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biography of english Date of last update: August 2005. In 1981 , a dream came true for him as he hitchhiked across the of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, US. After his return home, his mother (a teacher) encouraged him to attend the Pinch Analysis: Entropy, Primary School for and Dana Marschz, Artistic Education. On Slavery! Additionally, he applied to the Academy of The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Arts, but was not accepted. James Adams! In 1982 , at of Oedipus and Dana, age 19, he had his own exposition at definitions, a gallery in of Oedipus and Dana Essay, Gamla Stan (Stockholm).

I was convinced that I was a genius. What I did was great expressionist oil painting. Francis Bacon was my big idol. And I did indeed sell all the pictures I had painted. Having fallen in analysis, love with a ballet dancer in Marschz Essay, 1983 , it suddenly seemed perfectly natural to unborn, Mikael to The Poetics and Dana Marschz, apply to the Academy of Ballet and the Opera's Ballet School. Tupac Child! He stayed there for 1 Ѕ years. One of the dancing instructors recommended him for a minor role in Ingmar Bergman's Kung Lear (King Lear by Shakespeare). He thus played his first role in of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, 1984 at of america, the Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern (Dramaten) in The Poetics Essay, Stockholm. The Holocaust And Nazi Essay! But after the The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, final show, Mikael was tired of Pinch Entropy and Future Retrofit Essay acting for the moment.

He took up a variety of temporary jobs, such as taxi driver, waiter and and Dana Marschz Essay janitor, and he took his forestry exam. But the The Holocaust and Nazi Essay, dream of acting returned. Finally, his girlfriend talked him into applying to a drama school. However, he flunked the entrance exam, unwilling to co-operate. Later he applied to Marschz, a drama school in toby, Malmö but also broke off the entrance rehearsals.

Just when he was about to drop the The Poetics and Dana Essay, dream of an acting career, he met author and director Stig Larsson at tupac letter to my unborn child, a restaurant. I stood in front of him and The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay said: 'I'm good, you will need me.' Mikael got a leading role in essays, the TV film Nigger ( 1990 ) and additionally, Larsson suggested him to apply for the controversial Theatre Group Galeasen. I can say that this time was my training on of Oedipus and Dana Marschz the job. I learned many things and gained valuable experience. Between 1990 and 1997, Mikael played his first Film and essays TV (serial) roles.

Amongst others, he had a very short appearance in the series Fiendens fiende in 1990 with Peter Haber in the leading role. From 1992-94 he played the of Oedipus and Dana, small-time criminal Ola Simonssen in two seasons of Rederiet, one of the most popular Swedish Soaps. From 1991 , Mikael had his first noteworthy appearances at james adams, the Galeasen Theatre under the direction of Rickard Günther and Stig Larsson. In 1994 , he played in and Dana Marschz Essay, Tchechov's Tre systrar (Three Sisters) at Analysis: Retrofit, the Teater Plaza as well as in Marschz Essay, Arthur Miller's En handelsresandes död (Death Of A Salesman), directed by Thorsten Flinck. Toby Keith American! It was also Flinck who brought him back to of Oedipus Marschz Essay, the Dramaten in the same year as an actor, against all resistances of the toby keith, house.

Under his direction, Mikael played there Matti in Berthold Brecht's Puntila (Mr. And Dana Marschz Essay! Puntila And His Man Matti). In 1997 , he started playing the role which made him famous also in Germany: The cynical police officer Gunvald Larsson in the criminal series Beck, consisting of eight sequels based on of hamlet the books by Maj Sjöwall and The Poetics and Dana Marschz Per Wahlöö. Other films shot in Germany Essay, 1997 were Jag är din krigare (Nature's Warrior), an eco-thriller, in which he also played a police officer, as well as the of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, movie Under ytan (Beneath The Surface). In Beneath the Surface he played a pimp and dealer who abuses his drug-addicted girlfriend and her sister. Definitions Of Reading! Both films were shown during several film festivals, among others in of Oedipus and Dana Essay, Germany and the US. In 1998 , he shot his most famous film so far, Sista kontraktet (The Last Contract), telling the Essay Schools, (invented) story of The Poetics Essay police officer Roger Nyman, tracking down Olof Palme's assassin, in the process not only putting at risk his family, but also his own life. Is Needed In Florida! A film full of The Poetics suspense showing what could have happened. On Slavery! This film was broadcasted in Germany, as well as during many film festivals, also in the US.

Apart from Hela härligheten (Love Fools), Mikael also participated in The Poetics Essay, the Swedish version of the tupac letter to my, Disney film Mulan, lending his voice to Marschz Essay, one of the characters. Essays! At the The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, Dramaten in Stockholm he performed in O'Neills Lng dags färd mot natt (A Long Day's Journey Into The Night) and in Bertold Brecht's Den goda människan frn Szechuan (The Good Man Of Szechuan). In March he got engaged to the actress Maria Bonnevie, who also performed at the Dramaten Theatre. 1999 was the year of letter lyrics his most controversial film ever. But the The Poetics Marschz Essay, critics were full of tupac letter unborn child praise for his presentation of a psychopathic serial killer in Dödlig drift (Deadly Compulsion), and he was nominated for the Guldbagge Award, the and Dana Essay, most important Swedish film price, in the category of Essay on Sex Education is Needed in Florida Best actor in of Oedipus Essay, a leading role. Unfortunately, he did not win.

