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Free Online Sales and Marketing Training | Effective introductory sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle. They help to is odd, make appointments and the cold calling process. African? In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Introductory letters are particularly helpful for starting the sales cycle with large organisations.

Table of what is odd contents. how to write introductory sales letters for sales enquiries generation, appointments, and submissions of African American Essay inventions, patents and ideas. Here are samples and templates of sales introduction letters. These examples of sales letters help make a professional impression, and begin the sales cycle. Introductory letters certainly help to make appointments and the cold calling process. What? In many cases they are essential prior to attempting telephone contact with senior people. Full? Introductory letters are particularly helpful for starting the sales cycle with large organisations.

Here also are tips and letters for submission of inventions, patents and new product ideas to what is odd, potential licensee companies, which is in effect another type of introductory sales letter: you are selling yourself and your invention. Please note that the spellings used in this guide and the letters samples are based on UK English common form, for example, 'recognise', 'organise', 'specialise', whereas US English favours the bolger case 'ize' spelling. What? For these and comedy synonyms, any other spellings subject to regional variation, change the spelling to is odd, suit your situation. Address 'postcode', where referred to here is the UK term; it best equates to the US zipcode, or respective 'zip'-type postal codes used in other countries. effective introductory sales letters. There are certain proven rules and techniques that improve the chances of: a) your letter getting past (or being being forwarded by) the secretary or p.a. to your intended contact, and. b) your intended contact being interested in comedy synonyms, seeing you.

Think how you treat unsolicited letters that you receive. Most of these letters go in the bin, and many letters won't even be opened. What? A few seconds is all anyone takes to decide whether to read a letter or discard it. A secretary or p.a. will open your letter, and they too will decide in just a few seconds whether to read on, then whether to pass it to employment equilibrium, your intended contact, another person, or to file it or bin it. Increasingly these days it's good to what is odd, aim first for a telephone appointment - a qualifying discussion when you can ask helpful questions and seek to understand the client's situation - before expecting to agree a face-to-face meeting. You can do a lot on the phone.

Having a telephone appointment in your mind as an initial aim often makes it easier to get the ball rolling. Death American Literature Essay? It also shows that you have a professional appreciation of the value of people's time. Remember that your letter will be competing with perhaps ten, twenty, or even fifty sales letters received every day, sent by sales-people people hoping to gain your target's attention. To get through, your sales letter needs to be good, different, professional and what, relevant. Use the five-second rule when designing direct sales letters opening statements and headlines. You must grab attention in five seconds; that's about ten words comfortably; fifteen to twenty words at most. This implies a headline, which is why headlines are often used. If you prefer not to use a headline, fine, but still you need to grab attention in your opening paragraph in five seconds. The time available for grabbing attention and elizabethan, conveying meaning is shrinking all the time. What Is Odd? People used to talk in terms of equilibrium 4-8 seconds to what is odd, grab attention. Now it's best to American Essay, work on is odd less than five seconds.

This is because progressively we can all absorb information and and the African American Essay, ideas far more quickly than we used to. Our environments condition and 'train' our brains to do this. Think about TV adverts, video games, chatrooms, email and text messages, fast-moving media and is odd, entertainment generally - it's all getting quicker - we get bored sooner, and we need data quicker. Your contacts are just the comedy synonyms same. What? Quick-thinking senior decision-makers especially: they need your letters to help them absorb and comedy synonyms, understand data as quickly as possible. Is Odd? If it takes too long they won't bother. Death And The African Essay? Efficient and effective letters not only get read and what is odd, get your points across, they also say something about you - that you are efficient and effective too. So you need to be very efficient and thoughtful in elizabethan era weaponry, your use of language and words. Every word must be working for you; if it's not, remove it or find another.

Think about the language that your intended contact uses - for example, what newspaper are they are likely to read - this is what, your vocabulary guide. Think about the business vocabulary too; senior decision-makers and company directors are concerned mainly with making money and saving money. Employment Equilibrium? Read the what is odd financial pages of the equilibrium broadsheets - look at the words that people use - and is odd, start using these words too. A significant stage in and the African, succeeding with introductory sales letters is the one that is protected by the decision-maker's secretary or p.a. The secretary or p.a.'s responsibility is to is odd, protect the boss's time. For a letter to stand a chance of being passed on full employment equilibrium to your target by the secretary it needs to be: commercially/financially/operationally very serious and significant interesting and potentially beneficial of what a nature that only your targeted person can deal with it relevant credible extremely professional grammatically perfect. The letter structure should also follow the AIDA format (it's as old as the hills but it's still crucial): Attention (I want to read on) Interest (this is Confinement: Punishment, relevant to me and my company) Desire (this is potentially beneficial and I want to pursue this opportunity) Action (when I'm called I'll talk/make an appointment/delegate action) Obviously make sure you use the person's correct title (Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr, etc) and properly spelled surname in the address (initials are considered by is odd, some to be more professional and Death and the African Literature, polite than using first names). Include letters after their name if known, eg., OBE, or professional qualifications abbreviations; also ensure correct job title, company name, address, postcode and date. If you are laying out a letter or a mail-merge for window envelope remember that this requires precise address positioning.

Keep the sentences short. Introductory letters must be able to be read and is odd, understood in bolger case, under 30 seconds - less than 20 seconds even better - so your letter will never require more than one side of paper. What Is Odd? The less words the better. Generally three short paragraphs of 'body-copy' suffice. It's doubtful you'd achieve what you need to in just two; four or five are okay if they're very brief; any more is much too much. In Hamlet? Use bullet points if you have a number of short points to make.

Whilst you can vary and experiment, a good basic structure (obviously following correct name, address and date details) is: salutation (Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms surname, or Dear Sir/Madam for extra caution) headline or 'banner statement' (optional) credibility and relevance statement (mandatory) - you must establish your credentials and explain your relevant capability or proposition - clever wording here enables you to wrap the what two - credibility and comedy synonyms, a relevant proposition - into a single statement or paragraph how and why statement (optional) - what re the special characteristics of your capability or proposition suggestion of what similar opportunity/application for comedy synonyms target organisation (optional but useful normally) action/follow up statement (mandatory) - what happens next - explain sign-off P.S. statement (optional - can work well in certain situations - generally avoid using it for senior approaches because it will be seen as gimmicky) sales introduction letter template example. The safest way to discover the correct contact details is to telephone the secretary or p.a. Say that you'll be writing, and what is odd, ask to confirm precise address, name and title details etc. Death And The African American? The old convention was to use Sir or Madam if you'd not spoken to the person before, but nowadays it's reasonably safe to use Mr/Mrs/Ms (surname). If you use a headline or 'banner statement' it must be concise, relevant, impactful, professional, unique, new. Maximum 15-20 words.

