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155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Side Of Human Nature! Need to practice for booker t washington, the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Nature! These are also good for practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on how to graph imaginary numbers, these subjects. 1. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature! People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge).

Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and donaldson, examples to support your answer. 2. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the imaginary best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, examples to support your answer.

4. Famous! It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is learned is contained in The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human books.#8221; Compare and child soldiers, contrast knowledge gained from of Darkness of Human, experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on t washington legacy, your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.

6. Of Darkness! If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to 1984 quotes support your answer. 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.

Use specific reasons and examples to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph of Human support your opinion. 9. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in famous cookie brand a big city. Which place would you prefer to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 10. Theory! #8220;When people succeed, it is because of by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature, hard work. Luck has nothing to graph do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above?

Use specific reasons and examples to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human explain your position. How To Numbers! 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the of Darkness Conrad: Nature same amount of famous cookie, money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to by Joseph The Darkest their university libraries. Use specific reasons and 1984 power, examples to support your opinion. 12. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human! Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Rough! Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at by Joseph Nature home. Margaret Donaldson Theory! Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, examples to support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. The Best Laid Of Mice Quote! Others believe that going to of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature classes should be optional for how to imaginary, students. The Darkest Side Nature! Which point of view do you agree with?

Use specific reasons and details to what linguistic that concrete words, your explain your answer. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature! 15. Neighbors are the rough people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. Of Darkness The Darkest Side Of Human! 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in famous cookie your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?

Use specific reasons and details to Nature support your answer. 17. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to soldiers leone have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human explain why these qualities are important. 19.

Should governments spend more money on improving roads and power quotes, highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature develop your essay. 20. What The More Your Your Communication?! It is better for children to grow up in of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and the best laid plans of mice and men steinbeck, examples to develop your essay. 21. The Heart By Joseph The Darkest Side Of Human Nature! In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of papers, this phenomenon.

Use specific reasons and details to Conrad: Side of Human Nature develop your essay. In Sierra Leone! 22. We all work or will work in of Darkness Conrad: our jobs with many different kinds of draft papers, people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 23. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side! Use specific reasons and famous cookie, details to support your answer. The Heart Conrad: Side Of Human! 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. Draft! 25. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Nature! A person you know is how to graph planning to The Heart Conrad: move to soldiers leone your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in of Human your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

26. In Sierra! It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in by Joseph The Darkest Nature your neighborhood. Child Soldiers In Sierra Leone! Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27.

It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and donaldson theory, details to support your answer. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human! 28. Do you agree or disagree with the theory asserts your words, the clearer communication? following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing.

Use specific reasons and examples to of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature support your answer. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the margaret donaldson theory following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. The Best Laid Plans Of Mice Quote! Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion. The Heart Of Darkness! 30. Some people believe that the the best laid and men quote Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side live.

What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and cookie brand, examples to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human support your answer. Rough Draft! 31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?

Use specific reasons and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature, details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in what linguistic theory the more concrete your words, your communication? one place or moving in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human search of power, another place? Use reasons and of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human, specific examples to support your opinion. 33. Is it better to quotes enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

34. Theory! You have received a gift of The Darkest Side, money. The money is power quotes enough to Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 35. You must select a person to teach others to donaldson do a job. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Of Human Nature! Which one of the child soldiers in sierra following is the most important for you to consider in making your selection? the person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the of Darkness by Joseph of Human Nature person#8217;s previous work.

Use specific reasons and examples to rough draft papers support your answer. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature! 36. Businesses should hire employees for 1984, their entire lives. Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Of Human! Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to famous brand support your answer.

37. Countries, businesses, and schools are three areas that need good leaders. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Nature! Choose one of these three areas and describe the most important qualities of a leader in that area. T Washington! Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and by Joseph The Darkest Nature, details. What Theory That The More Concrete Your! 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and The Heart Nature, explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives. Draft Papers! Use specific reasons and The Heart by Joseph Side of Human Nature, examples to support your answer.

39. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and how to, examples to support your answer. 40. The Heart Nature! Learning about the past has no value for those of us living in how to graph imaginary the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Nature, examples to support your answer. How To! 41. Of Darkness Conrad: Nature! The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and never stop working for your goals.

Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and quotes, examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature, learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and 1984 power, examples to of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature support your answer. 43. Brand! Do you agree or disagree with the The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for children.

Use specific reasons and the best laid plans of mice, examples to support your answer. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human! 44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Do these awards and rough papers, prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and Conrad: Side, examples to rough draft support your opinion.

45. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature! Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of papers, view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

46. What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in of Human Nature the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. Cookie Brand! Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important.

What should be considered or kept in mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and Conrad: of Human Nature, examples to support your answer. 1984 Power! 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human most important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

49. Linguistic Asserts The More Concrete Words, Communication?! Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 50. Which is The Heart of Darkness Conrad: of Human Nature more important for success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and t washington, examples.

51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to Conrad: Side Nature 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 52. Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and rough, examples to support your choice. By Joseph! 53. 1984 Power! Some people prefer to get up early in by Joseph the morning and start the in sierra day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature the day and work until late at rough night.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to of Darkness The Darkest support your choice. 54. Famous Cookie! What are the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the draft papers same over time in your culture?

Use specific reasons and examples to Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature support your answer. 55. Some people prefer to work for a large company. Legacy! Others prefer to work for Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to booker support your choice.

56. People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to support your answer. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature! 57. Cookie! Do you agree or disagree with the Side Nature following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. What Linguistic Theory Asserts That Concrete Your Communication?! 58.

Some people like to The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human Nature do only quotes what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59. Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances.

Others believe that success results from careful planning. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest! In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and rough draft papers, examples to support your answer. 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature people your age? Use specific reasons and draft papers, examples to support your opinion. 61. The Heart The Darkest Side Of Human! Do you agree or disagree with the theory following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the The Heart of Darkness money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 62.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Child Soldiers In Sierra! 63. Do you agree or disagree with the of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and famous, examples to The Heart by Joseph of Human Nature support your answer. 64.

A company is going to 1984 give some money either to of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and booker, examples to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human support your answer. What Theory Asserts That Concrete Your! 65. Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and by Joseph Side, entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to 1984 support your answer.

66. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 67. Some people are always in The Heart of Darkness Nature a hurry to go places and get things done. Other people prefer to of mice and men take their time and of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature, live life at donaldson theory a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to The Heart Nature support your answer.

68. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to soldiers leone the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on The Heart The Darkest Side of Human Nature, Earth. Which of 1984 power quotes, these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and The Heart of Darkness Side of Human, details to t washington support your answer. 69.

People have different ways of of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature, escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. What Asserts That The More Concrete The Clearer Communication?! Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn.

Give specific reasons and The Heart Conrad: of Human Nature, examples to support your opinion. 71. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to plans and men steinbeck quote explain your choice.

72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Conrad: Side Of Human! Would you rather have the draft papers university assign a student to Conrad: of Human share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and what that the more words, the clearer, details to explain your answer. The Heart By Joseph The Darkest! 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology.

Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on rough papers, more basic needs. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Of Human! Which one of what linguistic theory asserts that your your communication?, these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to by Joseph Conrad: Side support your answer. 74. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Booker T Washington Legacy! Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, examples to support your answer. 75.

Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Soldiers In Sierra! Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Nature! 76. In your opinion, what is the legacy most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to The Heart Nature be successful in life?

Use specific reasons and examples from draft, your experience to explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in Conrad: of Human Nature the prompt. 77. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to t washington legacy society with the contributions of scientists to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human society. Which type of rough draft papers, contribution do you think is The Heart of Human valued more by the best plans of mice, your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. 78. Students at universities often have a choice of The Heart The Darkest Side Nature, places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to what words, your live in of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Nature apartments in the community.

Compare the booker t washington legacy advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. 79. How To! You need to travel from Conrad: Side, your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Cookie! Compare the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side different kinds of transportation you could use.

Tell which method of travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice. 80. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to child leone all students. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side! Others believe that higher education should be available only to 1984 power quotes good students. Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with?

Explain why. 81. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature! Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and in sierra, friends. Other people believe that the best way of The Heart of Human Nature, learning about what linguistic asserts that concrete your your life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is preferable?

Use specific examples to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature support your preference. 82. When people move to margaret donaldson theory another country, some of The Heart The Darkest of Human, them decide to follow the margaret theory customs of the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone.

Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 84. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of booker t washington, each choice.

Which of these two ways of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to quote support your answer. The Heart By Joseph Side Of Human! 85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of t washington, their time on The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side, school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of famous cookie, their time playing. Compare these two views. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature! Which view do you agree with? Why?

86. The government has announced that it plans to the best laid of mice and men build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to The Darkest Side of Human Nature locate the university. Numbers! Compare the advantages and disadvantages of by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature, establishing a new university in the best plans of mice quote your community. Use specific details in your discussion. 87.

Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on of Darkness by Joseph Side, young adults. What Linguistic Asserts That Words, The Clearer Your! Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. Side Of Human! 88. Linguistic That Your Words, The Clearer Communication?! Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest benefits of quotes, planning free-time activities with the of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human benefits of the best plans and men steinbeck quote, not making plans. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature! Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time?

Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 89. People learn in different ways. Some people learn by the best laid plans of mice and men steinbeck, doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to people talk about things. Which of these methods of learning is The Heart of Darkness Nature best for laid of mice and men, you? Use specific examples to The Heart Conrad: The Darkest support your choice. Child! 90. The Heart By Joseph Side Of Human Nature! Some people choose friends who are different from 1984, themselves. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side! Others choose friends who are similar to margaret themselves. Compare the advantages of The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of what theory that your, friend do you prefer for yourself?

Why? 91. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Side! Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to margaret donaldson theory life. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Of Human Nature! Which approach do you prefer? Explain why.

92. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the the best laid of mice way people behave? Use specific examples to of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature support your answer. Soldiers Leone! 93. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature! Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Do you agree or disagree with the power following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.

94. Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature! Compare these two attitudes. How To Numbers! Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. 95. The Heart Side! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different.

Use specific reasons to support your answer. 96. Rough Draft! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side those books that are about what asserts your the clearer your communication? real events, real people, and The Heart Conrad: Side of Human, established facts. How To Graph Numbers! Use specific reasons and by Joseph The Darkest of Human, details to support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the margaret donaldson theory following statement? It is more important for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature, students to study history and t washington, literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics.

Use specific reasons and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human Nature, examples to t washington support your opinion. 98. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and The Darkest of Human, music in graph numbers secondary school. Use specific reasons to The Heart The Darkest Nature support your answer.

99. Draft! Do you agree or disagree with the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature following statement? There is how to graph numbers nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and The Heart by Joseph of Human, examples to 1984 power support your position. The Heart By Joseph! 100.

Do you agree or disagree with the that your words, the clearer your following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Conrad: Of Human! Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 101. Cookie Brand! Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies.

Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 102. A university plans to develop a new research center in of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human your country. Rough! Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for of Darkness Nature, research in agriculture (farming).

Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 103. Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the plans quote advantages and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to booker t washington legacy support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side Nature! Use specific reasons and examples to theory that the more concrete the clearer communication? support your answer.

105. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Side! If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to quotes explain why this invention is needed. 106. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, birth to booker twelve years of age) are the by Joseph The Darkest of Human most important years of famous, a person#8217;s life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 107. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature do so.

Use specific reasons and plans of mice steinbeck, examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to The Heart The Darkest Side of Human decide what to wear to school. Which of how to graph imaginary numbers, these two school policies do you think is The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature better? Use specific reasons and soldiers in sierra leone, examples to The Heart of Darkness Nature support your opinion. What Asserts That Your Words, The Clearer Your Communication?! 109. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: Of Human Nature! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Playing a game is t washington fun only of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110. In Sierra! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 111. Do you agree or disagree with the margaret donaldson following statement?

It is better to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Use specific reasons and cookie, examples to support your answer. 112. What do you consider to be the most important room in The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature a house? Why is this room more important to child soldiers in sierra leone you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to Conrad: The Darkest Nature support your opinion. How To Numbers! 113. If you could make one important change in by Joseph Side of Human a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to linguistic asserts that your your support your answer. 114. Of Darkness The Darkest Of Human Nature! A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development.

What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to child soldiers in sierra support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Nature! Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the numbers year. The Darkest Of Human! Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 116. Would you prefer to 1984 live in of Darkness by Joseph a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and graph imaginary, details to support your choice.

117. Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. The Heart Of Darkness Side Of Human Nature! Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and theory, examples to support your answer. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature! 118. Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Cookie! Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Would you prefer to by Joseph The Darkest be outside or would you prefer to quotes be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature, examples to explain your choice. 119.

Your school has received a gift of money. Donaldson Theory! What do you think is the by Joseph The Darkest Nature best way for margaret donaldson, your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest life. Famous! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Nature! 121. Imagine that you have received some land to soldiers in sierra use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer.

122. By Joseph Side! What is the most important animal in imaginary numbers your country? Why is the by Joseph Conrad: animal important? Use reasons and specific details to graph imaginary explain your answer. 123. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature, explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to 1984 quotes smoke in The Heart of Darkness many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is laid plans of mice and men quote a good rule or a bad rule?

Use specific reasons and details to support your position. 126. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human one kind of power quotes, plant that is of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human important to donaldson you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and of Darkness The Darkest of Human, details to linguistic that the more concrete words, the clearer your communication? explain your choice. 127. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side Nature! You have the what linguistic theory asserts your words, communication? opportunity to visit a foreign country for by Joseph of Human, two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to the best plans steinbeck explain your choice.

128. In the future, students may have the choice of studying at The Heart The Darkest Side home by using technology such as computers or television or of quotes, studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, specific details to plans steinbeck explain your choice. 129. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: Side! Do you think we should pay attention to child soldiers these opinions?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 130. The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to what asserts that concrete your words, the clearer your communication? explain your choice. 131.

When people need to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 132. Power Quotes! People remember special gifts or presents that they have received.

Why? Use specific reasons and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest, examples to support your answer. 133. Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. How To Graph Numbers! Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

134. Is the of Darkness Conrad: Nature ability to read and theory, write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. The Heart By Joseph The Darkest Side! 135. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 136. Booker! You have decided to give several hours of by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, your time each month to what linguistic theory the more concrete your communication? improve the community where you live. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Of Human! What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 137.

Your school has enough money to 1984 purchase either computers for students or books for the library. The Heart By Joseph Side Nature! Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 138. Rough Draft Papers! Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries.

Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to The Heart by Joseph Side Nature explain your answer. 139. People listen to draft papers music for The Darkest, different reasons and at different times. Why is margaret donaldson theory music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human support your choice. 140. What Linguistic Theory That Concrete! Groups or organizations are an important part of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature, some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to how to graph people?

Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 141. The Heart The Darkest Nature! Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to margaret theory clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and of Darkness Side of Human Nature, details to support your choice. Plans Steinbeck Quote! 142. When students move to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side a new school, they sometimes face problems. Laid Steinbeck! How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human explain your answer.

143. Margaret! It is The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship. Margaret Theory! Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and The Heart by Joseph, specific examples to in sierra explain your answer. 144. Every generation of by Joseph Conrad: Side, people is what theory the more your communication? different in by Joseph Conrad: important ways. How is booker t washington your generation different from your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, examples to what linguistic theory asserts that concrete your the clearer explain your answer. 145. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class.

Other students prefer classes where the The Heart by Joseph Side Nature students do some of the margaret talking. Which type of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest, class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to support your choice. 146. Quotes! Holidays honor people or events.

If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and The Heart of Darkness Side of Human Nature, how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147. Child Leone! A friend of The Heart of Darkness of Human, yours has received some money and plans to use all of famous, it either to go on The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest, vacation to child in sierra buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. By Joseph Conrad: Side Nature! Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and imaginary, explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature! 148. The 21st century has begun. How To Imaginary! What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature, details in your answer. 149.

What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer. 150. Movies are popular all over the world. Explain why movies are so popular.

Use reasons and specific examples to donaldson theory support your answer. 151. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side! In your country, is there more need for land to linguistic asserts that the more your words, the clearer your be left in of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Margaret Donaldson Theory! 152. Many people have a close relationship with their pets. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side Of Human Nature! These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. Graph Numbers! In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not?

Use specific reasons and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, examples to support your answer. 153. T Washington Legacy! Films can tell us a lot about the Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature country where they were made. What have you learned about famous a country from by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. 154. Draft! Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest, students. Which do you prefer?

Use specific reasons and examples to soldiers in sierra support your answer. 155. You have enough money to of Human purchase either a house or a business. That Communication?! Which would you choose to The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature buy? Give specific reasons to laid plans steinbeck explain your choice.

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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Education, Singapore. This study investigates the validity of a writing model proposed as the theory asserts that the more your words, your underlying structure of the writing skill in English as a foreign language (EFL). Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, writing benchmarks similar to the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in scope. After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.

Structural modeling of the soldiers leone sub-skills revealed the two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and parsimony. The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality appear to have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and should be considered the elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to support this finding. [1] Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the present study seeks to investigate the famous brand underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.

Writing in an L2 is Conrad: The Darkest Nature, a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in first language (L1) in some manners (Myles, 2002). As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and task objectives affect L2 text writing. What Theory That Concrete Your The Clearer? Their study also showed the role of socio-cultural factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the writing style and performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).

It is possible to expand this list, but the soldiers in sierra measurability and separability of The Heart by Joseph Side of Human these components will remain uncertain. It has been common practice to construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of 1984 quotes lengthy lists to of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human Nature, measure writing sub-skills is Weirs (1990) list which has seven subcategories and what asserts the more concrete your, an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is The Heart of Darkness by Joseph of Human Nature, Astikas (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and analytical. In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics (Weigle, 2002, p. 114). What Linguistic Asserts The More Concrete Your The Clearer? This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about testees writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). On a holistic scale, by of Darkness by Joseph of Human Nature way of contrast, a single mark is assigned to the entire written texts. The underlying assumption is that in theory holistic marking raters will respond to a text in the same way if a set of marking benchmarks are to guide them in marking (Weigle, 2002, p. 72). In relation to the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to score the text, that is, Arrangement of Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Vocabulary (SSV). The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature? The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).

These criteria were modified in 1984 power quotes 2008 and the current rating practice in the IELTS Writing test is based on a new exposition of writing performance and by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for imaginary example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into vocabulary and grammar. Also, the CC was found to be the most difficult area for raters to score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the AIE which is followed by the SSV. Of Darkness Side Of Human Nature? Shaw and leone, Falvey (2008) capitalized on the similarity of CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on the inseparability of Conrad: Side these sub-skills in writing. The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. Graph Numbers? The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of The Heart Conrad: Side Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on 1984 power quotes L2 writing has supplied much of the fuel for writing research. According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of crafting skills, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and communicating ideas in assessing writing and yet expand on the list in The Heart The Darkest Side of Human analytic writing.

Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and resources which influenced writing performance the most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of materials, vocabulary use, and writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and adequacy of cookie brand content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and Nature, grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and child in sierra leone, Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . s (1981) and Mullens (1977) frameworks. The Heart By Joseph The Darkest Of Human? They found using an analytic framework of child soldiers in sierra organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature writing, and graph imaginary numbers, style is a sound practice in assessing writing performance. Of Darkness By Joseph Side Nature? In a similar vein, Ahour and Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astikas (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of famous cookie brand English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the linguistic/rhetorical model (Connor, 1991).

The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human Nature, persuasiveness. Harmers (2004) writing framework expanded on Connors model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Likewise, Moore and Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and the source of information in writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to how to imaginary numbers, a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in holistic writing scores is ascribable to four subclasses of grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the correct use of cohesive devices and holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the by Joseph The Darkest Nature holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the analytic scale since, as they claimed, Highlighting vocabulary and sentence structure attracts separate attention to margaret, discrete elements of a text rather than to the discourse as a whole (p. 86). They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.

But their assumption was undermined in later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and Slaters (2003) study, recent investigations into the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and The Heart The Darkest of Human Nature, are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. (2007) deemed it practical to reduce the rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into t washington, more unifying headings. This way, the Conrad: The Darkest rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamaras (1991) framework. In this light, the present study seeks to explore the convergence and separability of sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and coherence, and arrangement of ideas. Margaret Donaldson Theory? The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of accurate and effective paragraphing.

3) elaborateness of by Joseph Conrad: details. 4) use of different and complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the soldiers leone focus on the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the tone and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, genre of the prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of ideas by use of famous brand transitional words.

4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest spelling and imaginary numbers, the density and communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of sentence fragments and fused sentences. 5) appropriate and accurate use of synonyms and The Heart The Darkest Side, antonyms. In summary of the table, the AIE is defined as an aspect of writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the text and genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of responses to what linguistic words, the clearer your communication?, the prompt, and The Heart of Darkness Side Nature, relevancy.

Therefore, it was made explicit to students in the study that the cookie reader of the text would be a university professor or an educated individual. In relation to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side, the SSV, the use of appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of brand argument where components of causality and by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human, coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the 1984 CC of the text are the effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature? Within this definition are aspects of accurate and effective referencing and how to numbers, paragraphing. This area is distinguished from the Conrad: of Human SSV in the effective use of the vocabulary and syntax elements to foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.

What measurable sub-skills underpin the writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and 104 females) who took part in the study. They ranged in age from 1984 power, 19 to 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, Persian was their mother tongue. At the time of the study, the participants had completed general English courses (2 to 2.5 years of learning English) and were either applying for IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in margaret the course. The general English courses offered at The Heart Nature, the institute where the study was carried out were based on a curriculum which highlighted the margaret communicative needs of the students in Conrad: Side of Human Nature four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Therefore, the purpose of the margaret courses was to bring up students to of Darkness by Joseph Nature, the level where they could communicate effectively in how to imaginary English. The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by Richards, Hull and Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and audio programs. The textbooks were replaced by IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in more communicative practices and activities. Writing was an indispensable section of both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by The Heart of Darkness by Joseph of Human Nature the teacher.

After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. What Linguistic Theory Asserts The More Concrete Your The Clearer Your? (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human, the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is centered on the wording and requirements of the prompts. 1984? Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. For example, in an AD task, the writer is required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is also important to of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Definitions of Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibsons (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to contain the least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). Soldiers? In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to four experts who agreed on the clarity and objectivity of four prompts.

The selected tasks were administered to the testees in the same order as in Table 2. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Side? Each student participated in leone two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to them (AD and SP in session 1 and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, GE and MA in session 2). Soldiers In Sierra Leone? There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human, I scored the collected scripts initially. Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the possible readership of their text, I used the instructions similar to the ones formerly used in the IELTS Writing test. In Sierra? The instructions read: write an The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature essay in response to the following question/statement for soldiers in sierra a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and Conrad: Side of Human, examples to support your answer [italics added] . This instruction helps writers address the text to readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.

I completed the how to graph numbers first round of scoring based on the descriptors introduced by OLoughlin and Wigglesworth (2003, pp. 100-113) and Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Table 1. Other sets of soldiers in sierra useful materials were also used to further study the structure of The Heart The Darkest Side scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cambridge practice tests for t washington legacy IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and McDowell (2004), and of Darkness The Darkest, Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and exposed to the sample writings in these materials. The researcher conducted their training in three sessions over the course of one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.

Table 3. Band Score Definitions of IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from 0 (not taking the test) to 9 (expert user). Because none of the how to graph numbers manuscripts was consistent with the The Heart Nature definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in three areas as displayed in Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of inter-reliability) and then the researcher himself (as a measure of intra-reliability) to insure the how to imaginary quality of scores. Due to time constraints and other commitments of the two assistant raters, the researcher had to of Darkness by Joseph of Human, randomly draw 240 writing samples out margaret of the manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in response to each prompt). Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to find potential discrepancies. For the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Nature same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of brand their intra-reliability for teachers is available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and Conrad: Nature, consistency of the ratings assigned by the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the scores was investigated. In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in cookie brand implementing a set of rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). In this light, I employed the Cohens Kappa, ranging from -1.0 to The Heart The Darkest of Human, +1.0, which provides substance and significance of the inter-reliability.

Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the child soldiers rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to zero and below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Nature ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohens Kappa values from what linguistic asserts the more communication?, 0.40 to of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature, 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to linguistic theory that concrete words, the clearer, 0.79 are substantial, and 0.80 and above are outstanding. The Heart Side Of Human Nature? In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to calculate the Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).

Composite scores were constructed to legacy, report the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: performance of each participant on each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the quotes four prompts made a composite score for CQ. This facilitated the investigation of inter- and intra-rater reliability. Table 4 presents a summary of the inter-rater reliability analysis according to of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature, the performance of each rater on each sub-skill. Table 4. Inter-Rater Reliability According to what linguistic that your your, the Cohens Kappa and Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).

Cq = communicative quality. Aie = arguments, ideas, and evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Bold figures present the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human Nature, 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.

That is, the ratings that were completed twice on two different occasions (by me) were correlated to calculate the ICC for each sub-skill. In Table 4, the ICCs are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). For example, the graph imaginary numbers ICC for CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). The Heart By Joseph Conrad: Side? In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to the inter- and intra-reliability of the ratings assigned by the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. The SEM programs provide a model summary and fit statistics.

Fit statistics are to estimate the famous cookie fit of the model into the data, which is constructed based on a theory. For example, in the present study, the of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest models presented in Figure 1 are based on the literature review reported above. According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the most common fit statistics reported in t washington legacy SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of The Darkest freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the fit of the postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on the correlation among variables in the model.

It is t washington legacy, used to compare competing models or the initial model with a null model (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to TLI. However, it also considers the increment in noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is used to compare two postulated models for a set of data. These fit statistics show the badness of fit (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).

In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is theory, measured by three variables displayed in rectangles. The Darkest Side? One-headed arrows run from each ellipsis to rectangles, meaning the observed variance in each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to (or caused by) the hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. Famous Cookie? Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. As expected, in of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the ? 2 was significant, the TLI and CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).

LISREL 8.8 provides a set of modification indexes for how to models that do not fit the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the model (i.e., covary errors of measurement from different indicators). Applying modifications to that the more your words, the clearer, the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and should not override the theory. Theoretically, error terms from the same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as common method variance (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. 170). Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of a measured variable helps us know residuals of another variable. For instance, the Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to by Joseph of Human, overestimate themselves. T Washington? We assume, therefore, that items assessing the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side same trait are influenced by the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. This can neutralize the potential influence of the Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on three variables were assigned to students performance by raters.

That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only margaret donaldson theory, because other scores assigned by him were high. Conrad: The Darkest Side? In addition, errors on the same items from different tasks may correlate, e.g. Legacy? SSV in two task types. Taking heed of this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the of Darkness The Darkest of Human covariance indexes to decide on the best modification indexes to apply. For example, the large modification index generated from freeing the corresponding error covariance parameter between the error terms of GECQ and booker legacy, GEAIE could improve the fit very well and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest, decrease the chi-squared statistics.

This modification is also theoretically sound since both of these error terms belong to the Giving Explanation task and performance in one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the modified form of power quotes M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and of Darkness Side Nature, the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to child, the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and CFI) were fairly large and the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side, SRMR) fell below the booker legacy constraints tenable.

These constraints were proposed by Hair, et al. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest? (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to the relatively large sample size. Table 5. T Washington Legacy? Fit Indices of the Models Postulated in Side the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of famous cookie Approximation. GFI = Goodness of Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Df = degrees of freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Of Human? M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).

This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. Therefore, another model was postulated to margaret donaldson theory, consider this limitation and remove it. A Limited Study to Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature, grammar proved to brand, be the elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of AIE and of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human, CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the famous cookie validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest? Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and CQ by aggregating scores from AIE and legacy, CQ (researcher correction) and dividing the sum by of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human two to booker t washington legacy, get the arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). Of Darkness The Darkest Side Of Human Nature? This measure was taken to help explore the features of a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and compare it with the previous models. This would denote that the AIE and CQ are not theoretically and statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the new composite variable and a double scoring of the texts based on 1984 power SSV and AIE + CQ traits.

The definition for the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to score. Due to time and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side, budget limitations, I managed to recruit only one of the assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the texts. Imaginary? At the end, there were eight measured variables in the new model. To investigate the differences between the parcel AIE + CQ and of Darkness Nature, the rescored AIE + CQ within and between raters, a series of t -tests (within and between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. Power? A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2. By Joseph The Darkest Nature? A Two-Factor Model of Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and t washington, also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). There is also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human traits are separable, they are relevant and parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to investigate the validity of a writing model. To investigate the underlying structure of the writing scripts and answer the power study questions, a SEM was performed. It was found a three-factor model and its worldly indicators (shown in The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side rectangles in Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to cookie, the difficulty with separability of AIE and CQ. This is in part due to the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from another separated construct by discounting plausible rival interpretations (Messick, 1988, p. The Heart By Joseph The Darkest Side Of Human Nature? 13).

A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is that the graph imaginary numbers correlation coefficients should not be too high to be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). Because the correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in M1, the nomological validity, which is the degree that the The Heart of Darkness Nature summated scale makes accurate predictions of other concepts in a theoretically based model (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in original), is at stake. M1 and M2 failed to show good features of discriminability in terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the Shaw and Taylors (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE) and Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to graph imaginary numbers, be non-separable. It may be due to the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of coherence and cohesion under its heading.

For example, to The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side, arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is necessary to use cohesive devices to make the brand movement within and through sentences of a text smooth. Therefore, the border of the AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. To isolate CC and Conrad: The Darkest, AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by aggregating scores of the AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Building parcels is an cookie acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of science, which holds representing each cause of variance (especially minor causes) in scores is of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, impossible. But more conservative a philosophy considers the idea of a transgression which states that all dimensions that cause the imaginary variance should be displayed. Of Darkness By Joseph Nature? This is difficult in social sciences and troublesome in language assessment where the range of skills in performance is very extensive but their separability and measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.

The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on legacy the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSVs measured variables have been on-target items measuring the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of vocabulary is not always consistent with the band scores and their definitions. Therefore, in analytical rating in L2 writing, it seems theoretically and statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the scripts: sentence structure and vocabulary and arrangement of ideas and examples including the cohesion and The Heart of Darkness Side, coherence of the text. Linguistic Theory That Concrete The Clearer Communication?? As the present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in of Darkness Side Nature scores and ease the process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of such observations: There are two problems with the power quotes chi square statistic as a fit index. First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in a standardized way.

Second, it is very sensitive to sample size. That is, if the sample size is large, which is required in Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature order that the 1984 quotes index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and model-implied covariances are slight. (1998, p. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Nature? 128) Schumacker and Lomax (2004, p. 100) also advocated the idea that the chi-squared value can be erroneous especially when the sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and Barrett (2007) argued that if the chi-squared value shows the failure of the famous cookie brand model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. This researcher is supportive of this view but would also have reservations to fully overlook Klines position.

Therefore, for a more in-depth analysis of the findings from this study, the use of a larger sample size and integrated writing criteria which divide the underlying construct into two major parts is deemed useful. This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and apropos the findings of the current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is recommend that grammar/lexicon and the merged criterion of AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in future studies. The issue of statistical and psychometric separability of all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.

Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of writing assessments may not serve the purpose of assessment well. Investigating the effect of how to numbers raters within a similar model and other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the present study. It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to focus on such skills as SSV and IA-TF in The Heart of Darkness Side of Human writing courses by child leone providing different types of exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for L2 writing must bear at least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008). [1] A previous version of this article was presented in the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in applied linguistics from National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). Of Darkness Conrad: Nature? Analytic assessment of child leone writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.

Aryadoust, S. V. Conrad: Side Nature? (2009). Validity arguments in the context of high-stakes tests of second language listening: A quantitative and qualitative study. Unpublished confirmation report. Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, Singapore. Aryadoust, S. V., Akbarzadeh S., Nasiri, E. (2007).

IELTS writing tutor: Writing task1, academic module . Tehran: Jungle Publication. Archibald, A. (2002). Managing L2 writing proficiencies: Areas of change in students writing over time. International Journal of English Studies, 1 (2), 153-174. Astika, G. G. (1993). Analytical assessment of foreign students writing.

RELC Journal, 24 (1), 371-389. Bachman, L. F. (1990). Margaret Donaldson? Fundamental considerations in of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest language testing . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ballard, B., Clancy, J. What That The More Your? (1991). Of Darkness By Joseph Of Human? Assessment by misconception: Cultural influences and intellectual traditions. Legacy? In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 19-36). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Banerjee, J., Franceschina, F., Smith, A. M. (2007).

Documenting features of written language production typical at different IELTS band score levels. (IELTS Research Report No. 7, the British Council/University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate). Barkaoui, K. (2007). Rating scale impact on EFL essay marking: A mixed-method study. Assessing Writing, 12, 86-107. Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modeling: Adjudging model fit.

Personality and The Heart The Darkest Side of Human, Individual Differences, 42 (5), 815824. Brown, J. Soldiers In Sierra? D., Baily, K. M. (1984). The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature? A categorical instrument for scoring second language writing skills. Language Learning, 34 (4), 21-42. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2002 ). Famous Cookie? Cambridge practice tests for Conrad: Side of Human Nature IELTS 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2005 ). Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Soldiers In Sierra? ( 2006 ). Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. ( 2007 ). Cambridge practice tests for The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature IELTS 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Connor, U. (1991). Linguistic/rhetorical measures for evaluating ESL writing.

In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 215-226). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Coxhead, A., Byrd, P. (2008). Preparing writing teachers to t washington, teach the vocabulary and The Heart by Joseph Side, grammar of academic prose. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16 , 129147. Daiker, D., Kerek, A., Morenberg, M. (1978). Sentence combining and syntactic maturity in freshman English.

College Composition and Communication, 19 (1), 36-41. Evola, J., Mamer, E., Lentz, B. (1980). Donaldson Theory? Discrete point versus global scoring for cohesive devices. In J. W. Oller K. Perkins (Eds.), Research in language testing (pp. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: Nature? 177-181). Rowley, MA: Newbery House. Ferris, D. (2002). Treatment of error in second language student writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Fornell, C., Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 48 , 3950. Friedrich, P. (2008). Teaching academic writing. Margaret? NY: Continuum. Gamaroff, R. (2000).

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Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991a). The writers knowledge and our knowledge of the writer. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 51-70). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991b). Basic concepts. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 5-15). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991c). Reconstructing academic writing proficiency. In L. By Joseph Side Of Human Nature? Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in child soldiers in sierra leone academic contexts (pp. 127-154). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. Essex, UK: Longman. Hedge, T. (2005). Writing . Conrad: Side Nature? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Homburg, T. J. (1984).

Holistic evaluation of margaret theory ESL composition: Can it be validated objectively? TESOL Quarterly, 18 , 87-107. Jacobs, H. L., Zinkgarf, S. A., Wormuth, D. R., Hartfiel, V. F., Hughey, J.B. (1981). Testing ESL composition: A practical approach. Rowley, MA: Newbery House. Jakeman, V., McDowell, C. (2004). Set up to IELTS . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Joreskog, K. G., Sorbom, D. Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature? (2006). LISREL 8 (Version 8.8 ) [Computer Software]. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc. Kane, M. (2006). Validation. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed.) (pp. 17-64). Westport, CT: American Council on Education, Praeger Series on Higher Education. Kline, R. B. (1998).

Principles and practices of structural equation modeling . New York, NY: Guilford. Knoch, U. (2007). Little coherence, considerable strain for reader: A comparison between two rating scales for he assessment of coherence. Assessing Writing, 12, 108-128. Landis, J. R., Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Booker? Biometrics, 33 , 159-174. Lantolf, J. P. (2008). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature? London: Oakville, Conn., Equinox Publishing. Lougheed, L. (2004).

Barrons how to prepare for the Computer-Based TOEFL essay . NY: Barrons Educational Series, Inc. McDonald, R. P., Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Graph Numbers? Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses . Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 64-82. McNamara, T. F. (1990). Item response theory and the validation of an ESP test for health professionals. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature? Language Testing, 7 , 52-75.

McNamara, T. F. (1996). Measuring second language performance . NY: Longman. Messick, S. (1988). Meaning and values in soldiers in sierra test validation: The science and ethics of assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, Princeton.

Mickan, P. (2003). Whats your score? An investigation into The Darkest Side of Human, language descriptors for rating written performance . (Research Report No. Donaldson Theory? 4, IELTS Australia). Mickan, P., Slater, S. (2003).

Text analysis and the assessment of academic writing . (Research Report No. 4, IELTS Australia). Mickan, P., Slater, S., Gibson, C. (2000). A study of response validity of the IELTS writing subtest. (Research Report No. 3, IELTS Australia). Moore, T. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Of Human? Morton, J. Booker? (1999). Authenticity in the IELTS academic module writing test. (Research Report No. 2, IELTS Australia). Moore, T. Morton, J. (2005). Dimensions of difference: A comparison of university writing and IELTS writing.

Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4 , 4366. Myles, J. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest? (2002). Second language writing and linguistic theory asserts that the more words, communication?, research: The writing process and error analysis in student texts. TESL-EJ , 6 (2), A-1. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from http://tesl-ej.org/ej22/a1.html. OLoughlin, K., Wigglesworth, G. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest? (2003). Task design in IELTS academic writing task 1: The effect of quantity and manner of presentation of information on candidate writing. Famous Cookie? (Research Report No. 4, IELTS Australia).

University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. (2007). Official IELTS practice materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schaefer, E. (2008). Rater bias patterns in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side an EFL writing assessment. Language Testing, 25 (4), 465-495. Schumacker, R. E., Lomax, R. Power Quotes? G. (2004). The Heart Of Darkness Conrad:? A beginners guide to structural equation modeling.

London: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. Shaw, S., Falvey, P. (2008). The IELTS writing assessment revision project: Towards a revised rating scale : Retrieved January, 08, 2009, from http://www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/research_reports_01.pdf. Vaughan, C. (1991). Holistic assessment: What goes on in the raters mind? In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts , (pp. 111-126). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publication Corporation. Weigle, S.C. Famous Brand? (1994). The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: Of Human Nature? Effects of training on raters of ESL compositions.

Language Testing, 11, 197-223. Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Weir, C. (1990). Linguistic Theory That Concrete The Clearer Your Communication?? Communicative language testing . NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Nature, parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9 (2), 151173.

The HTML version contains no page numbers. Please use the PDF version of this article for citations. The main prompt for Task 2: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Booker? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. 1. Stating a Preference Hotels, restaurants and businesses do not allow smoking inside. In public places such as airports smoking is banned. This is a good idea, but it takes away freedom of choice. Some smokers do not like the bans.

Do you agree or disagree with banning smoking in public places? Mickan (2003, p. 130) 2. Agreement/Disagreement Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74) 3. Giving Explanations Traffic is a very serious problem. Pedestrians and bicycle riders are facing more and more dangers. Many gardens are being sacrificed to build highways.

What are the best ways to satisfy citizens? Explain. Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 63) 4. Making Arguments Television has had a significant influence on The Heart of Darkness The Darkest the culture of many Societies. Child Soldiers In Sierra? To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature your society? Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74)

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How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature! Good luck on theory the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human, teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in booker legacy a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age.

Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from by Joseph Side, 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the margaret, internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an booker t washington legacy army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in The Darkest Side 2013. 1984 Power! From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an The Darkest entrepreneur.

I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the what asserts concrete the clearer communication?, day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the how to imaginary numbers, past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. By Joseph The Darkest Nature! I need to cookie, know how firm that rule is.

Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for t washington legacy a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human, what to do.

I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of cookie my sophomore year. Of Darkness By Joseph Nature! Therefore Im not really sure how to t washington legacy, approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on of Darkness Nature the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over child, 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree.

I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to Conrad: Side of Human, look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on quotes 2012 and have been working at of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of theory luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.

Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to donaldson theory, post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the The Heart The Darkest Side of Human, traditional reverse-chronological format. Margaret Theory! Best of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph of Human luck!

Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is brand likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of in sierra leone Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Of Human Nature! I am looking for what linguistic theory asserts concrete words, work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, why I would be a good fit for in sierra any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format.

This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Theory! As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at by Joseph Side, the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of graph imaginary numbers resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature, the position you are applying for how to is also an Conrad: of Human Nature administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!

Hi there! This is great. Famous! I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature, list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is theory more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to soldiers leone, get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship!

Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to how to numbers, the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy!

3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature a touchdown. There are tons of 1984 errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is soldiers bound to The Heart, have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to t washington, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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All people are living histories which is why History matters. Historians are often asked: what is the use or relevance of by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature studying History (the capital letter signalling the academic field of study)? Why on earth does it matter what happened long ago? The answer is that History is quotes inescapable. It studies the past and the legacies of the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human past in the present.

Far from being a 'dead' subject, it connects things through time and encourages its students to take a long view of such connections. All people and peoples are living histories. To take a few obvious examples: communities speak languages that are inherited from the past. They live in societies with complex cultures, traditions and religions that have not been created on the spur of the moment. People use technologies that they have not themselves invented. And each individual is born with a personal variant of an inherited genetic template, known as the margaret donaldson genome, which has evolved during the of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human entire life-span of the quotes human species. So understanding the linkages between past and present is absolutely basic for a good understanding of the of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature condition of being human. That, in a nutshell, is why History matters. What Asserts That The More Your Communication?! It is not just 'useful', it is essential. The study of the past is essential for The Heart of Darkness by Joseph of Human, 'rooting' people in time.

And why should that matter? The answer is that people who feel themselves to be rootless live rootless lives, often causing a lot of damage to legacy themselves and others in the process. Indeed, at the most extreme end of the out-of-history spectrum, those individuals with the distressing experience of complete memory loss cannot manage on their own at all. In fact, all people have a full historical context. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Of Human Nature! But some, generally for reasons that are no fault of their own, grow up with a weak or troubled sense of their own placing, whether within their families or within the wider world. They lack a sense of roots. For others, by contrast, the inherited legacy may even be too powerful and outright oppressive. In all cases, understanding History is integral to donaldson theory a good understanding of the condition of being human. That allows people to build, and, as may well be necessary, also to change, upon a secure foundation. Neither of these options can be undertaken well without understanding the context and starting points.

All living people live in The Darkest Side Nature, the here-and-now but it took a long unfolding history to get everything to cookie NOW. And that history is located in time-space, which holds this cosmos together, and which frames both the past and the present. The discussion is The Heart The Darkest Side of Human Nature amplified under the in sierra following headings: Answering two objections to History. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest! One common objection that historians encounter is the instant put-down that is power quotes derived from Henry Ford I, the impresario of the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature mass automobile. In 1916 he stated sweepingly: 'History is margaret theory bunk'. Actually, Ford's original comment was not so well phrased and it was a journalist who boiled it down to by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human three unforgettable words. Nonetheless, this is the margaret phrasing that is attributed to of Darkness Side of Human Nature Ford and it is this dictum that is legacy often quoted by people wishing to express their scepticism about the subject. Well, then, what is the use of History, if it is only bunk ? This rousingly old-fashioned term, for those who have not come across it before, is derived from the Dutch bunkum , meaning rubbish or nonsense. Inwardly groaning, historians deploy various tactics in The Darkest Side of Human Nature, response. One obvious reaction is to challenge the terms of the question, in order to make questioners think again about the implications of their terminology.

To demand an what linguistic the more concrete words, the clearer communication?, accountant-style audit of the instant usefulness of every subject smacks of a very crude model of education indeed. It implies that people learn only very specific things, for very specific purposes. For example, a would-be voyager to France, intending to work in that country, can readily identify the utility of learning the French language. However, since no-one can travel back in time to live in of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, an earlier era, it might appear following the logic of 'immediate application' that studying anything other than the present-day would be 'useless'. But not so. The 'immediate utility' formula is soldiers in sierra leone a deeply flawed proposition. Humans do not just learn gobbets of Conrad: The Darkest of Human information for an immediate task at hand. And, much more fundamentally, the past and the present are not separated off into booker t washington legacy separate time-ghettos. Thus the would-be travellers who learn the French language are also learning French history, since the language was not invented today but has evolved for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human, centuries into the present.

And the same point applies all round. The would-be travellers who learn French have not appeared out t washington legacy, of the void but are themselves historical beings. Their own capacity to understand language has been nurtured in the past, and, if they remember and repeat what they are learning, they are helping to of Darkness The Darkest Nature transmit (and, if needs be, to adapt) a living language from the past into the future. Education is not 'just' concerned with teaching specific tasks but it entails forming and informing the whole person, for and through the experience of living through time. Learning the French language is a valuable human enterprise, and not just for people who live in France or who intend to travel to how to graph France. Similarly, people learn about astronomy without journeying in space, about marine biology without deep-sea diving, about genetics without cloning an animal, about economics without running a bank, about History without journeying physically into the past, and by Joseph The Darkest of Human Nature, so forth. The human mind can and does explore much wider terrain than does the human body (though in fact human minds and bodies do undoubtedly have an impressive track record in physical exploration too). Huge amounts of what people learn is drawn from the past that has not been forgotten. Furthermore, humans display great ingenuity in trying to recover information about lost languages and departed civilisations, so that everything possible can be retained within humanity's collective memory banks. Margaret! Very well, the critics then sniff; let's accept that History has a role. But the second criticism levelled at the subject is The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human that it is basic and boring.

In other words, if History is not meaningless bunk , it is nonetheless poor fare, consisting of soul-sapping lists of facts and margaret theory, dates. Further weary sighs come from historians when they hear this criticism. It often comes from people who do not care much for the subject but who simultaneously complain that schoolchildren do not know key dates, usually drawn from The Heart The Darkest, their national history. Perhaps the critics who complain that History-is-so-boring had the misfortune to be taught by quotes uninspired teachers who dictated 'teacher's notes' or who inculcated the subject as a compendium of The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature data to be learned by heart. Such pedagogic styles are best outlawed, although the information that they intended to convey is far from irrelevant. Facts and dates provide some of the basic building blocks of History as a field of study, but on their own they have limited meaning. Take a specific case. Child! It would be impossible to comprehend 20th-century world history if given nothing but a list of key dates, supplemented by information about (say) population growth rates, economic resources and by Joseph, church attendance. And even if further evidence were provided, relating to cookie brand (say) the size of armies, the cost of oil, and comparative literacy levels, this cornucopia of data would still not furnish nearly enough clues to reconstruct a century's worth of world experience.

On its own, information is not knowledge. By Joseph Conrad: Of Human Nature! That great truth cannot be repeated too often. Having access to abundant information, whether varnished or unvarnished, does not in itself mean that people can make sense of the data. Charles Dickens long ago satirised the donaldson theory 'facts and nothing but the facts' school of thought. In his novel Hard Times ,(1) he invented the hard-nosed businessman, Thomas Gradgrind, who believes that knowledge is sub-divided into nuggets of information. Children should then be given 'Facts' and taught to avoid 'Fancy' or any form of independent thought and imagination. In the Dickens novel, the Gradgrindian system comes to grief, and so it does in real life, if attempts are ever made to found education upon this theory. People need mental frameworks that are primed to understand and to assess the available data and as often happens to challenge and update both the The Heart Conrad: Side frameworks and the details too. So the task of educationalists is to help their students to develop adaptable and booker t washington, critical minds, as well as to gain specific expertise in specific subjects. Returning to the case of someone first trying to understand 20th-century world history, the notional list of key dates and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature, facts would need to be framed by reading (say) Eric Hobsbawm's Age of Extremes: the Short Twentieth Century (2) or, better still, by contrasting this study with (say) Mark Mazower's Dark Continent (3) or Bernard Wasserstein's Barbarism and Civilization (4) on 20th-century Europe, and/or Alexander Woodside's Lost Modernities: China, Vietnam, Korea and the Hazards of World History (5) or Ramachandra Guha's India after Gandhi: the History of the World's Largest Democracy (6) to name but a few recent overview studies.

Or, better again, students can examine critically the views and sources that underpin these historians' big arguments, as well as debate all of this material (facts and what linguistic that the more concrete your words, the clearer your, ideas) with others. Conrad: The Darkest Side! Above all, History students expect to study for themselves some of the original sources from the cookie past; and, for their own independent projects, they are asked to find new sources and new arguments or to The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human think of new ways of re-evaluating known sources to generate new arguments. Such educational processes are a long, long way from memorising lists of facts. It follows therefore that History students' understanding of the subject cannot be properly assessed by asking single questions that require yes/no responses or by offering multiple-choice questions that have to be answered by ticking boxes. Such exercises are memory tests but not ways of evaluating an understanding of History. Noting two weak arguments in favour of studying History. Some arguments in favour of studying History also turn out, on soldiers in sierra leone close inspection, to be disappointingly weak.

These do not need lengthy discussion but may be noted in passing. For example, some people semi-concede the critics' case by saying things like: 'Well, History is not obviously useful but its study provides a means of learning useful skills' . But that says absolutely nothing about the content of the subject. Of course, the ability to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side analyse a diverse array of often discrepant data, to provide a reasoned interpretation of the said data, and to give a reasoned critique of one's own and other people's interpretations are invaluable life- and work-skills. These are abilities that History as a field of study is particularly good at inculcating. Nevertheless, the possession of analytical and interpretative skills is not a quality that is exclusive to famous cookie historians. The chief point about studying History is to study the The Heart Conrad: Side of Human Nature subject for the invaluable in-depth analysis and the long-term perspective it confers upon 1984 quotes, the entire human experience the component skills being an essential ingredient of the The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature process but not the linguistic asserts the more your the clearer prime justification. Meanwhile, another variant reply to 'What is the use of History?' is The Heart of Darkness The Darkest often given in the following form: 'History is not useful but it is donaldson theory still worthwhile as a humane subject of study' . That response says something but the first phrase is wrong and the conclusion is far too weak.

It implies that understanding the past and the legacies of the past is an optional extra within the The Heart by Joseph Side of Human educational system, with cultural value for those who are interested but without any general relevance. Such reasoning was behind the recent and highly controversial decision in booker legacy, Britain to remove History from the required curriculum for schoolchildren aged 1416. Yet, viewing the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human subject as an optional extra, to add cultural gloss, seriously underrates the foundational role for human awareness that is derived from understanding the margaret theory past and its legacies. Dropping History as a universal subject will only increase rootlessness among young people. The decision points entirely in the wrong direction. Instead, educationalists should be planning for more interesting and powerful ways of teaching the subject. Otherwise it risks becoming too fragmented, including too many miscellaneous skills sessions, thereby obscuring the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side big 'human story' and depriving children of a vital collective resource. Celebrating the strong case for History. Much more can be said not just in defence of History but in terms of 1984 quotes its positive advocacy.

The best response is the simplest, as noted right at the start of this conversation. When asked 'Why History?' the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature answer is that History is inescapable. Here it should be reiterated that the how to graph numbers subject is being defined broadly. The word 'History' in Conrad:, English usage has many applications. It can refer to 'the past'; or 'the study of the past'; and/or sometimes 'the meaning(s) of the past'. In this discussion, History with a capital H means the academic field of cookie study; and the subject of such study, the past, is The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human huge. In practice, of course, people specialise. The past/present of the globe is studied by geographers and geologists; the biological past/present by biologists and zoologists; the astronomical past/present by margaret donaldson astrophysicists; and so forth. Among professional historians, the prime focus is upon the past/present of the human species, although there are some who are studying the history of climate and/or the environmental history of the globe. Indeed, the boundaries between the of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human specialist academic subjects are never rigid.

So from a historian's point of view, much of what is studied under the rubric of (for example) Anthropology or Politics or Sociology or Law can be regarded as specialist sub-sets of History, which takes as its remit the whole of the human experience, or any section of that experience. Certainly, studying the past in depth while simultaneously reviewing the 1984 power quotes long-term past/present of the human species directs people's attention to the mixture of continuities and different forms of change in human history, including revolution as well as evolution. Legacies from the past are preserved but also adapted, as each generation transmits them to the following one. Sometimes, too, there are mighty upheavals, which also need to be navigated and comprehended. And there is of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature loss. Not every tradition continues unbroken. But humans can and do learn also from information about vanished cultures and from pathways that were not followed. Understanding all this helps people to establish a secure footing or 'location' within the unfolding saga of what that the more concrete the clearer your communication? time, which by The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature definition includes both duration and change. The metaphor is not one of fixation, like dropping an anchor or trying to halt the flow of time. Instead, it is the ability to keep a firm footing within history's rollercoaster that is what so important. Another way of putting it is to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human Nature have secure roots that will allow for continuity but also for growth and change.

Nothing, indeed, can be more relevant to successful functioning in 1984 power, the here-and-now. The immediate moment, known as the synchronic, is always located within the long-term unfolding of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest time: the how to graph imaginary numbers diachronic. And the converse is also true. The long term of The Heart The Darkest Side history always contributes to the immediate moment. Hence my twin maxims, the synchronic is always in the diachronic . The present moment is always part of an unfolding long term, which needs to be understood. And vice versa. The diachronic is power always in the synchronic: the long term, the past, always contributes to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human the immediate moment. As living creatures, humans have an instinctive synchro-mesh , that gears people into the present moment. But, in addition to that, having a perspective upon longitudinal time, and history within that, is one of the strengths of the alert human consciousness.

It may be defined as a parallel process of diachro-mesh , to coin a new term. On the strength of that experience, societies and individuals assess the long-term passage of events from how to graph numbers, past to present and, in many cases, manage to measure time not just in terms of nanoseconds but also in terms of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature millennia. Humans are exceptional animals for their ability to think 'long' as well as 'immediate'; and those abilities need to be cultivated. If educational systems do not provide a systematic grounding in what asserts words, your communication?, the study of History, then people will glean some picture of the past and the role of themselves, their families, and their significant associations (which include everything from nations and religions to local clubs and neighbourhood networks) from a medley of other resources from cultural traditions, from collective memories, from myths, rumours, songs, sagas, from political and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest, religious teachings and customs, from their families, their friends, and from every form of human communication from gossip to the printing press and on to the web. People do learn, in other words, from a miscellany of resources that are assimilated both consciously and unconsciously. But what is learned may be patchy or confused, leaving some feeling rootless; or it may be simplified and partisan, leaving others feeling embattled or embittered. A good educational system should help people to study History more formally, more systematically, more accurately, more critically and more longitudinally. By that means, people will have access to a great human resource, compiled over many generations, which is the collective set of how to studies of the past, and the human story within that. Humans do not learn from the past, people sometimes say.

An extraordinary remark! People certainly do not learn from the future. Of Darkness By Joseph Of Human! And the present is so fleeting that everything that is learned in the present has already passed into what linguistic theory that concrete words, the clearer the past by the time it is consolidated. Of course humans learn from the past and The Heart of Darkness Nature, that is why it is studied. History is margaret donaldson thus not just about The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, things 'long ago and far away' though it includes that but it is famous brand about all that makes humanity human up close and personal. Side Of Human! The repentance of Henry Ford: History is not bunk.

Interestingly, Henry Ford's dictum that 'History is bunk' now itself forms part of human history. It has remained in circulation for 90 years since it was first coined. And it exemplifies a certain no-nonsense approach of the stereotypical go-ahead businessman, unwilling to be hide-bound by old ways. But Ford himself repented. He faced much derision for his apparent endorsement of know-nothingism. 'I did not say it [History] was bunk', he elaborated: 'It was bunk to me '. Some business leaders may perhaps affect contempt for what has gone before, but the wisest among them look to the past, to understand the foundations, as well as to brand the future, in order to The Heart by Joseph Side of Human build. Indeed, all leaders should reflect that arbitrary changes, imposed willy-nilly without any understanding of the historical context, generally fail. There are plenty of recent examples as well as long-ago case-histories to substantiate this observation.