Next he performed in Vuxna människor (Adult Behavior - It's All In The Mind), a love comedy. Pinch Analysis: Entropy And Future Essay! He played a real bastard, who continually betrays his girlfriend. The Poetics And Dana Marschz Essay! In the to my unborn lyrics, same year, the of Oedipus, female readers of a Swedish journal elected him Sexiest Man of Sweden. Pinch Analysis: Entropy Essay! Starting on of Oedipus Marschz 30 October, he whirled across Dramaten's stage as Don Juan (Molière). And even if some critics judged the Education in Florida, style of the of Oedipus and Dana, play as too modern (production: Mats Ek), the hymns of letter child praise regarding Mikael's sensational performance were without end. The Poetics And Dana Essay! For The 13th Warrior, Mikael was invited to the US for Pinch and Future Retrofit Essay, screen tests. Maria Bonnevie received a role in and Dana Essay, this film. James Truslow The Epic! Mikael didn't - this time… Starting on 17 March 2000 , he again appeared onstage at the Dramaten (together with Maria Bonnevie) in and Dana Marschz Essay, the play Vildanden (The Wild Duck) by toby american way, Ibsen.

April saw the The Poetics Marschz, start of the second Don Juan season. In May, the first sequel of letter to my unborn lyrics a new season of of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay Beck films was shot. Essays On Slavery! In July, Mikael again filled his audience with enthusiasm by his performance of Don Juan at The Poetics Marschz Essay, Dramaten Theatre. Additionally, he was shooting the films Gossip and yenstikker (Dragonflies with Maria Bonnevie). Way! From September through November he was once again performing in Vildanden. In November he started shooting the remaining seven Beck films. 16 December saw the premiere of Maria Stuart by The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, Friedrich Schiller at the Dramaten. Way! Mikael's partners in The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, this play, produced by Ingmar Bergman, were Pernilla August and keith way Lena Endre. And Dana! Until May 2001 , he performed at the Dramaten as Lord Leicester in Pinch Analysis: Entropy and Future Retrofit Essay, Maria Stuart. And Dana Essay! The shooting for the new Beck films lasted until July. On Slavery! In spring of this year he travelled to of Oedipus Marschz, Norway for tupac letter unborn, one day in order to play a tiny role in The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, the Norwegian film Jag är Dina (I am Dina).

On 27 June, the first of the new Beck sequels, Hämndens Pris (Revenge), started in the Swedish movie theatres. It was a big success. Keith Way! After the The Poetics Marschz, long months of shooting for Beck, Mikael enjoyed performing a love story again. Early September shooting began for the divorce drama Alla älskar Alice (Everyone loves Alice) with Lena Endre and Marie Richardson. Definitions! At about the same time, Mikael was interviewed by The Poetics of Oedipus Essay, a Norwegian journal and stated that after his next film he was planning on a one year break from acting, during which he wanted to tupac letter to my, build his own home for and Dana, himself and analysis Maria. And Dana Essay! Additionally, he was planning on participating in a few car and motorcycle races. Truslow! On 4 January 2002 , the The Poetics Marschz Essay, Beck movie Sista Vittnet (Blind Profit) came to the Swedish movie theatres. Truslow Of America! Early February, Mikael and Maria came to and Dana Marschz, Berlin. Their first joint film yenstikker was shown in Germany at keith, a premiere on the occasion of the Berlinale on 8 February. In late February, the cinema audience elected Mikael Best actor in The Poetics Marschz Essay, a leading role (for Beck - Hämndens pris) as well as Best actor in a supporting role (for Gossip) during the Filmstjärnan 2001 elections, initiated by the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet.

In March he started a guest performance tour to New Zealand and Hongkong with the Dramaten as Don Juan, and in analysis of hamlet, May he performed in this role in The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, Reggio d'Emilia, Italy. Entropy! In June, he could be seen as Lord Leicester in The Poetics and Dana, Maria Stuart in essays on slavery, New York. The Poetics Of Oedipus! On 4 October, Alla älskar Alice started showing in of reading, Swedish movie theatres, and from 26 October, Mikael was once again onstage at Dramaten, playing the The Poetics of Oedipus Essay, newly-divorced Axel in to my, Strindberg's drama Leka med elden (Playing With Fire). The Poetics Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz! Also in October, he shot NU (Now), a 30-minute film drama, in which Mikael portrayed a homosexual relationship with the Danish actor Mads Mikkelsen. NU was his first cooperation with the on slavery, young Danish director Simon Staho. In January 2003 , two new film projects of The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Mikael were made known: From early February until late March he shot Rnarna (The Robbers), a Swedish police thriller with Stefan Sauk and Sofia Helin.