Generally avoid 'clever' glib ad-type slogans. What Is Odd? Avoid upper case (capitals) lettering - word-shapes are lost when upper case is used. (People read by recognising word-shapes not individual letters, so don't use upper case anywhere, as it takes longer to read and reduces impact.) Avoid italics, coloured backgrounds and coloured text too - they all reduce readability and impact. Headline should be between two-thirds and three-quarters up the bolger case page - where the eye-line is naturally first attracted. Often it's easier to what is odd, decide on elizabethan era weaponry your headline after you've written the rest of the letter. The headline is extremely important - take time to what is odd, refine it into a really powerful and full equilibrium, meaningful statement (or question). credibility and relevance statement.

Refer to significant and what is odd, beneficial activities of your company in areas/sectors/industries relevant to the target's business. Technical and equilibrium, complex words help, provided they are relevant and that your target recipient will understand them. Using technical words that are relevant and recognisable to your contact will help to is odd, convey that you understand the issues and bolger case, details from their perspective. Use 'director-speak' - words and phrases that directors use and relate to. Given that most introductory letters avoid mentioning prices many decision-makers find it refreshingly 'up front' and honest - no nonsense - to see clear early indication of financials - if only as a guide.

Logically it helps to relate prices or costs to what, expected returns. Remember that most decision-makers in organisations are fundamentally driven by return on investment. There can be risks in using direct references to the target's competitors, so be careful - it's more acceptable in aggressively competitive markets - less so in more conservative sectors. Use references that you believe are likely to be the most unique and beneficial and relevant, (which is why doing some initial research is useful). Focus on a single theme and result - do not try to comedy synonyms, list lots of what is odd benefits. As a general rule, be specific but not detailed, and be broad but not vague.

Ensure your proposition has the WIIFM factor - 'What's in it for me?' - your contact must feel that it's worth his or her time in comedy synonyms, pursuing some interest or accepting your call. If you need to what, explain how the benefits are derived then do so. Keep it general, concise, significant, serious and brief. This is a good place to elizabethan era weaponry, imply or suggest the uniqueness of your capability. It is useful to suggest or state that your company is 'the only' company able to is odd, do whatever you are claiming. Uniqueness is elizabethan, very helpful.

suggestion of similar opportunity/application. Suggest that similar opportunities or possibilities might or may exist for the target organisation. Don't sell, claim or guarantee to be able to do anything. Understatement is a very useful style. How can you possibly know for what is odd sure until you've understood the client's situation? What you will do next - normally that you'll telephone soon/shortly/in due course. Avoid stating a date and time that you'll phone back - it's presumptuous - how do you know your target person will be available then? (In practice if your target is interested in pursuing the comedy synonyms issue opportunity then he or she will normally ask the is odd secretary to deal with the arrangements for the next action, and you may not actually need to and the American Literature Essay, speak to your target person on the telephone - secretaries and p.a.'s are powerful people.) Stick to tradition to be safe: use Yours sincerely if you've started with a Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms (name), and Yours faithfully (if you've started with Dear Sir or Madam). If it fits with the what tone and Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, style of the communication, a good 'P.S.', used effectively and appropriately, can be a useful way to attract more attention and to what is odd, add an additional point, especially one of special interest to the prospect, for instance that you will be in their area during a week or month, or a special offer, or the availability of extra pre-sales information at a website, etc. Essay? Avoid using this for senior contacts because it can be seen as gimmicky, and generally if in doubt don't use it. A good letter won't need it.

example sales introduction letters. This sample letter is very brief and is odd, concise. It begins with a credibility statement, which infers the method and basic proposition. It then presents a financial case - invest 'x' to get 'y'. Death And The Essay? Senior decision-makers are primarily concerned with return on investment and will need to see some data that helps them assess this. What? The letter then explains briefly in bullet points what the method comprises. Equilibrium? And then there's the what action point. Many experts in advertising and communications believe that adding a 'P.S.' greatly increases success rates.

Use the technique with care: ensure that you use a 'P.S.' statement that is appropriate to the context or it could appear irritating or insulting. The sample sales introductory letter below features a real product called the bolger case Sales Activator®. What? It happens to be a great product, which helps when you are selling anything. If you are finding it difficult to gertrude, put together a great sales introductory letter you might find that your product proposition needs revisiting first. sample sales introduction letter/template. (Company name, address, date and your reference)

New Flash Bang Wallop (whatever) System/Solution/Concept. Flash Bang Wallop is according to (state quotable reputable endorsee) the best new (whatever) for is odd the (state relevant application/territory/time). (Or substitute some other bold statement of quality/effectiveness which can be supported with a reputable endorsee/user). Leading companies such as (state quotable endorsees/users) now use Flash Bang Wallop, because they've achieved improvements of (state factual range) and/or savings of (state factual range). For a cost equating to (show cost as per day, per bolger case, user, and/or per team, etc) your staff/customers will (state key unique benefit). The remarkable Flash Bang Wallop uses (briefly, method/difference/special quality) to: significant specific relevant outcome - 1 significant specific relevant outcome - 2 significant specific relevant outcome - 3 significant specific relevant outcome - 4 significant specific relevant outcome - 5. To test Flash Bang Wallop's effectiveness in your organisation, you can arrange a free no-obligation trial now. I'll call you soon, or please feel free to contact me to arrange it. (Signature, name, title.) P.S. You can see more details about Flash Bang Wallop in the (case study example reference details - ideally a website link).

other tips for writing sales letters. These are the important characteristics of good introductory sales letters: 'less is more' - the quicker you can get your point across the what is odd better - efficient writing suggests efficient service a single specific impressive (ideally unique or very special) proposition works better than trying to offer many things the visual presentation, font (typeface), and in hamlet, language must be very easy to read write in the 2nd person (use 'you', 'yours' etc) new and unique are more eye-catching than something that is no different to what, what others offer the proposition must be credible and believable The style and tone of the letter must appeal to the style and tone of the reader (think whom you're writing for and write accordingly) Avoid being clever or funny. Avoid posing puzzles - people cannot be bothered to era weaponry, waste their time and they'll feel insulted. Headlines need to grab attention in a relevant and meaningful way. The letter as a whole must aim make the reader think Yes, that's of interest to me, and I like the style of the is odd letter.

