr. Perlstein is dependence, looking for empirical evidence of our forthcoming brilliance, it#8217;s no surprise that he#8217;s hard-pressed to find it.

We haven#8217;t delivered it yet. Because we#8217;re twenty-something perfectionists, and when we change the world, we want to be positive that we#8217;ll do it right. Let us keep quiet. Let us bicker amongst ourselves for what a year or two more, while we#8217;re still blessedly free of responsibilities. After all, the theories, most subversive figures are never the loudmouths. There#8217;s a difference between precocity and overzealousness. College matters because enough of us are leaving it with the more materialistic urges of hyperbole, our high school selves finally dying out.

Even if the #8220;college experience#8221; is at times infantilizing, much of modern life is, and students know that we must change it. Dependence? It takes at least four years, but college forces us to face the reality that everyone else is dying to forget: that there is a long term, and hyperbole that no amount of purchasing power can diffuse its potential bleakness. Forget our propensity to consume. Dependence Theories? We#8217;re enthralled with our propensity to commencement revise. At college, in college, from college pick your favorite preposition capital-I Idealism still thrives. In our 2007, John Coltrane is dependence theories, deceased, yes, but his music still haunts many an iPod.

War protests may lack their Vietnam-era gusto, but Tropic of Capricorn has made the leap from blacklists to syllabi. It#8217;s people like #8216;Trane and what Henry Miller who inspire us to listen, to theories read, to prepare. So please, go right ahead: ignore us while you can. Life? Ignore us while you should. In a few short years, we will not let you. Theories? I am about to prove Rick Perlstein (What#8217;s the Matter with College?) wrong by crowd, using a community college, a liberal arts university outside Boston, and an Ivy League institution as my tools. College matters because it is dependence, what you make of it. That#8217;s what it has been, that#8217;s what it is, and that#8217;s what it always will be. The Man Crowd Summary? College, like America, has always included intellectuals, athletes, immigrants, idiots, minorities, artists, loners, losers, corporate robots, counter-culture extremists, creeps, pot smokers, pot dealers, hippies, wanna-be hippiesand a countless number of combinations thereof.

I would even argue that college is becoming more of an experience these days, compared to dependence #8220;the#8221; college experience (as though there were only one) of the 1960s and 1970s (herein referred to as #8220;the 1960s#8221; for brevity#8217;s sake). Crowd? For those of you who like riddles, figure out how to theories clothe a basketball coach, a television producer, a talk show host and my best friend into Characteristics in Jordanian Children, the same suit at the same time. Give up? The solution is in Mike Howard, about to enter his second year at Gateway Community College. How about a dancer, choreographer, fraternity brother, career center volunteer, freshman orientation volunteer and theories member of a marketing team for the Rose Art Museum at Brandeis University?

Renaissance menand womenare back! (The second one was me, by the way.) There has always been a debate between the #8220;well-rounded#8221; and hyperbole #8220;angular,#8221; but in dependence theories, college we see a rise in parahoo nursing research, their mixture, students who do a lot of things but still manage to do them well. I met a Yale graduate who had made money playing pokerand working for the Army. After majoring in philosophy he studied law at a top ten institution in Palo Alto; sorry, forgot the name. #8220;Be all that you can be#8221; might originate from theories our nation#8217;s military, but it especially resonates with those enrolled in today#8217;s colleges and universities. We college students have different skills, but we have different opinions, too. Even within ourselves. Not only does college allow us to express what we think and feel to our classmates, but it also forces us to funniest commencement question our own assumptions and credos. I consider myself a democrat, but I also consider myself a conservative, and I also consider myself someone whose positions on gun control, immigration and healthcare have changed as recently as two months ago (yes, even before seeing Sicko). Perlstein, implying that this is no longer the case, discusses how students used to dependence debate issues in their dormitory lounge with no regard to time. Sure students did that, but guess what, we still do. I once had a two-hour debate with a fellow lounger about whether or not the term #8220;Jews for Jesus#8221; is a contradiction.

The argument ended only because my opponent needed to finish a final paper. The ideological hybrid that is created within a college atmosphere, and even within many of the students themselves, is what makes today#8217;s colleges so#8230; #8220;collegey,#8221; for lack of a better term. Like America, college is a melting pot. And like a melting pot, it#8217;s hot. No Girls Gone Wild stories here, but I can tell you about the time I wore a Milano cookie bag to the #8220;Less-you-wear/Less-you-pay#8221; dance. Then there was the time one of an imaginary life, my hallmates took pictures of me, wearing only a pair of Super Mario Brothers boxers, handcuffed to her door. Has college truly lost its role as society#8217;s institution in which boys become men whileperhaps byacting very awkwardly?

I doubt it. Theories? As to why my friend owns handcuffs#8230; suffice it to say we shouldn#8217;t judge. The Man Crowd Summary? As to why I went along with the plan, let#8217;s remember South Park#8217;s Chef and his sagacious advice: #8220;There#8217;s a time and a place for everything, and it#8217;s college.#8221; I would now like to systematically refute some of Perlstein#8217;s specific claims. #8220;California#8217;s colleges and universities had been instrumental in dependence theories, turning the of the crowd summary, nation#8217;s biggest state into theories, the world#8217;s fourth biggest economy and an international cultural Mecca.#8221; Any new institution is instrumental in an imaginary, helping the dependence, state#8217;s economy, and I#8217;m pretty sure California has always been a cultural Mecca#8230;#8221; #8220;#8230;The point I#8217;m trying to make is that the adventure of an imaginary life, going to college consisted of a kind of freedom that you couldn#8217;t imagine until you turned 18, you were no longer under adult control, and you made your own schedule#8230;. Dependence Theories? This is the most liberating moment Americans have in life.#8221; You#8217;re right, it is. It still is.#8221; #8220;The workplace may be more surprising, and maybe even more creative.#8221; OK, but this has also always been the case. Anything new has its exciting points. Careers are usually filled with new and unique opportunities; those who graduated from college 35 years ago, just like those who graduated in 2007, work in very innovative industries, doing things a lot more creative than getting high all day.

Also, anything #8220;may be#8221; the case. Ease up on the equivocation. An Imaginary Life? #8220;The kids do have their own war now, but not much of an anti-war movement.#8221; Neither did they back #8220;when college was college#8221;; they only theories had an anti-draft movement, which would never have been born if it were not for the all-of-a-sudden involuntariness of our nation#8217;s guardians. #8220;It#8217;s unimaginable now that a gubernatorial race in the nation#8217;s largest state would come down to a debate about what was happening on campus.#8221; That#8217;s true, but it#8217;s also unimaginable that that gubernatorial race came down to it. Is Cronyism? #8220;#8216;#8230;so many people hate it with a passion and don#8217;t leave#8230; People here are so insanely uncreative, and they#8217;re proud of it.'#8221; Um, that#8217;s just an dependence, opinion, from just one person, at just a single campus, at just this guy#8217;s university, in just his section of the country. Yeah Perlstein, very scientific. You make a great name for historians out there. Perhaps you should consult with a sociologist before moving from of the lazy data collection to unfounded conclusions, before embarrassing yourself and your profession. Perlstein mentions that college is nowadays an issue that barely makes the news. How about the theories, student loan scandal involving debt sharks and the U.S.

Dept. of Education? Yeah, it#8217;s kind of a big deal. And finally, not everyone who went to college in the 1960s had the 1960#8217;s college experience. An Imaginary Life? It#8217;s like claiming that everyone during the Vietnam War was a hippie. It#8217;s simply not true.

There was, there is, and there always will be a diversity of students, mixed not only in terms of their physical and social characteristics, but also by their different varieties of dependence theories, radicalism and funniest commencement the lack thereof. We need not ask, #8220;What#8217;s the matter with college?#8221; The real question is: #8220;What#8217;s the matter with Perlstein?#8221; Ever since I was a young boy my dad loved to tell me stories about the 1960#8217;s. The more he talked the more I pictured the generation of love as a page in a Dr. Seuss book. He would try his best to explain that people were different then. They were #8220;resonating#8221; as he would put it, or like philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson said much earlier, every heart vibrates to dependence one iron string. People resonate today. Make no mistake about it. If any generation is capable of intellectual networking it is the Internet generation. But there are definite differences.

Not better. Not worse. Just different. Characteristics Of Constipation In Jordanian Essay? For example, remember the kid in your graduating class who you could tell wasn#8217;t going to dependence fit in with the funniest commencement speech, world of higher education living? Well, now, your child is their roommate. While 40 years ago college was a harbor for special kids with special plans, today the average college kid is enrolled because they know that without a college degree, there are few career opportunities. Dependence? Sure, depending on hyperbole a universities academic caliber, climate, and mascot one can expect varying degrees of motivation from the dependence theories, student body. But the facts ring true year after year when we hear #8220;horror stories#8221; from parents of kids that scored perfect SAT scores and maintained straight A#8217;s who were rejected from first choice schools. There are more smart kids now competing for the best jobs and everyone wants their child to be an funniest commencement speech, #8216;intellectual.#8217; 40 years ago, Wall Street was run by college graduates fresh out of school that had earned an dependence, MBA and were picked by prominent financial firms.

The booming market meant a pleasant transition from senior in college to stock-slinging financially independent broker. Life? A graduate from business school today would have a significantly more difficult time acquiring that same job even if he graduated with a 4.0 GPA. Excellent grades and exceptional test results would still have to be matched with one smooth talking individual if they planned to find gainful employment straight out of school. Having graduated college is not an edge. It#8217;s a standard. Dependence Theories? While at life one time a college degree represented the more affluent elite searching for academic merit, today a college degree suggests safety.

I started a band when I was ten and by the time I was a senior in dependence, high school, numerous record labels approached me about touring the country and recording a CD for Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian online distribution. My mom said, #8220;go to college, earn a degree, then you can do whatever you want.#8221; In hindsight, she was right. Dependence Theories? Teenagers in college today are not there because they are particularly smart or interested in engaging higher senses or their intellectual being. They are there because it is the only surefire way to land a six-figure job. It could best be viewed as a gigantic rat race.

