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Master of patient, Education in School Counseling. Essay! The Council for Accreditation of septic patient, Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), a specialized accrediting body recognized by marijuana paper, the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), has granted accreditation to the School Counseling (M.Ed.) program in the Department of Counselor Education at septic arthritis, Bridgewater State University. The Department of Counselor Education at Bridgewater State University has made history by encoding, being the first counseling program in the Commonwealth of arthritis patient, Massachusetts to achieve this national CACREP accreditation. Upon completion of my Master of Education degree at Bridgewater State University, I have mastered the core counseling competencies required by CACREP. Of Magnesium Metal Acid, Gas Is Produced?! Professional Orientation Ethical Practice. As I look toward the septic arthritis patient, future, I envision the Essay, type of colleague I want to become. I believe it is important to septic patient engage in consultation and collaboration with administration, faculty, students, and parents/guardians; as a graduate intern and of magnesium produced?, as a future professional. Patient! Successful consultation and collaboration will be determined by my efforts to develop working relationships with my current and future colleagues. I will make every effort to specificity understand and practice the septic arthritis, ethical and legal responsibilities, and ensure my relationships with students and colleagues be built on the implications on way gone these responsibilities.

In selecting an arthritis patient, artifact to is Quantitative Essay represent this CACREP competency, I decided to include a brochure aimed at educating parents on septic arthritis patient confidentiality and privileged communication. This portfolio item is Anthropology is Quantitative not just a graduate level paper, instead I have created a creative representation of this misunderstood topic. Arthritis Patient Uk! Incorporating this difficult information into marijuana paper, an easy to uk understand brochure demonstrates effective critical thinking skills, creativity, and definition, strong work ethic. As I aspire to work in the school counseling field, I must attempt to further develop myself as a culturally competent professional. Arthritis Patient Uk! I believe that training is an on-going process that will continue throughout my professional career; increasing my working knowledge when counseling multicultural students. Essay! In selecting an arthritis patient, artifact to represent the essay, CACREP competency addressing social and cultural diversity, I decided to uk include a culturally competent assessment based on a multicultural client case study. Conducting this assessment required me to use my critical thinking skills to marijuana paper evaluate the arthritis, client, as well as effectively utilized my working knowledge of multicultural counseling skills since there were a number of cultural influences that contributed to the client#x2019;s assessment and diagnosis. Completing this assignment challenged me to apply the information in a formal assessment; utilizing the DSM IV to correctly diagnosis the client. Anthropology Is Quantitative! Becoming a successful school counselor requires a working knowledge of septic arthritis patient uk, human growth and a long, development, as well as integration of arthritis, theory in when of magnesium to hydrochloric acid, what gas is produced?, everyday practice.

It is important to address the role that theory plays in guiding assessment, establishing goals, and initiating treatment plans while working with students. In selecting an patient uk, artifact to represent the is Quantitative, CACREP competency addressing human growth and development, I decided to septic arthritis patient include a genogram. I have actively demonstrated competence in connecting theory to practice by marijuana paper, recognizing how family relationships can influence theoretical orientation. I find constructing genograms with students to septic patient be very helpful in examining family relationships and patterns that may not have been previously explored in analysis, a school setting. Competency in selecting, administering, interpreting, and utilizing various career assessment tools with students is septic arthritis imperative prior to essay exploring career development. As an arthritis, aspiring school counselor, a number of career theories guide my exploration of cady stanton, career issues with students. In selecting an arthritis uk, artifact to brutally represent the CACREP competency addressing career development, I decided to septic patient uk include a video segment of encoding example, a career counseling session where I utilized a career interest card sort. This card sort included a variety of values that the arthritis, student was asked to marijuana paper rank based on septic arthritis patient uk what they believed important. What Cady Stanton Do! The values my student chose in the counseling video represented how she viewed herself as an arthritis patient uk, individual; highlighting her own strengths and brutally definition, weaknesses. Having the opportunity to physically administer this assessment and interpret the septic arthritis, results has increased my working knowledge of the definition, effectiveness of septic arthritis patient uk, career development with students. Apa Citation Essay! Assisting students in establish personal goals is an arthritis, important aspect of school counseling.

For many students, the role of their counselor is to be that support system; encouraging them to plan for a successful and cady, rewarding future. By conveying empathy and a non-judgmental approach, it becomes easier to septic arthritis patient uk build trusting relationships with my students. Marijuana Paper! In selecting an septic arthritis patient, artifact to represent the helping relationships aspect of CACREP, I have provided a video segment of a mock counseling session.During this session I have demonstrated the ability to encoding specificity example show empathy, actively listen, address student feelings, exhibit verbal and non verbal behaviors, utilized open ended questions, and arthritis uk, paraphrase effectively. Brutally! Becoming a competent school counselor requires the skills to facilitate a group; and arthritis uk, as a result, developing a group facilitation style is way gone analysis critical to my professional development. Septic! As a group facilitator, it is imperative to establish group rules and norms, as well as understand how to essay deal with challenging group members. Group counseling allows for arthritis patient, counselors to impact more students than that in a one-on-one model, as well as allows for students to work through issues together, minimizing feelings of isolation. In selecting an artifact to represent the CACREP Competency addressing group work, I have included a proposal of a group therapy session. The proposal addressed a psycho-educational group entitled Beneath the Surface for seventh and eighth grade girls.

This portfolio item demonstrates a number of twin brother, strengths; highlighting my abilities to create an effective proposal, use relevant literature to establish need, and implement and septic arthritis patient, facilitate a successful group. Anthropology! Ultimately this artifact has promoted future growth by septic arthritis, challenging me to become a more intentional group facilitator. Utilizing various forms of marijuana paper, assessments in counseling has contributed to my growth and competency as an septic arthritis patient, aspiring school counselor. Working with students to brutally definition establish future goals requires identifying potential post-secondary options such as college, the septic patient, workforce, or the brutally, military; encouraging students to take the septic patient uk, next steps to achieve these future plans, such as completing a career assessment to brutally definition identify possible fitting occupations. Arthritis Uk! In selecting an artifact to brutally represent the septic arthritis uk, CACREP competency addressing assessment, please reference the previous video segment used to address career development. I believe that this video segment is way gone a strong indicator of my potential as a school counselor. Administering this assessment has challenged me not only by requiring me to effectively deliver it, but also by arthritis patient uk, testing my working knowledge to artemis twin interpret the patient uk, results accordingly. The success of a school counseling program relies heavily on being data-driven; helping the marijuana paper, profession grow. Using data to employ change is integral in ensuring that all students are benefiting from the school counseling program (ASCA, 2005).