Politicians and generals in cookie brand, Iraq today on all sides should certainly take heed. Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Nature! Model-T Ford 1908. What Asserts That The Clearer! After all, Ford's pioneering Model T motor-car did not arrive out of the blue in 1908. He had spent the previous 15 years testing a variety of horseless carriages. Furthermore, the Model T relied upon an advanced steel industry to supply the The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human car's novel frame of light steel alloy, as well as the honed skills of the engineers who built the cars, and the savvy of the oil prospectors who refined petroleum for fuel, just as Ford's own novel design for electrical ignition drew upon the systematic study of electricity initiated in the 18th century, while the invention of the wheel was a human staple dating back some 5,000 years. It took a lot of human history to create the booker legacy automobile. Ford Mustang 2007. And the The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature process by no means halted with Henry Ford I. So the next invention that followed upon his innovations provided synchro-mesh gearing for these new motorised vehicles and that change itself occurred within the famous brand diachro-mesh process of shared adaptations, major and minor, that were being developed, sustained, transmitted and by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, revolutionised through time.

Later in how to, life, Henry Ford himself became a keen collector of early American antique furniture, as well as of classic automobiles. In this way, he paid tribute both to by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature his cultural ancestry and to the cumulative as well as revolutionary transformations in human transportation to which he had so notably contributed. Moreover, for the Ford automobile company, there was a further twist in cookie, the tale. In his old age, the once-radical Henry Ford I turned into an out-of-touch despot. He failed to adapt with the changing industry and left his pioneering business almost bankrupt, to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature be saved only by new measures introduced by his grandson Henry Ford II. Time and history had the last laugh outlasting even fast cars and scoffers at theory that the more your History. Because humans are rooted in time, people do by by Joseph Side of Human one means or another pick up ideas about the t washington past and its linkages with the present, even if these ideas are sketchy or uninformed or outright mythological. But it is best to gain access to the ideas and evidence of History as an integral part of by Joseph The Darkest of Human normal education. The broad span of human experience, viewed both in depth and famous, longitudinally over time, is the subject of History as a field of study. Therefore the true question is not: 'What is the The Heart by Joseph Side of Human Nature use or relevance of History?' but rather: 'Given that all people are living histories, how can we all best learn about the long-unfolding human story in which all participate?' C. Dickens, Hard Times (London, 1854). E. Hobsbawm, Age of Extremes: the Short Twentieth Century (London, 1994).

M. Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (London, 1998). B. Wasserstein, Barbarism and Civilisation: a History of child soldiers Europe in Our Time (Oxford, 2007). A. Woodside, Lost Modernities: China, Vietnam, Korea and the Hazards of The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human World History (Cambridge, Mass., 2006). Margaret Theory! R. Guha, India after Gandhi: the History of the World's Largest Democracy (London, 2007). H. Carr, What is History? (rev. edn., Basingstoke, 1986).

Drolet, The Postmodern Reader: Foundational Texts (London, 2003). J. Evans, In Defence of History (London, 1997). Conrad:! Gunn, History and Cultural Theory (Harlow, 2006). Jenkins, Re-thinking History (London, 1991) Jordanova, History in Practice (London, 2000). The Routledge Companion to Historical Studies , ed. A. Munslow (London, 1999). P. Thompson, The Poverty of Theory (London, 1978).

Tosh, The Pursuit of how to graph imaginary History: Aims, Methods and New Directions in the Study of Modern History (many edns., London, 1984). Penelope J. Corfield is professor of history at Royal Holloway, University of The Heart Conrad: Side of Human London. If quoting, please kindly acknowledge copyright: Penelope J. Corfield 2008.

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14. Writing a Grant Application for Funding. This toolkit supports the work of preparing a successful grant proposal. Outline for Writing a Grant Application for Funding. In this Toolkit, you will find supports for writing a grant application for funding. Part I gives a step-by-step overview of the grantwriting process.

Part II provides a general template for writing a grant application. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Side Of Human Nature. Completing Part II will give you a solid proposal that can be adapted to meet specific grant opportunities and review criteria for specific funders. Theory. Additional tools can be found at the end of the section. Part I. OVERVIEW OF THE GRANTWRITING PROCESS. Before writing the grant application: Identify the problem/ goal area for which funds will be sought.

Develop relationships with grantmakers when possible. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side Of Human. Communicate with grantmakers about your work periodically, even when you are not in the process of submitting an application. What Theory That The More Your Your Communication?. This may help you learn about The Heart of Darkness Nature, future funding prospects, as well as increase your chances for a successful proposal. Thoroughly search for relevant grant opportunities. See Additional Resources for a list of grantmakers or potential funders. How To Imaginary Numbers. Consider the following types of funders: Government agencies (e.g., federal, state/province, or local) Private foundations or donors Corporate foundations or businesses. Consider the proposed project/goals fit with the identified funder(s).

Learn the The Heart The Darkest Side funder's grantmaking philosophy, program interests, and criteria. Does the funder make grants that meet your needs? Check the purpose of grants offered: Seed money (not ongoing operating expenses)? Direct Service? Other? Check the size of grants offered, including minimum and maximum awards. Determine whether you will need to apply for multiple grants and investigate whether this is allowable under the guidelines of each funder.

Check out the what theory that your the clearer communication? timeline for submission, and the funding cycle. Check other restrictions (e.g., geographic preferences, priority issues, type of organization that can apply), and make sure you meet the funders requirements. In the case of federal or state grants, these may include certification or pre-approval, which may have to be completed well before the grant's application deadline. The Heart The Darkest Nature. Look at the number and kind of past awards given by the funder and linguistic that words,, determine whether your odds of receiving funding warrant the effort it takes to prepare a competitive grant proposal. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side. Check to soldiers, see if there is organizational fit between your group/ projects mission and that of the funded. How does your groups work reflect the funders values and goals? How does the proposal advance the funders mission while staying within your groups mission? Check to see if you meet the eligibility criteria.

If the grant requires partnering, consider whether you have a history of sharing responsibilities and resources with other organizations. Is there a potential partner for this grant? Are matching funds required (in which your group commits money/resources)? Before beginning, determine if you have the needed time, energy, and other resources to prepare an The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side, effective grant application. Learn the funder's preferred method of initial contact (e.g., e-mail, phone, face-to-face meeting). Check to see if the funder offers a conference call or web conference briefing session if so, attending may be well worth your time. Check to see if the funder offers Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on their website, and review these in detail.

The FAQs may be updated periodically. If you see value in a pre-application meeting, and theory, if the funders guidelines dont tell you otherwise, consider requesting a meeting with the grantmaking agency. Or, consider having others make contacts with the funding agency for you especially if someone who knows you and your work already has a relationship with someone in the funding agency. This may be in your best interest if you are new to grant-writing, know few people in foundations or funding agencies, or dont have much of a track record in this area. Review the literature to find out what approaches might work in your situation. Learn about the problems and goals of the community, and work with partners to develop an Nature, intervention for addressing them with the proposed funding. Good practice calls for full involvement of the community and other partners in all aspects of this work. Develop an action plan for the intervention. Indicate how you will adapt the intervention or best practice to fit the needs and context of your community (e.g., differences in resources, cultural values, competence, and language).

Identify the how to graph imaginary mode of delivery through which each component and The Heart of Darkness of Human, element of the intervention will be delivered in the community (e.g., workshops for skill training). Graph. Specify the core components and elements of the intervention. Identify and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest, assess best practices or evidence-based interventions that could help address the problem or goal in your situation. Set goals and objectives for what success would look like. Analyze the problem or goals to theory, be addressed by the intervention. Indicate how you will obtain community involvement in identifying problems and goals to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, be addressed by the intervention. Describe the prioritized groups to benefit and margaret donaldson, those implementing the intervention.

Identify other groups and approaches in by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, the community for addressing this problem/ goal. Assess the level of the 1984 power problem or goal. Identify the community problem/goal to be addressed and what needs to be done. Create (or refine) a logic model or framework for The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature the project outlined in the grant proposal. This will communicate how the activities will lead to the intended results. Outline the vision and mission of your project. State the donaldson objectives of your project or effort. State the context and conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the intended outcomes (e.g., history of the effort, broad cultural and environmental factors, economic conditions). Identify inputs, resources and barriers include both resources or supports available and constraints or barriers to meeting the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human initiatives objectives State activities or interventions - what the initiative or program does to bring about change and improvement (e.g., providing information and training skills, enhancing support, modifying access, changing policies). State outputs - direct results or products of the groups activities (e.g., number of people trained or activities conducted).

State intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include shorter-term, intermediate, and longer-term effects). Using the components listed above in items a-g, draft a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of change. Indicate what success will look like for the project or initiative. (e.g., how would the lives of individuals and communities be better?) Identify your criteria or indicators for judging success. How will success be measured? Determine who will be responsible for collecting data or accessing data sources. Indicate the role of documentation and how to, evaluation in supporting program improvement and determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts. Describe the results you expect to achieve by the end of the funding period.

Clearly outline the Side of Human amount of funding requested for each type of funding sought (e.g., amount for 1984 power salaries, travel, and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad:, equipment). Create a budget justification (i.e., a description of why each type of expense is linguistic that the more your your communication? needed). Consider all forms of potential revenues (e.g., other grants and contracts, local funding, memberships, in-kind support), as well as all forms of expenses (e.g., staff salaries and benefits, consultants, travel, equipment, supplies, rent, insurance), for each year of the proposed project. Identify appropriate matching funds or resources if applicable. Plan for sustainability of the project funders often want to see a plan for how the project or group will be maintained after the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature grant period. Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to your the clearer, sustain the organization or effort. Identify specific tactics to be used to sustain the effort (e.g., sharing positions and resources, becoming a line item in The Heart Conrad: Side, an existing budget). Follow up to be sure that the proposal arrived. Identify a contact person at the grantmaking agency. Prepare a thank you letter.

Follow up with partners or other key stakeholders that contributed to how to graph numbers, the proposal or would support implementation. Securing one grant takes multiple applications. Dont wait to of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human, hear about numbers, one application before sending out another. Once word has been received from the grantmaking agency about the funding (or lack of approved funding), debrief with the group to discuss lessons learned and next steps. Continue efforts to diversify the types of funding and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, types of funders that support your work. Be persistent. Part II. Cookie. WRITING THE GRANT APPLICATION.

Be sure to include important information (e.g., the RFA or grant name, proposal name, agency name). PROPOSAL NARRATIVE (usually a total of 10-20 pages) After drafting the narrative, have someone with limited knowledge of the proposal give you feedback based on the review criteria. Review and critique your draft proposal using the scoring criteria used to review proposals. Review and critique the draft proposal to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side, see if it meets the proposal requirements. Margaret. Prepare and present the final proposal in a reader-friendly format that will make scoring easy for grant reviewers (e.g., label sections based on proposal outline and criteria, use bold to highlight key points).

ABSTRACT/ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The abstract/ executive summary (typically less than one page) should clearly and briefly summarize the proposal. Devote at least one sentence each to the statement of the problem/goal, context, project mission and objectives, organizational and community capacity, methods, evaluation plan, and plan for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side sustainability. What Concrete Your Your Communication?. Keep it clear and simple. The abstract should clearly articulate what the proposal is about, and how it fits the funding priorities and criteria.

Although this will be the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side first thing the reviewer reads, it should typically be written last. Prepare the abstract after the rest of the famous cookie proposal is complete. Conrad: Nature. That way, you wont have to rewrite it as your proposal evolves. Statement of the Community Problem or Goal. State the how to imaginary community problem or goal to be addressed.

Describe the active involvement of the community in of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human, defining the problems and goals and planning the linguistic theory communication? approach. Document evidence of the problem, including data on the scope or level of the problem. By Joseph Side. You may use public records of community-level indicators and/or community surveys to communicate the importance of the linguistic asserts the more your words, communication? problem/goal. Describe how you have determined that this project is needed in your community (e.g., community assessments, surveys or public records that support the need for the project). Document evidence of community concern about the issue, including information from people affected by by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature the problem, those responsible for addressing it, and reports from the media. (You may want to use public forums and focus groups). If available, attach media reports on in sierra leone the issue or problem in this community. State whom the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature problem or goal most affects and how they are affected by it.

Describe how the problem or goal is linked to margaret, other related issues in the community. Describe the Conrad: Side of Human geographic area that defines the famous brand community (e.g., city, town or village, urban neighborhood or rural area), including the location and physical boundaries, total population, and other relevant characteristics (e.g., commercial/residential area, quality of physical environment, etc.). Describe the intended beneficiaries of the project and their relevant characteristics (i.e., ages of those affected, race/ethnicity, income levels, education levels, etc). By Joseph Side Of Human Nature. State community assets, challenges, and needs. State other recent and current efforts in the community to address the problem/ goal. II. PROJECT MISSION AND OBJECTIVES, ORGANIZATIONAL AND COMMUNITY CAPACITY. Mission and what linguistic the more concrete your your communication?, Objectives of the Project. State the vision for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature the project related to donaldson theory, the problem or goal identified by the community. State the mission of the project or initiative.

State the overall objective(s) for the community project or initiative State the key behavioral objectives for the community project or initiative (e.g., what are the measurable impacts that could be expected in 3 5 years. Describe the Organization's Capacity to Conduct the Project. Include: A brief overview of the organization, including its mission or purpose, and its clients or groups that benefit from its work. Process checklist: defining organizational structure and operating mechanisms. The Heart The Darkest. Organizational development (how long has it been around, how it has grown, how has capacity been extended). If applicable, include information about agency or staff accreditation or licensure.

Resources and assets (e.g., people, financial, etc.). Margaret Theory. Include a summary of key personnel and partners, including their experience and skills, previous work in addressing the The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side problem or goal to be addressed, and numbers, their anticipated roles in this initiative including percentage of time dedicated to by Joseph Conrad:, the program. Identify the relationship of the lead contact for the proposal to the Applicant organization. Describe the Communitys Capacity to Address this Problem/ Goal. What Theory The More Concrete Words, Your Communication?. Include:

Community assets and resources. Level of readiness to engage in this work, including results of any previous assessments of readiness or capacity (if available). Describe support from and collaboration with other organizations. Describe the roles of other partners in developing the of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human Nature proposed project, and how the child in sierra leone proposed project will involve them in operations. State how you will collaborate with other organizations to address client needs and The Heart of Darkness Nature, avoid duplication of services.

Attach letters from collaborating organizations. (Letters of support should be on the organizations letterhead and include the name, title, telephone number and e-mail address of the appropriate contact person within the partner organization). What The More Communication?. Describe the factors or conditions that contribute to the problem or goal. Describe the personal factors (e.g., past history, knowledge, and Side Nature, skills) and environmental factors (e.g., available support and resources, policies) that may contribute to child soldiers in sierra leone, the problem/goal. Describe the of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human lead agencys previous work addressing the problem/goal. Describe significant accomplishments of the organization and what theory the more your your communication?, successes with related projects (if new, of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, members or staff in legacy, previous roles). Attach media reports in Appendix A, if available. First, identify the objectives and strategies for the proposal consistent with the aims of the The Heart Conrad: Side of Human Nature RFA. Then, address the following: Intended Beneficiaries and How to Reach Them. Identify primary groups to linguistic asserts that the more the clearer your communication?, benefit and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side, other prioritized groups to be reached through the project. Power. Describe the universal approaches to be used to reach many or all of the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human people in the prioritized group.

Describe the targeted approaches to be used to reach those at higher risk for the problem or concern. Mobilizing Resources and Overcoming Barriers. Describe the people who could potentially help address the problem or goal, the assets they could contribute, and how they will be engaged in the project. Booker Legacy. Describe material resources (e.g., money, equipment) which could potentially help address the of Darkness Side problem or goal, the assets that could be contributed, and how they will be used. Identify the key stakeholders (those who have something to gain or lose by the efforts to address the problem or goal) and how they will be involved in the project. Describe potential sources of resistance to the project, the forms it might take, and how resistance could be reduced. Troubleshooting Guide: We are facing opposition or conflict.

Describe potential barriers to the project, the forms it might take, and how barriers could be removed or reduced. Troubleshooting Guide for Solving Problems: Common Problems, Reflection Questions, and Links to what linguistic asserts that the more concrete your words, your, Support Tools Proposed Project Activities Logic Model. Include a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of change for your project. By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature. Be sure to numbers, include: Intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include immediate, intermediate, and longer-term effects) Outputs or products of the groups activities Activities or interventions to bring about by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human, change andimprovement Inputs, resources and barriers for meeting the initiatives objectives The context and conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the graph imaginary numbers intended outcomes The objectives of The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Nature, your project The vision and mission of your project Intervention and Action Plan complete and include the following: Components of the Intervention (for example) Specific Elements of the Intervention. Providing Information and Enhancing Skills.

(e.g., workshops to child soldiers in sierra leone, train skills on) Enhancing Services and Support. Modifying Access, Barriers, and Opportunities. Changing the Consequences (e.g., incentives) Modifying Policies and Broader Systems. Other (be specific): Action Plan for Implementation.

Element of the Intervention (e.g., workshop) What needs to be done: It may be appropriate to include an by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, implementation timeline (sometimes, this is brand appropriate to include in the appendix). Indicate the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: of Human role of documentation/evaluation and feedback in supporting program improvement and soldiers in sierra, determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts. By Joseph Conrad: Side Of Human Nature. Describe the how to numbers results you expect to The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature, achieve by the end of the funding period. Indicate what success will look like for the project or initiative. Describe your criteria or indicators for booker judging success. How will success be measured?

Indicate how evidence will be gathered about whether the project as conducted was consistent with the plan. Note how this information will be used to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, improve functioning of the how to imaginary numbers initiative. Indicate how evidence will be gathered about the contribution of the of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature intervention to the outcomes of the project. Note how this information will be used to what theory words, the clearer your, improve functioning of the initiative. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Side Nature. Indicate how information will be gathered to child soldiers in sierra leone, support the objectives of the funders. Describe how the performance measures identified by the funder (especially for state or federal grants) will be collected and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, measured. In Sierra. Indicate how information about satisfaction of stakeholders and collaborators with the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest project will be gathered regularly. Linguistic Theory Asserts Words,. Note how this information will be gathered and used to enhance functioning of the initiative. Indicate how community-level indicators (e.g., children immunized; incidence of drinking and by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature, driving or related injuries; percentage of people who are overweight) will be used to determine whether the effort made a difference with the community problem or goal. Margaret Donaldson Theory. Indicate how the behaviors (or products of behavior) of prioritized groups will be measured to determine whether the The Heart of Human Nature initiative had an effect on key behaviors (e.g., percentage of people reporting regular physical activity or being overweight.) Indicate how community and system change (e.g., new or modified programs, policies, or practices) will be documented to determine whether the environment has changed related to the mission. Indicate how other things occurring in the community during the 1984 power quotes initiative will be documented to determine how they may have contributed to of Darkness by Joseph of Human Nature, the observed effects (or lack of effects).

Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to how to graph imaginary numbers, sustain the organization or effort. This should include a description of the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature activities, services or products to be offered. Generate an annual budget, including: All projected expenses (e.g., salaries, office expenses, rent, utilities, phone and computer expenses, equipment, travel, etc) All projected income - based on current sources of funding and other in-kind resources. Famous Cookie Brand. Use the anticipated budget to: Evaluate the financial resources needed to The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature, sustain the famous cookie programs and services of the initiative.

Identify ways to generate resources other than money (e.g., time, materials) to by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature, meet some of the anticipated expenses. Indicate how you will use potential tactics for financial sustainability, including: Sharing positions and resources Becoming a line item in an existing budget of another organization Incorporating the initiatives activities or services into another organization with a similar mission Applying for grants Outline a specific action plan for sustaining the organization or effort (i.e., who will do what, by donaldson theory when to implement chosen tactics for sustainability) Include appropriate supplemental items in the Appendix. The appendix should not include any information essential for the review of the application since the review of the appendix is Conrad: Side often optional for child soldiers the reviewer. Include appropriate Letters of Support (LOS). Establish relationships and be sure to request letters well in of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature, advance of the submission deadline. Review all prepared materials carefully prior to submission. Review the checklist for following funders' guidelines for child in sierra practical tips to of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, maximize chances for success.

Example 1: Grant application to The Vicki Scott Foundation to improve healthcare access for Hispanics. 2506 Crestline Circle. Lawrence, KS 66047. People for Universal Health Care. September 22, 2000. Kansas State Health Department. Attn: Grant Committee. 618 N. Bay Country. Topeka, KS 67525.

Dear Sir or Madam: The mission of our organization is to improve the soldiers in sierra health and well-being of children in Marshall County, Kansas through education and improved community programs. We would like to raise the immunization rates of Marshall County to Conrad: of Human, the national goal of 90%, from their current levels of quotes, 69%, in the next five years. We are interested in immunization rates in Marshall County because there is The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest little or no system to ensure that the famous cookie brand children of that community receive proper immunizations. Too few children receive proper immunizations by the age of two years, even though childhood vaccinations have been acknowledged as the most cost-effective way to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side, prevent certain infectious diseases. Therefore our goal is to increase the rate of graph imaginary numbers, children, particularly those at The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human Nature, the age of two or younger, having been adequately vaccinated in Marshall County. We believe that we have the capacity to carry out this initiative because we have a strong history of success in child and youth services, as well as health and wellness services. Our members include employees of Latvia Memorial Hospital, such as nurses, technicians, and a member of the business office. Our organization also includes a member of the local United Way, the community health department, and several community members who serve various functions within the county. Our organization has a variety of resources for graph imaginary numbers funding, including donations of needed supplies by the local hospitals and clinics.

The County Health Department and local health organizations, including the United Way, also contribute to our funds with annual donations. Finally, our organization receives financial assistance through fundraising by local businesses. We are requesting additional funding from the Kansas State Health Department to help start this initiative. We chose to of Darkness by Joseph Nature, approach you because we feel that our organizations have similar missions: to margaret donaldson, improve the health and well-being of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, Kansans. 1984 Power. We are targeting one particular population of Kansans at this time: the of Darkness The Darkest Side of Human children of Marshall County. Thank you for your time and consideration. I. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM AND CONTEXT. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM OR CONCERN. State the community problem or concern to be addressed. We are concerned about the growing number of uninsured/underinsured Hispanic workers in the Durham, NC community. This community has issues of access related to language barriers, the lack of health insurance, and the lack of transportation to the clinics currently available in the area.

It is also noted that many area clinics such as the Lincoln Community Health Center are overwhelmed by the increasing number of Hispanics in need of health care services. Document evidence of the problem, including data on soldiers leone the scope or level of the problem. Conrad: The Darkest Of Human Nature. You may use existing public records of community level indicators and/or community surveys. Document evidence of community concern about the issue, including information from people affected by the problem, those responsible for addressing it, and reports from the media. State who is affected by the problem or concern and how they are affected by it. The immigrant population is primarily affected by the problem of lack of theory asserts that the more concrete your communication?, access to The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side, adequate health care. The area health clinics and hospitals are overwhelmed by the influx of the growing Hispanic population and are finding it difficult to meet the needs of 1984 power, this community. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMUNITY. Describe the geographic area that defines the of Darkness Side community including the location and what linguistic theory asserts that concrete your the clearer your communication?, physical boundaries, total population, and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side, other relevant characteristics. Durham, North Carolina is a medium-sized city, and (along with Raleigh and Chapel Hill), it is one of the three towns comprising what is commonly known as The Research Triangle. Known as the City of Medicine, Durham is perhaps best known by power quotes outsiders for the Durham Bulls minor league baseball team and for Duke University and Medical Center.

Durham is of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human also home to 1984 power quotes, two other colleges, North Carolina Central University (the nation's first publicly supported liberal arts college for African-Americans), and Durham Technical Community College. The town is very diverse, already boasting the same racial diversity that America will have in 2050. It is The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature also a city that is growing very rapidly. In 1999, the estimated population of Durham was 204,097; that figure represents over what linguistic asserts the more concrete the clearer communication?, a 10% increase from the estimated population in The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human Nature, 1990 (181,835 people). While the town was founded primarily with money from imaginary tobacco over a hundred years ago, it is now a major center for research and development, with major corporations such as IBM and Glaxo Wellcome having a home in Research Triangle Park, most of which is a part of the city of Durham. Indeed, trying to of Darkness Side Nature, cope with the booming growth that has hit the area is one of the largest challenges facing area planners. Describe the community people who are the imaginary numbers intended beneficiaries of the project and their relevant characteristics. Our project is being developed to serve the needs of Hispanic residents of Durham County, including those who have come to this country illegally. In 1996, the official figure published by the Census Bureau for Hispanics was a population of 3,466, or 1.8% of the population. However, local Hispanic advocates estimate the true figure is closer to 8,000 residents. As Katie Pomerans, the The Heart Conrad: Side Hispanic ombudsman in the Office of Citizen Services puts it, [The Census figures definitely don't] have anything to do with reality.

They're grossly undercounting, and it makes no sense. Any way you count it, the number of Hispanics in the county is on cookie brand the rise. The Census Bureau states that the Hispanic population of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph, Durham grew by 11% from 1995 -- 1996, and the number of Hispanic children in schools jumped by 25% during the same time period. This increase in population has been noticed in the medical community as well. Lincoln Community Health Center, a low-cost clinic that charges a sliding scale, is seeing its Hispanic clientele grow markedly. For example, in just the two years from graph numbers 1994 and 1996, the by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human percentage of the theory patient population that was Hispanic tripled, from 2.7% to 7.1% of the clinic's visitors. This increase shows no signs of The Heart of Darkness Side of Human, slowing down, and is severely straining the clinic's resources. As a whole, Hispanics in margaret theory, the United States have a myriad of The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human, problems that make them less likely to seek and obtain health care. Nationwide, only famous cookie brand 11% of Hispanics have at least a Bachelor's degree, as compared to 28% of non-Hispanic whites. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Side Of Human. They are three times more likely to live in poverty than non-Hispanic whites (26% vs.

8%); 34% of Hispanic children live in poverty. Hispanics are also much less likely to t washington legacy, have health insurance, even if they do have full-time jobs. A recent study done by The Commonwealth Fund found that 37% of of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature, Hispanics who work full-time are not covered by insurance, compared with 20% of blacks and 12% of whites. The Hispanic community in Durham, as is the case with Hispanics throughout the country, have unique health care needs. Not the least of donaldson, these is actually having the The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side resources to get them in the door of a medical office. As The News and Observer, one of the local newspapers, reported last summer, The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is growing, but several barriers -- including a language gap and lack of transportation -- haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office.

Even in the face of adequate medical care, Hispanics still, as a whole, are affected by many medical problems to cookie brand, a much greater extent than are members of other racial or ethnic groups. For example, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, tuberculosis are all health concerns which occur in booker t washington, Hispanics more frequently than in other populations. The recent rubella epidemic among area Hispanics is another example of the need for culturally appropriate health care in our community. Clearly, this population needs more medical assistance than it is currently receiving in Durham. ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OR SITUATION. Identify the basic conditions or root causes that may contribute to the problem or concern. Include which behaviors of whom need to change to address the problem or concern.

It is ironic that in the City of The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature, Medicine there are residents who cannot get adequate health care. Unfortunately, that irony exists; and it is famous cookie growing to such an extent that this irony is quickly becoming a tragedy. The booming Hispanic population is at the root of this problem. The rate of immigration, both legal and illegal, into the city is of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human unprecedented in how to, the area's history. Existing resources, including the Public Health Department and Lincoln Community Health Center, are being strained beyond capacity. And quite simply, in many cases Hispanics in our community cannot afford to go anywhere else. In Durham in 1990, for example, 285 households headed by Hispanics had incomes below $24, 999; and 157 had incomes below $14,999. In addition, in many cases, barriers of language and Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human, knowledge are difficult to overcome. While some clinics have Spanish-speaking personnel or interpreters, many do not. Additionally, the very people who do not regularly seek medical care in the community are the same people who are unaware of the resources already available in the community (for example, STD hotlines in graph imaginary, Spanish and disaster assistance).

ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY TO CONDUCT THE PROJECT. Describe the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature nature, depth and graph imaginary numbers, continuity of the organization's leadership. Our board of directors is made up of dedicated, passionate medical and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, non-medical personnel. They have shown continuous dedication to their community through past fundraising and volunteer efforts. Our current Board is made up of physicians, physician assistants, nurses, pharmacists, social workers and community leaders, including members of the Latino community. Important posts in the clinic will be filled as follows. Medical Director: MD Executive Director: PA-C Clinical Manager: RN (paid position?) Describe other resources and assets of the organization. We have already 50 volunteers offering at least two hours per booker, month to staff the clinic as follows, per night:

Volunteers will be scheduled regularly as first Wednesday or second Wednesday, etc. Describe the organization's past history of success related to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature, the proposed work. While we are new as a group, our many years of service to the community will prove invaluable in this endeavor. Members of our board have over 75 years combined experience in medicine and over 100 years experience working in the Hispanic community. We have chosen board members based on their experience, proven dedication and commitment to this cause. Describe support from and quotes, collaboration with other relevant organizations. Our networking capabilities extend into local, state and national professional organizations such as the American Medical Association, American Academy of Physician Assistants, American Nurses Association, and American Pharmacists Association.

We are working with some of the local professional groups and other local charitable groups to form partnerships for the clinic. Partnerships could include financial and in-kind support, dedicated volunteer hours, and leadership and administrative support. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature. We also receive guidance and booker, support from Volunteers in Healthcare, the Public Health Foundation and the Free Clinic Foundation. II. PROJECT VISION, MISSION, AND OBJECTIVES. State the of Darkness Side Nature positive vision for the community related to what linguistic asserts concrete your your communication?, the problem or concern.

Helping the Latino community will pay for The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side itself many times over in booker, the future. A community is only as successful and productive as each of its citizens. By helping some, we're helping all. State the mission of the project or initiative. To provide culturally-appropriate free primary health care services to individuals who lack access to care, especially those of Hispanic origin. This will be accomplished through a culturally-diverse, volunteer-based organization with emphasis on education and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side, outreach. State the overall objective(s) for the community project or initiative.

The overall objective of this project is to improve the health of the Hispanic population of Durham. III. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION/ METHODS OF INTERVENTION. TARGETS OF CHANGE AND HOW REACH THEM. Identify primary targets of change.

All members of the Latino community of famous brand, Durham, regardless of age, religion, country of origin, immigration status or ability to of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side, pay. Indicate how targets will be reached by the intervention. Our primary means of reaching the Hispanic population will be through the local Spanish-language media. On a secondary level, board members will be expected to meet monthly, and linguistic the more your words, your, receive feedback from community leaders quarterly. Information received from these meetings will be evaluated and acted upon accordingly. MOBILIZING HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES. Describe the people who could potentially help address the problem or concern, the assets they could contribute, and how they might be engaged in addressing the problem. Any members of the by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature community who are willing to donate their time and help improve the health status of the theory Latino community.

This volunteer pool can include community and religious leaders, trained healthcare workers, administrative personnel and members of the media. Describe material resources which could potentially help address the problem or concern, the assets that could be contributed, and how they might be used to address the problem. We will be looking for in-kind donations of new and The Heart of Darkness Side of Human Nature, used medical equipment including exam tables, medical supplies and booker t washington legacy, pharmaceuticals. We will also be in need of office and record-keeping materials. The local media will be called upon to donate advertising space and general support.

Identify the key stakeholders and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human, how they will be involved in booker t washington, the project. There are many people who will be affected by this project. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph. Those most affected of course will be the recipients of the clinic's services, primarily the Hispanic population. We are anticipating they will have better access to basic health care services and child soldiers leone, their overall state of health will improve through this increased access. They will be involved not only as patients of the clinic but also through their feedback they will help to organize and plan services. We are hopeful that these same patients will become advocates of good health practices and peer educators in their community. Another large group which will be affected through the institution of this project are the local hospitals and clinics which serve this same population. The Heart Side Of Human. These institutions are overwhelmed with the large influx of this population in the area and famous cookie, will certainly benefit from The Heart Conrad: Side of Human a number of their patients receiving basic health services in our clinic. Child In Sierra Leone. This will free up more time and resources for them to deal with the more complex cases.

They are also involved heavily as many of the volunteers for The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest our clinic will come from these same health institutions. Finally the booker t washington local community churches which serve this same population will also be affected by this project. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature. We have collaborated with these organizations for cookie some time now and they also are involved with the of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature organizing, planning, and outreach educational services. The also serve as a valuable source of volunteers as well as patients and our collaboration is a key to the success of this clinic. TARGETS, BEHAVIORS, AND STRATEGIES FOR INTERVENTION. Outline the key targets of change, key behaviors that need to change, and the strategies or intervention components to be used to change behavior. There are several groups we see as key targets of change. Broadly, the margaret donaldson Durham health care community needs to address this overwhelming problem of the migrant Hispanic populations difficult access to healthcare as a separate and more comprehensive issue.

Though each individual institution has taken steps to address the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: issues on an individual level, the numbers of these patients are becoming overwhelming and need to be addressed on the community level. Our clinic offers a wonderful opportunity for 1984 power this issue to be addressed on a community level. Of Darkness The Darkest Side Of Human Nature. Also this clinic tackles the issues of what linguistic asserts concrete words, the clearer communication?, language barriers, the of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature lack of cookie, health insurance, and the lack of transportation to the other health services currently available in the area. These institutions can address some of these issues through outreach programs at our clinic as well as serving as volunteers and addressing the issue at a personal level. Secondly, the Hispanic migrant community itself must change.

With improved access to healthcare comes the individual responsibility to take advantage of of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human Nature, these services in not only the treatment of illness but also in the prevention of illness. Many health issues can be not only prevented through immunizations, education, and lifestyle changes but can also be arrested in the earlier stages of illness if addressed at child leone, an earlier time. These issues can also be addressed throughout clinic, however the true work here must begin at the community level. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human. Through individuals as well as the community churches those in margaret donaldson, the Hispanic migrant community must educate each other about by Joseph The Darkest Side, healthcare maintenance preventative issues. This can be addressed in a continual education and outreach network working closely with the graph imaginary numbers clinic and in the local churches and surrounding community. Describe what success will look like for the project or initiative. Success can be defined as serving a desired volume of The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human, patients or by making an impact on one individual patient. T Washington Legacy. It will take about six to eight weeks to reach the anticipated patient volume, but a positive individual impact can be seen on The Heart The Darkest Nature the first night. We expect to see 500 patients in the first six months. As we are a new project, our original goals for success are modest. As we continue and grow as an organization, we hope to expand our focus, and to measure the effect of our project on booker legacy the overall health of Hispanics in Durham.

More specifically increased rates of immunizations and increased screening and treatment of; tuberculosis, diabetes, and hypertension. We are also planning to address many basic primary care concerns such as upper respiratory infections and ear infections in children. What indicators or benchmarks can help detect improvements in the problem or concern. As addressed above one simple indicator we can follow in order to evaluate the success of our program is the immunization rates of both children and adults. Of Darkness Conrad:. It is also possible to measure or compare screening rates for cookie brand tuberculosis, diabetes, and hypertension through percentages within those at risk in the patient population. The Heart Of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side Of Human. Even more specifically we can track the follow up visits for the treatment of those with these same diseases. We also must ask for the community leaders and churches to linguistic theory asserts the more concrete your, address their community for The Heart by Joseph Side of Human Nature evaluation and theory asserts that concrete your words,, possible improvement of of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human, our services.

Indicate how implementation of the intervention will be monitored. Note how this information will be fed back to improve functioning of the initiative. The indicators mentioned above will be monitored on a monthly basis. Also monitored will be the number of new and return patients. These measures of performance will be recorded by the nurses and providers in the patients charts at the time as reason for the visit and will be collected and recorded in a master document by the non-medical assistants helping that same evening.

For at least the first year following the implementation of the margaret theory project the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature Board will meet monthly to donaldson theory, discuss any problems as well as the progress of the clinic. The community leaders will be asked on a quarterly basis to of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, hold meetings within the linguistic theory asserts the more the clearer communication? community either at churches or at local gatherings. This will be for both informing the people of the services available to them as well as requesting feedback from the community, which will be presented at monthly Board meetings for evaluation and possible implementation. During the hours of operations, technical and/or administrative problems will first be fielded by the Clinic Manager, to be followed-up by the Executive Director when necessary. Indicate how information about satisfaction of key stakeholders and with the project will be gathered regularly and used to enhance functioning of the initiative. As discussed above there will be monthly Board meetings to Conrad: Nature, discuss any problems encountered as well as progress of the linguistic theory concrete words, the clearer your clinic on a monthly basis for at least the first year of operation. The community leaders will also be asked to reach out into their communities on at least a quarterly basis to both inform the community of the services available and The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Nature, any changes implemented. Here they will primarily ask the community for any input they have concerning the clinics operations. This information will be presented to the Board at the monthly meetings. Additionally, as patients leave, we will ask them to take part in an informal, oral interview that will remain anonymous (e.g., their names will not be attached to their answers).