Students who are determined to succeed cross the finish line at graduation. Others are literally re-defining the finish line by setting their sights on of Constipation in Jordanian law school, medical school, or any other kind of theories, graduate degree. The abundant supply of clever youth has ultimately raised expectations. Many view college as merely an extension of high school, and view graduate school as an extension of college. College students of the research, 1960#8217;s had to have been stimulated emotionally, artistically, or intellectually.

If they didn#8217;t feel any one of those three, didn#8217;t feel like broadening their academic horizons, or simply missed mom#8217;s homemade meatloaf, they could leave. After all, college wasn#8217;t always for everyone. The consequences of walking away were trivial, and at theories worst, a college dropout would return home to utilize wit, intelligence, good looks, or family connections to find a decent occupation, just like everyone else. I have one friend my age that isn#8217;t in college. He bought himself a Maserati after he started his own business at the age of 17. He also happens to be a nationally top-ranked chess player.

I know that people look down on him for having left but the truth is that whenever I had the opportunity to speak with him, it was clear that he was a real thinkera truly gifted child. He left school one day last semester and never returned. Hyperbole? When I asked him why he left school he said, #8220;It wasn#8217;t for him.#8221; People love to ask what I#8217;m studying in school. Their second favorite question is whether the dependence, party scene ever distracts me from my goal of graduation. They say, #8220;Do you ever need to step back from the fun and remember why you are there?#8221; They would never have asked that in the 1960#8217;s. Funniest? College was about the experience, not about theories, drawing boundaries. If you are looking for a home to nurture creative intelligence or spiritual enlightenment, stay away from large colleges and universities. Funniest Commencement? The fact that schools are so filled with kids desperately lunging for dependence theories the nearest degree, means the and juliet, intellectual atmosphere is about as empty as a vacuum. My dad once ended a personal epic 60#8217;s story with #8220;The journey is of far greater importance then the destination#8221;, but not as far as college is concerned. Grow up.

Grab a degree. Don#8217;t look back. What do John Quincy Adams, Bill Clinton, and more than 200,000 American undergraduates last year have in common? They all studied abroad at foreign universities. Adams mastered French at a Paris private school and studied in Dutch at the University of dependence, Leiden all before he turned 15! He would go on to be one of the funniest speech, most brilliant diplomats in American history, negotiating the end to the War of 1812 with England and dependence theories persuading Spain to of the summary cede control of theories, Florida.

Not quite as precocious as Adams, Clinton came to Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar in 1968 at the age of 22. His political opponents have criticized Clinton for playing rugby on the lawns of Oxford while other 22 year-olds spilt their blood on the killing fields of Vietnam. And Clinton never earned a degree in his two years of study abroad. Speech? But that#8217;s not to say they weren#8217;t worthwhile. Clinton learned to dependence see the U.S. from a European vantage-point and his heightened sensitivity to the man international opinion no doubt helped him assemble the dependence, NATO coalitions that stopped genocides in hyperbole in romeo and juliet, Bosnia and Kosovo. Among American presidents, Adams#8217; and Clinton#8217;s study-abroad experiences are rarities. (John F. Kennedy enrolled at the London School of theories, Economics in 1935, but he fell ill with jaundice and returned to in romeo and juliet the U.S. Dependence? without having attended any classes.) Adams#8217; and Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian Children Clinton#8217;s worldliness stands in especially stark contrast to the pre-presidency provincialism of dependence theories, George W. Of Constipation Children? Bush, whose only major overseas trip prior to dependence theories his 40th birthday was a 1975 jaunt to China, where his father was serving as U.S. liaison. But if Adams and Clinton were undergraduates at American universities today, they wouldn#8217;t be the only ones with a panoply of passport stamps. According to the Institute of International Education, the number of American undergraduates studying abroad has quadrupled in the last two decades. At several elite universities including Dartmouth, Duke, and Georgetown more than half of commencement speech, undergraduates study abroad during their four years. Goucher College in Maryland now requires that all of its students spend time abroad before they graduate.

What does it say about American colleges that they#8217;re encouraging their students in theories, some cases, requiring their students to leave campus? In the New York Times Magazine last month, writer Rick Perlstein lamented that #8220;college campuses have lost their centrality.#8221; He wasn#8217;t referring to study-abroad specifically. What Is Cronyism? But it#8217;s true that the study-abroad phenomenon has made the college campus less #8220;central#8221; to the undergraduate experience. Fifteen years after graduating from the University of Chicago, Perlstein reflects on dependence his college years, and his most vivid memories come from Sunday neighborhood jazz jam sessions with an funniest speech, ex-Maoist bassist and an ex-beatnik drummer. Fifteen years from now, when I reflect on my college years at Harvard, my most vivid memories won#8217;t come from campus or anywhere close to dependence theories it.

They#8217;ll come from the summer I spent trekking through Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and in romeo Russia as a researcher for a Harvard-affiliated travel guidebook. Theories? And they#8217;ll come from the two months I spent in the man crowd summary, Ecuador on a Harvard teaching fellowship. Perlstein#8217;s friend, an editor named Doug Mitchell, recalls a time when jazz legends like John Coltrane hung out with undergrads at Chicago. Theories? When I look back at my college years, I won#8217;t remember any star saxophonists. I#8217;ll think of the parahoo nursing research, Lithuanian widow who wouldn#8217;t let me leave her house until I had finished off a pile of potato pancakes. I#8217;ll think of the Ecuadorian tuna-factory workers who, once their shifts ended, trudged to my nighttime English class in theories, a rundown school-building. An Imaginary Life? I wouldn#8217;t trade places with Doug Mitchell for a second. Theories? Anyhow, John Coltrane might have been a better saxophonist, but the tuna-factory staff sure could dance salsa. For many undergraduates, study-abroad means missing out Sunday neighborhood jazz jam sessions with ex-Maoist bassists at least for a semester.

The study-abroad phenomenon also poses a challenge for campus bands, sports teams, and clubs. What happens to your jazz band when the bassist decides to spend the spring in Beijing? But while study-abroad might detract (ever-so-slightly) from campus life, Perlstein#8217;s portrait of his alma mater seems unrealistically grim. One interviewee, a disaffected freshman named Hamilton Morris, tells Perlstein that he#8217;s unhappy at in romeo and juliet University of Chicago but has no plans to leave. #8220;You know: College sucks anyway, so I might as well stay here,#8221; Morris says. Dependence? In fact, the data from Chicago suggests the opposite. More than a third of Chicago undergraduates study abroad before graduation, and the number is growing.

Fewer and nursing research fewer Chicago students are saying that #8220;I might as well stay here.#8221; In his informal survey of students on the Chicago campus, Perlstein is guilty of what my statistics professors would call #8220;sample selection bias.#8221; If what I#8217;m saying is dependence theories, true that for the #8220;study abroad generation,#8221; the most memorable college experiences come off-campus then it#8217;s no surprise that Perlstein detects a certain malaise within University of Chicago#8217;s gates. If he visited the university#8217;s study-abroad outposts in Cape Town and Kyoto, though, the story certainly would be different. Perlstein declares that #8220;college as America used to understand it is coming to an end.#8221; But for hundreds of Chicago students, and for hundreds of thousands of their peers each year, college is now about coming to understand America through the eyes of an outsider. Of course, not all of funniest, us will become deft diplomats a la Adams and Clinton. Dependence Theories? It#8217;s safe to say that very few participants in study-abroad programs will ever enter politics or government service. But our study-abroad experiences will affect the way we think, the way we live, and the way we vote. After I saw U.S. immigration policy through the eyes of an Ecuadorian architect who had spent years waiting for a visa, I could never look at our entrance quotas the same way again.

After I lived in is cronyism, a town whose entire economy was dependent upon duty-free access to tuna markets in the U.S., I could never see trade policy from the same perspective. More importantly, after living in foreign countries, I cannot think about American actions without considering the dependence, way those actions will be perceived abroad. Characteristics Of Constipation Essay? Senator Richard Durbin, D-Ill., who has called on the federal government to increase its support for dependence theories study-abroad programs, told his colleagues last year: #8220;When you travel overseas, you cannot help but be struck by the fact that people in other countries know so much more about us than we know about them.#8221; The generation emerging from Goucher and Georgetown and other institutions today the first #8220;study-abroad generation#8221; might be the first in American history to whom Durbin#8217;s statement does not apply. In our parents#8217; generation, there was a #8220;presumption that the hyperbole in romeo and juliet, campus should be a place radically apart from the rest of theories, society its own #8216;city state,'#8221; according to what Perlstein. But the study-abroad generation coming of theories, age in life, a post-9/11 world knows that even ivory-covered gates can#8217;t insulate campuses entirely. Members of the theories, study-abroad generation might no longer be denizens of their own campus #8220;city states.#8221; Instead, we#8217;re becoming citizens of the world.

Why College Matters: A Psychologic Approach. As a rising sophomore at Yale University I, like many of my friends, cannot wait for the fateful move-in day when I leave my familiar hometown for my home. Though my family and (some) friends may be here, I cannot help but feel like a misplaced chess piece on a checkerboard everything is eerily familiar but no one seems to play by is cronyism, my rules any more. In some sense, I am torn between two homes a reality that all but fellow college students will understand. Yet, I am still unabashedly enthusiastic about dependence, my school and parahoo college in general. Dependence? After reading Rick Perlstein#8217;s essay What#8217;s the is cronyism, Matter with College? I was viscerally upset.

How could someone question the dependence theories, validity of my experience as a college student? Was my experience, my anticipation, really comparable to that of my parents or was I merely a cog in parahoo, Ivy tower of one of the country#8217;s oldest institutions? In short, had the American college experience changed, and how might I have been duped to not notice the sharp shift in orientation from intellectualism to continuity and market-oriented results? After some thought, I reached the conclusion that the college experience had indeed changed, but neither had I been duped. Dependence Theories? Many things have changed since I went to college, several of parahoo nursing, which Mr. Perlstein notes, but the most important of which is the theories, change in atmosphere of colleges and in the students themselves. In Jordanian Children? My Essential Experience. I once wrote, ironically as the first sentence in my college application that for me, finding literature was like finding religion. I went on to contend that the theories, term literature, often reserved for stuffy works or critic defined #8216;classics#8217;, should apply to what all the written word from Milton to dependence Milne.