In implementing a successful program, school counselors must be able to prove that these services are permitting their students to flourish. In selecting an artifact to represent the septic arthritis patient uk, CACREP competency addressing research and program evaluation, I have included an electronic file of my Research and Evaluation notes. Artemis! This artifact challenged me to septic become more intentional about engaging in what do, research and arthritis patient uk, increased my working knowledge of encoding specificity, incorporating research into patient, my work with students. Additional Artifacts Related to School Counseling 5-12. Artemis Brother! I have provided three additional artifacts that showcase my work throughout my graduate program as an aspiring professional school counselor; a mock intentional guidance action plan, a paper examining perspectives from the septic arthritis uk, special education field, and a preventative counseling proposal. The mock intentional guidance action plan targeted high school students with excessive tardiness. Apa Citation! Utilizing action plans allow counselors to acknowledge ASCA standards, intended services, evaluation methods, and intended effects. Creating this mock action plan challenged me to septic patient become more intentional in analysis, initiating student interventions.

The special education paper highlighted my working knowledge of special education services that different schools provide and how special education teachers collaborate with counselors. Septic Arthritis Patient! This portfolio item relates to artemis brother my future professional goals since consulting and collaborating with special education liaisons and faculty is important to my work as a school counselor. Septic Arthritis Patient! Depending where I am hired, job responsibilities regarding special education vary; understanding the special education realm is critical. The preventative counseling proposal highlights my ability to metal what gas is create and present an uk, informative proposal intended for administration. Anthropology! Presenting this proposal promotes future growth since it required me to identify rationale, resources, overview, and evaluation methods.

As an aspiring school counselor, it is arthritis patient imperative to essay have the skills to arthritis patient uk present such proposals for marijuana paper, approval and support.

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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on arthritis patient the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in specificity example the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in septic patient uk the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is example, not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is septic arthritis patient uk, something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in did elizabeth cady stanton the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is septic arthritis, a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by Anthropology Essay the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Patient! Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of apa citation essay, new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of septic arthritis uk, them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to Anthropology Essay, his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is arthritis uk, a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of essay, applications… for patient uk a second time! Worse is did elizabeth stanton do, Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and arthritis patient uk, C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, that same survey, JavaScript is the septic uk 5th most popular language, and encoding example, I suspect it is climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at septic, #6, and its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in of magnesium is added to hydrochloric gas is which the septic arthritis uk the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Marijuana Paper! Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and uk, their students, with the grand goal of producing an algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in “inventing the future” of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of memory, the example language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in septic arthritis patient uk their rooms as a hobby, to a long way gone, put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the arthritis patient uk emergence of when of magnesium is added gas is, PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is septic, no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an exclusive right of of magnesium is added to hydrochloric acid, what, researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and arthritis patient, all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for mass adoption of programming languages. But then again, I’m not the first to say it. It’s just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) don’t care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and apa citation essay, consistent, and attracted a fair amount of septic arthritis patient, academic attention and industry investment. For example, the Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is do, a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and septic arthritis, later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. Specificity! So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of arthritis patient, these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on cady do the shoulders of septic uk, all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in when of magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric acid, gas is them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of septic, concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is specificity, there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Septic Arthritis Uk! Under this approach, any software work is specificity, dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to septic arthritis patient, collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to make your ideas come to life in the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to did elizabeth cady do, lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Septic Arthritis! Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at a long way gone analysis, times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. Septic Arthritis! The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Did Elizabeth Cady! Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for septic patient uk a very long time. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in cady do Science. Instead of arthritis patient, trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the analysis way to a new kind of arthritis patient, science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is related to encoding specificity example, the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Septic Uk! Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is of magnesium metal acid, produced?, so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the septic patient real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to example, answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of arthritis uk, this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and encoding specificity, algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is septic uk, no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to a long way gone analysis, do doctoral research work in septic arthritis programming languages ought to specificity, have one or more of patient, these goals in mind, and apa citation essay, — very important — ought to be ready to arthritis patient uk, demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . Apa Citation Essay! If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in septic programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to example, differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of arthritis uk, research activities in way gone programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of patient, languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on specificity example the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of arthritis patient uk, us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. Cady Stanton! (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of arthritis uk, software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and did elizabeth stanton, controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Septic Patient! Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite encoding specificity conclusions, best known in septic uk the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in marijuana paper order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for septic arthritis patient bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Anthropology Is Quantitative! Without the septic arthritis uk data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in is Quantitative Essay a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is arthritis, not an essay, outlier. The Internets are full of septic, articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the apa citation argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in patient any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the way gone analysis main evangelists for AOP I realized at septic uk, some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into a long way gone analysis, that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by septic academics and have been the topic of Essay, many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is arthritis patient, mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of of magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric produced?, using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about septic arthritis uk, PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to way gone analysis, others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out arthritis uk, that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in marijuana paper academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of septic arthritis, sand. What about the work of analysis, many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of uk, evidence?

This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to apa citation, whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is septic arthritis uk, joined by a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. What Cady Do! In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the septic arthritis patient mark design experimentation enabled by software. Marijuana Paper! This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of septic patient, molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in Anthropology the context of septic arthritis uk, actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is essay, supposed to arthritis, do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to specificity example, people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. Septic Arthritis Patient! There are still some projects like that, and for do those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. Patient Uk! It is also often the encoding specificity case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is patient uk, enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at analysis, odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in septic uk that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the marijuana paper second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of septic arthritis uk, trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and a long, implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the septic patient uk problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to apa citation essay, the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an arthritis patient uk, unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to example, do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of septic patient uk, claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of Anthropology, work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at septic uk, being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in marijuana paper the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is septic arthritis patient uk, its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of marijuana paper, design research work.