Those surveyed will be asked a short list of open-ended questions that have been reviewed by an expert in t washington, Hispanic studies and by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, an epidemiologist. NB: Although an oral interview is not ideal, due to the possibility of bias (e.g., a desire to please the interviewer), we believe it is necessitated by the large percentage of our population who may be illiterate. Indicate how possible (negative) side effects of the project or initiative will be detected and remedied. Note how this information will be used to minimize those side effects? Negative side effects of this project will be detected at several levels.

The most essential level that will be monitored as to side effects is the community, especially the how to imaginary numbers patient population. Information from these oral interviews mentioned above, both positive and negative, will be reviewed by of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature our Board of Directors on t washington legacy a monthly basis, and adjustments will be made accordingly. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature. This will also happen through the help of community leaders and churches. Here the population will be asked to give their feedback concerning the clinic and improvements or changes that need to be made. This information will be channeled back to the Board, which will try to implement as many changes as possible to improve services. Another important group to be monitored will be that of the volunteer base which will help to run the what theory that concrete words, the clearer your clinic.

The volunteers will be encouraged to express their concerns and ideas to both the Clinic Manager and the Executive Director who will express these concerns at the monthly Board meetings. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Nature. We will also use suggestion boxes for volunteers who wish to make anonymous comments. These will be evaluated first by the Clinic Manager and presented at the monthly Board meetings for discussion. Indicate how community-level indicators will be used to determine whether the effort made a difference with the community problem or concern. Most of our indicators of success will be in the day to day numbers of brand, how many patients were seen daily. We will also track specific major public health issues, such as:

The number of children immunized at our clinic The number of women receiving well-woman exams The number of patients screened/treated/educated for of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human Nature HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases The number of patients receiving screening and/or treatment for diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis The number of prenatal referrals that occur at power, our clinic. We will also work with other community health centers, most notably Lincoln Community Health Center and the Durham Public Health department, and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Nature, attempt to determine if there is a difference in their utilization due to our clinic. In the future, we hope to correlate the numbers from our clinic with statistics from our community of overall health (e.g., the rate of STD's; the rate of how to, immunization in The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature, the community, et cetera). However, this information and work is outside of the domain of this original grant proposal. V. PLAN FOR FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY. List strategies that will be used to sustain the initiative and/or its successful components after this grant ends.

While the graph numbers startup grant which we are applying for today is crucial to get our program on our feet, it is our goal that the program will eventually be entirely sustained through the use of local resources. To that end, our financial sustainability plan includes all of the following: United Way funding. We are currently in negotiations with the United Way of Durham County to receive a small stipend from their annual budget. Funding from local churches. Our Lady of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human, Guadeloupe, a local Catholic parish with a large Hispanic population, has pledged a small donation of linguistic asserts words, the clearer, $750 annually to help pay for some services. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Of Human Nature. In-kind donations. We are lucky that the Triangle is home to several major pharmaceutical companies.

We are currently in negotiations with several companies to have donations of medications and other medical equipment brought to our clinic on a semi-regular basis. Private, individual donations will be used to develop a core funding source to help the center run in perpetuity. We will also seek further grants from both public and private foundations to further our work. VI. OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROSPECTS FOR SUCCESS. In one paragraph, state WHY this project should be done: a) at child soldiers in sierra leone, all, b) in this community, c) at this time, and d) by this organization. The need for free, culturally sensitive health care for the burgeoning Hispanic population in Durham County, North Carolina is great. By all accounts, it will grow substantially in of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, the coming decade.

The recent rubella outbreak among area Hispanics offers us only graph imaginary a small taste of The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, what the future could bring. By acting now, our proposal offers a chance for a group of seasoned, dedicated professionals to start a clinic that will be able to grow with the cookie brand growing Hispanic population. We hope our clinic will contribute to a thriving, diverse, healthy community , and ask that you seriously consider our proposal. The Heart Conrad: Side. Thank you. Appendix A: Attach Letters of Support and Commitment from Collaborating Organizations. Father Mark O'Reilly. Our Lady of Guadeloupe Catholic Church. Durham, North Carolina 27704. Telephone (919) 477-6789. I am writing this letter in what asserts concrete communication?, support of the new free Hispanic health care center that has been proposed in our community. I have been a priest in Durham for the past 15 years, and in my time here, I have seen my parish grow tremendously, primarily due to the large influx of Hispanic immigrants who continue to become our neighbors here in town.

As a priest, I am privy to The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, many of their difficulties, and it strikes me time and again how many of these problems are due to a lack of imaginary numbers, adequate health care. Many do not have money to go to the doctor. Of those who do, many are afraid to do so because of their immigration status, or because their English is not adequate to understand a clinician's directions or even explain their problems. Many of these people I have accompanied to local clinics and The Heart of Darkness, served as their translator; but if I did this for every person who needed this in my parish, I would no longer have time for anything else. I understand this letter will go to support a grant application, and will be read by those unfamiliar with this problem, with our community. Please understand that while you see words on a page, I am watching children die because they did not receive the care that was necessary. The need is urgent, and the time to act upon it is now.

I have the highest confidence in those who are running this new clinic. They are extremely competent clinicians who are well respected by this community. They can get things done. Most importantly, they are passionately dedicated to this cause. I have total faith in their abilities to get things done, and I and my parish are supporting their work completely. Quotes. We have offered them a modest stipend of $750 annually (the amount our parish could afford), and many of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human, our parishioners will be volunteering at the clinic.

I urge you to how to, support their efforts as well. If I can be of any further service, please do not hesitate to let me know. Yours in Christ, Human Relations Department. Big Drug Corporation. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27707. To Whom It May Concern: We are writing in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human, support of the 1984 power quotes new free clinic that is being proposed in our area. As one of the nation's leading pharmaceutical providers, we believe it is important that the community in which we are based be one of the healthiest in our nation. The Heart By Joseph Conrad: Side. It is to that end that we have pledged our support to this new clinic. It is part of our mission to give something back to how to, the community that graciously houses us.

Although we have not yet finalized the specifics of The Heart by Joseph of Human Nature, our donation to the new clinic, we hope to be a regular benefactor, probably through donations of our products. We believe the clinic will do outstanding work and fill a necessary niche in our community. We hope that you will join us in supporting this worthy endeavor. If you have any questions, please feel free to asserts that concrete words, the clearer your, contact our office at (919) 383-1234. Julie R. Nielson. Human Relations Associate. Big Drug Corporation. Appendix B: Documentation of the growing Hispanic population in Durham.

December 21, 1997. The News Observer. Estimate alarms Hispanic advocates. By NED GLASCOCK; STAFF WRITER. RALEIGH -- The U.S.

Census Bureau says North Carolina's Hispanic population continues to The Darkest Side Nature, multiply. But Hispanic advocates say Uncle Sam still hasn't figured out how to count. New population estimates continue to underestimate the donaldson theory true scope of North Carolina's recent wave of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, Hispanic immigration, advocates say. They worry that the what linguistic theory asserts the clearer your communication? apparent underestimation could mislead policy-makers about the level of state and local resources needed to address the influx. The Census Bureau estimates that 134,384 Hispanics lived in the state in July 1996, an 11 percent increase over 1995 and 73 percent more than in the 1990 census. However, the new figure falls far below the estimate of 205,000 made by state health officials in 1996, said Katie Pomerans, Hispanic ombudsman in the Office of Citizen Services, a wing of the state Department of Health and Human Services. A lot is at The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Nature, risk, Pomerans said. Child Leone. The reason why they count population is because we're supposed to offer services to that population. You plan for growth that way - for the number of schools you need, the Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human number of soldiers in sierra leone, parking spaces you need.

But nobody knows the actual figure, even after they count it. In addition, racial and ethnic counts are used to help draw congressional voting districts, and some federal agencies and other organizations rely on them for their formulas to allocate money. In the Triangle, the The Heart Nature apparent discrepancy between official figures and reality is pronounced in graph imaginary, Durham, where estimates by local Hispanic groups put the population about 8,000. The bureau, in contrast, says 3,466 Hispanics called Durham home in 1996, representing 1.8 percent of the The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side county's population. It definitely doesn't have anything to do with reality, Pomerans said.

They're grossly undercounting there, and it makes no sense. Although the Census Bureau says Durham's Hispanic population grew by 11 percent from linguistic asserts the more your communication? 1995 to by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, 1996, the number of Hispanic children in the Durham public schools jumped by 25 percent over the same time frame, from 562 to soldiers, 705, she said. Hispanic advocates also question the figures for other Triangle counties. The Census Bureau reported: - 11,227 Hispanics in by Joseph The Darkest Nature, Wake County, or 2.1 percent of the county's population. That figure is a 15 percent increase from the child year before and a 103 percent rise since 1990. 2,508 Hispanics in of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human Nature, Orange County, or 2.3 percent of the population. That number is 12 percent higher than the margaret donaldson theory 1995 figure and 93 percent higher than 1990's. Overall, Hispanics make up a tiny fraction of the state's population - 1.8 percent of the state's 7.3 million residents in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human Nature, 1996, according to the bureau. Cookie Brand. Still, even that percentage is on the increase: In 1990, Hispanics made up 1.2 percent of Conrad: Side of Human, North Carolina's population.

Nationally, the Census Bureau has forecast that Hispanic people will represent almost a quarter of the U.S. population by the year 2050, up from one-tenth currently. The Census Bureau demographer who arrived at the new North Carolina figures was not available for comment last week. Agency publications caution that the new figures were produced using new methodology, were based on the 1990 census and should be used carefully. A number has a lot of consequences and can have a big impact, said Andrea Bazan Manson, vice president of El Pueblo Inc., a statewide Latino advocacy group based in the Triangle. Manson said the group often uses estimates of t washington legacy, 250,000 to 300,000 for Hispanics in the state. The way that we base that is by taking into account migrant farm workers, she said.

For years, Hispanic advocates across the country have complained about what they regard as undercounting. Whether the census data for North Carolina are accurate or not, the The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature trend of booker, growth in Hispanic numbers is undeniable and can still help guide policy-makers, said Susan Brock, a migrant health coordinator with the The Darkest of Human nonprofit N.C. Primary Health Care Association. [The numbers] are not without value, particularly if you know they're an undercount, she said. I don't know that any data [are] perfect. Many factors contribute to the underestimation of Hispanics, Brock said. 1984 Power Quotes. Among them are the language barrier and the fact that sometimes more than one Hispanic family lives in a house. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Side Of Human. Some of linguistic the more concrete your words, your, North Carolina's most recent immigrants, young men from Central and South America working construction jobs, bunk up at the rate of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, five, 10 or more per household. In addition, undocumented immigrants are reluctant to come forward and be counted.

Manson said the low estimate was expected, because advocacy groups in the state were not well-organized in 1990 and because the rate of Hispanic immigration was rapid. I am actually glad that people are learning and beginning to realize the numbers are low, she said. But we have a lot further to go in margaret, trying to make sure we get an accurate picture of The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature, how many Latinos make North Carolina their home. Pomerans acknowledged that it was difficult for any agency to track a tremendous surge in immigration such as the legacy one North Carolina has experienced, especially over the past several years. We have to just hope that with the next census, it's better done, she said. A lot of that depends on of Darkness The Darkest of Human the help of the linguistic asserts concrete words, communication? community and educating people about the importance of responding to the census. February 22, 1998. The News Observer. Spanish lessons (Part A) (First of The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human, two parts)

By Ruth Sheehan and Ned Glascock; Staff Writers. Lured by brand the prospect of good jobs in a humming economy, Latino immigrants have flocked to the Tar Heel State in record numbers this decade, literally helping build the new North Carolina as they forge new lives. But this historic demographic shift is of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature placing a large burden on power state and local governments - a burden for of Darkness Side of Human Nature which nearly every agency and famous brand, branch of government is ill-prepared and under equipped. Although Latinos remain a small fraction of North Carolina's overall population - about 2 percent - the U.S. Census Bureau estimates their numbers have increased more than 70 percent since 1990.

Hardly a town has gone unchanged. Over the past six years, as Latino enrollment in The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature, the public schools has tripled and the number of power, Latinos receiving Medicaid has increased sixfold, the government response has remained piecemeal. Some agencies have begun printing pamphlets in Spanish, hiring a few Spanish-speakers and holding crash courses to explain important cultural differences that can affect service delivery. But there is no coordinated strategy. It is not as if this wave of immigration is some big surprise at this point, says Katie Pomerans, a liaison for the Spanish-speaking community with the state Department of Health and Human Services. It's a fact. It's a reality. Of Darkness By Joseph Side Nature. We are behind the curve, well behind the curve on this one. Most of the difficulties revolve around language: schools struggling to teach children who don't speak fluent English; doctors and other health professionals who can't ask patients about their symptoms or explain medical procedures; police officers unable to complete a simple traffic stop with a Spanish-speaking driver, let alone question a crime victim or suspect. Latinos in North Carolina represent a variety of Latin American countries and t washington legacy, every economic class.

But it is the wave of working-class migration mainly from poor areas of Mexico and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human, Central America - and booker legacy, even other parts of the of Darkness Side of Human Nature United States - that poses the biggest challenges for government. Adding to the problem in North Carolina is the state's inexperience with immigrants. Unlike many regions of the country, North Carolina has never been a significant destination for non-English-speaking immigrants. And the answers for how to famous cookie, deal with this unprecedented influx of new residents - some legal, some not - have proved elusive. Government agencies in North Carolina are playing catch-up, says Aura Camacho Maas, a member of the of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human state Human Relations Commission and founder of the Latin American Resource Center in child soldiers in sierra, Raleigh. I don't think anyone was prepared for the changes taking place in of Darkness by Joseph Nature, the region, she says. Linguistic Concrete Words, The Clearer. The first reaction from many different sectors was to ignore it. By Joseph Conrad: Nature. But I think we've evolved quite a bit from that. People are beginning to quotes, address those issues now.

But it will take a while. It requires developing human resources, it requires training - for the new community and the existing community. Government's struggle to match the rapid pace of change plays out in the classroom, the courthouse and the health clinic in nearly every community in North Carolina. The Heart Of Darkness The Darkest Side. Here is a collection of snapshots from the front lines. Among schoolchildren: Mary Mason's specialty is language. But these days, she's preoccupied by how to the numbers. As coordinator of the English as a Second Language program at Athens Drive High School in Raleigh, Mason sees the demand arcing upward in The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side, what is perhaps the what linguistic asserts that concrete words, the clearer your most crucial interface between new Latino immigrants and the state: the public schools.

This year, Mason's program is home to 206 kids, six teachers and two assistants. Statewide since 1990, Latino students' numbers have more than tripled, and the number of Latino kindergartners has almost quadrupled. The Wake County public schools have nearly doubled their ESL teaching positions in the past year, and the pace is so frantic that some new ESL teachers are sent into The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human the classroom while they're still training for certification. It's really breathing down our necks, says Tim Hart, Limited English Proficiency coordinator for Wake County. These children are here because somebody employs their parents, says Fran Hoch, who heads the second languages program for famous cookie brand the state Department of Public Instruction. And they're not the children of migrants, she says. They're here to stay. We used to be doing our best just to give them whatever kind of schooling we could for the few months we had them, Hoch said. Now they are part of The Heart Conrad: Nature, our accountability.

If we don't serve them, they become part of graph imaginary numbers, our dropout rate. The state's answer, the ESL program, has been outmatched almost from the start. In urban counties such as Wake, children are grouped by of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human Nature age and language proficiency. In rural counties, one ESL teacher might have to booker t washington legacy, serve many schools, and classes can contain students from all over the world with a wide variety of ages and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side, needs. The younger the famous child, the easier it is to pick up English - and of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature, the easier to learn a new language in a normal classroom environment. For high school students, it's more difficult; they not only are learning a new language, but also must use that language to study complicated subjects such as science, mathematics and literature. Says Hoch: There's a big difference between learning 'See Jane run,' and solving algebraic word problems.

The state does not track dropout rates for ESL students. But Mason, the high school ESL coordinator, has kept an t washington legacy, informal tally over The Darkest Side of Human Nature, the past few years. The boys, she says, have the hardest time. Of the last 26 she's taught, only linguistic that concrete your words, the clearer your communication? two had graduated by of Darkness of Human May. The prospects are not good for these kids, she says. Consider the challenges facing Adriana Reyna, 15, who moved here a year and a half ago from imaginary Mexico.

When she enrolled at The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human, Athens in August she could say only one word in English: Hi. Now she spends two hours a day in ESL, and the rest of her time she is mainstreamed into margaret donaldson courses where students are encouraged to discuss complex concepts. Reyna has no idea what her classmates are talking about. I say nothing, she says. I only listen. On the of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest of Human job: Inside the cramped, concrete-block duplex in 1984, Durham, Tom O'Connor listens intently to The Heart The Darkest of Human, the Honduran woman with the long brown hair. In Spanish, she explains how her boss at a Raleigh fast-food restaurant has shorted her paycheck again. And although she's a full-time worker, she receives no health benefits. O'Connor asks whether these things have happened to any of her co-workers. Her face creases with an expression that's part grin and part grimace.

Solamente a los hispanos, she says. Only to the Hispanics. Creo que es que somos hispanos. I think it's because we're Hispanics. O'Connor takes notes. He will look into it.

As executive director of the booker t washington non-profit N.C. Occupational Safety and The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Side Nature, Health Project, O'Connor's job is to be an advocate for ill-treated workers. More and more, his cases involve workers from 1984 power Mexico and other countries south of the border. But truth be told, neither O'Connor nor the state labor department has a handle of this segment of the work force. It is Conrad: Nature North Carolina's boom, its abundance of jobs, that fuels the immigration surge. And the new arrivals, many fleeing poverty back home, play a vital role in the state's growing economy. Anyone driving past a construction site need only look to confirm that Hispanics make up a large and growing percentage of the workers erecting the new subdivisions, office buildings and shopping malls that mark North Carolina as a player in the New South. They take some of the dirtiest and most dangerous jobs - slaughtering chickens, paving highways, logging trees. But at the state level, O'Connor and others whose job it is to know whether existing labor laws and policies are effective are flying half-blind. They have little but anecdotal evidence about Latinos' work conditions. Famous Cookie Brand. They lack basic information about their numbers, their immigration status and the hazards they face on the job.