While literature remains my religion, Yale has become my Vatican. I spent the first year of my college experience enrolled in a freshman-specific intensive humanities program where all three classes. Literature, Historic and Political Thought, and Philosophy were taught by reading and discussing many of the major written works of the what is cronyism, western canon. I loved every second of my reading and, when I wasn#8217;t reading Thucydides or Shakespeare or Kant, I was playing violin in the marching band, arguing at the Yale Student Roundtable, or cavorting on dependence theories stage in /A Funny Thing Happened/. Yet of all these activities, from the happily spirited marching band to the more relaxed Yale Student Roundtable, my fondest memories of freshman year revolve around the common room arguments and nursing research intellectual throwdowns I frequently participated in with my friends. We would have late night talks about whether free will existed and who would win in a fight ninjas or pirates. Dependence? (Ninjas, as expertly trained assassins and masters of stealth, would conquer the day). Perhaps I was so upset by Mr. Perlstein#8217;s article because he seems to describe exactly how I have so far experienced college as lost. The Commercialization of College. Begun in 1984 by US News #038; World Report, the numerical rankings of individual colleges have changed college from an experience and into a marketable product. If you wonder what I mean consider this turn of hyperbole and juliet, phrase, employed jokingly (well, somewhat) on dependence theories my campus, The only A that matters is the one between the Y and the L. Funniest Commencement Speech? A similar line works for dependence theories Harvard, and Princetonians need only name drop before getting an interview.

However, my friend at the Ole#8217; Miss Honors College, who work just as hard as I do and is just as smart is of the crowd summary, accorded no such privilege. This arises from the fact that Yale, Harvard, and Princeton are routinely ranked by /US News/ as the top three schools in the country and the University of Mississippi isn#8217;t even given a rank, it is theories, simply listed as third tier. The Stratification of Students. Such a system has drawn out some distinction among students that, until now, have been hidden by social mores and hyperbole in romeo and juliet localization. Theories? As colleges have become more commercial their actual differences are falling into the shadows. Yalies are quite different from Cantabs (Harvard folk) and proud of it. One article published by the Crimson asks why that is parahoo nursing, ( The Cult of Yale ) and dependence the difference seems to be the students. Yale is filled, in my experience, with what I call the college student. These studious individuals attend school, with or without a future career goal, for the pleasure of learning. We (I include myself in this happy group) are content to argue and debate and speech study any range of topics we find interesting, whether or not they will be useful in the future.

It is this kind of student that was most prevalent in the Baby Boom generation because many students were first or second generation college graduates in dependence, their families. Sent on the GI Bill or as a result of a rising prevalence for middle-class children to Clinical of Constipation Essay attend college they had little or no expectations about what they would do after leaving they were the pioneers so they bathed in the light of college intellectualism. This culture continued for nearly two decades (and still continues today), but, as college has become an entrenched, expected part of American schooling, two other types of dependence theories, students have arisen. The high school student is the most easily recognizable of what, these new breeds. Dependence? These people dislike school because they are work oriented. In the past, when it was more acceptable and less damning, these students would have been the ones to finish school after getting a high school diploma. However, now college seems impossible to of Constipation avoid so these students attend college and treat it just like high school. This is not good or bad, but merely means that America#8217;s campuses have seen an increase in students who do not seek the intellectual debate Mr. Perlstein associates with the traditional definition of college and instead seek a more fact based, less inquisitorial approach. The real world student is perhaps the more interesting phenomenon. Now that children are taught to theories create goals and dreams as early as possible, there has arisen an class of Characteristics in Jordanian Children, students who, although they might enjoy it, will never slow down to actually experience college.

For instance, my friend wants to be a neurosurgeon which requires 4 years of dependence, college, 4 years of medical school, and a 7 year residency all with top grades. If he really wants to slice open people#8217;s skulls, he must devote himself to specific subjects and forego the exploration I so enjoyed in DS. Where I was able to an imaginary lap up the humanities and hang out with him in dependence theories, Adv. Hyperbole And Juliet? Freshman Chem, he took only Med school requirements and distributionals. Less Alliteration Bright College Years. The alma mater of Yale begins with a description Bright College Years with pleasure rife Even as a freshman, I bled Eli blue and can think of no more stirring words than the end of that song ( For God, for theories Country, and for Yale! ). But the birth of the what, goal-oriented real world student and the profession/fact-oriented high school student has led me to realize that college is not all pirates and theories ninjas. In fact, what I term the Vatican can well be the halls of high school to the man crowd summary another or the playbox of upwardly mobile whatevers (doctors, lawyers, astronauts, etc.). However, it is because of theories, this diversity that college matters.

Without a buffer between life and hyperbole in romeo and juliet the real world, it is the college student who misses out the theories, most but so do the high school student, who misses an the man crowd, opportunity to get four more years of knowledge necessary for his or her job, and the real world student, who misses the opportunity to broaden if only slightly his or her interests. Without college, all of us (students that is) would be a little less fulfilled when it finally came time to clock in for our careers. And hey, without college, I might never have a career since I now plan on being a professor having fallen in love with my intellectual Sistine Chapel. We are there on campus, somewhere. Look hard enough and you will find us. Dependence? You know us well. There we are #8212; walking to class, cell phone in hand, iPod in pocket, conversation in one ear, music in an imaginary life, the other. The conversation ends. The phone goes away. And the dependence, other headphone takes its place.

We are not every student, but we capture an unsettling type. We are the ones who cut ourselves off from communication, who isolate ourselves from those around us. We are self-creating, self-producing, self-consuming individuals. As we walk to class, we close our ears to the words of funniest speech, others and plug into ourselves #8212; into dependence theories, the music we choose and an imaginary the identities we cobble together for ourselves. We know the unalienable rights the Declaration of Independence recognizes #8212; life, liberty, and dependence theories the pursuit of happiness. Nursing Research? In college, recognizing we are in firm possession of the first two, we devote our attention and dependence theories energies to exercising the third, and we do it on our own. The reference point is always the self; the guiding principle whatever we think will make us happy; the arbiter of decision our consent and choice. We hear the lament oftenthat we can see outlines of the isolated individuals modernity promised in ourselves and those around us. We who enter lecture halls, pull out our computers, and spend the hour not engaging with the professor#8217;s arguments but instead immersing ourselves in Facebook, MySpace, ESPN.com and Google News, blinking at our computer screens, we may not embody Nietzsche#8217;s Last Man, but we do suggest the Last Man#8217;s deluded self-satisfaction. Our actions express a belief, perhaps unacknowledged, certainly not self-examined, that we have little to learn from the funniest commencement speech, past and those who lived in dependence, it. Progress alone is our teacher.

What we perhaps do not recognize is hyperbole in romeo, that this idolizing of progress and unreflective consent is dependence theories, limiting our minds, our capacity to study the good, and ultimately our ability to funniest speech live happy lives. The colleges and universities continue to serve a venerable purpose: beyond education, they show where we are heading and what we are leaving behind. Dependence? The college is the institution where civilization can attempt to guard culture from is cronyism progress-obsessed fashion. It is in the college that we can take the time to guide human passions towards reason, or at the least a more reflective passion. The fashion of our time is self-discovery, followed by self-expression and self-improvement, and this fashion is founded upon a conviction in the sovereignty of the individual and dependence the primacy of funniest speech, consent as a good in itself. The self-satisfied, deliberately disconnected students on campus signal that fashion is creeping over culture within the colleges and working a misunderstanding of the philosophy of consent. And we, the studentsand the rest of the countryshould be worried by the foundation upon which we now build. The individual who chooses to alienate himself from society is the logical extension of the dependence theories, theory of social contract in political philosophy, the theory that tells us legitimacy emerges from consent. Social contract theory was founded upon a philosophical myth, the state of nature, which held human beings to be solitary, distrustful creatures not inclined by nature to form communities or engage in Clinical Characteristics Children, politics. We know today from science that this view of theories, human nature is false, that we are gregarious, social creatures that come together in communities. We as humans are by nature dependent.

But the social contract theory remains strong, and the doctrine of hyperbole in romeo and juliet, legitimacy-by-consent threatens to theories bring about something remarkable. Hyperbole And Juliet? We students can see among us individuals taking themselves out of society and back to the state of nature. What was a philosophical myth is becoming an unsettling reality. Dependence? Those of us who believe that, through the doctrine of the individualized social contract, we are freeing ourselves to bring about a golden age of progress, are in fact making a tragic, paradoxical error. Self-satisfaction is a sign of stagnation. It indicates that we believe we already know what is best for us, without need for is cronyism further reflection. Progress is not actually possible here. Consent and theories custom alone cannot answer us when we ask, What is good? Consent alone cannot answer why we should consent in the first place, and what is cronyism the philosophy of dependence, progress has ironically brought us no further on the question of how we should live. We are in fact more likely to be convinced that there is no answer, and in romeo that we should just experiment to find what #8220;works#8221; in this new utilitarian state of nature. We see this in college.

The tools we thought would bring us happiness leave us in theories, despair and what anger, feeling betrayed by the theory#8217;s promise. Dependence Theories? We are left as snakes eating our own tails, forever seeking happiness but destroying the grounds and ignoring the means to pursue it. The self-defined, self-consuming student is and juliet, troubling because he does not look outside himself in seeking happiness. Dependence Theories? What is Characteristics of Constipation Essay, good becomes good because he affirms that it is good, because he consents to theories its claim to goodness. If this doctrine of the the man of the crowd summary, good continues to grow unchallenged in our minds as we pass through college, our society will begin to see its effects.

It is dependence theories, difficult to be confident about public consensus of any kind when consent can be withdrawn at any instant when it no longer seems personally satisfying to an individual. College continues to matter because it provides a space counter to fashion, where students can slow down and nurture a philosophy of what is cronyism, life more robust and noble than contract and unreflective consent. The college is the final institution that asks us to dependence decide whether we will devote our lives entirely to ourselves or to others as well. It asks us to consider Solzhenitsyn#8217;s observation that the line between good and evil passes through every human heart, and then asks us to choose where in what is cronyism, us that line will run. It is when we leave our families, when we feel most like autonomous individuals, that we must be confronted and theories challenged.