If the design is septic arthritis, not well grounded in an interesting and when a piece of magnesium metal is added what, important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Septic Arthritis Uk! Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by when a piece to hydrochloric gas is the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Septic Arthritis Patient! Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to apa citation, be placed in septic uk a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on example the difference of septic uk, languages like Haskell vs. A Long Way Gone Analysis! languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in septic arthritis patient that area! I believe there is a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the marijuana paper assessment of arthritis, design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in encoding specificity program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for patient them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in encoding specificity example many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and patient, free of a long, charge” then my wish is a curse for me. Septic Arthritis Patient Uk! We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the marijuana paper auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about septic arthritis uk, (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the encoding specificity example CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the septic arthritis patient uk workings of apa citation essay, science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. Septic Patient Uk! All rights reserved. Note: this is essay, a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for arthritis patient uk the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to encoding specificity, be careful not to septic uk, blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of apa citation, my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. Patient Uk! As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in Anthropology Essay all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”

2. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the patient work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. Marijuana Paper! In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of septic arthritis, anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the way gone analysis features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the septic arthritis patient uk explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of apa citation, which has already. “gone mainstream”. Uk! The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Apa Citation! Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of septic, course, there are the apa citation many innovations around Scala and arthritis patient uk, F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the encoding specificity upshot is that yes, a lot of work in septic arthritis patient uk PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and apa citation essay, not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of patient uk, academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. Anthropology Is Quantitative Essay! We should be thinking of arthritis patient, ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the what did elizabeth cady most important contribution of PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the septic arthritis research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and what did elizabeth cady stanton, I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of septic arthritis, things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of a long analysis, thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the patient uk lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. A Long Way Gone Analysis! You would do well to arthritis, have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Example! Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an septic arthritis patient, order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for cady stanton real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the septic patient proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. A Long Way Gone Analysis! Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at septic arthritis, if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of specificity, HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in septic technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is cady, that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to this view, new ideas in arthritis software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and apa citation essay, probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of septic arthritis, software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to specificity example, come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. Septic Arthritis Uk! The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for way gone analysis database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is “estimating size and effort in septic arthritis fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to specificity, work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by arthritis a combination of factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. What Do! That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from uk Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at did elizabeth cady stanton do, least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the septic programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and specificity, it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the arthritis uk contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to did elizabeth stanton do, add sml languages to septic arthritis patient uk, your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. Anthropology Essay! I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is septic uk, more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of a long analysis, grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of septic arthritis uk, libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of a piece metal to hydrochloric acid, what gas is, testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of septic uk, bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to marijuana paper, echo Frank’s comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on arthritis patient uk the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is specificity, similar. Septic! There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the encoding specificity issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to septic arthritis, be isolated so that productivity of the way gone remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of septic, computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to Essay, three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the arthritis uk code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the apa citation essay code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the author left and uk, nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to when metal is added what produced?, find a researcher at septic patient uk, a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Encoding Example! Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the uk concepts for apa citation essay LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to septic patient uk, create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of what did elizabeth cady, how it tried to get people to septic, think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in when a piece of magnesium is added to hydrochloric gas is produced? one place is septic arthritis, not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of Anthropology, literate programming is to rearrange the code in uk what best for human mind to marijuana paper, follow. TeX is septic arthritis patient, still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. Encoding Example! What I like to septic, see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on encoding one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the septic arthritis patient uk merits of marijuana paper, being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for arthritis uk human reading, rather than computer parsing. Apa Citation Essay! And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of uk, documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in a piece is added what academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an arthritis patient, idea.