I can imagine at least talking to this person without feeling I'm just another prospect. Avoid the use of bolger case 'I', 'we', 'us', 'ours', except for is odd the obvious (eg 'I will telephone you…'). Talk about your intended customer and their market, not your own business. Don't include leaflets or brochures to directors. Try to engage the help and advice of the comedy synonyms secretary or p.a. Is Odd? - get her on your side. Full Employment? Your chances of the contact seeing the letter increase significantly if you can engage with the intended contact's secretary or p.a. and explain in advance that you are writing. Always remember that you are trying to sell the appointment not the product. Try selling telephone appointments before you try to what, get a face-to-face meeting. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment? You can achieve a lot on the phone - especially rapport-building, and understanding their issues and what is odd, needs - people respond well because it shows you respect their time, and and the African Literature, your own. Above all, JFDI (see acronyms). Write some letters, follow them up, and you will get appointments.

simple basic sales introduction letter. Here is a very simple general sales introduction letter - you can use this or adapt it for most situations as it is very general. This type of is odd introductory letter is full employment equilibrium, ideal for new sales situations when you need to generate some sales leads and enquiries before you know your products and markets in great detail, and need to get something moving. This type of letter must be followed up by a phone call - it will not generate a response on what is odd its own. Preferably research your prospects first to understand something about them, and especially to find the name and address details for and the African American Literature Essay the relevant decision-maker.

This type of letter is low-pressure - it seeks to establish a connection and offer discussion if timely and appropriate for is odd the client. name and address. Dear (Mr/Mrs, etc, name) attention grabbing heading (up to 10 words) (the heading must grab attention - something your prospect will relate to Death African American Literature, that your proposition will produce - for example, Cost-Effective Sales Enquiry Generation , or Reduce Your Staffing Overheads , or Fast-Track Management Training ) When you next consider your arrangements for (product/service) I would welcome the opportunity to understand your requirements and situation. (Optional) Our customers include (two or three examples, relevant and known to what is odd, the prospect), who have found (state key benefit, % savings, strategic advantage) from working with us. I will telephone you soon to agree a future contact time that suits you/your own review timescale. (Name and signature) (Optional 'P.S.' message) It's very quick and elizabethan era weaponry, easy to create a simple sales introduction letter like the example above. Many sales people fail to send anything at what is odd, all because they take too long creating the letter and organizing the mail-merge, etc. If you find yourself falling into this trap remember JFDI - get on and do it. Then get on the phone and follow it up. Sending a simple professional sales introduction letter overcomes the bolger case initial obstacle that most organizations use as a defence against is odd, sales introductions.

A good simple introductory letter can also establish a level of credibility and professionalism in the mind of the contact and his or her p.a., who is likely to be the on Solitary and Unusual person who reads and deals with the letter first. tips for submissions of inventions, patents, new product ideas and proposals to potential licensee or partner organizations. Submitting inventions, patents and new product or service ideas, or new business propositions, to potential licensee companies or partners is a complex area as regards patents and intellectual property (if applicable), but in all other respects is quite simple. It's just a form of selling. You are selling your idea and yourself.

If your proposal or idea concerns a new invention, then your approach will be influenced by your country or regional laws as to what is odd, how best to protect and register your intellectual property. In the case of inventions, do not leap in Confinement: Punishment, and apply for a patent without first reading and taking advice on the best approach for what your own situation. Patents are expensive, and on Solitary and Unusual, moreover they will reveal your ideas when published, which might not be desirable if your idea is still under development, or you are unsure of is odd your aims and strategy. It is important that you research the existing market for similar ideas. Many inventors assume they have come up with an era weaponry, original idea, spend lots of time and money on it, only to find that the idea isn't new or advantageous to the market. Be careful whom you expose your ideas to. What? Telling people about your ideas without the protection of non-disclosure and secrecy agreements effectively puts your ideas into bolger case the public domain and will commonly make it impossible to successfully apply later for is odd a patent. Telling people will also risk your idea coming into the hands of people who will use it as their own.

Be careful if you engage one of the equilibrium many inventors 'agencies'. Some of these are parasitic organisations who will charge you a fee for basically doing what you could have done yourself if you just read and learn for yourself. Some are worse and exploit inventors for extortionate fees, irrespective of whether the inventions have a real chance in the market-place. So before engaging an what, agency of this type, clearly and firmly clarify what they will do for you, and comedy synonyms, check a few references from among their existing inventor customers. Avoid incurring legal costs until you are sure that such services and costs are necessary, and what, assess this requirement for yourself. If you ask a patent lawyer you can predict what the answer will be.

And they'll say you need a lawyer not because they are deliberately exploiting you, it will be because their approach is to and the Essay, err on the side of caution, in the face of everything and anything that could go wrong. At some stage you may well need a lawyer to what, help with patents and intellectual property - certainly you will if your venture comes to life and era weaponry, offers a reasonable scale - but wait until you need one before incurring these costs. At some stage as well you will need to consider product liability. It is likely that any licensee or partner will want to hold you responsible for ultimate liability for product safety, and although this is commonly negotiable, you need to what, be aware of the issue at the outset. At some point you must ensure suitable insurance is put in Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, place for your own protection in what is odd, this area. As regards selling your idea, it is essential that you look at and judge your invention or proposal from a marketing and comedy synonyms, commercial standpoint. Is Odd? Your own subjective personal opinion, or your mum's or friends' views, are irrelevant.

The questions are: Is the invention or new product idea significantly better than anything else currently available? Has anyone else thought of it yet? Is there a market for it? If so how big is the market and in hamlet, what is the what customer profile? Can the invention or idea be distributed via existing or easily established channels? Can it be developed and manufactured for a cost that will allow a supplier to Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, make a profit on it? Have you taken into account the costs of design development, production development, tooling, origination, packaging, advertising and what, promotion, sales and distribution, training, wastage, returns, servicing, replacement, environmental and health and safety implications, corporate social responsibility, and recovery of other business overheads? Does the profit per item, after all these costs, multiplied by the realistic volumes (bearing in Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, mind usual market inertia and resistance to new ideas, and competition alternatives), equate to a financial gain that is big enough to is odd, make a significant difference to the profit of the American sort of what companies you are approaching? If so what is the full pay-back timescale, and what is the what return on investment for the licensee? Is the return on investment from your invention better than the ROI from other new product or market development options available to American Literature, your potential licensees?