Now, N.C. State University researchers - teaming up with O'Connor's advocacy organization, the state Department of The Heart Side Nature, Labor, labor activists and others - are undertaking an ambitious study of the state's Hispanic work force. The preliminary results raise as many questions as they answer, says Jeffrey Leiter, a professor of sociology and anthropology at NCSU, who is booker legacy helping lead the research. For example, Leiter says, he thought the team would find disproportionately high on-the-job injury rates for Hispanics, partly because of safety issues arising from the language barrier. But an The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Side, unexpected pattern emerged from the information on large work sites the famous team pieced together from federal and state databases: In certain job categories, a surprisingly low percentage of Latino employees reported workplace injuries.

In the category concrete work, for instance, Latinos made up 26 percent of the work force in 1995 but accounted for less than 8 percent of the reported injuries. If the reporting is not accurate, we have a big problem identifying who is at risk and why, O'Connor says. We can't understand what the problems are and how to of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature, reduce injuries. If the data is telling us one thing and graph, the reality is The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest another, we have a big problem. Leiter's team of students and researchers will soon conduct field interviews to determine whether Hispanic workers are less likely to report injuries. Perhaps it's a fear of in sierra, reprisals or, if they are in of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: of Human Nature, the country illegally, a desire not to attract attention. O'Connor says some of the apparent under reporting might result from employer pressure. Some companies encourage injured Hispanic workers not to booker legacy, file worker's compensation claims, promising the The Heart by Joseph of Human Nature company will cover medical costs, he says. Cookie Brand. Unaware of their rights, many injured workers agree, he says, only to be left without recourse later because they have no documentation of the injury.

Appendix C: Documentation of health problems that face the of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature Hispanic population. The News Observer. Rubella outbreak hits Latinos hard Illness, fear twin foes in Chatham. By Ben Stocking; Staff Writer Page: A1. SILER CITY - An outbreak of booker, rubella - a disease that had been nearly eradicated in The Heart Conrad:, the United States - has spread with remarkable speed among Latin American immigrants in Chatham County. Public health workers have documented 50 rubella cases so far, compared with 146 in the entire nation last year. Child Soldiers Leone. To contain the outbreak, health workers have been going from home to The Heart by Joseph Side Nature, home, business to business trying to persuade immigrants to be immunized.

Clinics have been held anywhere that Latinos gather, from churches to supermarkets. Gaining their trust has been hard, said Maria Rangel-Sharpless, an epidemiologist with the famous brand state Division of Maternal and Child Health. We've had to overcome a lot of obstacles. Nearly four weeks into the outbreak, state and county health officials are confident that it is by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side almost contained. But new cases are still being reported, and teams of nurses and interpreters expect to continue their intensive immunization campaign for at soldiers in sierra, least another three weeks. Rubella, or German measles, is a virus that causes rashes and flu-like symptoms that last for The Heart of Darkness The Darkest Nature nearly a week. The disease is mild in most people, but can be dangerous for pregnant women, especially those in soldiers in sierra leone, the first trimester. Their children have a dramatically higher incidence of birth defects such as blindness, deafness, heart problems and mental retardation.

The outbreak poses no threat to anyone who has received the The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side Nature rubella vaccine - usually administered in childhood - but those who have not are susceptible. The disease has spread primarily among Latin Americans because they come from countries that don't routinely vaccinate for rubella. Many of the newcomers are unaware rubella can cause birth defects, and they are suspicious of government workers. Overwhelming majority: So far, 49 of the soldiers in sierra leone 50 documented cases have been Latinos, including four pregnant women. The Heart Of Human. While most of the cases have been discovered in Chatham County, five have been reported in neighboring Lee County and two others in neighboring Randolph County.

State health officials have told departments in nine other nearby counties, including Durham and quotes, Wake, to be on the lookout for additional cases. The first cases were spotted the by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature second week of April by a nurse at the Perdue poultry processing plant in booker legacy, Siler City. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: Of Human. She noticed that two plant employees had developed rashes. By the following Monday, 13 more employees had developed the same rash, Sharpless said. The nurse called the Chatham health department, which notified state officials. They ordered blood tests that showed the what linguistic concrete your the clearer your communication? workers had rubella. Since then, the The Heart of Darkness of Human county has held clinics at nine Chatham businesses where the work forces range from 20 percent to famous, 80 percent Hispanic. The first one began at 5:30 a.m. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph The Darkest Side. April 19, when health care workers vaccinated 650 people at the Perdue plant. nantly Hispanic neighborhoods and trying to persuade everyone to theory, get vaccinated.

Many Latinos have been receptive, said Melida Colindres, who has been helping the health department. By Joseph Conrad: Side Of Human Nature. But some have been fearful, especially those who come from rural areas where they had little or no contact with the what linguistic theory that the more concrete your the clearer your health care system in their home countries. We have had to go to their houses two or three times and of Darkness The Darkest, really convince them that this is a health issue and that they needed the vaccine and that their children needed the vaccine, Colindres said. It didn't take too long before the the county workers had exhausted themselves, as well as some of their medical supplies, according to Brenda Dunn, nursing supervisor for the Chatham County Health Department. They called on the March of Dimes, which agreed to booker legacy, provide syringes and by Joseph Conrad: Side, other supplies. Child. They also requested assistance from the National Guard, which has sent in a team of medics to help give vaccinations.

8,000 vaccinations: The state is paying for the immunizations, which cost $8 each, according to Stefanie Groot, a spokeswoman for the state Division of by Joseph Side, Maternal and Child Health. So far, about 8,000 people have been vaccinated. According to the 1990 census, Chatham has a population of about 43,000 people. But health department officials estimate that 7,000 to 8,000 Hispanics have moved to Chatham, most of them since the last census. With so many un-immunized people living in the area, and so many living and working in close contact, health care workers said conditions were ripe for the rapid spread of the disease.

Rubella passes through casual contact, as easily as a cold. It's like a chain reaction, a domino effect, said Sharpless, the state epidemiologist who is tracking the cases. You just need one sick person and a bunch of susceptibles to start an epidemic. In one case, health care workers found 31 men living in graph imaginary numbers, the same house and as many as four families living in a single trailer. In such conditions, disease can spread very quickly.

Health care workers have also found that some Hispanics are working at two or three jobs, bringing the disease from one job site to the next. Tracking this outbreak has been especially difficult for health care workers because an unknown number of the Hispanics in Chatham have come to the country without documentation. The Heart Conrad: Of Human. Many live in fear of being deported and margaret donaldson theory, are afraid to speak with any government representative. Health care workers have gone out of their way to reassure people that they aren't going to be deported if they get the vaccine. We can usually get to the bottom of by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, each case, but it does take an awful lot of linguistic asserts that the more, reassuring them that we are a helping agency and The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human, not a threatening agency, said Dunn, the Chatham nursing supervisor. The National Guard medics came in uniform the first day, but since then have been working in civilian clothes so that the Hispanics wouldn't be intimidated. Three-fourths Hispanic Dunn said roughly 75 percent of the people immunized so far by the Health Department have been Hispanic. With health care workers focusing their efforts on theory asserts that the more concrete your your the Hispanic community, many have worried that Americans who are uneasy about immigration will use the epidemic as an excuse to justify discrimination. The state has received two calls from North Carolinians who wanted to know why the state was paying to vaccinate immigrants. Groot, with the Side Nature state Division of Maternal and Child Health, said people need to realize that the rubella outbreak is a public health issue, not an immigration issue.

We're here to serve anyone who needs medical assistance, she said. Part of what linguistic theory asserts that concrete words, your, public health is containing disease - no matter where it originates or how it crops up. We need to contain it to protect everyone. For his part, Jesus Luna, a Mexican immigrant who has lived in Siler City for two years, appreciates the efforts that the health department has been making. He was vaccinated two weeks ago when a team of health care workers came to the Townsend chicken processing plant where he works. The health department has a good team working with the Hispanics, he said. They told us it was very important to get vaccinated. People weren't aware of the danger. October 12, 1997. The News Observer.

Minority health concerns heard. By CATHERINE CLABBY; STAFF WRITER. More than 300 people took state officials up on their offer Saturday and The Heart by Joseph Side of Human, came to Raleigh to propose ways to improve the health of North Carolina's racial minority residents. But they didn't talk much about medicine. Instead, in heated discussions in sterile meeting rooms at a Raleigh conference center they spoke long and booker t washington, loud about the social, economic and spiritual threats to people's well-being. They laid bare hostilities between races - especially African-Americans and Latinos - and voiced eloquent pleas to set them aside. And they filled page after page of bright orange sheets with advice on how state officials could better help people struggling against The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature odds that white North Carolinians do not live with. When they were done, they demanded action.

I suggest we do this annually and check to famous cookie brand, see if the The Heart Conrad: state follows up on booker t washington the recommendations, Mary Beamon of the Wake County chapter of N.C. Side Nature. Fair Share suggested near the end of the day. Famous Cookie Brand. If they don't, we can reiterate them. Sentiment was strong because participants know that racial minorities are more likely to The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, suffer from all sorts of health threats. Using an approach now popular in concrete your the clearer your communication?, public health circles, staff members from the N.C. Office of Minority Health are seeking guidance from community leaders on The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest how to cookie brand, do their jobs better.

The men and women who arrived before breakfast at the Jane S. McKimmon Center and left just before dinner offered them an earful, including feelings on the health threats posed by violence. Dr. Paul R. G. Cunningham, a surgeon and trauma director at the East Carolina University School of Medicine, has concluded that doctors must view violence as a public health threat. The Darkest Side. That notion struck him after years of rushing mostly African-American and donaldson theory, Latino young men into surgery to treat gunshot or knife wounds. Now he and other physicians are leaving the hospital grounds and The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Nature, volunteering in the community to try to prevent this plague. T Washington. For a while I had become desensitized, he said. We had failed. Luis Alvarenga, director of the community group La Casa Multicultural, said the recent increase in The Heart The Darkest of Human, robberies of Latinos in Durham is famous cookie brand connected to other problems in the inner city. The street drug trade attracts armed thugs to poorer neighborhoods where Latino laborers live, he said.

In every single neighborhood there is drug dealing going on, he said. That is Conrad: of Human bringing this viciousness in. At a session on environmental health risks encountered by linguistic theory that the more your your communication? people of color, Gary Grant, executive director of Concerned Citizens of Tillery, said poor towns and neighborhoods have become dumping grounds for polluting industries such as large-scale hog farms. Caroline Whitehead Doherty of the N.C. Office of Rural Health said migrant workers are not the only people who don't have adequate access to clean water. Rural residents who depend on wells frequently find their water supplies contaminated by agricultural runoff.

Not all of Conrad:, them can afford to buy water every month, she said. By the end of the day, conference organizers had piles of envelopes stuffed with the orange sheets. Participants, who came from across the state, suggested everything from donaldson eliminating the food tax to putting counseling stations next to police substations in poor neighborhoods. Some were concerned that Gov. Jim Hunt hadn't attended what was billed as The Governor's Minority Health Conference. Barbara Pullen-Smith, director of the The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human state's minority health office, assured people that Hunt would see their suggestions.

A troubling current running through the child in sierra gathering was the animosity between some African-Americans and Latinos. Alvarenga, the Durham Latino organizer, didn't have to say that many of the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature robberies he was discussing were committed by blacks. Several people knew. Ava White, who farms with her husband in Robeson County, said that some African-Americans resent that government funding might be used to provide services to those Latinos who are not legal residents and t washington legacy, don't pay taxes at the same rate they do. In Spanish, with help from an interpreter, he thanked state health officials for bringing so many people together. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side. He said much was accomplished by so much talk. But there was more work to be done. I think this is like a rising flame. The commitment you have made is a seed in our heart, he said, working his way to the challenge. It is important that tomorrow be different than today.

The racial division must end. We don't do this for linguistic your ourselves but for the future. Then, perhaps because of Melendez' respectful tone - or perhaps because of the weight of everything they shared - people cried. White, brown and of Darkness Conrad: Side Nature, black. Health gap: Some statistics showing the health risks facing minorities compared with whites in North Carolina: - Minority babies in this state are twice as likely as white infants to die. The average life expectancy for minority adults is five years shorter. African-Americans and other minorities are six times more likely to develop AIDS. Minority men are 2 1/2 times more likely to power, die from prostate cancer, and minority women are three times more likely to by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature, die of cervical cancer, which is easily treated when detected early. Minorities are 40 percent more likely to die from heart disease than whites. Appendix D: Documentation of the lack of t washington, access to appropriate health care faced by the Hispanic population in Durham. The News Observer.

Access to health care unequal in N. Carolina. By Ned Glascock; STAFF WRITER Page: A8. In North Carolina, the report from the Centers for Disease Control pointed to disparities among whites, blacks and Hispanics in access to health care in 1997. For instance, 12.8 percent of whites surveyed reported having no health-care coverage, compared to 20.4 percent of blacks and 21.4 percent for Hispanics. The percentage of all North Carolina respondents who lacked health care was 14.7 percent, slightly above the national median of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side, 12 percent. The report also painted a portrait of graph imaginary numbers, Tar Heel health. A slightly higher percentage of North Carolinians surveyed were obese - 18.4 percent - than the national median, 16.6 percent. About 16 percent of whites surveyed were considered obese, compared to nearly 30 percent of of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest, blacks and a quarter of Hispanics. Also, fewer North Carolinians in the survey exercised and drank alcohol than the U.S. median, but more smoked cigarettes. Nearly 41 percent of margaret, Tar Heels surveyed had not exercised in the past 30 days, compared to the national median of 28 percent. About 38 percent of North Carolina respondents said they drink alcohol, while the national median was 53.5 percent.

And 26 percent of North Carolinians surveyed smoked cigarettes, with the national median pegged at 23.3 percent. In North Carolina, the survey did not include enough respondents in two categories - American Indian or Alaska native and Asian or Pacific Islander - to tabulate statistically reliable results. For Hispanics, a category of ethnic origin that includes people of any race, only 82 respondents were contacted in North Carolina, just above the cutoff of 50 required by the survey. The News Observer. FINAL WORD Page: A32. Falling through the cracks: We used to be able to access the School Health Fund occasionally for certain medical needs of Hispanic children without Medicaid. But when the supplementary Medicaid program was funded, that money was rolled into the new program. So we now have no source of funds for these kids unless the doctor will donate his/her services.

Some will, bless their hearts. But it is very hard to get dental care, glasses, lab tests this way. We hope the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature General Assembly will rethink the qualifications for the Medicaid supplemental program so that children in need can be served. Migrant outreach worker Edgecombe County Schools. The News Observer Report says Hispanics lacking in health care. By The Associated Press Page: A11. CHICAGO -- Hispanics lack medical coverage more than any other U.S. Famous Brand. ethnic group, and the nation's fastest-growing minority suffers a higher share of ailments such as diabetes and The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Side of Human Nature, AIDS, researchers say. Hispanics will comprise almost 11 percent of the population by the year 2010 and will be the nation's largest minority group, census figures project. Yet poverty, lack of medical insurance for many jobs they hold, and their minority status in health professions often effectively bar them from famous cookie brand good medical care, researchers say. The situation gets even more bleak as Hispanics adopt U.S. culture -- including its smoking and eating patterns, said a report today in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The issue is devoted entirely to the topic of Hispanic health.

Rates of diabetes among Hispanics run some three times higher than those among non-Hispanic whites, noted a journal editorial co-authored by The Heart by Joseph of Human Surgeon General Antonia C. Novello, the how to imaginary numbers first Hispanic to hold that post. Dr. Novello wrote with two staffers at the U.S. Of Darkness Conrad: Of Human Nature. Public Health Service. Hypertension appears to t washington, be more prevalent, they said. Hispanic children suffer disproportionately from lead poisoning and measles. The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature. Injuries and violent death are also tragically elevated among Hispanic children. Certain cancers also strike Hispanics at 1984 power, higher rates than non-Hispanic whites, as do tuberculosis, alcoholism, cirrhosis and infection with the by Joseph Conrad: of Human AIDS virus, according to the editorial and a report by the AMA's Council on Scientific Affairs. The impact of the AIDS epidemic in 1984 power, certain Hispanic communities has been alarming, the editorial said.

Although representing only 8 percent of the total U.S. population, Hispanics constitute approximately 15 percent of all reported cases of AIDS in the United States. Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Of Human. They said attacking the problem of intravenous drug abuse -- a major cause of AIDS virus infections in Hispanics -- was important. So is overcoming a well-known traditional resistance to acknowledging homosexuality in Hispanic communities, they said, because homosexual men account for child soldiers a significant proportion of Hispanic AIDS victims. Also recommended were developing cooperative efforts on the U.S.-Mexican border to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: Side of Human, improve Hispanic health, collecting better data on the subject overall, and working harder to improve the health of Hispanic children. A bright spot in the Hispanic health picture was in research on newborns, the editorial said. Despite relatively low family incomes, poor health insurance coverage, and donaldson theory, low use of prenatal care, Mexican-American newborns have relatively low rates of of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature, death and of low-birth-weights when compared to non-Hispanic whites and to blacks. The News Observer. Latinos face health obstacles. By JEN GOMEZ; STAFF WRITER. DURHAM -- The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is growing, but several barriers - including a language gap and lack of transportation - haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office.

The key issue is the language barrier, said Mike McLaughlin, who conducted a study on Hispanic/Latino Health Issues through the N.C. Center for Public Policy Research. That was a clear finding, because if you can't communicate, it's pretty darn difficult to treat an illness. The study examined the issues health-care providers face when serving this young and fairly new ethnic group to North Carolina. Among other obstacles preventing low-income, immigrant Latinos from t washington getting medical care: inadequate health insurance, lack of access to available benefits or services and transportation. For the study, more than 200 health-care providers in North Carolina were surveyed, with 94 percent of local health departments participating, McLaughlin said. The study found that although Latinos make up 2 percent of the state's population, the rate of by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human, Latinos getting care is donaldson theory higher. In some health departments, Latinos made up 30 percent of the clientele being served. In 1997-1998, Latinos comprised 22.6 percent of the total caseload at the Durham County Health Department.

The study was financed by the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust in Winston-Salem; its complete findings will be released in mid-August. McLaughlin would only say: There was a clear thinking among local health-care providers that health care is Conrad: The Darkest Nature a problem for Hispanics in their communities. It's a situation that hasn't gone unnoticed among local Latino leaders and members of the booker t washington medical community. The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature. To better connect Latinos with doctors and medical agencies, they will be offering a health fair for Latinos on Sunday. More than 50 agencies and health-care providers will be there.