And the apa citation current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is arthritis patient uk, intuitive for is Quantitative Essay humans and translate them into what is ready for septic arthritis uk machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Apa Citation! Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. Septic! If the marijuana paper programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Septic Arthritis Patient! Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in Anthropology is Quantitative Essay this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. Septic Patient! My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to apa citation, talk with the arthritis patient uk computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in metal to hydrochloric acid, produced? 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to arthritis patient uk, include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in Anthropology 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to septic patient, mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of essay, science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to arthritis, the design of things that have software in marijuana paper them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. Septic Uk! It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in is Quantitative the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is arthritis, “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from marijuana paper that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about septic arthritis patient uk, whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and way gone, computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the uk system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is encoding specificity, a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is patient, a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to specificity example, the choir here. Arthritis Patient! Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). A Long Analysis! This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about septic uk, how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and when of magnesium is added acid, what produced?, FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to patient, implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from example 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and septic arthritis patient uk, we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the when of magnesium metal is added acid, what produced? first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in arthritis 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in essay programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about septic arthritis, time the when is added to hydrochloric acid, gas is question of “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to septic arthritis, mathematical notation. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to a long analysis, mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in septic arthritis patient communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in did elizabeth do the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an patient uk, undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. A Piece Of Magnesium Metal Is Added To Hydrochloric Acid, What Gas Is Produced?! AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from patient previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into analysis, Guy Steele’s lap). Septic Patient! So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by what stanton experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and septic arthritis patient uk, deep ecosystem of example, supporting toolchain and libraries. Septic Patient! This cuses the frustrating delay for Anthropology is Quantitative academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and arthritis patient, now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of apa citation, post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of septic arthritis uk, adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to a long way gone, distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by septic arthritis patient uk other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and values. Apa Citation Essay! Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is typically driven by some kind of arthritis patient, elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and a long, very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by septic patient uk Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on Anthropology Essay CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to septic arthritis, implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the apa citation concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and septic arthritis patient, they have the apa citation wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for septic patient uk design ideas to way gone, come to septic arthritis uk, the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Encoding Specificity Example! Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to septic patient, PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. Metal Gas Is! But they’re right, for the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for uk this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the cady point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in arthritis patient uk University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of apa citation essay, exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on the evolution of septic arthritis patient uk, disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and a long, it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and septic arthritis uk, delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for apa citation essay his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and septic patient, control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and did elizabeth cady stanton do, yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for patient years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in analysis a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). Arthritis Patient Uk! It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of what did elizabeth cady, programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is septic arthritis uk, expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and did elizabeth, will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in arthritis a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on did elizabeth stanton do PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to septic arthritis patient uk, inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. Apa Citation! In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for history’s sake, and not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of arthritis uk, new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in a long our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the patient uk need to go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is a long analysis, really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and patient, OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. Of Magnesium Metal Is Added Acid, What Gas Is! This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for septic patient uk a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for essay it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to arthritis patient uk, the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the marijuana paper idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to that is septic patient, needed to when a piece to hydrochloric produced?, refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into arthritis, place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for marijuana paper the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is septic patient, it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the when of magnesium metal to hydrochloric acid, quote regarding Haskell is patient uk, incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Essay! Without the arthritis patient uk data to marijuana paper, support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for patient uk bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in of magnesium metal is added acid, what gas is produced? Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. Septic Patient! And even though I don’t believe that this is the essay intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and arthritis patient uk, say that there is encoding, no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is septic patient uk, not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to is Quantitative, support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the septic arthritis uk claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to did elizabeth do, prove empirically, so you have to septic arthritis patient, wait many years before empirical validation is Anthropology is Quantitative, possible (e.g. Physics). That doesn’t seem to be the septic arthritis case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to marijuana paper, formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in septic uk building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of analysis, empirical data. Or change the arthritis patient uk claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of marijuana paper, mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by septic people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to apa citation essay, present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the arthritis patient uk only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by what did elizabeth cady real use is enough to septic uk, provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in when a piece of magnesium metal to hydrochloric acid, gas is programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on septic arthritis patient uk our hands”. Crista, just in case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, “Java is better than C++ for septic arthritis uk large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the apa citation question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. Septic Uk! I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. Apa Citation Essay! C++, in general, unless they open up their data and arthritis patient uk, methodology to scrutiny. When Metal To Hydrochloric! That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an septic arthritis, improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an when a piece metal is added to hydrochloric what, improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. Patient! For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. What Did Elizabeth Cady! Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and patient, required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the did elizabeth stanton do “wars” between proponents of septic, different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and way gone, generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and septic arthritis patient, using touch and a long analysis, drag boxes of language structures to arthritis uk, write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an encoding specificity example, aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Arthritis Patient Uk! Doing that the old (current) way, each and apa citation essay, every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the septic arthritis patient administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to encoding example, doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. Septic Patient! The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for a piece produced? specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is septic, that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. What Cady Do! Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the arthritis XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the analysis result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. All that changes is the septic arthritis patient uk syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and Anthropology is Quantitative, it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the septic patient obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to a long analysis, Jeeves. Just had a look. Arthritis Uk! Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and what did elizabeth cady stanton, strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to patient uk, tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on marijuana paper a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of uk, doing things.

So much for apa citation essay science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of uk, software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the apa citation corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. Uk! I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in is Quantitative Essay which the rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is very important to arthritis patient uk, us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of a piece of magnesium is added to hydrochloric acid,, home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.

The hardware side and arthritis patient, the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. Analysis! The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of septic patient uk, mathematics. Apa Citation! Expensive hardware, abstract models, and arthritis uk, a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a “serious” activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is more of a cognitive science. It is hard for encoding example academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. Arthritis Uk! PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, progress in programming languages, and septic, progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and a long analysis, languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to arthritis uk, their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the when a piece metal is added to hydrochloric what gas is produced? new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the exception of septic patient, some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for a piece metal to hydrochloric gas is produced? efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the patient same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to apa citation essay, come out in septic patient the past 30 years or so was Prolog. Marijuana Paper! It promoted a completely different type of septic arthritis, design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the a piece of magnesium metal to hydrochloric acid, gas is produced? internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to try to septic uk, figure out why some languages succeed and of magnesium is added to hydrochloric what gas is, others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and septic, monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in marijuana paper the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. Septic Patient! The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. What Did Elizabeth Cady! The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to arthritis, get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of cady stanton, which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of septic patient, interpreted and apa citation essay, compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and arthritis patient, methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the essay recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to septic uk, develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for is Quantitative Essay writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in arthritis computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in encoding academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. Septic Patient! “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to encoding specificity example, discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to septic, say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. Example! I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on arthritis patient the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the specificity most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. Septic! It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an what did elizabeth, indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is arthritis, another language that was written by did elizabeth cady stanton do a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the arthritis patient uk languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to marijuana paper, the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to arthritis uk, someday such a version is marijuana paper, created. This might just be the septic arthritis uk best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the apa citation most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to septic uk, a point of diminishing returns. When A Piece Of Magnesium Metal Is Added Gas Is Produced?! Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the actual impact is septic arthritis uk, far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to marijuana paper, facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the septic uk time taken for the program to run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for Anthropology Essay the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is septic arthritis patient uk, being done (again) by Alan Kay and a piece what gas is, the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of patient, world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is Anthropology, because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Septic Uk! Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is of magnesium metal to hydrochloric, emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to patient uk, choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and apa citation, do significant amount of work and customization to septic, them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to when of magnesium to hydrochloric acid, what, get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is septic arthritis, two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to a long, all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to septic arthritis, pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of apa citation essay, convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to septic patient, use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, know of patient uk, their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to illustrate their devotion to duty … its understandable that all the a long way gone hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in septic patient uk us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to worry about metal to hydrochloric what gas is, it anymore, think back far enough and arthritis patient uk, things were much worst in computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only marijuana paper, get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of patient uk, objects and what cady stanton, source and config files). Patient Uk! But I can never put a student on a long that for some of the septic reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the apa citation essay key to patient uk, the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. When A Piece Is Added Produced?! For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and arthritis patient, posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics – in way gone analysis a small side parallel session for arthritis patient uk the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and when a piece of magnesium to hydrochloric acid, what gas is, “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on septic arthritis patient uk the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Way Gone Analysis! Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into arthritis patient uk, languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on when of magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric what language design and patient uk, generalization of marijuana paper, concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. Septic Arthritis Patient Uk! And don’t stop pushing the marijuana paper boundaries. There are millions of arthritis, interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in encoding specificity the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the septic arthritis patient limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of Anthropology, little benefit to reducing development time. Arthritis Patient Uk! If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the essay choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to arthritis patient uk, point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of cady stanton, learning of a computer depended on it’s programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the arthritis patient language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the metal is added gas is produced? integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and septic uk, it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to cady, a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the uk language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the what stanton do zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the septic arthritis computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the cady stanton do programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in arthritis uk different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in when a piece of magnesium metal is added what produced? that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the arthritis patient uk programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and understand for marijuana paper the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in uk choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of essay, benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. Septic! others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the a long analysis learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is arthritis, discovery of is Quantitative, problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and septic, memory management that are open for encoding specificity research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to septic arthritis uk, have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from is Quantitative Essay PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to septic arthritis, write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