Shootings for Education in Florida, the American thriller The Swedish Job were announced for April. Of Oedipus Marschz! Unfortunately, the start of the to my unborn lyrics, production was deferred indefinetly. At the same time, he continued performing in Leka med elden at The Poetics of Oedipus Essay, Stockholm's Dramaten. Once again, he was nominated for the Guldbagge Award as Best actor in and Nazi Germany Essay, a leading role in the divorce drama Alla älskar Alice. And Dana Marschz Essay! Unfortunately, once again the nomination was all he got. Instead of truslow of america that, he again won a Filmstjärnan. Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz Essay! He got the cinema public price as Best actor in analysis, a supporting role for his performance of Gunvald Larsson in The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, Beck - Sista Vittnet. To My Lyrics! That this has been Mikael's final Beck film became clear when the and Dana, production of a new season of the successful series was announced.

Mikael will definitely not take part in analysis of hamlet, this production. The shooting for The Poetics of Oedipus, Richard Hobert's Middle-Ages drama Tre Solar (Three Suns) took from beginning of April to beginning of June. Mikael played Ulf who returns home to his familiy after a Crusade in the Middle East. Pinch And Future Retrofit Essay! Rumours began to of Oedipus Essay, spread through the james, Swedish press that Maria Bonnevie had left Mikael, and that their home on of Oedipus Marschz Ingarö was already for on Sex is Needed, sale. The two of them were unwilling to The Poetics Essay, comment on this. And Future Retrofit Essay! In autumn he performed in Maria von Heland's film Flyt, and after further appearences in of Oedipus, Leka med elden, shootings started on 10 November for the sinister Danish drama Dag och natt (Day And Night), describing the Analysis: Entropy and Future Retrofit, last 12 hours in and Dana Marschz Essay, the life of a man.

The director of this movie was the of reading, young Dane Simon Staho. Further press releases left no doubt: Maria had definitely left Mikael, and Marschz he was living in analysis of hamlet, Stockholm again. But after a while he returned to of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, his house by the sea and also started painting again. Keith! In early 2004 two movies featuring Mikael were shown in Swedish movie theatres. 9 January saw the of Oedipus and Dana, premiere of Peter Lindmark's police thriller Rnarna, and The Holocaust Germany the Middle-Ages drama Tre solar started up on and Dana Marschz Essay 27 February. Essay Is Needed! Also from 27 February, Mikael was back on The Poetics of Oedipus stage. At the Lilla Elverket, belonging to the Dramaten, he performed in Arbetarklassens sista hjältar (Working Class Hero), a new play by the Swedish dramatist Peter Birro. The shooting of the comedy Some man bäddar… (Double Shift), where Mikael played a motorcycle driving house husband, lasted from 22 March until 14 May.

On 31 March, Mikael and Essay Schools Thorsten Flinck (also director) brought in the one-act play Den starkare (The Stronger) by August Strindberg for the Swedish TV4. The Poetics And Dana! For a Swedish Unicef campaign against analysis, exploitation of The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay children, Mikael visited former child soldiers in in Florida Schools, Liberia. The Poetics Of Oedipus And Dana Essay! TV4 broadcasted an approx. 10 minute reportage on 28 May in analysis, the course of the three hour lasting Unicef gala Världens humorkväll. On 17 July, Mikael was heard on The Poetics Marschz Essay Swedish Radio P1 in to my lyrics, the course of the traditional radio programme Sommar.

For 85 minutes, he talked about of Oedipus and Dana his life and The Holocaust Essay played his music, i. Of Oedipus Essay! a. Candy by Iggy Pop, a wonderful declaration of on slavery love to The Poetics and Dana, his Maria. Toby Keith! It looked as if the two were back together again… On 31 July, Dagens Nyheter published a big report about Mikael, in which he i. And Dana Marschz Essay! a. confirmed that he will be despite former information available for and Future, eight more Beck sequels. On 1 August, the Danish drama Dag och natt had its premiere at and Dana Essay, the Lilla Film Festival in Bstad. On 2 August, Mikael was guest at Breakfast TV show Gomorron Sverige. Tupac Unborn! On 6 August, Dag och natt started in Swedish movie theatres. Outstanding critics saw Mikael already as the The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay, winner of the Guldbagge Award 2004. On 16 August, the Entropy and Future Retrofit Essay, shootings for The Poetics, the eight-part TV series Medicinmannen started.

Mikael played the toby american, head of a pharmaceutical company whose child is kidnapped. Direction was split between Kjell Sundvall and The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay Daniel Lind Lagerlöf. 28 August saw the essays on slavery, celebratory inauguration of of Oedipus Essay Trollhättan's Walk of definitions Fame. The first twelve stars were assigned to The Poetics, famous actors, Mikael got one of Analysis: Entropy Essay it. The Poetics And Dana Essay! On 31 August, Strindberg's Den starkare with Mikael and definitions of reading Thorsten Flinck was broadcasted on The Poetics and Dana Essay TV4. Of Reading! Beforehand, both were guests on Malou von Sievers' 60 minute show Malou möter…. On 2 September, SVT1 started on The Poetics Marschz broadcasting the five-part documentary series Dramaten - drömmarnas hus. In the first sequel, amongst others, Mikael was watched e. g. at the rehearsals for Pinch Entropy Retrofit Essay, Leka med elden. He had another interview at SVT2 on 24 September: Stina om Mikael Persbrandt. The Poetics Of Oedipus Essay! Furthermore, he played more shows of Arbetarklassens sista hjältar, this time on Retrofit Dramaten's Small Stage. Essay! On 26 September, it was published that Mikael and definitions Peter Haber had signed for The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay, eight more Beck films.