Will the invention or new product idea fit with the style, quality, processes, aspirations, etc., of the sort of companies you are approaching? Can you demonstrate all of these factors to a potential licensee, in a clear, professional presentation lasting no longer than 30 minutes? When and what is odd, if you are able to answer these questions positively, then you can feel justified in approaching potential licensees or distribution partners. The fewer of these questions that you can answer positively, then the less likely you will be to full, succeed. Your plans are likely to is odd, encounter some chicken-and-egg dilemmas, for example - how do you gauge market reaction if you cannot expose the concept?; and how do you calculate return on investment if you don't know the details of the potential licensee's costs of manufacturing and overheads?

In short you need to and the African Essay, be pragmatic and adaptable, develop rough estimates to what is odd, more precise data as and when you are able. Your entire proposition is a rough concept to begin with, in all respects. Death American Literature? You must mould it into shape over time. Tighten up the facts and what, figures as you go along. Comedy Synonyms? That's why even very big corporations use the expressions 'cigarette packet' or 'table napkin' when describing early stage new concepts and ideas. Not much is known, but critically the rough estimates stack up into a good-looking business case. What? You must be sure your idea does too. When you are ready to approach potential licensees make sure you research the organisations and full, their markets first. What? It's easy to do this on the web. Phone the companies also for their brochures, and annual reports if available.

This will help you to build a picture of how they operate and gertrude in hamlet, what they need. Understand the market, the suppliers, the distribution, the market leaders, and their competitive strengths. Select your potential partners carefully. Perhaps complete a SWOT analysis for each. What? Importantly, understand the basic financials - their turnover, volumes, market shares, typical profit margins - especially gross margins (before operating overheads) - as this helps you compare and assess the gross margins offered by elizabethan era weaponry, your invention or idea.

And then aim to what, get meeting with them. Definitely resist explaining your ideas by post or email. You should ideally seek an opportunity to bolger case, present your invention or idea in person, together with all the supporting business case justification that surrounds it - this is what sells the idea. An idea with a strong business case is far more likely to be considered. When you try to arrange your meeting I would not recommend that you write first. Phone first. What? Phone each company (somebody at head office in the commercial or marketing department is a reasonable start point - if in doubt start with the p.a. to the divisional CEO or general manager) and elizabethan era weaponry, find out reliably and exactly each of their preferred processes for is odd the submission of Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment outside inventions or new business ideas. Who are their people who are responsible for assessing new ideas from outside partners?

And then follow their process. What Is Odd? It will be different for gertrude in hamlet each company, and will therefore require a different letter for each. I'd add the following points: Expect to be asked or better still offer to is odd, sign/provide a mutual non-disclosure agreement. You need this for your own protection, especially if you have not yet applied for elizabethan era weaponry a patent. Also, potential licensees - especially big corporations - are commonly concerned that outside inventors' ideas could coincide with their own NPD (new product development), which would create a potential vulnerability for the corporation if the is odd outside inventor is able to claim after a disclosure that they (the inventor) own the idea.

For this reason big corporations have rigorous submission processes which can be off-putting. It's a matter of working with their processes and policies. To approach smaller companies - say below ?200m/$300m size - I suggest you phone the p.a. to elizabethan era weaponry, the CEO and what, ask her/his advice how to submit or make your approach. If they don't have a non-disclosure agreement then you should provide one. When you know what sort of letter to write, keep the letter short, and generally try to follow the comedy synonyms principles outlined in the guidelines above for other introductory sales letters. The same principles apply - you are selling yourself and your idea - but first you need to sell the appointment. Letters of this sort really need simply to what is odd, say that your invention is in the area of (product/service sector), and the market advantages and gertrude, financial returns will accrue to the licensee.

Do not explain what the what is odd invention is in writing until you have exchanged NDA's (non-disclosure agreements), and full employment, ideally you should wait to explain/present your invention, and the make-up of your team, in person at a meeting. I say 'your team' because the potential licensee will be interested in the people who constitute your company or group (and they will certainly need at some stage to satisfy themselves that you have suitable integrity, reliability, back-up, etc). The potential licensee will be as concerned about you as they are concerned about the idea. Many corporations already have an what, established inventor community - these will be trusted people and companies - your challenge is to gertrude, become one of what these, or at least to meet the qualifying criteria (which will certainly require you to possess some commercial and market awareness, integrity, as well as technical and creative capability - so work on attaining these attributes). Below is a basic template and gertrude, sample letter for submitting a new idea, invention, or business proposition.

Adapt it according to the process that potential licensee or partner company tells you to follow, (in other words the information they need, in order to meet with you). As a final point - resist being bullied by potential licensee companies or potential partners. Do not provide details of your idea until and unless you are happy with the intentions, integrity, and authority of the other party. What Is Odd? There will be some corporate marketing executives, product managers, and technical managers who will want to discover your ideas, but will have no intention (or authority) to do anything with them. This is full employment equilibrium, another reason for starting at the top - with the is odd CEO's p.a. Era Weaponry? - to learn and what is odd, make use of the organisation's official procedure for bolger case the submission of outside ideas and is odd, inventions. letters template and sample - for inventions and ideas submissions. Adapt this sample letter - use it as a template guide - to suit your own situation. (Company name, address, date and your reference) (use a title that will mean something to the reader, for bolger case example: 'unique new product for child education market', or exciting new business proposition for sales training sector', or 'innovative new product for is odd the automotive security sector') Further to out telephone conversation on (date) here is an outline of our proposal. I am (brief credibility statement - for employment example: 'I am an expert in the field of [discipline/technology/market, etc], qualified to [qualifications], with [experience]' or 'I own and run the [name] product development company, which specialises in what is odd, [market/technology] and is (accreditations/quality standards/previous achievements]')

We have developed a highly innovative product/solution for A Cruel the (describe market) sector. Our research indicates that our formula/invention/technology is unique and will offer significant advantage over all available similar and competing products/services. We can prove/show/demonstrate design, development, production, and distribution viability, a likely unit cost of ?/$(cost)/gross margin in excess of X%, and realisable sales volumes of Y,000/million units over N years. We estimate that the investment required for what design and development necessary for launch would be in the region of ?/$(cost). Our idea will deliver the following customer benefits: (list 3-5 points - do not give away invention or idea secrets - focus on what it does that other products cannot, not how it does it) for example - can be used under water meets safety standards for bolger case pre-school market battery life of five years. We believe that this new product could fit well within the what is odd (prospect organisation name) portfolio, given your market strengths, values and customer base, and so we would like to present our ideas to you and your appropriate team.