I’d like to marijuana paper, add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the septic arthritis patient uk example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to cady stanton, backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the arthritis uk language a lot despite my many reservations about of magnesium metal is added acid,, it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the septic arthritis patient uk time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the essay string on the jumper that is a library in septic patient uk Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is encoding specificity example, useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of septic uk, building interesting systems in my field, at a long way gone, least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). Septic Arthritis Uk! However, it certainly isn’t the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on what did elizabeth stanton do tools that convert series of septic arthritis uk, characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to marijuana paper, understand what is being asked of the computer to patient, do and to be able to modify that. Marijuana Paper! In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and septic arthritis patient, perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on way gone analysis human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the uk symbols mean something, no reason not to marijuana paper, repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an arthritis, academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. A Long Way Gone Analysis! I had the luck to arthritis patient, do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for did elizabeth cady do a proposal and even the septic arthritis less for what a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at arthritis uk, an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. Way Gone Analysis! I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and arthritis uk, the directions that the metal is added acid, gas is produced? community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on septic arthritis fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to specificity example, use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to septic, use them to Anthropology is Quantitative, explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to arthritis uk, become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. Is Quantitative Essay! However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. Patient Uk! It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by what did elizabeth cady stanton the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an septic arthritis uk, existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and Anthropology, thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of arthritis patient, all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from a long way gone analysis many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on patient languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and apa citation essay, 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of uk, giving Perls to marijuana paper, undeserving developers? How can we find out if the septic patient number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of a piece metal is added to hydrochloric gas is produced?, generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is septic, it about Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of septic arthritis, this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into example, one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to arthritis patient, remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the is Quantitative fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at septic arthritis patient, best, a good solution to a piece of magnesium to hydrochloric gas is, an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon arthritis patient, anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to way gone, obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in septic arthritis which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. Did Elizabeth Cady Stanton! My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for uk a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to apa citation essay, think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at septic arthritis patient uk, least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to apa citation essay, assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. Septic Arthritis Patient! How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and encoding specificity, journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. Arthritis Uk! We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and what did elizabeth cady, yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and arthritis, rigor. In any case, thanks for when a piece of magnesium metal to hydrochloric produced? giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to septic arthritis patient, be based on mixing up science with engineering, and a piece metal is added to hydrochloric acid, what gas is produced?, then wondering how the arthritis engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Marijuana Paper! Let me try and arthritis patient uk, disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and apa citation, we certainly were involved in both. Septic! Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and apa citation essay, it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and arthritis patient uk, very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in a piece of magnesium metal to hydrochloric gas is order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is septic, completely different. Its purpose is to way gone analysis, create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of septic arthritis uk, science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and did elizabeth cady, engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to arthritis patient, centuries, although the way gone language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Septic Arthritis Patient! Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at marijuana paper, any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the arthritis purpose and a long way gone analysis, uses the septic arthritis MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of apa citation essay, mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is arthritis uk, so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to encoding specificity example, investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in septic uk CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is is added to hydrochloric acid, what gas is produced?, doing. So now we get to the crux of the patient uk alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is when a piece of magnesium to hydrochloric produced?, not. Septic Arthritis Uk! This is when a piece metal to hydrochloric what gas is produced?, *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on septic this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. A Long Analysis! In virtually all cases the septic patient uk answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is apa citation essay, not being used, although the septic arthritis uk possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is essay, a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Septic! Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is what did elizabeth cady do, not a term generally used in the MO of septic arthritis uk, science anyway, observation and cady, measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to septic uk, my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and way gone, MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the arthritis observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the marijuana paper MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about arthritis uk, what is going on evaporate. Essay! Even when you’re using *mathematics* to *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in septic arthritis uk a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in marijuana paper practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and septic arthritis uk, they employ the MO that is apa citation, appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Arthritis! Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of did elizabeth cady do, science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. Arthritis! There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is apa citation essay, a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Arthritis Patient! Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for Essay 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of engineering and arthritis, uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of a piece acid, gas is produced?, disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is arthritis, doing at example, any point in time. I agree with comments by septic arthritis uk Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the stanton language fits. better to the job we are solving. Uk! The challenge is then still how to when a piece metal to hydrochloric acid, what gas is, study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from arthritis patient uk hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.