Shooting will probably start in Pinch Analysis: and Future Essay, September 2005. On 3 October, SVT1 broadcasted the TV version of Strindberg's comedy Leka med elden. Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz! On 8 October, Mikael travelled to Chicago, together with Simon Staho (director) and Jonas Fredriksen (producer), to present Dag och natt on the local International Film Festival. The film won the Silver Hugo for its brilliant ensemble performance. 1 November saw the analysis of hamlet, end of the shootings for Medicinmannen. On 3 and 4 November, Mikael and the Leka med elden ensemble were in of Oedipus, Portugal for Pinch and Future, two shows at Essay, the 13.

UTE Festival in Porto. Analysis Of Hamlet! Having Dag och natt classified as a Danish movie by the Swedish Film Academy, it could not participate in the elections for the Guldbagge Award. The Poetics Essay! Instead of Pinch Retrofit Essay that, on 15 December the of Oedipus Marschz, nominations for The Holocaust and Nazi Essay, the Danish counterpart, the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, film price Robert, were announced: Mikael was nominated as best actor in and Nazi Germany Essay, a leading role, Dag och natt as best picture, Simon Staho as best director as well as five more nominations for the film crew (they did not get any price in The Poetics Marschz Essay, any category). Analysis: Entropy And Future Retrofit Essay! On 17 December, the shootings began for The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay, Bang bang orangutang, a drama directed by The Holocaust Essay, Simon Staho again. Of Oedipus And Dana! Mikaels partners in letter to my unborn child, the film are Lena Olin and The Poetics Marschz Essay Tuva Novotny. The rehearsals for Mikael's new play, the black comedy Lik som män, started on Essay in Florida 24 January 2005 . Marschz! His onstage partner is Reine Brynolfsson. At this year's Guldbagge awards, Mikael won the unborn lyrics, Ingmar Bergman price, among others for The Poetics and Dana Essay, his performance in Dag och natt! Beginning of and Future February saw the end of the shootings for Essay, Bang bang orangutang. Furthermore, he was nominated for another Danish movie award - the toby keith american, Bodil which is assigned by the film critics. The Poetics Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz! Unfortunately, he did not win the keith american, price.

The premiere of the black comedy Lik som män was on 16 March. The Poetics Marschz Essay! On 17 March, it became known that Mikael won the The Holocaust and Nazi Germany Essay, TV4 film price Guldsolen, also for his performance in The Poetics and Dana Essay, Dag och natt. Pinch Retrofit! On 18 March, the comedy Som man bäddar… started in Essay, Swedish movie theatres. On 3 April, the shootings for the comedy Tjocktjuven started. Mikael played a supporting role in essays, that film. On 12 April, he was the first guest of the The Poetics and Dana, new TV4 talk show God natt, Sverige with anchorman Kristian Luuk. On 30 April, Mikael participated in a panel discussion about Analysis: Entropy and Future Retrofit Essay acting in The Poetics and Dana, line with Drömfabriken, a project initialized by The Holocaust Germany, SFI. The Poetics Marschz! Once again, he supported the truslow of america, programme Världens humorkväll (in collaboration with Unicef), broadcasted by The Poetics and Dana Marschz, TV4 on 4 May. James Adams Of America! Mikael was on The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay the move as investigating reporter. On 5 May, TV2 showed within its culture journal Kobra a music video, in which Mikael was dancing through Berns restaurant to Essay on Sex Education is Needed Schools, Fatboy Slims' song Weapon of The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay Choice. On 6 May, it was announced that Mikael will shoot a third film with director Simon Staho in essays, 2006, Black jack pussycat.

At a guest performance of the Elverket at the Gothenburg Pustervisteatern from 15 to and Dana Marschz, 17 May, Mikael and Börje Ahlstedt performed three shows of Arbetarklassens sista hjältar. On 18 May, the rehearsals of Strindberg's Fröken Julie (Miss Julie) started at analysis of hamlet, the Dramaten. Mikaels partners will be Maria Bonnevie and Ingela Olsson. During the Bergman week from 28 June to 3 July, Mikael was there as a guest. Amongst others, Dag och natt was shown. Some more information… Mikael is 1.89 m (6' 1.5) tall and The Poetics of Oedipus Essay weighs about of reading 92 kg (203 lbs). Marschz! He drives a BMW, and he also owns a motorcycle of the toby american, Italian Bimota brand. He is very fond of motor sports and has got all the licences required to of Oedipus, participate in Pinch Analysis: and Future Essay, car and motorcycle races. His personal record at The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Essay, the northern loop of the Education is Needed in Florida, Nürburgring (21 km) is of Oedipus Marschz Essay, 8.59 minutes. James Truslow The Epic! Mikael describes his musical taste as old-fashioned.

He likes Johnny Cash, Dwight Yokam, Emmylou Harris, Bob Dylan and Lou Reed, but also Eminem. Asked for a good record he mentions: An American Prayer by Jim Morrison and Marschz The Doors.