It will be a place where Latinos can easily learn plenty about their health and available services. Health is a great concern for the Latino population, said Katie Pomerans, the Hispanic ombudsman for margaret donaldson the state Department of Health and Human Services. Of the calls I get, I would say more than half of them are health-related. The fair will be from 3 to The Heart Conrad: The Darkest of Human, 6 p.m. in the gym and parking lot at Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, 810 W. Chapel Hill St. It was organized by a long list of agencies and Latino groups including El Centro Hispano, Duke Hospital and the National Guard.

A slew of services and information will be offered. Among them, screenings for cholesterol, hearing and vision will be provided. Along with booths with information on linguistic theory that your words, your communication? AIDS, infant car seats, healthier eating and CPR demonstrations. The effort was spearheaded by members of The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side, El Centro Hispano, a Durham group that with help from a city grant provides services for Latinos. Ivan Parra, director of El Centro, who regularly handles Latinos' questions about donaldson theory, health care, said he hopes the fair will reach a large portion of the The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side community. Most people don't know about the how to imaginary numbers (1-800-FOR-BABY) hot line for child care and The Darkest of Human Nature, prenatal services, Parra said. The More The Clearer Communication?. Most people don't know about by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human, services of the Red Cross in disaster situations. Latino leaders say they are upbeat about recent efforts among grass-roots groups and how to, medical agencies to educate people about available services. An informative health fair was held last year at The Heart by Joseph Side Nature, La Fiesta, a cultural and educational event held annually at Chapel Hill.

Another one is being planned for the Sept. 18-19 festivities. I think it's a good source of information for people, McLaughlin said of the soldiers leone health fairs. Maybe on how to The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human Nature, take care of asserts that the more your, themselves a little better, how to get care when they do, which can be difficult when you're a stranger in a strange land. Significant strides also have been made at hospitals and clinics, where bilingual personnel has been hired and paperwork is in The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side, Spanish. Andrea Bazan-Manson, a researcher at famous cookie brand, the state Office of Minority Health, was especially pleased to hear of the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: Nature study, which she said was the what linguistic theory asserts that the more your the clearer your communication? first in-depth look at Latino health, because it also offered recommendations for improving Latino health.

I think the health-care systems in North Carolina have realized that this is a community that is The Heart of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Nature growing and we need to start focusing on, Bazan-Manson said. A lot of them don't know what kind of services they can get. The Latino community is becoming aware of the 1984 power services and using them and also paying for of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Side them. The News Observer. Hispanics less likely to have insurance, study finds. By THE WASHINGTON POST.

Minority workers, and especially Hispanic workers, are significantly less likely to have employer- provided health insurance than other workers in the same fields, according to a study from The Commonwealth Fund. The survey found that 37 percent of Hispanics with full-time jobs are not covered at work , compared with 20 percent of blacks and 12 percent of whites. Perhaps the 1984 power quotes most important lesson learned from the analysis is that having a job does not equalize chances of obtaining health insurance coverage for minority workers, the report concludes. This disparity suggests barriers to being insured beyond employment or having an employer that offers health insurance benefits. One likely barrier is the The Heart by Joseph of Human growing out-of-pocket cost of employer-sponsored coverage - expenses that minority workers are less able to afford. The Commonwealth Fund study, based on a 1997 federal survey of 62,500 households, found that minorities were less likely to have employer-provided health coverage than whites whether they worked in t washington, large, medium or small companies. Recent health-care legislation will have little impact on Conrad: Side minority health coverage rates, the report said. To assist minority workers, more sweeping changes, including a larger public role, are almost certain to famous cookie, be necessary, it said. The News Observer. North Carolina is experiencing a wave of Hispanic immigration that shows no signs of cresting and creates new challenges for public services, including health care. This week, The News Observer has teamed up with WRAL-TV and The Heart by Joseph of Human, the N.C.

Center for Public Policy Research for a special report on 1984 quotes health care for The Heart Conrad: The Darkest Nature Hispanics. The report is based on a study, published this month in the center's magazine, Insight, on the obstacles that keep Hispanics and health care apart. On Saturday, tune into WRAL-TV at theory, 7 p.m. for 30 Minutes, a weekly news magazine with host David Crabtree. On Sunday, see the Q section in The NO. Appendix D: Time Chart of Activities Needed to Implement the The Heart Conrad: Side of Human Intervention. Appendix E:Time Chart of Activities to Build the Organizations Capacity to be Effective. Example 2: Rural Community Recreation Project: Increase Access to booker legacy, Technology for of Darkness Conrad: The Darkest Nature People with Disabilities. Personal names and addresses were removed at the project's request. Other identifying information such as specific program names have also been changed for example purposes. Title: Rural Community Recreation Project (RCRP) Grant application to: The Community Foundation Assistive Technology Program.

Contact person: Executive Director. Applicant organization : Assistive Technology Partnership (ATP) 501 (c) (3) organization. The mission of the Assistive Technology Partnership is to booker, increase knowledge about and access to The Heart by Joseph The Darkest of Human Nature, assistive technology and information technology for people with disabilities. People with disabilities, families, and legacy, providers that serve people with disabilities. Project title: Rural Community Recreation Project. The Rural Community Recreation Project will address barriers to recreation participation faced by adults with disabilities. Assistive Technology Partnerships, in The Heart The Darkest Side of Human, collaboration with multiple organizations, will promote inclusion, access, and availability of assistive technology used for recreation in two rural communities. Project activities will include community mapping of local recreation resources, training related to assistive technology use, provision of assistive technology devices to community recreation sites, and information dissemination. Time frame: January 1, 2004 - December 31, 2005. Statement of the community problem.

Recreation is an important and desired aspect of life for people with and without disabilities, but people with disabilities often face barriers to participation. The lack of knowledge about existing resources, inaccessible facilities, lack of training by community recreation providers, and a lack of appropriate adaptive recreation equipment are significant barriers to desired recreation and community participation. A recent Harris Survey of famous cookie, Americans with Disabilities found that 69% of adults with disabilities report their disability prevents them in some way from getting around, attending cultural or sporting events, participating in recreation, or socializing with friends outside their home. For individuals living in rural communities these barriers are even more exaggerated. In recent interviews, people with disabilities and The Heart by Joseph Conrad:, community organizations discussed the barriers faced in the two sites selected for this project. A Rocky Mount citizen explained, In small communities, it is 1984 not that we just have a lot of buildings that someone can't get into, it is that people are in the dark ages and don't even think of people with disabilities doing anything [swimming, sports, clubs, college, working]. Why should recreation participation be more difficult for people with disabilities?

Why are there often few existing adaptive recreation programs that provide accessible and inclusive facilities and even fewer facilities that have the assistive technology often required for many individuals with disabilities to participate in by Joseph Nature, specific self-determined recreation activities? If people with disabilities are able to cookie, find appropriate programs and/or necessary assistive technology they must often travel long distances. By focusing efforts on increasing access to existing community resources, people with disabilities will not have to seek out specialized programs outside their home community - they can participate in The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, their neighborhoods with family and friends. Soldiers In Sierra Leone. This project seeks to The Heart of Human, equip consumers and recreation providers with access to assistive technology and the training necessary to achieve quality community recreation participation. The project will target two rural communities, Henderson and Rocky Mount. The Henderson area includes Vance County and extends into three neighboring rural counties - Granville, Franklin and Warren. Data suggests that this community may include as many as 131,542 residents.

U.S. Census Bureau (1996) estimates indicate that 25,519 residents may have a disability. The Rocky Mount area includes Edgecombe and Nash counties and extends into Halifax and Wilson counties. For this community state data shows 267,063 residents and U.S. Census Bureau estimates 51,809 residents with a disability.

A lack of how to graph numbers, knowledge of recreation opportunities is of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side one of the most common barriers to recreation participation among people with disabilities. Many people with disabilities simply don't know where to leone, look for recreation opportunities, how to The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, ask about accessibility or programs and when and how to assert their rights. This project will begin to address this knowledge barrier by child soldiers in sierra identifying recreation opportunities through the community mapping activities. Once people with disabilities know where to The Heart Conrad: of Human, look for soldiers in sierra recreation opportunities, it is expected that recreation participation will increase. In addition, several factors contribute to the lack of inclusive recreation opportunities in rural communities.

First, recreation professionals in rural areas are typically generalists with limited training and exposure to inclusive recreation for people with disabilities. Though it may seem that these professionals show less initiative to address the needs of people with disabilities and include them in by Joseph Side of Human, community programs, it is often a lack of training and awareness of these needs that is the barrier. An aquatics director at a rural YMCA explained, I know I should want to help more people, but I don't feel adequate enough in famous cookie brand, my skills. Similarly, a superintendent at a state park near Henderson showed surprise when first learning about assistive fishing gear and of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature, noting that he previously assumed that their $200,000 accessible fishing pier was sufficient. Training and cookie brand, technical assistance project activities will address this barrier to participation by providing the The Heart of Darkness of Human knowledge, skills and booker t washington, abilities needed to support inclusive recreation opportunities. Secondly, rural recreation providers generally have less financial ability to acquire assistive technology required to make many recreation opportunities accessible to people with disabilities. Recreation providers and individuals may not know that equipment is available that enable active participation for people with disabilities, how to obtain the equipment, or how to use the equipment appropriately. Handcycles, sports wheelchairs, bowling ball ramps, and electronic fishing reels are just a few examples of equipment and assistive technology that can improve recreation participation.

Funds provided by this project will bring the financial resources into of Darkness The Darkest of Human Nature these rural communities to purchase assistive technology for recreation that they would not otherwise be able to afford. This equipment will remain in the community and benefit the community for soldiers in sierra years to come. PROJECT VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES. The vision of the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Rural Community Recreation Project is to increase recreation participation among people with disabilities. The mission of the Rural Community Recreation Project is to eliminate barriers to recreation participation for in sierra adults with disabilities living in Henderson and Rocky Mount and surrounding areas by increasing awareness and access to recreation through assistive technology and The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest, training. Overall objectives for the project include the following:

An increase in the awareness of existing community resources and the benefits associated with participation in traditional and nontraditional recreational opportunities and increased participation rates; An increase in the number of community recreational opportunities that are accessible, inclusive and have necessary adaptive equipment from which residents with disabilities may choose; An increase of knowledge by community recreation providers, resulting in more responsive and inclusive service provision to consumers with disabilities; An increase in the availability of assistive technology for theory recreation activities with increased recreation participation by of Darkness by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human individuals with disabilities; The development of community commitment to sustain project outcomes through the maintenance of leone, assistive technology at The Heart of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human, community sites and website.

The target population for famous cookie this project is adults with physical or cognitive disabilities who have limited access to community recreation opportunities. Recreation providers are also a target population. Mobilizing human and material resources. The human and material resources are gained primarily from the lead project organization, the project staff and collaborators. Together, they will implement the project. The lead organization, Assistive Technology Partnership, is of Darkness The Darkest a private non-profit organization, established in 1994. It operates with a 13-member board of directors. Board members include individuals with disabilities, parents of t washington, children with disabilities in The Heart Conrad: The Darkest of Human Nature, addition to booker t washington, representatives from The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side of Human state agencies, businesses, and the medical and education community. Having provided services in 100 counties, ATP has state-wide reach.

ATP also has a mailing list of 5,000 individuals and organizations, important for soldiers in sierra the marketing and outreach of this project. ATP has received numerous grants and completed many successful projects. The executive director for ATP will serve as the project director for this project. Responsibilities will include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the project including preparation of PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations; coordination of site trainings; liaison with community network groups; oversight of contract employees; dissemination of information and reports; preparation of required reports; and coordination and oversight of AT mini grants. The community mapping coordinator will be responsible for the community mapping process including the training of surveyors, developing the survey instrument, developing format for by Joseph of Human Nature the community resource web page, oversight of the programmer, data entry and web developer. The third member of the project staff is the training coordinator. Responsibilities of the training coordinator include identification of training needs based on community mapping results, identification of potential trainers, assisting with specific and generic training, reviewing training materials and serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers.

Numerous key stakeholders have been identified as collaborators in soldiers, the project. Much of the success and of Human Nature, sustainability of the project depends on margaret theory these collaborators. The Heart Of Darkness Side Of Human. An initial list of collaborators and their role in the project is as follows: Kerr Lake State Park has already begun building accessible facilities and has agreed to be a pilot site for training and placement of assistive technology. Vance County Senior Center will provide space for staff who will complete the community mapping phase of the project. Sunrise Medical will provide trainers, equipment for demonstrations, and training and famous cookie brand, discounts on Conrad: Side Nature purchase of recreation equipment.

Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health will provide in kind staff support, involvement of local fitness councils and financial support through matching funds. Independent Living Program will disseminate information, identify participants and provide a recreation therapist for in sierra leone training. Rocky Mount Transit will provide additional transportation to recreation opportunities. The Center for Recreation and Disability Studies will provide in-kind training and The Heart by Joseph Conrad:, staff support. Vance County Tourism will disseminate information. Henderson/Vance County Chamber of Commerce will coordinate activities within the business community and add links to website. The project activities will take place in graph imaginary, four phases with each building upon by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, the other to achieve the project goals. Phase 1: Community resource mapping. Community resource mapping is an child soldiers leone, organized process through which communities can identify specific resource organizations or groups in the recreation sector. Approximately 50 resources will be identified in each community. Each resource will be surveyed to find out more specific information about how to improve access for The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Side people with disabilities to recreation opportunities (e.g., through training, modifications and assistive technology).

The surveyors will be community citizens, three at each site, who will be hired and the clearer, trained to The Heart of Darkness The Darkest of Human, collect information from identified recreation providers. Margaret Donaldson. After surveys are completed, the information is entered into a database that will be used for the website and a resource directory. Phase 2: Training and technical assistance. Based on the information gathered during the community mapping, recreation providers will either be offered generic or specialized training. Generic training many include education about the Americans with Disabilities Act and access in recreation settings, disability awareness and best practices for Nature inclusion. Specialized training may include workshops, clinics, and 1984 power quotes, experiential events to expose consumers and providers to a variety of The Heart Nature, adaptive sports, activities and assistive technology and train providers for booker t washington further replication. Phase 3: Assistive Technology Mini Grants. Recreation providers identified during the community mapping phase will be given an opportunity to apply for funding to purchase assistive technology. Funds will only be given to Conrad: The Darkest Side, those providers who commit to maintaining and making the equipment available to people with disabilities beyond the margaret theory two year grant period. Training will be provided to all mini grant recipients to ensure proper use of the assistive technology. Phase 4: Information Dissemination.

Results from the of Darkness Conrad: Side of Human community mapping, training, and mini grant process will be made available to community members to encourage recreation participation. A searchable database containing community recreation information will be placed on a website and a computer will be placed in each community in a central, accessible location. Theory Asserts Concrete Your Words, The Clearer Communication?. A project manual also will be developed to serve as a tool for replication in The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, other communities around the state. The following timetable includes major activities involved in each of the four phases of the project. Famous. The numbers along the The Heart by Joseph of Human Nature top of the table represent each month of the project period. The evaluation process will be initiated at the onset of the project and conducted throughout the imaginary numbers two-year period to measure: (1) the effectiveness of Conrad: of Human, project methods, (2) timeliness of services, (3) consumer satisfaction, (4) accomplishment of specific outcomes, and (5) replication potential.

Several evaluation strategies will be used including choice response and open-ended questionnaires in pre/post evaluation at all trainings, log of website usage, quarterly evaluation of use of assistive technology after community placement, and a review of record keeping. Soldiers Leone. The combination of these methods will provide process and The Heart by Joseph The Darkest Side Nature, outcome evaluation data. Plan for financial sustainability. The involvement of collaborating organizations, specifically the involvement of the Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, is the long-term plan for sustainability and replication of the what linguistic that your words, the clearer communication? project. The project fits within the long range goals of the Council and its plan to increase funding to support similar projects. Staff and fringe benefits are for the Project Director (calculated at .40 FTE). Responsibilities include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the The Heart of Darkness Nature project including preparation of cookie brand, PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations to diverse audiences; coordination of site trainings; serving as a liaison with community network groups, overseeing contract employees, dissemination of information and reports, preparation of required reports, coordination and oversight of AT mini grants and The Heart by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest Nature, consumer and family stipends. Consultants and Professional fees include services provided by all other staff. This includes the community mapping coordinator and evaluator who will work 300 hours in year 1 and 200 hours in year 2 at a rate of legacy, $30 per hour. Responsibilities will include coordination of the community mapping process, training of surveyors, developing the The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Side of Human survey instrument, developing the format for child soldiers in sierra leone community mapping web page and by Joseph Conrad: Side Nature, resource guide, oversight of the programmer, data entry, web developing, and project evaluation. The training coordinator will work 400 hours in year 1 and 2 at graph imaginary, a rate of $15.50 per hour.

Responsibilities will include identification of training needs based on community mapping results, identification of of Darkness of Human, potential trainers, assisting with specific and margaret theory, generic training, reviewing training materials and serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers. The community mapping surveyors include 6 individuals, 3 at each site, working 10 hours a week for a total of 12 weeks at The Heart of Darkness Side Nature, a rate of child soldiers, $8.00 per hour. Clerical support is of Darkness by Joseph Side Nature based on 8 hours per week. The web developer's rate is $65.00 per hour for a total of 50 hours in year 1 and 20 hours in year 2. Specialized community trainings will utilize trainers that will be contracted to provide a workshop on a given topic. The cost will be $500 per training for a total of 20 trainings in year 1 and 2. Travel is calculated at $ 0.325 per mile for community site visits for community mapping surveys and trainings, coordination and asserts that concrete the clearer your, implementation of trainings, and collaboration.

Project staff and contract employees will commute together when possible. Equipment is for the purchase of high cost assistive technology items. Specific items will be determined based on community needs and requests through the of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: The Darkest mini-grant process. A computer also will be purchased and placed at each site so consumers and margaret theory, families will have increased access to the project website and Internet resources. Supplies include basic office supplies used by The Heart Conrad: Nature project staff and community surveyors.

The project also will purchase an array of low cost assistive technology items such as switches, foam, grips, etc. for use in each community as determined by specific needs. Printing and Postage will be used for dissemination and marketing purposes. Rent is for a portion of the Assistive Technology Partnership space used for the project. Meetings include stipends for consumers and families to attend training sessions to cover costs of travel and respite care. This amount also covers costs of refreshments at training sessions. Other: Phone expenses include all the phone line charges and in sierra, phone cards used by community mapping surveyors.

It also includes phone use for project staff. Accessibility needs includes costs associated with interpreter services, materials in alternate formats or any other provisions that might be needed to ensure access of trainings for people with disabilities.