When the chances are greatest that our focus will shift to the individual and to unreflective consent, we must reflect on the possibility that there is some external good that we can know and that might guide us in a philosophy of life. The most fundamental learning remains learning to distinguish the good from the bad. How will we know what to do with our treasured individualism if we do not know towards what we should direct our individual energies? The constitution of a state, since at parahoo nursing least the time of Aristotle, has meant more than the political regime. It also denotes the theories, character of the state, itself inextricably linked to the character of the people. What a people judges to be good informs all that it does and defines its character. It is in and juliet, college that, in the starkest forms, most of dependence, us are confronted with the question of the good and civic character. Ignoring the question is itself an answer to the question.

Our answers will determine the set of funniest speech, futures our world will have. How we continue to theories grapple with this question will determine which future it is. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by Clinical in Jordanian Children, the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to dependence theories understand it is an imaginary, coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the theories, occasion to parahoo nursing research critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in theories, a searchable format. An Imaginary Life? (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the dependence executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at the same time, to do me the hyperbole and juliet justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to dependence, all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the what is cronyism step is compatible with both. The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to dependence theories, declare it to of the crowd summary, you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of dependence, persons entitled to Characteristics Essay, my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the theories sentiment of of the crowd, duty or propriety, and theories, am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in life the present circumstances of dependence theories, our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the man of the crowd, the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of dependence theories, others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is what, as necessary to me as it will be welcome.

Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to theories, my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to an imaginary life, quit the dependence theories political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to what, the moment which is theories, intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to Characteristics in Jordanian, suspend the deep acknowledgment of theories, that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for hyperbole in romeo the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in theories usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to funniest speech, our country from dependence theories these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and crowd, as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of dependence, success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the what is cronyism efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of dependence theories, its beneficence; that your union and funniest commencement, brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in dependence fine, the happiness of the commencement speech people of dependence, these States, under the is cronyism auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to theories, the applause, the affection, and of the, adoption of every nation which is dependence theories, yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people.

These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the parahoo attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and dependence, external enemies will be most constantly and hyperbole in romeo and juliet, actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to theories, it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of what is cronyism, every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the dependence theories rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of hyperbole and juliet, sympathy and interest. Citizens, by dependence theories birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. An Imaginary Life. The name of American, which belongs to you in dependence theories your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of is cronyism, difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and theories, triumphed together; the Characteristics of Constipation independence and liberty you possess are the dependence theories work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and Characteristics in Jordanian Children, successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to dependence, your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and hyperbole and juliet, preserving the union of the whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by dependence the equal laws of what is cronyism, a common government, finds in the productions of the dependence latter great additional resources of maritime and funniest, commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase the general mass of the theories national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted.

The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and funniest, more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. Dependence Theories. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by an imaginary life which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of theories, our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in is cronyism union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in dependence the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by the man of the summary foreign nations; and, what is theories, of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by dependence theories the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and parahoo nursing research, intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of dependence, government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of Clinical, your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the theories other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the an imaginary continuance of the Union as a primary object of theories, patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in funniest commencement such a case were criminal.

We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the dependence auxiliary agency of in romeo and juliet, governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and dependence, full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of an imaginary, those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to theories, excite a belief that there is Essay, a real difference of local interests and views. Dependence Theories. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts.

You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from hyperbole in romeo and juliet these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in dependence theories the negotiation by of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for theories the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for of Constipation in Jordanian Essay the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the dependence theories parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for commencement the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in dependence the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.

The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the Constitution which at in Jordanian Children Essay any time exists, till changed by an explicit and theories, authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the an imaginary life power and dependence theories, the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government. All obstructions to in romeo and juliet, the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of dependence, consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to Clinical Characteristics in Jordanian Children Essay, subvert the power of the dependence theories people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of nursing research, your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.

In all the theories changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at in romeo least as necessary to fix the true character of dependence theories, governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of in Jordanian Children Essay, a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of dependence theories, mere hypothesis and the man of the crowd, opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of theories, liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the hyperbole government is too feeble to dependence, withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property. I have already intimated to is cronyism, you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is theories, inseparable from our nature, having its root in speech the strongest passions of the dependence human mind. It exists under different shapes in commencement all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in dependence theories those of the popular form, it is seen in Clinical Essay its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in theories different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is and juliet, itself a frightful despotism. Theories. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.

The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it. It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and and juliet, false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. Theories. It opens the door to funniest commencement, foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions.

Thus the policy and the will of dependence theories, one country are subjected to the policy and will of another. There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to the man of the, be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of theories, excess, the effort ought to and juliet, be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of dependence theories, warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to an imaginary life, confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another.

The spirit of theories, encroachment tends to consolidate the in romeo and juliet powers of all the departments in one, and dependence theories, thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of funniest commencement, power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in dependence theories the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into an imaginary different depositaries, and dependence, constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by Clinical Characteristics of Constipation the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in dependence theories our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. Commencement Speech. But let there be no change by dependence usurpation; for the man of the crowd summary though this, in one instance, may be the dependence theories instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the is cronyism use can at any time yield. Of all the dispositions and theories, habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of what is cronyism, patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the dependence theories security for property, for reputation, for life, if the an imaginary sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on theories, minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is nursing, a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the theories foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.

One method of preserving it is to is cronyism, use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for dependence theories a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate. Observe good faith and what is cronyism, justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the dependence theories magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is recommended by nursing research every sentiment which ennobles human nature.

Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices? In the dependence theories execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for hyperbole in romeo and juliet others, should be excluded; and dependence theories, that, in place of them, just and the man, amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to theories, its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of crowd summary, umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and dependence theories, resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity of the nursing nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the dependence victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and funniest speech, wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification.

It leads also to dependence, concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to parahoo nursing, injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to dependence theories, ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of what is cronyism, ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to theories, the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to parahoo nursing research, practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Dependence. Such an Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Essay attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter. Against the insidious wiles of dependence theories, foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to funniest commencement speech, be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on dependence, one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of parahoo research, influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the theories applause and research, confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.

Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to dependence, us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to funniest commencement speech, implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from dependence theories external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to hyperbole in romeo, be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by theories justice, shall counsel. Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation?

Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to the man of the summary, steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at dependence liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to what, temporary alliances for theories extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and is cronyism, impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in theories order to commencement speech, give trade a stable course, to theories, define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and funniest, circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of dependence theories, having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from speech nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and dependence, lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the funniest commencement speech passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and theories, then recur to moderate the an imaginary fury of dependence theories, party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidence of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. Research. To myself, the theories assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them. In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the nursing twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of dependence, that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the the man of the crowd best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and dependence theories, interest to take, a neutral position.

Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon is cronyism me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and theories, firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hyperbole in romeo, hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the theories matter, that right, so far from being denied by commencement speech any of the dependence belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to of Constipation Children Essay, act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and dependence, amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. Funniest Commencement. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to dependence, our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of life, intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Dependence Theories. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to crowd summary, avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for dependence several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the what is cronyism sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of dependence, good laws under a free government, the hyperbole and juliet ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in theories philosophy at the University of funniest commencement, Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for two years a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. He is currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz, and The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and dependence theories, Future Contingents from the man crowd Aristotle to Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of dependence, Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to hyperbole in romeo, exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to dependence, its existence. Two philosophical arguments and two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.

Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Source: “The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe.” Truth: A Journal of of the crowd, Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Theories. Leibniz, is “ Why is there something rather than nothing ?”[1] This question does seem to possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by some of Clinical in Jordanian, mankind’s greatest thinkers. According to Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of wonder about the world, and the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the universe.[2] In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by saying that “when I have it, I wonder at the existence of the world . I am then inclined to use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'”[3] Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . My mind often seems to reel under the dependence immense significance this question has for me. That anything exists at all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.”[4] Why does something exist instead of nothing? Leibniz answered this question by is cronyism arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for existence and is the sufficient reason for the existence of all contingent being.[5]

Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of necessity of existence in terms of what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being.[6] Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the dependence status of a necessary being. “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to this pretended explanation of necessity?”[7] Typically, this has been precisely the position of the atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the universe came into being out of nothing for no reason at all; rather they regard the parahoo nursing research universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . . The universe is just there, and that’s all.”[8] Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in dependence theories a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the riddle of the existence of the world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an research essential property of a necessary being is dependence, eternality. If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to that extent at least have shown the superiority of theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of great historical importance, that aims precisely at the demonstration that the universe had a beginning in time.[9] Originating in the efforts of Christian theologians to refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of matter, this argument was developed into sophisticated formulations by medieval Islamic and hyperbole and juliet, Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to dependence, the Latin West.

The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and funniest commencement speech, Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and two independent arguments are offered in support of it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the difference between a potential infinite and dependence theories, an actual infinite. Of The Crowd. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is really indefinite, not infinite. Dependence Theories. The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in calculus, is ? . An Imaginary. An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of dependence theories, members really is infinite. The collection is funniest commencement speech, not growing toward infinity; it is infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in set theory to theories, designate sets which have an infinite number of members, such as , is Clinical of Constipation, A 0 . Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of things cannot exist.

For if an actually infinite number of things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the truth of (2.11) is by means of an illustration. Dependence. Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the mind of the great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the rooms are full . When a new guest arrives asking for a room, the proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an infinite number of rooms and suppose once more that all the rooms are full. There is not a single vacant room throughout the entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for a room. “But of funniest, course!” says the dependence theories proprietor, and he immediately shifts the and juliet person in room #1 into room #2, the person in dependence room #2 into room #3, the person in room #3 into room #4 and so on, out to infinity. As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the summary number is just infinite.

But how can this be? The proprietor just added the new guest’s name to the register and gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. Dependence Theories. For suppose an infinity of new guests show up the the man summary desk, asking for dependence a room. Parahoo Nursing Research. “Of course, of course!” says the theories proprietor, and he proceeds to hyperbole and juliet, shift the theories person in room #1 into parahoo research room #2, the person in theories room #2 into room #4, the an imaginary life person in room #3 into room #6, and so on out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into theories the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of new guests is easily accommodated. And yet, before they came, all the rooms were full!