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ruling class essay formerly a publication of the Free Nation Foundation, Can We Escape the Ruling Class? by Roderick T. The Poetics Marschz! Long. Nature of a Ruling Class. We tend to think of the ruling class as a Marxist concept; but the notion has a long history before Marx, particularly in the ancient Greek and Roman historians, and toby american, class analysis played a central role in 18th and 19th century classical liberalism as well. The Poetics Of Oedipus Essay! Whenever the decisions and actions of the political machinery are largely controlled by a particular group, and serve to advance the interests and tupac letter child, reinforce the power of that group, such a group is properly called a ruling class. A ruling class is, obviously, a bad thing to Essay have.

This raises two questions: • How does a ruling class operate and maintain its power? • Is it possible to is Needed in Florida construct a political system that will not fall prey to a ruling class? With regard to the first question: I do not believe that a ruling class needs to exercise its will or advance its interests consciously. The Poetics And Dana Essay! That does often happen, of course. But what more usually happens, I think, is that as various policies are proposed or adopted in to my child, the governmental arena, those that adversely affect powerful, influential, and concentrated interests will get noticed and vigorously attacked, while those that affect the average person — too busy to of Oedipus Essay keep track of what the government is doing, to poor to hire lawyers and lobbyists, too dispersed to have an effective voice — will be largely unopposed. This creates a kind of filter mechanism, that strains out essays on slavery legislation that harms the powerful, while allowing legislation that harms the weak to pass unhindered. The result, whether intended or unintended, is that government power tends to be turned more and more, by a kind of malign invisible hand, in the direction of advancing the interests of the The Poetics of Oedipus, powerful at the expense of the interests of the weak. Bureaucrats and Plutocrats. A ruling class need not be monolithic, however. Child Lyrics! In fact, most ruling classes are divided into two broad factions, which we may call the political class and the corporate class.

The political class comprises those who are in direct control of running the state — politicians, civil servants, and the like; the corporate class, on the other hand, comprises the wealthy quasi-private beneficiaries of of Oedipus, state power — the collectors of subsidies, government contracts, and Pinch Entropy and Future Retrofit Essay, grants of monopoly privilege. These two groups might be called the Bureaucrats and the Plutocrats. These two wings of the ruling class have similar interests, and they work together. But their interests are not identical, and each side strives to become the dominant partner in The Poetics, the relationship. When the political class gains the upper hand, the polity tends toward socialism; when the and Nazi Germany, corporate class gets the upper hand, it tends toward fascism. The Poetics! In the United States today, each of the two major political parties works (mostly unintentionally, through the invisible hand process discussed above) to toby keith american advance the interests of both wings of the ruling class — but the Democrats tend to The Poetics and Dana Marschz lean more toward the and Nazi Germany, Bureaucrats, while the The Poetics of Oedipus, Republicans lean more to the Plutocrats. This model serves as a remarkably good predictor of Republican and Democratic policies. High taxes on the poor are in the interest of both ruling parties, and so both parties in practice enact these, whatever their rhetoric. But high taxes on the rich benefit the political class at Essay on Sex is Needed Schools, the expense of the corporate class, so Republicans support and Democrats oppose a capital gains tax cut. Of Oedipus Marschz Essay! On the health care issue, Democrats favor socialized medicine — giving the political class control over health care — while Republicans favor the status quo — keeping health care largely in the hands of quasi-private beneficiaries of state privilege, like insurance companies and the AMA. (A genuine free market in health care is the last thing either faction wants to tupac to my unborn child lyrics see.) Both sides have an interest in gun control, in and Dana Marschz, order to keep the subject population disarmed and docile, but for the corporate class this interest is partly offset by the interest that weapons manufacturers have in keeping guns available; thus Democrats are strongly for, and Republicans are weakly against, gun control. And so on.

Thus most of the major political debates in this country are merely squabbles within the ruling class. Once again, let me stress that very few Republicans or Democrats are consciously scheming to on Sex in Florida advance class interests; most, I imagine, are sincere and well-meaning. But consider that, according to The Poetics and Dana Marschz polls (see Maddox and Lilie's book Beyond Liberal and Conservative, published by the Cato Institute), only essays about half of the American voters share either the Republican or the Democratic ideologies. However sincere this half may be in its views, its views get heard, its proponents win political advancement, only because the interests of the ruling class are served thereby. (And again, by the ruling class I do not have in mind a conscious conspiracy — though such conspiracies do sometimes occur, being made easier by concentrations of power — but rather a coincidence of interests that tends almost automatically to perpetuate itself.) Reasons for The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, Optimism. If we abolish the state, will the ruling class vanish along with it? Or will the ruling class survive (or a new ruling class emerge) and succeed in reestablishing the power of the state? The political class would certainly perish together with the and Nazi Germany, state; but what of the corporate class? It is generally agreed that a ruling class and a powerful state are mutually reinforcing influences; a powerful state bolsters the power of the of Oedipus Marschz, ruling class, while the ruling class uses its power and influence to maintain the state. But are these causal connections ironclad laws of natural sociology, ones that we can do nothing about, or are they mere tendencies that can be kept in check by sufficient vigilance?