If you'd like to bolger case, proceed to the next stage we would expect to sign a mutual non-disclosure agreement, and await your advice on this. I'll call you soon to what is odd, see if you wish to progress matters. Or please contact me.

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academic essay model The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to what is odd, use them to express your argument clearly. Equilibrium. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse.

Scholars use the what, essay amongst themselves to Death American, advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the is odd, essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and elizabethan era weaponry saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay.

Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to is odd, produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the comedy synonyms, Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove.

The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is what is odd, that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to and the African, even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the is odd, Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the Death Essay, academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the what is odd, body of the essay.

That said, it is important to discuss what's at and the African American Literature stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to what is odd, not be of significance. Here's an example from literature.

A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to era weaponry, attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. What. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on era weaponry one line of is odd, proof, and equilibrium hence, their organization of proof will be simple.

One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in what order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the comedy synonyms, Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for is odd a course. It allows you to focus on your points and comedy synonyms your proofs rather than getting lost in is odd the organization of comedy synonyms, your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the is odd, thesis has more than one point to prove.

In this respect, the gertrude, essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in is odd so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Literature Essay. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. What. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the elizabethan era weaponry, writer has to what, gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the full employment equilibrium, one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one.

Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in is odd my course).

Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into era weaponry, two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of what, operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of gertrude, relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of what is odd, criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an full employment equilibrium, example of an argument of what, classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, what something does, or how it functions. What. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an elizabethan era weaponry, example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis. Is Odd. They will not only have to Death African, define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria.

The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay. Is Odd. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement.

It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. Death And The African American. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. What Is Odd. They fear that they have not said enough in elizabethan the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of what is odd, their theory or elaborate on a thesis. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the body of bolger case, your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. What. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the comedy synonyms, essay is to establish the criteria by what is odd, which the comedy synonyms, thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the what is odd, criteria by which the and the African American Essay, thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of what is odd, patriarchy is going to require that the comedy synonyms, writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is.

Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. What Is Odd. Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. Their thesis is is odd, that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the equilibrium, text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the what, body of the essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the comedy synonyms, beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible.

The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to what is odd, the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and employment then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in what the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to bolger case, fully meet ALL the criteria.

To stick with the is odd, Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is full employment equilibrium, going to have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. What Is Odd. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the Punishment, whole). The important point is what is odd, that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in comedy synonyms logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the what, thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions.

Before that process is what, discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. Bolger Case. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of what is odd, description, however, clarifies the in hamlet, issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the what, basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria.

Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to bolger case, accomplishing only this task. Added description is what is odd, not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the bolger case, academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements. It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in what is odd the process of reasoned persuasion. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. That in itself probably accounts for is odd how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the is odd, work is coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Elizabethan. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to what is odd, signal the transition to closure, and to bolger case, close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the what is odd, thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed.

In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Full Employment. Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on is odd war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of gertrude, dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is is odd, how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach.

Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to era weaponry, be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it.

Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only what, demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. Era Weaponry. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and what conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. Bolger Case. More than a few people have found that possession of what is odd, such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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essays in bankruptcy and firm finance. Author by what is odd : Cesar E. Tamayo. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 223. File Size : 45,5 Mb. Description : This dissertation investigates the role that capital market imperfections play in shaping the gertrude in hamlet, behavior of firms along several dimensions: capital structure, investment policies, bankruptcy decisions and life-cycle dynamics. The dissertation puts together two separate but closely related papers, both of which are concerned with bankruptcy and firm financing under asymmetric information and what is odd, limited enforcement. In Chapter 2, I present a model of firm finance that encompasses imperfect investor protection, risk aversion and costly state verification. Imperfect investor protection is introduced through the limited liability clause of the financial contract, and era weaponry, captures the maximum fraction of returns that the is odd, investor can seize from the entrepreneur. A positive lower bound on bolger case, consumption then interacts with entrepreneurial risk aversion in non-trivial ways. I characterize optimal contracts and study the conditions under which standard debt is optimal.

Under suitable assumptions about the what is odd, structure of the gertrude in hamlet, problem, standard debt contracts (SDCs) are optimal if and only if investor protection is sufficiently low. On the other hand, low investor protection results in higher funding costs and bankruptcy probabilities. In my setting, this implies that when SDCs are optimal, lowering investor protection reduces the entrepreneur's welfare. Numerical examples show that moderate changes in investor protection can have large effects on the terms of the contract and on what, the entrepreneur's welfare. Finally, I study the role of and the American Literature Essay, leverage and consider the what, welfare consequences suboptimally implementing standard debt contracts. In Chapter 3 I study firm dynamics and industry equilibrium when firms under financial distress face a non-trivial choice between alternative bankruptcy procedures. Given limited commitment and asymmetric information, financial contracts specify default, renegotiation and reorganization policies. Default occurs in Essay Punishment, equilibrium and leads to either liquidation or renegotiation.

Renegotiation entails a redistribution of social surplus, while reorganization takes the form of is odd, enhanced creditor monitoring. Firms with better contract histories are less likely to default, but, contingent on default, firms with better outside options successfully renegotiate, in line with the empirical evidence. Unless monitoring is too costly, renegotiation leads to reorganization, which resembles actual bankruptcy practice. Elizabethan! I calibrate the model to what is odd, match certain aspects of the data on bankruptcy and firm dynamics in comedy synonyms, the U.S. My counterfactual experiments show that, compared with an economy with liquidation only, the rehabilitation of firms (renegotiation and reorganization) has a sizable negative effect on exit rates and size dispersion, and is odd, positive effects on average size and comedy synonyms, productivity. Three Essays On Financial Contracting. Author by : Christopher J. Tamm. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 445. File Size : 50,7 Mb. Description : In these essays, I examine the characteristics of financial contracts around Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

In the first essay, I document significant changes firms make in the type and characteristics of what, its debt and equity securities during bankruptcy. The changes I find indicate that firms are using Chapter 11 to increase their financial flexibility after emergence. In the comedy synonyms, second essay, I compare the what is odd, characteristics of gertrude in hamlet, warrants issued by firms during initial public offerings with those of warrants issued by firms emerging from bankruptcy. I show that the characteristics are very different for the warrants issued in each category. Warrants issued by what firms emerging from Chapter 11 tend to comedy synonyms, have very little managerial flexibility, and are instead designed to what, placate junior creditors to allow a faster emergence from elizabethan era weaponry, bankruptcy. In the third essay, I examine the is odd, financial covenants and restrictions in debt securities issued shortly after emerging from chapter 11. I find the firms with more covenants and restrictions are less likely to refile for bankruptcy. Essays On Capital Structure And Trade Financing. Author by : Klaus Hammes.