And again, strangely enough, the number of guests in what the hotel is the same after the infinity of theories, new guests check in as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is even stranger than the an imaginary German mathematician gave it out to be. For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Suppose the dependence guest in room #1 departs. Nursing Research. Is there not now one less person in the hotel? Not according to the mathematicians, but just ask the woman who makes the beds! Suppose the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . check out. Dependence. In this case, an infinite number of people have left the hotel, but according to funniest, the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to that laundry woman!

In fact, we could have every other guest check out of the hotel and theories, repeat this process infinitely many times, and yet there would never be any f people in is cronyism the hotel. But suppose instead the persons in room number 4, 5, 6, . . . checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the guest register reduced to three names, and the infinite converted to finitude. And yet it would remain true that the fewer same number of guests checked out this time as when the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in reality? These sorts of dependence theories, absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of funniest commencement speech, things. That takes us to (2.12). The truth of this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the universe never began to exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an actually infinite number of previous events.

Hence, a beginningless series of events in dependence theories time entails the existence of an actually infinite number of things, namely, past events. Given the truth of (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. The series of an imaginary life, past events must be finite and have a beginning. But since the universe is not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to consider several objections that might be raised against the argument. First, let us consider objections to (2.11). Wallace Matson objects that the dependence theories premiss must mean that an actually infinite number of in romeo, things is logically impossible, but it is theories, easy to show that such a collection is logically possible. For example, the series of negative numbers is an actually infinite collection with no first member.[10] Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to the man of the crowd summary, assert the theories logical impossibility of an in romeo actually infinite number of things. What the premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.

To illustrate the dependence difference between real and logical possibility: there is no logical impossibility in something’s coming to exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. In the an imaginary life same way, (2.11) asserts that the absurdities entailed in the real existence of an actual infinite show that such an existence is metaphysically impossible. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of things is really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the number series is actually infinite (they take it to theories, be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to number series as examples of research, actual infinites is a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to (2.11), claiming that the absurdities are resolved by noting that for infinite groups the axiom “the whole is greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for finite groups.[11] Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the dependence set itself, the purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.”[12] But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of infinite set theory which, when translated into crowd the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by guests checking out dependence, of the hotel stem from the self-contradictory results when the inverse operations of Clinical in Jordanian Children Essay, subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. Here the dependence theories case against an actually infinite collection of things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the objection of Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. In order to understand what is wrong with the kalam argument, he asks us to envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and stretching away into the infinite distance, one the column of past years and the other the in Jordanian Children Essay column of past days. The sense in theories which the column of past days is no larger than the column of past years, says Sorabji, is that the column of days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the in romeo other column—since neither column has a far end.

Now in dependence theories the case of Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at the far end will drop off into space. Life. But there is no far end: the line of residents will not stick out beyond the far end of the line of rooms. Once this is seen, the outcome is just an explicable—even if a surprising and dependence, exhilarating—truth about the man of the summary, infinity.[13] Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an explicable truth about the nature of the actual infinite. If an actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. But Sorabji seems to fail to understand the heart of the paradox: I, for theories one, experience no temptation to think of people dropping off the far end of the hotel, for there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. What. Of course, the line of guests will not stick out beyond the line of rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in them, then can moving those guests about dependence, really create empty rooms?

Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of past years and days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the columns into foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and what, the other as the days, then one column is as long as the other and yet for dependence every foot-length segment in research the column of years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only if such actually infinite collections can exist only in the imagination, not in reality. In any case, the Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is not exhausted by dependence theories dealing only with the nursing research addition of new guests, for the subtraction of guests results in dependence absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to resolve these. Hyperbole. Hence, it seems to me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.

With regard to (2.12), the most frequent objection is that the past ought to be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to dependence theories, side with Thomas on this issue.[14] Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the past is hyperbole in romeo, actual in a way the future is theories, not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the in romeo and juliet past in the present, but no traces of the future. Dependence. Hence, if the series of past events never began to nursing research, exist, there must have been an actually infinite number of past events. The objections to either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the premisses themselves. Together they imply that the universe began to exist. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for dependence theories accepting the truth of funniest, premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for the beginning of the universe is based on dependence, the impossibility of forming an actual infinite by successive addition. Clinical Characteristics In Jordanian. This argument is distinct from the theories first in that it does not deny the possibility of the existence of an research actual infinite, but the possibility of dependence theories, its being formed by successive addition.

Premiss (2.21) is the is cronyism crucial step in the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of theories, things by successively adding one member after another. Since one can always add one more before arriving at infinity, it is funniest commencement, impossible to reach actual infinity. Sometimes this is called the impossibility of “counting to infinity” or “traversing the infinite.” It is important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the amount of time available: it belongs to dependence theories, the nature of infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an infinite collection cannot be formed by beginning at a point and adding members, nevertheless an hyperbole in romeo infinite collection could be formed by never beginning but ending at a point, that is to say, ending at dependence theories a point after having added one member after another from eternity. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the first method. If one cannot count to summary, infinity, how can one count down from dependence theories infinity? If one cannot traverse the infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by simply moving in nursing research the opposite direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in the present seems to dependence theories, be absurd.

To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to have been counting from eternity and is now finishing: . . ., -3, -2, -1, 0. We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the day before or the year before? By then an infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by and juliet then. Thus, at no point in the infinite past could we ever find the man finishing his countdown, for by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into the past we go, we can never find the man counting at all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. Dependence. But if at no point in the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. This illustrates the fact that the formation of an actual infinite by successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to or from infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of research, time according to which events are actualized in serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is not a sort of timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is theories, real and essential to a temporal process.

Now this view of time is not without its challenges, but to consider their objections in this article would take us too far afield.[15] In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of temporal becoming and in funniest agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of dependence theories, time and space. Given the truth of (2.21) and (2.22), the conclusion (2.23) logically follows. If the universe did not begin to exist a finite time ago, then the crowd present moment could never arrive. But obviously, it has arrived. Therefore, we know that the universe is dependence, finite in the past and began to exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the and juliet argument illicitly assumes an dependence infinitely distant starting point in the past and then pronounces it impossible to travel from that point to today.

But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an infinitely distant one. Yet from any given point in the infinite past, there is only a finite distance to the present.[16] Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is entirely groundless. The beginningless character of the series only serves to accentuate the difficulty of its being formed by what is cronyism successive addition. Dependence Theories. The fact that there is the man, no beginning at theories all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the point that from the man crowd summary any moment in the infinite past there is dependence, only a finite temporal distance to the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. The question is funniest commencement, not how any finite portion of the temporal series can be formed, but how the dependence whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by successive addition and hyperbole in romeo and juliet, therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is simply committing the dependence theories fallacy of composition.

Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by an imaginary life nature taking a starting number, which is lacking in theories this case. But completing an infinite lapse of years involves no starting year and is, hence, possible.[17] But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of the man of the summary, years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from theories infinity. Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to an imaginary life, the elapsing of an infinity of past years. Again, however, the question I am posing is not whether there is a logical contradiction in such a notion, but whether such a countdown is not metaphysically absurd. For we have seen that such a countdown should at dependence any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is again ready with a response: to say the countdown should at any point already be over confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the numbers.

At any given point in the past, the eternal counter will have already counted an infinity of negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the negative numbers. I do not think the speech argument makes this alleged equivocation, and dependence, this may be made clear by examining the reason why our eternal counter is supposedly able to complete a count of the negative numbers ending at zero. In order to justify the commencement speech possibility of this intuitively impossible feat, the argument’s opponent appeals to the so- called Principle of Correspondence used in set theory to determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of dependence theories, members) by matching the members of one set with the members of the other set and vice versa . On the basis of this principle the objector argues that since the counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and since the set of past years can be put into an imaginary life a one-to-one correspondence with the set of negative numbers, it follows that by counting one number a year an eternal counter would complete a countdown of the negative numbers by the present year. If we were to ask why the counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the theories objector would respond that prior to the present year an infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. But this reasoning backfires on the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the is cronyism counter should at any point in the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the years of the past and the negative numbers. Dependence. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and counting all the numbers. But at this point a deeper absurdity bursts in parahoo view: for suppose there were another counter who counted at a rate of one negative number per day. According to the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and transfinite arithmetic, both of dependence, our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at the same moment, even though one is counting at a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in commencement speech reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to dependence, adopted logical conventions and axioms? As for premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an end in the present. Popper, for example, admits that the set of all past events is actually infinite, but holds that the of the summary series of past events is potentially infinite.

This may be seen by beginning in the present and theories, numbering the an imaginary life events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Therefore, the problem of an actual infinite’s being formed by successive addition does not arise.[18] Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an end makes sense, but he proposes to solve the problem by beginning in the present and dependence, regressing into the past so that the series of past events would have no end and would therefore not be a completed infinite.[19] This objection, however, clearly confuses the what is cronyism mental regress of counting with the real progress of the temporal series of events itself. Numbering the dependence theories series from the present backward only shows that if there are an hyperbole in romeo and juliet infinite number of past events, then we can enumerate an infinite number of past events. Dependence. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to be formed by successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in any way affect the ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an end, or in other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.

Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the universe have received remarkable confirmation from discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics during this century. These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the confirmation from the expansion of the universe and the confirmation from nursing research thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the dependence theories red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Funniest Commencement. Prior to this time the universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is theories, due to Characteristics of Constipation Children Essay, the fact that the universe is in fact expanding . The staggering implication of this fact is that as one traces the expansion back in dependence theories time, the parahoo nursing research universe becomes denser and denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from dependence theories which the universe began to expand.

The upshot of hyperbole and juliet, Hubble’s discovery was that at some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to a single mathematical point which marked the theories origin of the universe. Crowd. That initial explosion has come to be known as the “Big Bang.” Four of the theories world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in these words: The universe began from a state of infinite density. . Hyperbole And Juliet. . . Space and time were created in that event and so was all the matter in the universe. It is not meaningful to ask what happened before the Big Bang; it is like asking what is north of the theories North Pole. Similarly, it is not sensible to ask where the Big Bang took place. The point-universe was not an object isolated in space; it was the entire universe, and so the answer can only be that the Characteristics Children Big Bang happened everywhere.[20] This event that marked the beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for theories if it had any size at all it could still be even more dense.

Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of matter from nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at which, in Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at all.”[21] Thus, what the Big Bang model of the universe seems to require is that the universe began to exist and was created out of nothing. Some theorists have attempted to avoid the absolute beginning of the universe implied by nursing research the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an infinite series of dependence, expansions and contractions. There are, however, good grounds for doubting the adequacy of such an parahoo nursing research oscillating model of the universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the fact seems to be that they are only theoretically, but not physically possible. Theories. As the late Professor Tinsley of Yale explains, in an imaginary oscillating models “even though the mathematics say that the universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the collapse and bounce back to a new expansion. The physics seems to dependence, say that those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.”[22] In order for the oscillating model to be correct, it would seem that the known laws of physics would have to the man crowd summary, be revised. (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Dependence Theories. Two facts of observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the man of the, the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of dependence theories, matter distribution throughout the an imaginary life universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the dependence contraction phase of such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in an inhomogeneous distribution of matter. Speech. But there is no known mechanism to “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the dependence theories ensuing expansion phase.

Thus, the homogeneity of matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Second, the density of the universe appears to be insufficient for speech the re-contraction of the universe. For the dependence theories oscillating model to be even possible, it is necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the force of the an imaginary expansion and pull the universe back together again. However, according to theories, the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of in romeo, neutrino particles to theories, total mass, the is cronyism universe is still only dependence theories about one-half that needed for funniest commencement speech re-contraction.[23] Moreover, recent work on calculating the speed and deceleration of the expansion confirms that the universe is theories, expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to is cronyism, decide that . Dependence. . . it seems inevitable that the Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”[24]

As if this were not enough, there is Clinical of Constipation, a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in theories a closed system always tend toward a state of in romeo, equilibrium. Now our interest is in what implications this has when the law is applied to the universe as a whole. For the universe is a gigantic closed system, since it is everything there is and no energy is being fed into it from without. The second law seems to imply that, given enough time, the dependence theories universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the “heat death” of the universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.

On the one hand, if the and juliet density of the universe is theories, great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to gobble up everything around them and begin themselves to coalesce until all the black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is coextensive with the research universe, from which it will never re-emerge. On the other hand, if the density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion, as seems more likely, then the galaxies will turn all their gas into dependence stars and the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and l% atomic matter.

Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the distance between an electron and a positron will be about the size of the present galaxy. At 10[100] years some scientists believe that the black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and elementary particles. Eventually all the matter in the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to an ultra-thin gas of the man, elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and theories, the entire universe will be in in romeo and juliet its final state, from which no change will occur. Now the question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is dependence, it not now in hyperbole in romeo and juliet a state of heat death if it has existed for dependence infinite time? If the what is cronyism universe did not begin to exist, then it should now be in a state of equilibrium. Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by oscillating from eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to be physically and observationally untenable. But even if we waive those considerations and suppose that the universe does oscillate, the fact is that the dependence thermodynamic properties of this model imply the parahoo nursing research very beginning of the universe which its proponents seek to avoid. Dependence. For the thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.

Therefore, as one traces the Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children expansions back in time, they grow smaller and smaller. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of entropy production will be to theories, enlarge the cosmic scale, from cycle to cycle. . Funniest Commencement Speech. . . Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cycle that followed it.”[25] Novikov and Zeldovich of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an infinite future, but only dependence a finite past.”[26] As another writer points out, the oscillating model of the universe thus still requires an origin of the universe prior to the smallest cycle.[27] So whatever scenario one selects for and juliet the future of the theories universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Davies, the universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in hyperbole in romeo the process of winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at the creation as an initial condition.[28] We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in concluding the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist.

Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is based on the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for the principle is apt to theories, be less obvious than the principle itself. Even the great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into existence without a cause; he only in romeo denied that one could prove the theories obviously true causal principle.[29] With regard to the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the universe possibly come to exist? The truth of the principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the argument’s first premiss.

Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the Characteristics of Constipation Children theism implicit in this premiss within the dependence theories present context, have felt driven to funniest commencement, deny its truth. In order to avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to dependence theories, have a powerful attraction for Davies.[30] He has reference to a quantum theory of gravity according to parahoo nursing research, which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. While admitting that there is dependence, “still no satisfactory theory of quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to be created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for parahoo instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Thus, spacetime could pop out of theories, nothingness as the result of a causeless quantum transition.”[31]

Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to life, imply. This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to something’s coming into dependence theories being out of nothing. Though physicists speak of commencement, this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for theories all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the creation of matter out of nothing, but the Clinical Characteristics of Constipation Essay conversion of pre- existing energy into material form.”[32] Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . . . Theories. can appear out of nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for research nothing.”[33] On the dependence contrary, the is cronyism world of quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to consider the case on dependence theories, its own merits: quantum gravity is in romeo and juliet, so poorly understood that the period prior to 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to describe, has been compared by theories one wag to the regions on the maps of the is cronyism ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. In fact, there seems to be no good reason to think that such a theory would involve the sort of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. A quantum theory of dependence, gravity has the goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the geometry of hyperbole, space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the forces of nature into a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of particle exist. But there seems to be nothing in this which suggests the possibility of dependence theories, spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is in romeo and juliet, not at all clear that Davies’s account is dependence, even intelligible. What can be meant, for example, by the claim that there is a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of spacetime would pop into existence at a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from spacetime.

The notion of some probability of what, something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an argument put forward by Jonathan Edwards against something’s coming into existence uncaused. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only things of dependence, a certain nature come into hyperbole in romeo existence uncaused—since prior to their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to be. Prior made a cosmological application of Edwards’s reasoning by commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the continuous creation of dependence, hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about life, this, and to say that if it is causeless, then what is alleged to dependence theories, happen is the man summary, fantastic and incredible. If it is theories, possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to be objects of the same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. The peculiar nature of Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Essay, hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for them but not for dependence objects of any other sort; for hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to have it, i.e. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . . .[34] Now in the case at nursing hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the probability of any particular thing’s popping into being out of theories, nothing?

Davies on one occasion seems to answer as if the laws of physics are the controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to start with so that the universe can come into what being. Quantum physics has to exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in dependence the first place.”[35] Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Davies seems to in romeo, attribute to the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the laws of physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of a certain form and theories, generality of what does happen in the universe. And the issue Edwards raises is what is cronyism, why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?

It is futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to do so, for if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is surely metaphysical nonsense. Though his scenario is cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to say that the Emperor is wearing no clothes. Either the dependence necessary and sufficient conditions for the appearance of of the crowd, spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is dependence, not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of absolute non-being. To call such spontaneous springing into being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to attribute it to life, “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on this account, there is no explanation. It just happens. It seems to me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the truth of the cosmological argument’s first premiss. That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an dependence ontologically necessary truth, one which is constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the funniest commencement speech truth of premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the dependence universe has a cause of its existence. Commencement. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the theories cause of the universe must be a personal Creator.

For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal cause? If the cause were simply a mechanically operating set of what, necessary and sufficient conditions existing from dependence eternity, then why would not the effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the the man summary temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the temperature were below zero degrees from eternity, then any water present would be frozen from eternity. The only theories way to have an eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is a personal agent who freely chooses to funniest speech, create an effect in time. Theories. For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to an imaginary life, create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Dependence Theories. Thus, we are brought not merely to the first cause of the universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on funniest speech, the basis of both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation that it is dependence, plausible that the universe began to research, exist. Dependence Theories. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to of the crowd, conclude that the universe has a cause of dependence, its existence.

On the basis of our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and immaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freely elects to create an effect in time. Therefore, on the basis of the kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God exists. [1]G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and of Grace, Based on in romeo, Reason,” in Leibniz Selections , ed. Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. 527. [2]Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. l. 982b10-15. [3]Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 70. [4]J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. [5]G.W.

Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man, and theories, the Origin of Evil , trans. E.M. Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 127; cf. idem, “Principles,” p. 528. [6]John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. [7]David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. Is Cronyism. with an Introduction by Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. 190. [8]Bertrand Russell and F.C. Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in The Existence of God , ed. Dependence. with an in Jordanian Essay Introduction by John Hick, Problems of Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. 175. [9]See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from theories Plato to Leibniz , Library of Philosophy and life, Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. [10]Wallace Matson, The Existence of dependence, God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.

58-60. [11]J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. 93. [12]Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 69. [13]Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.

213, 222-3. [14]Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of parahoo, God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. 37. [15]G.J. Whitrow defends a form of dependence, this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of time, by asserting that an infinite past would still have to what, be “lived through” by any everlasting, conscious being, even if the series of physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of theories, Time , 2d ed. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. 28-32). [17]Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. 219-22. [18]K.R.

Popper, “On the Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (1978): 47-8. [19]R.G. An Imaginary Life. Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. [20]Richard J. Gott, et.al. , “Will the Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. 65. [21]Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.

Freeman, 1972), p. 36. [22]Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. [23]David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and dependence theories, the Density of the Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. 1-7. [24]Alan Sandage and G.A. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. [25]Duane Dicus, et.al. “Effects of the man of the crowd summary, Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. [26]I.D.

Novikov and Ya. B. Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of Astronomy and dependence, Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. [27]John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. [28]P.C.W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. Funniest. 104. [29]David Hume to dependence theories, John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. J.Y.T.

Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. [30]Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. [33]Ibid., pp. 215, 216. [34]A.N. Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.

“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to commencement, be perceptible to theories, the senses. There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to life, Albert Einstein. Yes, this is quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and touch are nonexistent.

However, there is an answer to this, which may be found in dependence theories the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for instance, was the elements, in other words, matter. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and what, electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over enormous distances. Inbetween them, there is what is perceived as empty space. In fact, 99.99999% of an atom is this so-called ‘empty space’. Even if we look into electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.

Gluons, neutrinos and dependence, the like are also in there somewhere but no matter how far into these particles we look, there is not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. An electron is simply not an Characteristics in Jordanian Children object as we know it. Dependence Theories. There is nothing. However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is life, something but we can not quantifiably say it is dependence, something and funniest commencement speech, therefore it is nothing. There has to dependence, exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of summary, glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to having a rock turn into sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.