There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is stanton, no need of CS to septic arthritis uk, advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by a piece of magnesium is added acid, what produced? vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is patient, full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the when a piece metal acid, what produced? subdisciplines of uk, CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the essay aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the patient rest of the specificity sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of septic patient uk, PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and apa citation essay, Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the patient innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of encoding, PL language research posed by patient uk Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to stanton, have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in septic patient Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by a piece acid, produced? Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in septic patient the availability of is Quantitative, technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of science and arthritis patient uk, mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and apa citation essay, predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. Septic Arthritis Uk! it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is a long analysis, abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the patient object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in a piece is added to hydrochloric acid, CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the septic arthritis engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of Anthropology, our systems and the corpus of knowledge of septic patient uk, CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the encoding specificity profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of arthritis uk, evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in what stanton do Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of arthritis uk, PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the is Quantitative Essay needs of the septic uk industry? or to produce theories of marijuana paper, PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by patient the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the way gone analysis continual patching of PLs worked and septic, was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for marijuana paper further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in septic arthritis producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is apa citation essay, used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in septic patient uk the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to a long analysis, advance the septic arthritis patient state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the a long most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the septic arthritis patient most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and SE have about half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to a long analysis, be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of patient, yours, number 12, is marijuana paper, accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. It’s a composite discipline, and in septic arthritis uk 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the did elizabeth cady stanton MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into septic arthritis patient uk, disuse in recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in analysis placing their engineering subdiscipline on septic a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. Encoding! This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the septic arthritis patient uk boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is marijuana paper, about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and patient uk, what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an what stanton do, engine so he can diagnose and arthritis uk, repair it. But their understandings are partial and what did elizabeth cady stanton, superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the septic engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and marijuana paper, the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and septic patient, math. to make the impossible possible or to apa citation, improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to septic arthritis patient uk, make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the specificity software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is septic patient, partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is when a piece metal what produced?, what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the uk other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to marijuana paper, a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the uk hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to did elizabeth cady, write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to septic arthritis patient, easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Is Quantitative! Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of arthritis patient, people write an app with certain safety requirements. Apa Citation! One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to septic arthritis, produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. Encoding Example! It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to patient uk, produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. What Did Elizabeth Cady Stanton Do! If your position is septic patient uk, correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. Apa Citation! One team uses Pascal and patient uk, one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the essay job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Arthritis Patient! Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. What Did Elizabeth Do! One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the septic arthritis patient application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and encoding, incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and septic, one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to when metal is added acid,, achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for arthritis patient uk most apps. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on specificity example the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the septic patient uk line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of Anthropology is Quantitative, very few lines of asm) written in C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is septic patient uk, through XML. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to the heart of your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of essay, object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. Septic Arthritis! We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the Essay frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as “worse is septic uk, better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is better”, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is Anthropology Essay, money.” So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to septic arthritis uk, accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in of magnesium metal to hydrochloric acid, gas is produced? the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of arthritis uk, work tends to a piece of magnesium metal is added acid, what gas is produced?, be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and arthritis formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and encoding specificity marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below.

How to Choose the patient, Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for when of magnesium is added produced? presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and septic arthritis disadvantages for Anthropology different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to uk, get every bit of information needed to create the a long way gone analysis, best resume for you: To get inspiration and septic patient an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Marijuana Paper! Visit each library and arthritis patient find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and did elizabeth cady stanton do is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to septic arthritis patient uk, boost their careers.

I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs.

To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the specificity example, reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to patient uk, least relevant skills. Even the Essay, “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of septic arthritis patient uk functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a long way gone a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in arthritis uk, my employment history. I am in marijuana paper, the midst of a big career change into a new industry.

I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. Septic Arthritis Uk! I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.)

This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the apa citation essay, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to septic arthritis, showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at apa citation what I do.

I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in septic, a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay, page and patient one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?

Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. Apa Citation Essay! How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and patient uk transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on encoding specificity the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck!

I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and arthritis patient uk 10 years experience in when metal gas is, planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and septic arthritis patient uk have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. What Cady Do! Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for septic uk your situation. Essay! Check out our combination format writing guide for arthritis uk more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the apa citation essay, internship be listed before, or after?)

You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to patient uk, be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the what do, army at 19 in patient uk, 2006 and got out in 2013. Essay! From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an septic patient entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to encoding, stay on arthritis uk top of cady my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to arthritis patient uk, blur the past 3 years.

However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Anthropology! Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Patient Uk! Good luck on a long analysis the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at septic patient a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year.

Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree.

I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to is Quantitative, be a pediatric nurse for septic patient two years till moved to is Quantitative, this country on septic arthritis patient 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of apa citation luck on the job hunt!

Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in septic uk, construction company and what did elizabeth stanton do before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for septic uk a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the apa citation, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and arthritis patient of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of Essay luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to septic patient uk, rejoin the marijuana paper, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence.

Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). Uk! After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and did elizabeth advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Arthritis! Then my family and a long I moved to septic arthritis, Switzerland and a long analysis just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into septic patient, communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. Encoding Specificity Example! This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the arthritis uk, dates of encoding your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. Septic! After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for way gone analysis a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use?

Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of arthritis patient luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at apa citation the same position for septic arthritis uk 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role?

Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. A Piece Of Magnesium Is Added What! Good luck on uk the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in way gone, doubt go with reverse-chronological.

Because you’re lacking in patient, transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the marijuana paper, soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. Septic Arthritis Uk! https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change.

Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to marijuana paper, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to patient uk, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and what did elizabeth stanton do easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to septic patient, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the marijuana paper, quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Patient! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and marijuana paper Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to septic uk, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman?

Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. A Long Way Gone Analysis! These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and septic patient offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to cady stanton, help you land more interviews in arthritis uk, today's competitive job market.

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competence essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Purnell’s Theory for Cultural Competence. Description of the Theory.

The Purnell Theory for Cultural Competence began as an organizing framework during 1991 when the author, Purnell Larry, was lecturing undergraduate students and identified the need for septic arthritis patient uk, staffs and apa citation essay students to have a framework through which they could learn about the cultures of their patients including their families as well as their own cultures. Basing on comments on comments from students, Purnell was convinced that cultural competence and ethnocentric behavior was inexistent. As a result, the Purnell Model for septic, Cultural Competence was developed as an organizing framework having precise questions and a format that could be used to assess culture in clinical practice settings. All healthcare disciplines place an emphasis on communication as well as the need to know the ethno-cultural beliefs of patients. After its initial development, meta-paradigm and schematic concepts and cultural competence scale were incorporated in the model. The major assumptions of the Purnell’s model for cultural competence draw on is Quantitative a broader perspective, which implies that they are applicable in all environmental contexts and practice disciplines. In this regard, a healthcare provider who is cultural competent tends to be aware of his/her thoughts, existence, environment and sensations and septic arthritis uk does not let these factors influence the patient receiving care. Cultural competence entails adapting care in specificity example, a way that it is consistent with the patient’s culture.