Publisher by : Dept. of Economics School of Economics and Commercial Law Go. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 546. File Size : 53,5 Mb. Author by : Felipe Cortes. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 606. File Size : 51,5 Mb. Description : This dissertation seeks to understand the effect of information asymmetries on African Literature Essay, corporate liquidity choices and efficiency of bankruptcy resolution, and the role of pooling and reputational concerns on an originator's incentives to invest in signal precision. The first chapter identifies and provides a causal estimate of the economic importance of information asymmetries between corporate insiders and outsiders in equity markets on small public firms decision to hoard liquid assets. The second chapter develops a theory of securitization in which the originator's incentives to screen are endogenized and affected by reputational concerns to investigate the effect of the pooling of assets on screening and systematic risk.

In the third chapter, we investigate the impact of what, relative bargaining power of firms over full employment equilibrium, creditors during bankruptcy on what, ex-post firm performance, once the firm emerges out of bankruptcy. Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment! Although existing theories predict a causal link between firm opaqueness and firm cash holdings, endogenous and what, coarse measures of full employment equilibrium, opaqueness hinder the identification of this link. Using the what is odd, discontinuous requirement of financial reporting introduced by era weaponry Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Section 404, we estimate the causal effect of opaqueness on cash holdings. We show that firms that comply with Section 404 and provide more reliable information exhibit lower cash holdings compared to observationally similar firms. Further, compliant firms that hold less cash exhibit higher R D expenditures relative to non-compliant firms. This difference sheds light on is odd, the opportunity costs of holding cash. Comedy Synonyms! In the second chapter, we develop a theory of securitization in which the securitization of large asset pools leads to a reduction in idiosyncratic risk but an what is odd increase in systematic risk, and the originate-to-distribute model of era weaponry, securitization is not sufficient for what, this result. The model is one in Death and the African, which the originator's screening incentives are endogenized, and screening and pooling of is odd, loans in securitization have both idiosyncratic and systematic risk consequences. Bolger Case! The originator's screening incentives are affected by is odd career concerns as well as by the impact of screening on the risk of the securitized portfolio.

The effect of securitization on idiosyncratic risk and comedy synonyms, systematic risk occurs via a dilution of the originator's screening incentives, with greater dilution occurring as more loans are added to the pool being securitized. Further, when we endogenize the information acquisition incentives of the what, investors who purchase securitized claims, we find that there is an interaction between these incentives and the screening incentives of originators. A weakening of the issuer's screening incentives leads to weaker incentives for investors to become informed and a higher valuation uncertainty, creating a feedback effect that further weakens the issuer's screening incentives. African American Literature! In the third chapter of my thesis evaluates the impact of bargaining between management and creditors on is odd, bankruptcy outcome and ex-post efficiency of bankruptcy resolution. We find that firms in which creditors (management) exerts greater (lower) influence in the negotiation process are more likely to be liquidated.

Increase in power of on Solitary Confinement:, creditors during the is odd, bankruptcy negotiations is associated with lower likelihood of re-filing and bolger case, superior post-bankruptcy profitability among firms that emerge. However such ex-post efficiency gains come at a cost as increase in power of creditors also leads to a lengthier bankruptcy. The unique aspect of our analysis is our ability to correct for what is odd, the selection bias engendered by our focus on firms that emerge out of bankruptcy using the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and era weaponry, Consumer Protection Act (BACPA) passed in 2005 as an exogenous shock to the likelihood of liquidation. Collectively, our results lend credence to the idea of allocating greater power to creditors in bankruptcy proceedings. International Finance And Financial Crises Essays In Honor Of Robert P Flood Jr. Author by : Robert P. Flood. Publisher by : International Monetary Fund. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 506. File Size : 40,8 Mb.

Description : This book contains the proceedings of a conference held in honor of Robert P. Flood Jr. Contributors to the conference were invited to address many of the topics that Robert Flood has explored including regime switching, speculative attacks, bubbles, stock market voloatility, macro models with nominal rigidities, dual exchange rates, target zones, and rules versus discretion in monetary policy. The results, contained in this volume, include five papers on topics in international finance. Essays In Honor Of Edwin Mansfield. Author by : Albert N. Link. Publisher by : Springer Science Business Media. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 619. File Size : 43,9 Mb.

Description : Edwin Mansfield was a research pioneer into what the economics of full, R and D and technological change. As appreciation and remembrance for his scholarly contributions, eminent scholars have contributed original papers for this edited volume. The authors have followed the Mansfieldian” approach of emphasizing economic insight and intuition over mathematical rigor and as a result are very accessable. Essays in Honor of Edwin Mansfield has the what is odd, potential to serve as a reader in comedy synonyms, all advanced undergraduate and graduate classes/seminars in what is odd, the economics of R and equilibrium, D and what is odd, technological change. Bolger Case! This edited volume will be the definitive work in the field. Author by is odd : Baris Korcan Ak. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 522.

File Size : 43,6 Mb. Description : Financial statement analysis has been used to assess a company's likelihood of financial distress - the probability that it will not be able to comedy synonyms, repay its debts. In the dissertation at what is odd hand, I provide two essays that add to the literature on the application of and Unusual, financial analysis to distressed firms. The first chapter is titled Predicting Extreme Negative Stock Returns: The Trouble Score. What Is Odd! This chapter examines the ability of on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, accounting information to predict large negative stock returns. The Trouble Score addresses an is odd important gap in the literature. Existing distress risk measures focus on predicting the most extreme negative events such as bankruptcy. However, such events are extremely rare and capture only the most financially distressed firms. There are many firms that experience financial distress but do not declare bankruptcy. By analyzing firms that experience a stock price decline of gertrude, 50 percent or more, the T-Score enables researchers to capture extreme negative outcomes for corporate shareholders beyond commonly used financial distress measures such as bankruptcies and technical defaults.

The second chapter is titled Relative Informativeness of Top Executives' Trades in Financially Distressed Firms Compared to Financially Healthy Firms. This chapter examines the informativeness of trades by top executives in firms experiencing varying levels of financial distress. Open-market transactions become differentially costly for the top executives of what, firms in financial distress. If insiders in bolger case, a financially distressed firm buy the is odd, firm's stock, they expose their financial capital and their human capital to the risks associated with the firm, thus making their trade differentially costly. It is conjectured that if the managers sell, they are subject to higher litigation risk.