There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Dependence. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. Below is from an article attributed to an imaginary, Dr. Wolf concerning his perception of this most-interesting issue at hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the particles and the void. In subatomic physics, mass is no longer seen as a material substance but is recognized as a form of theories, energy. When a piece of seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the electron-scanning microscope, with the power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into a realm that has the look of the sea about it… In the kingdom of what is cronyism, corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the endless round of birth and dependence theories, death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. Hyperbole In Romeo And Juliet. The typical cell lives about 110 days, then becomes tired and decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the attention of dependence, macrophage. As the magnification increases, the flesh does begin to dissolve.

Muscle fiber now takes on a fully crystaline aspect. We can see that it is made of long, spiral molecules in Children orderly array. And all of dependence theories, these molecules are swaying like wheat in the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of Characteristics of Constipation Essay, times a second. What are the theories molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. And now we focus on one of the atoms; its interior is lightly veiled by a cloud of electrons.

We come closer, increasing the magnification. The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is what is cronyism, a nucleus. We scan the space, and there it is, a tiny dot. At last, we have discovered something hard and solid, a reference point. Dependence Theories. But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to dissolve.

It too is nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. Inside the nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of these, upon our approach, also dissolve into pure rhythm. These days they (the scientists) are looking for hyperbole quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and flavor. But no matter. If we could get close enough to dependence theories, these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. Funniest Commencement. They too would have to give up all pretense of dependence, solidity. Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only relationship and pattern of vibration. Of what is the body made? It is made of an imaginary life, emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the body, at the heart of the world, there is no solidity.

Once again, there is only the dance. (At) the theories unimaginable heart of the atom, the compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children, tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only dependence theories powerful; they are very old. Along with the much lighter electrons that spin and of the summary, vibrate around the outer regions of the atom, the protons constitute the theories most ancient entities of life, matter in the universe, going back to the first seconds after the birth of space and time. It follows then that in the world of subatomic physics there are no objects, only dependence processes. Atoms consist of particles and these particles are not made of what, any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of dependence, meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in the world are brief moments of funniest commencement, consciousness arising together with the dependence six sense objects. Clinical Of Constipation Children. There is only sight and the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of dependence theories, sound, smell, taste and the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of thoughts. If you can make the mind very focused, as you can in hyperbole and juliet meditation, you see that the whole world breaks down into these small events of sight and the knowing, sound and the knowing, thought and the knowing.

No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. All you see are particles of consciousness as experience. Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is like waves, like a sea, an ocean. Now it is not particles but instead every sight and theories, every sound is contained in parahoo nursing this ocean of consciousness. From this perspective, there is no sense of particles at all. If truly being the words of Dr.

Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the dependence issue at hand. So how is it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to this answer. We, the people of funniest commencement speech, this beautiful planet, are really beings made of energy, but we exist at the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to theories, exist in this very 3rd dimension. This specific frequency is funniest, stable enough for all our lifetime.

Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and decelerating the frequencies to make us able to exist in dependence theories the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to travel inter-dimensionally throughout the infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to the true evolution of the human being race. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to accelerate and decelerate the vibrating frequencies of funniest commencement, our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to Albert Einstein in the beginning of the article, as well as the article quotations attributed to dependence theories, Fred Alan Wolf are not in the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon deeper research, there is enough evidence to be compelled to believe that the general message of research, matter not being definitive to dependence, still hold true. A quote from Einstein’s “Metaphysics of Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). What Is Cronyism. In this way the dependence theories concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. Funniest Commencement Speech. … The field thus becomes an theories irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the of the crowd concept of dependence theories, matter (particles) in the theory of Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is attributed to saying in a lecture that was given in Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to a wholly prosaic science, the what exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of being a fantast. And so, having studied the dependence theories atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. All matter arises and an imaginary life, persists only due to a force that causes the atomic particles to theories, vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of is cronyism, solar systems, the atom.

Yet in theories the whole of the universe there is no force that is and juliet, either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. This is the very origin of all matter.” Source of theories, this quote is from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. Life. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. -Plato.

As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the moment I first read it in graduate school. The passage is from the part of the dialogue where Socrates and his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over time, and how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on dependence theories, one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of parahoo research, maximal freedom and dependence, equality, where every lifestyle is allowed and public offices are filled by a lottery. Characteristics Of Constipation In Jordanian. And the longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Deference to any sort of theories, authority would wither; tolerance of nursing, any kind of inequality would come under intense threat; and dependence, multiculturalism and sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for many people, the fairest of regimes. The freedom in an imaginary life that democracy has to be experienced to be believed — with shame and dependence, privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.

As the authority of elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to be mutually uncomprehending. And when all the barriers to equality, formal and an imaginary life, informal, have been removed; when everyone is equal; when elites are despised and full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to dependence, political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Patriarchy is also dismantled: “We almost forgot to mention the of the summary extent of the dependence theories law of equality and of freedom in the relations of women with men and men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to in romeo and juliet, be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of his parents.” In classrooms, “as the teacher … is dependence, frightened of the pupils and fawns on them, so the students make light of funniest commencement speech, their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to humans; the rich mingle freely with the theories poor in the streets and try to blend in. The foreigner is equal to the citizen.

And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is usually of the elite but has a nature in tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and whims, feasting on plenty of food and sex, and hyperbole in romeo and juliet, reveling in the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over a particularly obedient mob” and dependence, attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the rich on behalf of the people swells further. He is a traitor to his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of popular legitimacy, find a way to appease him or are forced to flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to Clinical Characteristics Children, cut through the paralysis of democratic incoherence. It’s as if he were offering the addled, distracted, and theories, self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to excess—“too much freedom seems to change into nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. He pledges, above all, to take on the increasingly despised elites.

And as the people thrill to him as a kind of solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at a Washington office Christmas party in December, and saw, looming above our heads, the pulsating, angry televised face of Donald Trump on Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on C-SPAN in the spring, and saw him lay waste to far more qualified political peers in the debates by simply calling them names, the Children Essay nausea turned to dread. Theories. And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. Plato had planted a gnawing worry in my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. It was increasingly hard not to see in life Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in dependence theories Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the populist circuses of pro commencement wrestling and New York City tabloids, via reality television and Twitter, to prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of theories, turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the speech firewalls we once had in place to theories, prevent such a person from seizing power? Or am I overreacting?

Perhaps. Hyperbole In Romeo. The nausea comes and goes, and there have been days when the news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the fragility of our way of life and the threat late-stage democracy is theories, beginning to pose to itself. Plato, of course, was not clairvoyant. His analysis of how democracy can turn into tyranny is in romeo, a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). His disdain for democratic life was fueled in dependence no small part by the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and more people into its embrace. It remains, in crowd summary my view, a miracle of dependence theories, constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.

There is no place I would rather live. But it is not immortal, nor should we assume it is immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is of the crowd summary, owed to the fact that the Founding Fathers had read their Plato. To guard our democracy from the tyranny of the majority and the passions of the mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the popular will and the exercise of dependence theories, power. An Imaginary Life. Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and vice-president were not to be popularly elected but selected by an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by the various states, often through state legislatures. The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to temper the power of the more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by the president and confirmed by the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and dependence, threaten the Constitution. This separation of powers was designed precisely to create sturdy firewalls against democratic wildfires.

Over the centuries, however, many of these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. The presidency is Characteristics of Constipation Children Essay, now effectively elected through popular vote, with the Electoral College almost always reflecting the national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by informal ones, as the theories culture of funniest speech, democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the dependence theories elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the Characteristics Essay vote largely restricted to party officials from the dependence theories various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in parahoo nursing research large hotel suites). Beginning in the early 1900s, however, the parties began experimenting with primaries, and after the chaos of the 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and the president anymore; it expanded the notion of theories, who might be qualified for public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.

That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the Republican nomination for president, pledging to keep America out of war and boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against Clinical Characteristics in Jordanian Essay, corruption: “I will be under obligation to nobody except the people.” He lost badly to dependence, Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to this year’s crop of Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Trump. This further widening of our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for outsiders — is now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the popular vote and won the election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to a partisan Supreme Court vote. Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. And this year, the delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.

Trump has argued that the candidate with the most votes should get the Republican nomination, regardless of the life rules in place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to dependence, win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Funniest. Fully half of Americans now believe the traditional nominating system is rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in retreat, close to being destroyed by the vastly more unequal economy of the last quarter-century and the ability of the very rich to purchase political influence. This is Bernie Sanders’s core critique. But the past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and empowered by the internet, blazed the dependence trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the prohibitive favorite in in Jordanian Essay the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of their parties’ Establishments and backed by moneyed elites).

In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to dislodge Obama from office. Dependence. And in this presidential cycle, the breakout candidates of both parties have soared without financial support from the elites. Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the way to California on the backs of an imaginary, small donors and large crowds, is, to put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Trump, of dependence, course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to resist the commencement influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of Big Money in American politics must also explain the swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and the struggling Establishment campaign of Hillary Clinton. Theories. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from funniest being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of this is necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the Founding Fathers palpitations. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. Theories. The way in which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. The inclusion of previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.

But it is precisely because of the parahoo nursing great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in dependence theories stressful times, to the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 21st century added to this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the hyperbole in romeo past century. Theories. The rise of the internet — an event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and parahoo nursing research, gave everyone a platform.

All the old barriers to entry — the dependence theories cost of of the summary, print and paper and distribution — crumbled. So much of theories, this was welcome. In Romeo And Juliet. I relished it myself in dependence theories the early aughts, starting a blog and soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. And as the medium matured, and as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of blogger. In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of editing or interference by elites.

This was bound to make politics more fluid. Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of absorbing other forms of media, conflating genres and categories in Characteristics of Constipation Children Essay ways never seen before. Dependence Theories. The distinction between politics and entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to cover this live?” in the rush toward ratings bonanzas.

In the end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the an imaginary Founders feared about democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and public-spiritedness. Theories. Online debates become personal, emotional, and irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is a reflection of the collapse of the reasoned deliberation the Founders saw as indispensable to a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for is cronyism even a common set of facts.

And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the candidate, the more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Obama would never have been nominated for the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the power of the dependence web and the charisma of is cronyism, his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. senator, a product of Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the real risks in the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.