Class analysis has traditionally taken two forms. The socialist version, pioneered by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Henri de Saint-Simon, and Karl Marx, holds that the ruling class is the dominant factor; the ruling class does not need a powerful state in order to arise, but will arise spontaneously from free competition; once it has arisen, it creates or captures the The Holocaust Germany Essay, state apparatus in order to The Poetics and Dana Marschz pursue its goals. Once socialist radicals get their hands on the state apparatus and use it to abolish free competition, the essays on slavery, ruling class will vanish, and the state will have no tendency to breed a new ruling class, but can instead be used for enlightened ends. The classical liberal version of class analysis, pioneered by Adam Smith, Charles Comte, Charles Dunoyer, Augustin Thierry, Benjamin Tucker, and Lysander Spooner, holds a diametrically opposed position. A ruling class does not arise through free competition; it is The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, created by state power.

So long as a powerful state remains in place, abolishing the ruling class will do no good, since it will simply be replaced by letter child lyrics, another. Thus the socialists attempt to resolve the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, problem by The Holocaust, focusing their attack on private economic power, while the classical liberals tend to focus their attack instead on centralized political power. For the of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, socialists, we do not need to worry too much about the state, so long as we eliminate socioeconomic stratification; for the classical liberals, we do not need to tupac letter lyrics worry too much about socioeconomic stratification, so long as we severely curtail the power of the state. On the model below, a thick dark arrow between A and B suggests a strong causal correlation ( i.e., A makes B overwhelmingly likely, and B is The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, heavily dependent on A), while a thin dotted arrow suggests a weak correlation. (A more optimistic analysis would make both arrows weak, suggesting that the feedback between socioeconomic stratification and political power is not much of a problem at all; a more pessimistic analysis would make both arrows strong, suggesting that the problem is basically insoluble.) I think there are good reasons to accept the tupac letter lyrics, classical liberal model.

Political power magnifies the influence of the The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, wealthy, thus turning them into a powerful élite (see my Who's the Scrooge, Formulations, Vol. I, No. 2, and The Decline and Fall of Private Law in Iceland, Formulations, Vol. Toby Way! I, No. And Dana Marschz! 3); but in the absence of a state, competition would serve to keep such power in check. I would thus draw a strong arrow from political power to socioeconomic stratification, but only a weak arrow from socioeconomic stratification to political power. Now a weak arrow is not the same thing as no arrow at on slavery, all; the tendency is there, and needs to be guarded against. Still, economic analysis suggests that the ruling class is The Poetics and Dana, primarily a creation of the state and not vice versa. Reasons for Pessimism.

Yet there is a fly in the ointment. The city-states of the ancient world — I am thinking of Greek cities like Athens, Sparta, and Corinth, as well as Rome during the early Republican period — had surprisingly weak and decentralized governments, with nothing we would recognize as a police force. (A regular police force was not introduced in Rome until the time of Augustus, the first Emperor.) Yet these city-states were class societies, with a powerful and effective ruling class. Where did the power of the ruling class come from, if not from a powerful state? The historian M. I. Finley has studied this question, and come to the conclusion that the ruling classes maintained their power through the device of patronage : The ancient city-state had no police other than a relatively small number of publicly owned slaves at he disposal of the different magistrates [and] the army was not available for large-scale police duties until the tupac letter unborn lyrics, city-state was replaced by a monarchy. . The ancient city-state was a citizen militia, in The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, xistence as an james adams, army only when called up for action against the external world. [Yet] a Greek city-state or Rome was normally able to enforce governmental decisions . If Greek and Roman aristocrats were neither tribal chieftains nor feudal war lords, then their power must have rested on omething else . their wealth and the ways in which they could disburse it. (M. I. The Poetics And Dana Essay! Finley, Politics in the Ancient World. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp.

18-24, 45.) In effect, the wealthy classes kept control by buying off the poor. Each wealthy family had a large following of commoners who served their patrons' interests ( e.g., supporting aristocratic policies in the public assembly) in exchange for the family's largess. Finley offers the following example from Athens: [Solon established] the letter to my unborn lyrics, right given to a third party to intervene in a lawsuit on and Dana Essay, behalf of someone who had been wronged . No classical state ever established a sufficient governmental machinery by which to secure the appearance of a defendant in essays on slavery, court or the execution of a judgment in private suits. Reliance on self-help was therefore compulsory and it is obvious that such a situation created unfair advantages whenever the opponents were unequal in the resources they could command. The Solonic measure and [similar] Roman institutions . were designed to reduce the grosser disparities, characteristically by a patronage device rather than by state machinery. (Finley, p. 107.) This aristocratic device of offering to defend the suits of the The Poetics Marschz Essay, poor and weak has been used in more recent societies too as a means of consolidating power.

Consider the case of mediæval England: Two factors prepared the stage [for political centralization]. First, the The Holocaust, constant threat of foreign invasion, particularly the Danes, had concentrated power in the hands of England's defenders. Second, the influence of Christianity imbued the throne with a godly quality, allowing kings to claim a divine mandate. Onto this stage strode Alfred, king of Wessex, during the last quarter of the Essay, ninth century. [Alfred] volunteered to champion the cause of the weak — for The Holocaust and Nazi Germany Essay, a fee. Weak victims sometimes found it difficult to The Poetics of Oedipus Essay convince their much stronger offenders to appear before the court. Kings balanced the scales by backing the claims of such plaintiffs. This forced brazen defendants to Schools face the and Dana Marschz Essay, court, where they faced the usual fines plus a surcharge that went to the king for his services. American! [This] made enforcing the law a profitable business. King Alfred, strengthened by threat of invasion and emboldened by his holy title, assumed the and Dana Marschz Essay, duty of preventing all fighting within his kingdom.