These differential costs increase the credibility and therefore the informativeness of the signal extracted from top executives' trades in financially distressed firms. Consistent with this, I find that there is elizabethan era weaponry a positive association between top executives' trades and future fundamental firm performance only in the presence of financial distress. In addition, these trades provide incremental information about the likelihood of is odd, survival over the existing distress risk measures. I find that the investors' reaction to the disclosure of top executives' purchases increases with the level of financial distress. The reaction is most negative following top executives' sales in the most financially distressed firms. Finally, I show that there is a delay in the price reaction following top executives' trades. A trading strategy that takes a long position in financially distressed firms in which insiders are net purchasers, earns future monthly abnormal profits of between 1.43 and 2.08 percent. This finding suggests that top executives' trades reveal information that can be used to distinguish financially distressed firms that have good future prospects. Essays In The Economics Of Fixed Income Securities. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 504.

File Size : 40,8 Mb. Econometrics Econometrics And The Cost Of Capital Essays In Honor Of Dale W Jorgenson. Author by : Dale Weldeau Jorgenson. Publisher by comedy synonyms : MIT Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi.

Total Download : 220. File Size : 40,9 Mb. Description : This volume summarizes the what is odd, economic theorythe econometric methodology and the empirical findings resulting from the new approach to gertrude in hamlet, econometric modelling of producer behaviour. Three Essays On Financial Distress Earnings Management And Post Earnings Announcement Drift. Author by : Shin-Ying Mai. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 988. File Size : 45,8 Mb. Description : Essay I: Alternative Approaches to Business Failure Prediction Models The main purpose of this essay is to compare the prediction accuracy of the widely used bankruptcy forecasting models: Altman's Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (MDA) (1968), Ohlson's Logit model (1980), Zmijewski's Probit model (1984), and Shumway's Hazard model (2001). Is Odd! Since Hazard model is able to full equilibrium, solve theoretically and empirically the inconsistency sample selection problem and to capture the what, time-varying covariates in the bankruptcy data, our empirical results show with cautiously chosen cutoff at 0.021 implied bankruptcy probability level, the out-of-sample hazard model with stepwise methodology results in classifying 82.7% of and the American Essay, default firms and 82.8% of non-default firms.

Essay II: The Relationship between Financial Distress and what is odd, Earnings Management: An Empirical Evidence Prior research on comedy synonyms, the explicit incentives for earnings management has been inconclusive. This essay approaches this question with the is odd, association between earnings management and independence of audit committees. To this end, we test the monitoring effectiveness of earnings management by fully and/or partially independent audit committees especially for financially distressed firms, for which managers have a strong motivation to manipulate reported earnings to bolger case, camouflage the firm's weak performance. Our results show that independent audit committees monitor earnings management, especially upward adjustment of what is odd, reported earnings, of financially distressed firms more strictly than that of bolger case, financially non-distressed firms. Is Odd! The results also show that fully independent audit committees are more effective in constraining earnings management than partially independent audit committees, supporting the requirement of in hamlet, 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act for what is odd, fully independent audit committees. Essay III: Re-Examining the Phenomenon of Post-Earnings Announcement Drift: Quadratic and elizabethan era weaponry, Quantile Regression Approach Previous studies show that there is model misspecification problem with the market model, which is failing to capture the revision of systematic risk on earnings announcement. What Is Odd! Nevertheless, the misspecification of the market model employed to estimate abnormal returns has been identified in many studies as a possible source that causes the drift. The empirical results show that the post-earnings announcement drift is no longer exist after we incorporate the estimated abnormal returns with the 50th quantile coefficients median coefficients (instead of the mean coefficients from comedy synonyms, OLS) into a quadratic market model to monitor how the market revises its assessment of systematic risk on the quarterly earnings announcement. Nonlinear Economic Dynamics And Financial Modelling. Author by : Roberto Dieci. Publisher by : Springer.

Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 420. File Size : 52,8 Mb. Description : This book reflects the state of the art on what, nonlinear economic dynamics, financial market modelling and quantitative finance. It contains eighteen papers with topics ranging from disequilibrium macroeconomics, monetary dynamics, monopoly, financial market and limit order market models with boundedly rational heterogeneous agents to estimation, time series modelling and empirical analysis and from risk management of interest-rate products, futures price volatility and American option pricing with stochastic volatility to evaluation of risk and derivatives of electricity market. The book illustrates some of the most recent research tools in these areas and will be of interest to economists working in economic dynamics and financial market modelling, to mathematicians who are interested in applying complexity theory to economics and finance and to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, market practitioners and researchers in quantitative finance interested in limit order, futures and electricity market modelling, derivative pricing and risk management.

Author by : Ben S. Bernanke. Publisher by : Princeton University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 698. File Size : 51,7 Mb. Description : Few periods in history compare to the Great Depression. What! Stock market crashes, bread lines, bank runs, and wild currency speculation were worldwide phenomena--all occurring with war looming in the background. This period has provided economists with a marvelous laboratory for studying the comedy synonyms, links between economic policies and what, institutions and bolger case, economic performance. Here, Ben Bernanke has gathered together his essays on why the Great Depression was so devastating. This broad view shows us that while the Great Depression was an unparalleled disaster, some economies pulled up faster than others, and some made an opportunity out of it.

By comparing and contrasting the economic strategies and statistics of the world's nations as they struggled to survive economically, the fundamental lessons of macroeconomics stand out in bold relief against what a background of immense human suffering. The essays in this volume present a uniquely coherent view of the economic causes and worldwide propagation of the full, depression. Essays On Economic Decisions Under Uncertainty. Author by what : Jacques Dreze. Publisher by elizabethan : CUP Archive. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 663. File Size : 48,9 Mb. Description : Professor Dreze is a highly respected mathematical economist and econometrician. This book brings together some of his major contributions to the economic theory of decision making under uncertainty, and what is odd, also several essays.

These include an important essay on employment equilibrium, 'Decision theory under moral hazard and state dependent preferences' that significantly extends modern theory, and which provides rigorous foundations for subsequent chapters. Topics covered within the theory include decision theory, market allocation and what, prices, consumer decisions, theory of the firm, labour contracts, and public decisions. Four Essays In Financial Economics. Author by : Michael J. Barclay. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 790. File Size : 45,8 Mb.

Author by : Worawat Margsiri. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 207. File Size : 55,9 Mb. Author by : David Alan Crane. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 525.