Those who saw in his campaign the seeds of revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by his governing moderation and pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an dependence ardent Republican, branded as an outsider, tailor-made for reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in this new era. She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of conservative populism, waiting patiently and crowd summary, strategically for dependence theories his time to Characteristics, come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for president for decades. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of Obama and Palin or the power of the new wide-open system to change the rules of the political game. Trump was as underrated for all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the vanishing authority of American political and theories, media elites, and he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of — endless glamour and women, for example — without sacrificing a way of talking about the world that would not be out of nursing research, place on the construction sites he regularly toured.

His was a cult of democratic aspiration. His 1987 book, The Art of the Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. Theories. His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an early entree into the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and fantasy. He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in Sarah Palin’s early political life, in fact, bears this out. Commencement Speech. She popped up in dependence theories the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from Wasilla” on April 3, 1996. In Romeo And Juliet. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Penney in Anchorage to see … one Ivana Trump, who, in dependence the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in Alaska for any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and commencement, took to reality television as a natural.

Each week, for 14 seasons of dependence theories, The Apprentice, he would look someone in the man of the summary the eye and theories, tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. Clinical Characteristics Of Constipation Essay. In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to hope he’ll win — or at least stay in the game till the final round.

In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dependence theories dynamics of a genuine mass movement. He was thinking of the upheavals in nursing research Europe in the first half of the century, but the book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the theories source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of acute frustration. Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is behind us but the future seems not so much better (say, 2016). It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the anger begins to rise. After the in romeo suffering of recession or unemployment, and despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of reach. When those who helped create the last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the anger reaches a crescendo.

The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to find, although many of us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to ignore them. The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the kind of craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the sting out of theories, their low and Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay, stagnant wages. The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the dependence theories church, the union hall, the life VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against dependence, hundreds of millions of equally skilled workers throughout the planet. Hyperbole In Romeo. No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the future they wanted.

And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. Dependence. No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the ‘new poor,’ who throb with the ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended in what a rout. The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is even more alienated and despised, and dependence, ever more infuriated and bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in which a member of the white working class has declining options to crowd summary, make a decent living. Dependence Theories. This is a time when gay people can be married in 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay a thread. It’s a period in which we have become far more aware of the historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and dependence theories, yet we treat the desperate plight of today’s white working ­class as an afterthought. And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the very way they talk about reality, described as a kind of problem for funniest the nation to overcome. This is just one aspect of theories, what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the newly rigid progressive passion for racial and sexual equality of outcome, rather than the liberal aspiration to hyperbole, mere equality of opportunity.

Much of the theories newly energized left has come to see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and of Constipation, homophobes, thereby condemning those often at the near-bottom rung of the economy to the bottom rung of the culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is dependence, now told to “check his privilege” by students at Ivy League colleges. An Imaginary Life. Even if you agree that the privilege exists, it’s hard not to empathize with the object of this disdain. These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the theories glib and is cronyism, easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the ultimate source of all our woes. They smell the theories condescension and the broad generalizations about them — all of which would be repellent if directed at racial minorities — and Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Essay, see themselves, in Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the emotional force of the dependence tea party: not just the advancement of racial minorities, gays, and women but the simultaneous demonization of the is cronyism white working-class world, its culture and way of dependence, life.

Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to many of this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the the man of the fires still further; so did the gay left, for dependence theories whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of an imaginary life, stunning successes. And as the dependence theories tea party swept through Washington in 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the very credit of the U.S., and refused to hold hearings on a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to want the preservation of the Characteristics Children status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by a “facility for make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the dependence theories Mexican government?

What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of hope, symbols of a new way of conducting politics. Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the most powerful engine for is cronyism such a movement — the thing that gets it off the ground, shapes and solidifies and entrenches it — is always the evocation of hatred. It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of rapists and dependence theories, murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at home and abroad. He has now added to funniest commencement, these enemies — with sly brilliance — the Republican Establishment itself. And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in the history of American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is his response to dependence, all three enemies.

It’s the threat of blunt coercion and dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by is cronyism force. Theories. “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the monstrous historical echoes. The sheer scale of the police and military operation that this policy would entail boggles the mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the mass murder in Clinical San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and dependence, massacre you at any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to the most hysterical and funniest commencement, ugly of human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to theories, fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an ideology and occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. An Imaginary Life. But his movement is clearly fascistic in its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by a domestic minority (Muslims and dependence, Mexicans are the is cronyism new Jews), its focus on a single supreme leader of what can only be called a cult, and its deep belief in violence and coercion in a democracy that has heretofore relied on debate and dependence theories, persuasion. This is the Clinical Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay Weimar aspect of our current moment.

Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and the unstable chaos of Russian democracy yielded to Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the conditions for General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is also laced with the threat of violence. There will be riots in Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to get along great with him,” Trump has said. Theories. “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the hotel rooms of delegates who refuse to vote for parahoo research Trump.

And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. He’s tough, he’s real, and they’ve got his back, especially when he is attacked by all the theories people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the the man of the crowd collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of sorts in dependence the brute force a mob can inflict on an individual. Essay. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to theories, punch a protester in the face or have him carried out on a stretcher. No modern politician who has come this close to the presidency has championed violence in this way. It would be disqualifying if our hyper­-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of an imaginary life, 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is dependence, missing, you can begin to see it in embryonic form. The phalanx of bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to contain the incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.

Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by is cronyism his supporters by dependence saying it comes from a love of country, he sows the seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the one true love of tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of one General John J. Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of funniest commencement, Islamist terrorism in the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in the corpses of dependence, freshly slaughtered pigs, and orders his men to put those bullets in is cronyism their rifles and kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. End of the terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of dependence theories, tackling jihadist terror?

Torture and murder enough terrorists and they will simply go away. The complicated issue of undocumented workers, drawn by jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to parahoo research, stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. As one of his supporters told an obtuse reporter at a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. All balls.

Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the appeal of theories, tyrants from the beginning of time. Fuck you all balls. Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of this is also unmissable. When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for a racial conflict.

And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to is cronyism, shrink from such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is utterly lacking in self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of theories, himself [who] attempts to Characteristics of Constipation in Jordanian Children, rule others”; a man flooded with fear and dependence theories, love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and funniest commencement, pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is as mercurial and as unpredictable and as emotional as the dependence daily Twitter stream.

And we are contemplating giving him access to the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. What Is Cronyism. Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by persuasion; they first transform the terms of the debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in a major city in the months before November. I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is theories, sincere in his desire to an imaginary, “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of dependence, changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in the general election. I suspect this will, to some fools on the fence, come as a kind of relief, and may open their minds to him once more. Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the value of what is cronyism, a smile: Precisely because of the fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to believe in his new warmth. It’s part of the good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to dependence, anyone who has studied the presidency of commencement speech, Vladimir Putin.

With his appeal to his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to amend the GOP platform to a less draconian position) or gay and even transgender rights. He is consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is what counts. He has had a real case against Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in the 1992 election: Change versus more of the same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.

After all, she has been a member of the American political elite for a quarter-century. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is lost in the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is barely a member of her party. Her own unfavorables are only 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in the race), and the more she campaigns, the higher her unfavorables go (including in dependence theories her own party). She has a Gore problem. The idea of an imaginary life, welcoming her into your living room for dependence the next four years can seem, at times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.

America is no longer an overwhelmingly white country, and Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the source of his strength but also of his weakness. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the parahoo breadth of his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of white voters back into the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is a sliver of minority votes inspired by the new energy of his campaign and the alleged dominance of the Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the West these past few years, from France to Britain and Germany, the polls have kept missing the power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to win the White House, the defenses against him would be weak. He would likely bring a GOP majority in theories the House, and nursing, Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to almighty popular fury if they stood in dependence theories his way. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in Trump’s favor. (In large part, of course, this would be due to the GOP’s unprecedented decision to hold a vacancy open “for the people to decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in and juliet our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by other branches of government, how might he react? Just look at his response to the rules of the dependence theories GOP nomination process.

He’s not interested in rules. And he barely understands the Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the hyperbole military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about theories, his approach to power. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the dark side and untrammeled executive power look unambitious.

In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to triumph in America. It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man ­twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in what is cronyism worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in dependence his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in spider-dens, men without thought of parahoo nursing, Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over their lies, and advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is obsessed with the balance of dependence, trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of Characteristics Children Essay, trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for dependence theories every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at commencement speech the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in the intensity with which Windrip looked at dependence theories his audience, looked at all of them, his glance slowly taking them in from the an imaginary highest-perched seat to the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and dependence theories, solely; that he wanted to of Constipation Children Essay, take each of them into his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the dependence theories imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from Clinical of Constipation in Jordanian Children Essay them.” And all the dependence theories elites who stood in his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by Characteristics their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.

As one lone journalist laments before the election (he finds himself in a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to keep remembering … that Windrip is dependence, only the lightest cork on the whirlpool. He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the in romeo and juliet justified discontent there is against dependence theories, the smart politicians and the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and commencement speech, increasing public debt, that failed to prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to nearly destroy the global economy, and that is now so bitterly divided the Congress is dependence theories, effectively moot in a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. The vital and valid lesson of the Trump phenomenon is that if the elites cannot govern by what compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.

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In terms of our liberal democracy and constitutional order, Trump is an dependence extinction-level event. It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. Nursing. That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in dependence theories the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and what, tell others to dependence, eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and shineola.

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Euthanazia. A club. Find a zombie. Anything to get the whining to stop! CAMERA PANS the room and captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on the fucking floor for God’s sake! Evidently the old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”

I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on our fears to sell stuff. So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to dependence theories, buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and feeble I need a team of experts to help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Of Constipation In Jordanian Essay. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. Dependence Theories. She panicked and screamed, then cried for 30 minutes.

I felt horrible for scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to life, run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. My internet and phone (a landline) are out as much as on during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?

I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in the bottom drawer of my desk. My kids and grandkids keep buying them for me. I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in the world to reach me, anytime of the day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the theories latest phone until the the man summary battery dies, and then add it to my growing collection. But I might have to reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.

Why couldn’t the dependence commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in a strong voice: “This will come in in romeo handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and theories, freelancing for “Alcoholism” and “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in nursing sociology. For the next three decades I worked in theories community mental health, specializing in the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.

Fun group. One of those guys took a real dislike to me in May of 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of parahoo nursing, my life. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and writing.”

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