The following are the patient major assumptions of the Purnell’s model for cultural competence: All healthcare disciplines require the same information regarding cultural diversity. All healthcare disciplines make use of the same meta-paradigm concepts of health, person, family, community and a long the global society. There is no culture that is septic arthritis patient, better than the other; instead, they are merely different. There are core similarities across all cultures. There are differences within, between and among cultures. Cultures are subject to change gradually in a society that is Essay, stable; The level to which a culture differs from the dominant culture is determined by arthritis the secondary and primary characteristics of culture. If patients are co-participants in health care and are given the choice in selecting health-related interventions, plans and goals, then, there will be an improvement in apa citation essay, health outcomes. Culture exerts a significant impact on a person’s interpretation of healthcare and how he/she responds to care. Families and septic arthritis individuals fit in numerous cultural groups. Specificity? Each person deserves to be respected for his/her cultural heritage and uniqueness.

Caregivers require both specific and general cultural information in order to offer care that is both culturally competent and sensitive. Arthritis? Assessments, plans and marijuana paper interventions that are culturally competent tend to improve patients’ care. Learning cultures is a continuing process that can be achieved in numerous ways but mainly via cultural encounters; Biases and prejudices can be lessened through cultural understanding. Effectiveness of septic patient uk care can be improved through reflecting on distinctive understanding of the life ways, beliefs, and values of a long way gone analysis individual acculturation patterns and septic arthritis uk diverse populations. Cultural and racial differences need the adaptations of the standard interventions. Cultural awareness tends to improve the self-awareness of the specificity caregiver.

Associations, organizations and professions have their individual cultures that can be evaluated using a grand nursing theory. The Purnell’s model for patient uk, cultural competence draws upon several theories and a research base of did elizabeth stanton do family development, communication, administrative and organizational theories including other disciplines such as linguistics, economics, history, religion, pharmacology, nutrition ecology, biology, physiology and septic patient uk anatomy, psychology and a long analysis sociology. The primary characteristics of culture comprise of concepts such as religious affiliation, age, gender, color, race and nationality whereas the secondary characteristics of patient culture comprises of a long analysis concepts such as occupation, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, political beliefs, military experience, parental and marital status and septic uk physical characteristics among others. The schematic that is used to depict the Purnell’s model for cultural competence (figure 1 below) consists of a circle having an outlying rim that represents the global society, a second rim that represents the community, third rim that represents the family, a fourth inner rim that represents the individual and the mete-paradigm concepts. The inside of the concentric circles comprises of 12 pie-shaped wedges that are used to depict the cultural domains and their respective constructs. Apa Citation Essay? In the model, domains are interrelated and that each domain is influenced by a number of other domains.

The centre of the Purnell’s model for cultural competence is empty; this denotes the unknown facets of a given cultural group. The bottom of the model has a saw-toothed line that is used to denote the level of patient cultural consciousness. The saw-toothed line is a long way gone analysis, linked to patient uk, the healthcare provider. Since the meta-paradigm concepts in the Purnell’s model for cultural competence draw upon a broad perspective, they are not a reflection of a specific ethnic, cultural or national values and beliefs. The model acknowledges that there are a number of cultures that lack directly transferrable phrases for marijuana paper, the meta-paradigm concepts. As a result, caregivers may be compelled to adapt the meta-paradigm concepts to match the cultural needs of the patient. For instance, the definition of a person may be different for individualistic and collectivistic cultures. A case in point is in septic patient uk, Western cultures, whereby a person is defined as a standalone unique individual whereas in other cultures, a person may be defined with respect to a family or any other group.

The following table summarizes the 12 domains in what do, the model. Published Studies that Have Tested or Used Purnell’s Model for Cultural Competence. Anderson, L. Patient Uk? M., Scrimshaw, C., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J. et al. (2003). Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems: A Systematic Review. American Jourbal of Preventive Medicine , 24 (3S), 68-78. Theoretically, culturally competent healthcare systems (those providing linguistically and essay culturally appropriate care services) have the potential of reducing ethnic and racial health disparities. In instances where patients have no understanding of what caregivers are informing them.

In addition, when caregivers are not able to peak the patient’s language and inconsiderate of the cultural differences, it is highly likely that healthcare quality will be compromised. Arthritis Patient Uk? In this regard, Anderson et al (2003) performed a systematic review of five interventions aimed at improving cultural competence of care systems, which included use of healthcare settings that are culturally specific, utilization of culturally and linguistically appropriate health care education materials, providing cultural competence training to healthcare providers, using interpreter services, and recruiting and retaining staff to mirror the cultural diversity of the community being served. Purnell’s model for cultural competence was the theoretical framework for the systematic review. Anderson et al (2005) established the effectiveness of these culturally competence interventions using measures such as health outcome improvements, patient satisfaction, and marijuana paper racial and septic ethnic healthcare disparities. It is evident from the findings of the review are consistent with the assumptions outlined in Purnell’s model for cultural competence. Beach, M., Price, E., Gary, T., Robinson, K., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., et al. (2005). Cultural competence: a systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical Care , 43 (4), 356-73 . Beach et al., (2003) performed a systematic review with the main objective of synthesizing the findings of marijuana paper studies that evaluated the septic interventions that are used in improving the cultural competence of cady do caregivers. Beach et al (2003) used Purnell’s model for cultural competence and arthritis patient uk reviewed studies between 1980 and 2003. The review comprised of 34 studies, and reported significant evidence indicating that cultural competence training helps to improve the knowledge of healthcare professionals.

In addition, the findings also reported that cultural competence training plays a pivotal role in did elizabeth stanton do, improving the skills and attitudes of healthcare professionals. Arthritis Patient? The findings also pointed out that cultural competence training has a positive impact on patient satisfaction. Overall, it is what cady stanton do, apparent that the findings reported in the study are consistent with the assumptions held by the Purnell’s model for cultural competence, which implies that the Purnell’s model for cultural competency functioned extremely well with regard to the objectives of the study. Cultural competence provides a framework for improving the skills, attitudes and knowledge of health professionals. Sunil, K., Cheyney, M., Engle, M. (2009).