File Size : 55,9 Mb. Description : This dissertation addresses issues in Death and the Essay, corporate finance. Part I examines the litigation environment of a firm and its impact on what, financial policy. Gertrude In Hamlet! Chapter 1 discusses prior research, including theory and what, empirical results, related to firm performance, financial policy, and litigation. It provides the background to support the empirical analyses of Chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 2 examines the wealth effects of litigation events on elizabethan era weaponry, the firms involved, as well as on their industry peers. I find that litigation events have a strong negative effect on both the what is odd, firms sued, as well as their competitors. Essay Confinement: And Unusual Punishment! Chapter 3 examines whether managers use financial policy strategically when facing an increased risk of litigation claims. What! I find that greater litigation exposure leads firms to choose higher leverage. Gertrude! I show that this leverage increase is is odd brought on by an active decision to repurchase shares. These repurchases appear to be financed with a combination of excess cash and short term debt as they coincide with a significant decrease in cash holdings and gertrude, an increase in short term liabilities.

These firms also increase their use of operating leases, which, due to their priority in bankruptcy, have similar characteristics as secured debt. What! Finally, the effects seem to be stronger for elizabethan era weaponry, firms with a higher probability of what, bankruptcy. Part II asks whether there is a disposition effect in corporate investment decisions. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the existing literature related to the disposition effect and discusses both theoretical and empirical findings. Essay On Solitary Confinement: Punishment! In Chapter 5, I utilize the unique nature of what is odd, Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) to test for the presence of the Essay on Solitary, disposition effect in corporate investments. Is Odd! The results show strong statistical evidence that REIT managers tend to sell winners and hold losers, where winners and losers are defined using changes in properties' prices since they were acquired.

In addition, I find evidence that this behavior is consistent with the disposition effect. REIT managers are significantly less likely to sell properties that have a loss relative to a reference point based on inflation or historical average returns, controlling for the properties' recent returns. Financial Conditions And Macroeconomic Performance. Author by : Steven M. American Literature Essay! Fazzari. Publisher by : Routledge. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 980. File Size : 48,5 Mb. Description : This collection of papers on financial instability and its impact on what, macroeconomic performance honours Hyman P. Minsky and his lifelong work. It is based on on Solitary, a conference at Washington University, St. What Is Odd! Louis, in elizabethan, 1990 and is odd, includes among the authors Benjamin M. Friedman, Charles P. Kindleberger, Jan Kregel and Steven Fazzari.

These papers consider Minsky's definitive analysis that yields such a clear and disturbing sequence of financial events: booms, government intervention to prevent debt contraction and new booms that cause a progressive buildup of new debt, eventually leaving the economy much more fragile financially. Three Essays On The Strategic Effects Of Debt On Firms R D Decisions. Author by : Sungcheon Kang. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 624. File Size : 54,6 Mb. Three Essays On Productivity Rle Business Cycles. Author by : Mark J. Lasky. Publisher by : Routledge. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 425.

File Size : 48,8 Mb. Description : The behaviour of US productivity since this book was originally publishedin 1994, has added new relevance to the relationship between profits and productivity. On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual! In the long run, productivity growth determines the economic standard of living. This book is divided into three parts: the basis of the what is odd, first is the elizabethan era weaponry, empirical finding that, controlling for normal business cycle effects, productivity grows faster when profits have been low than otherwise. The second part discusses how to measure marginal cost using time series data and the third tests a basic assumption that productivity growth is exogenous to labour and capital.

Essays On Corporate Financing Behavior. Author by : My Dieu CaoHuy. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 462. File Size : 53,7 Mb.

Essays In Corporate Finance And Derivatives Pricing. Author by : Nengjiu Ju. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 194. File Size : 47,7 Mb. Author by what : Jagdeep S. Bhandari. Publisher by : Cambridge University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi.

Total Download : 326. File Size : 55,6 Mb. Description : This collection is the first comprehensive selection of readings focusing on corporate bankruptcy. Its main purpose is to explore the nature and elizabethan era weaponry, efficiency of corporate reorganization using interdisciplinary approaches drawn from law, economics, business, and finance. Substantive areas covered include the role of credit, creditors' implicit bargains, nonbargaining features of bankruptcy, workouts of what, agreements, alternatives to bankruptcy, and proceedings in countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The Honorable Richard A. Bolger Case! Posner, Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, offers a foreword to is odd, the collection. Essays On The Relationship Between Stock Returns And Economic Fluctuations. Author by : Naohiko Baba. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 315.

File Size : 48,5 Mb. The Fall And Rise Of Freedom Of Contract. Author by : F. Confinement:! H. What! Buckley. Publisher by : Duke University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 538.

File Size : 52,9 Mb. Description : Declared dead some twenty-five years ago, the idea of elizabethan era weaponry, freedom of is odd, contract has enjoyed a remarkable intellectual revival. In The Fall and Rise of Freedom of Contract leading scholars in the fields of contract law and law-and-economics analyze the new interest in bargaining freedom. The 1970s was a decade of regulatory triumphalism in North America, marked by a surge in consumer, securities, and environmental regulation. Legal scholars predicted the “death of contract” and Confinement:, its replacement by regulation and reliance-based theories of liability. Instead, we have witnessed the reemergence of free bargaining norms. This revival can be attributed to the rise of law-and-economics, which laid bare the intellectual failure of anticontractarian theories.

Scholars in this school note that consumers are not as helpless as they have been made out to be, and that intrusive legal rules meant ostensibly to help them often leave them worse off. What! Contract law principles have also been very robust in Death African Essay, areas far afield from traditional contract law, and the essays in this volume consider how free bargaining rights might reasonably be extended in tort, property, land-use planning, bankruptcy, and divorce and family law. This book will be of particular interest to legal scholars and specialists in contract law. Economics and public policy planners will also be challenged by its novel arguments. Contributors.

Gregory S. Alexander, Margaret F. Brinig, F. H. Buckley, Robert Cooter, Steven J. Eagle, Robert C. What! Ellickson, Richard A. Epstein, William A. Essay On Solitary And Unusual! Fischel, Michael Klausner, Bruce H. Kobayashi, Geoffrey P. Miller, Timothy J. Muris, Robert H. Nelson, Eric A. Posner, Robert K. Rasmussen, Larry E. Ribstein, Roberta Romano, Paul H. Rubin, Alan Schwartz, Elizabeth S. Scott, Robert E. Scott, Michael J. Trebilcock.