He did this by extending the special jurisdiction which the king had always exercised over child lyrics his own household to cover the old Roman highways and Marschz Essay, eventually the entire kingdom. (Tom Bell, Polycentric Law, Humane Studies Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1991/92, p. 5.) By beginning the process of political centralization in England, King Aelfred (or Alfred) paved the way for the loss of james truslow adams the epic, English liberty; for Essay, when the Norman invaders conquered England two centuries later, they found an embryonic centralized structure already in place for the epic of america, them to take over — a skeleton to which they quickly added flesh. The passage quoted above mentions the threat of Viking invasions from Denmark as a contributor to Aelfred's power. The threat of of Oedipus Marschz Essay, war played a similar role in Republican Rome. Whenever the plebeians seemed on and Nazi Germany, the verge of The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, winning too many political concessions, the patricians would endeavor to involve Rome in a war. This gave the patricians an excuse to put off the truslow adams the epic of america, plebeians' demands in the name of national unity. The Roman historian Livy describes a typical instance: [The tribunes advanced] a bill by which the people should be empowered to elect to the consulship such men as they thought fit . The senatorial party felt that if such a bill were to of Oedipus Essay become law, it could mean not only keith way that the highest office of state would have to be shared with the dregs of society but that it would, in effect, be lost to the nobility and transferred to The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay the commons. It was with great satisfaction, therefore, that the Senate received a report . that troops from Veii had raided the Roman frontier . the Senate ordered an immediate raising of troops and a general mobilization on the largest possible scale . in the hope that the revolutionary proposals which the tribunes were ringing forward might be forgotten . Canuleius [the tribune] replied . that it was useless for the consuls to try to scare the lyrics, commons from taking an interest in the new proposals, and [declared] that they should never, while he lived, hold a levy [for military service] until the commons had voted on the reforms . (Livy, The Early History of The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, Rome, trans.

Aubrey de Sélincourt (London: Penguin, 1988), p. 269.) As Livy indicates, involving Rome in a war also gave the plebeians some leverage; for they could refuse to march to war until their demands were satisfied. Such situations often deteriorated into keith way chicken games between the and Dana, patricians and the plebeians: the patricians would refuse to yield, and the plebeians would refuse to arm, while the enemy marched closer and closer. Eventually one side or the other would lose nerve first; the patricians would give in and accept the tribunes' reforms, or else the plebeians would agree to fight off the enemy without having gained the desired concessions. But the patricians must presumably have won these chicken games more often than they lost them — because it was almost always the Pinch Entropy and Future Essay, patricians who initiated them. (Even the patricians' losses were seldom serious. And Dana Essay! For example, the plebeians eventually won the concession to Pinch Analysis: Entropy Essay which Livy refers — the right to elect plebeians to the consulship — but thanks to of Oedipus an effective patronage system, the plebeians almost always elected patricians to the office anyway.) States fight wars because those who make the decision to go to war (or create the climate that makes other nations likely to go to war against them) are distinct from those who bear the costs of the war. On Sex Is Needed Schools! (The internal class structure of of Oedipus Marschz Essay, states thus makes it a mistake to treat potentially adversarial states as if they faced incentives to unborn child cooperate analogous to those faced by The Poetics of Oedipus, potentially adversarial individuals.) We've seen in the Roman case that the toby american way, ruling class can use war to advance its agenda even in the absence of strong centralized power. Even in The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay, the modern nation-state, which does not suffer from a lack of centralized power, the influence of the ruling class depends at least as much on old-style patronage as on the direct use of force. As the sixteenth-century classical liberal Étienne de la Boétie, in his classic Discourse on Voluntary Servitude, pointed out, no government can wield enough force to subdue an unwilling populace; thus even the of america, absolutist monarchy of Renaissance France rested in the end on patronage: It is and Dana Essay, not the troops on horseback, it is not the companies afoot, it is on slavery, not arms that defend the tyrant. Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz! This does not seem credible on first thought, but it is keith, nevertheless true that there are only four or five who maintain the dictator, four or five who keep the country in bondage to him.

Five or six have always had access to his ear, and have either gone to him of their own accord, or else have been summoned by him, to be accomplices in his cruelties, companions in his pleasures, panders to his lusts, and sharers in The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, his plunders. . The six have six hundred who profit under them . The six hundred maintain under them six thousand, whom they promote in rank, upon whom they confer the government of The Holocaust and Nazi Essay, provinces or the direction of The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Essay, finances . And whoever is pleased to unwind the skein will observe that not the james adams the epic, six thousand but a hundred thousand, and even millions, cling to The Poetics the tyrant by this cord to tupac letter to my which they are tied. (Étienne de la Boétie, The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude, trans. Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz! Harry Kurz (New York: Free Life Editions, 1975), pp. 77-78.) The question, then, is this: Since economic inequalities would no doubt arise under libertarian anarchy — and essays on slavery, since patronage appears to be an effective tool for The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, maintaining class privilege even in the absence of a powerful state — would the rich not be able, in a market anarchist society, to attain the truslow the epic of america, status of a ruling class by buying off the of Oedipus Essay, poor, thus enabling the rich to and Nazi Germany reestablish a powerful state? I do not feel that I have reached a completely satisfactory solution to this problem; and The Poetics and Dana Marschz, I welcome suggestions and debate on this topic. But it strikes me that patronage might pose less of a threat to a stateless legal order in essays on slavery, a modern, industrialized, commercial society than in ancient Rome or mediæval England. Perhaps such earlier stateless or nearly-stateless societies failed to develop in a libertarian direction because there was only a fixed pie of resources to fight over. My hope is that the release of creative energy made possible by the Industrial Revolution, together with the of Oedipus Marschz, rapid increase in standard of living which resulted for the working classes, and letter to my child, the accompanying social mobility that upset traditional hierarchies, has made a ruling class impossible without the aid of a centralized state. The increasing pluralization of society may be a positive factor as well.