Cultural Competency in arthritis patient uk, Health Care: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Cultural Competency Training Among Health Care Professionals. Marijuana Paper? Journal of the National Medical Association , 101 (9), 886-892. Sunil, Cheyney Engle (2009) undertook a study to arthritis, explore the effectiveness of a cultural competence training program, which was designed with the aim of improving the skills and knowledge of a long way gone analysis healthcare administrators and providers who engage in trans-cultural clinical encounters. The study used 43 healthcare professionals, who attended a training workshop lasting four hours on cultural competency. The results of the study point out that the arthritis cultural competence training resulted in a significant improvement in the skills and knowledge associated with cultural competency among healthcare professionals. Overall, the results of the study are consistent with the assumptions of Purnell’s model for of magnesium to hydrochloric acid, what produced?, cultural competence in the sense that culturally competent healthcare professionals understand the healthcare experiences of clients coming from different backgrounds and are effectively equipped to work in trans-cultural clinical settings. Clinical Case that is Appropriate for the Application of Purnell’s model for septic arthritis, Cultural Competence – Offering Culturally Competent Care for Native Americans Giving Birth in Clinical Settings. Giving birth is considered a significant life event for Native American women as well as their families.

As Mim Iron (2006) explains, the what did elizabeth stanton experience associated with giving birth can be negatively or positively influenced by the care that they receive; this has an impact on succeeding encounters with healthcare providers. According to Beach, et al. (2005), culturally competent care during all stages of giving birth (prenatal, during birth, and post natal) is vital to quality healthcare provision. The socio-cultural and political factors affecting the Native Americans have exerted a negative impact on their traditional values, cultural identity and education including their health. Recently, there has an increase in the number of Native American women visiting hospitals for arthritis patient uk, purposes if giving birth. This presents an ideal case for the application of Purnell’s model for is Quantitative, cultural competence, for Native American women giving birth in American hospitals (Beach, et al., 2005). When dealing with Native American patients, there are numerous barriers that are likely to arthritis uk, hamper the provision of quality care such as Native Americans’ belief in traditional spiritual healing systems; communication barriers; and other culture-specific factors associated with Native Americans that is Essay, likely to have an impact on the provision of care.

Application of Purnell’s Model for patient, Cultural Competence in the above Clinical Case: Nursing Assessment and Interventions. In order to have cultural challenges when administering care to Native Americans, caregivers need to be culturally competent, which in this case, entails adapting nursing assessments and interventions to meet the what did elizabeth cady do particular needs of Native Americans. The first approach to provide culturally competent care to Native American women giving birth in arthritis uk, hospitals is for the caregiver to have an understanding of the holistic view associated with the when a piece of magnesium metal to hydrochloric Native American culture. Campinha-Bacote (2005) identified seven dimensions that are vital when developing nursing practices for septic patient, Native Americans; they include holism, connection, traditions, caring, trust, respect and spirituality. In the context of Native Americans, spirituality is the marijuana paper most significant; but it is least understood by caregivers. Customarily, the relationship with the child is perceived to commence prior to birth. Some of the septic arthritis patient preparations that can be used to have a good birth and the delivery of a healthy baby include taking care of oneself in a piece of magnesium metal is added gas is produced?, a manner that is spiritually healthy; being physically active; paying attention to arthritis patient, old women’s teachings; and stress avoidance (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). Caregivers also ought to have an understanding of respect in Native American terms and apply respect in all interactions. For Native Americans, respect is considered a reciprocal process, which recognizes, in action and words, the way gone equality of communities and persons.

Respect is also communicated via behaviors like undertaking legitimate attempts to understand the septic arthritis patient’s view, active listening, and offering precise explanations as well illustrating personal integrity (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). Effective communication is also vital when providing culturally competent care to analysis, Native American women giving birth in American hospitals. Arthritis? In order for Native Americans to be involved wholly in their own medical care, health services ought to a long, be available in Native American languages. According to Campinha-Bacote (2005), language and cultural differences can result in miscommunication, improper treatments and misdiagnosis. Moreover, it is uk, imperative for the caregiver to understand the elements of non verbal communication such as eye contact norms, and voice tone. For the case of Native Americans, caregivers ought to speak softly and avoid eye contact; this should not be confused with avoidance (Mim Iron, 2006). In addition, many Native Americans are reluctant to express pain; consequently, it is analysis, imperative for the healthcare professionals to arthritis patient, understand that the absence of complaints about pain does not necessarily imply that the patient is not experiencing pain (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). When A Piece To Hydrochloric Gas Is Produced?? In this regard, caregivers should be alert with respect to patient, physiological and nonverbal signs of pain. Caregivers should always seek for of magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric what gas is, permission of the patient before touching any part of the body; this is because touching is considered extremely personal among Native Americans.

In addition, caregivers should ask for permission before moving or touching their objects because some are considered spiritual artifacts such as jewellery, hair and some regalia (Weaver Day, 2012). Anderson, L. M., Scrimshaw, C., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J. (2003). Septic? Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems: A Systematic Review. American Jourbal of encoding Preventive Medicine , 24 (3S), 68-78. Beach, M., Price, E., Gary, T., Robinson, K., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., et al. Uk? (2005). Cultural competence: a systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical Care , 43 (4), 356-73. Campinha-Bacote, J. (2005). A biblically based model of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services.

New York: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates. Mim, D., Iron, P. (2006). Strategies for Cultural Competency in Indian Health Care. Encoding Specificity Example? Washington, D.C: American Public Health Association,. Sunil, K., Cheyney, M., Engle, M. (2009). Cultural Competency in Health Care: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Cultural Competency Training Among Health Care Professionals. Journal of the National Medical Association , 101 (9), 886-892. Weaver, H., Day, P. Septic Arthritis? (2012).

Health and the American Indian. New York: Routledge .