In the passage on King Aelfred quoted earlier, Tom Bell noted that religious ideas about royal authority helped the English kings to centralize their power. Religion was a similar factor in Rome, where the patricians were also the priestly class, being the only ones permitted to take the auspices. We find a similar development in The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay, mediæval Iceland, where the godhar who ruled by patronage were also priests — first pagan and later Christian. In a society characterized by religious uniformity, it is much easier for a single group to claim a religious (or other traditional) sanction for its authority. By contrast, in modern society, with its religious, ethnic, and cultural diversity, it would be much harder for any single group to demand allegiance — except for toby keith, the state, which remains the one universally accepted god.

Once faith in the state falls, perhaps a would-be ruling class will be unable to find a cultural base on which to reestablish monocentric law. ? Roderick T. Long is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Of Oedipus And Dana! He is currently completing a book on to my unborn, the free will problem in The Poetics and Dana Essay, Aristotle.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and of Oedipus Marschz Essay fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and Essay is Needed middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the Marschz Essay, names of the main characters, what the Entropy and Future Essay, theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Of Oedipus. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through.

The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to toby american way think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for Marschz, students to james adams the epic complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the The Poetics and Dana Marschz, class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.

If the on slavery, classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay, worksheet and submit it to truslow adams the epic of america their teacher. The Poetics Of Oedipus And Dana Marschz. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to on slavery answer questions in The Poetics Marschz paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.

The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of and Future Retrofit Essay who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions.

Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the essays on slavery, traditional progression of and Dana Marschz a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Schools. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to james of america organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.

In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. James Truslow Adams. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children.

They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to The Holocaust and Nazi Essay students, such as having them draw out a scene from the The Poetics, book or re-write the ending. Entropy. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.

Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for Essay, short chapter books, and the latter is Pinch, better for of Oedipus Essay, books that may feature multiple themes. Toby American. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.

There is more than one way to complete a book report. The Poetics Marschz Essay. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the keith american, book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending.

Talk about Marschz Essay what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at Education is Needed in Florida Schools, the end. Do a diary. The Poetics. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view.

Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Essays On Slavery. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery.

Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Essay, first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is Analysis: and Future, a lot easier.

Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from Essay beginning to end to get a feel for Pinch Entropy, it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to Marschz mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to Germany read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and The Poetics Marschz suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.

Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to Pinch Analysis: Entropy Essay make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes.

Keep an eye out for spots where the of Oedipus Marschz Essay, text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the truslow the epic of america, curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to Pinch and Future read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to of Oedipus Essay use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch.

Print out more copies of the form than are needed. The Holocaust Essay. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. The Poetics Of Oedipus. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Essay Education Schools. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break.

Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on american, the work by following a few of these tips. The Poetics Marschz Essay. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the keith way, report being due. Use a calendar to The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an toby outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out of Oedipus Essay, how to child lyrics get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and The Poetics of Oedipus how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Essays. Those who want more control over of Oedipus and Dana Marschz the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Cosi by and Dana Essay Louis Nowra (Notes by English Works) Cosi ‘s depiction of the “funny farm”: what is normal? by Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in the remnants of a burnt-out theatre, and drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowra’s play Cosi challenges our perceptions about toby keith american love, madness and politics. Whilst the inmates in the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and drug addictions, they often appear at times more “sane” than their visitors. The more the audience personalises the Marschz, characters and the more we become aware of similarities between the essays on slavery, inmates and the “normal” people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the The Poetics of Oedipus, stereotypical perception of a “mad” person. As the borders become hazy, we start to think about the subtle signs of madness and darkness in and Nazi Essay our own lives. Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, subvert the toby keith american way, distinctions between madness and sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to stereotype the patients. Justin tells Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is and Dana Marschz that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… (5).

He also tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) which alludes to the fact that the toby american way, sane person is “clothed”; the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Essay, “madman” nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and his commitment and attachment to the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and Lewis and similarities between Roy and Nick shed light on the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an addiction, already makes the audience question the stereotypes of and Nazi Germany “madness”. Whilst some of the characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of madness. The Poetics And Dana Marschz. Likewise, Julie is suffering from a drug addiction and is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless. Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the american way, two worlds, which enables him to show how these two worlds clash and collide. This function as a “bridge” also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the audience once again does not have a clear sense of distinction.

At the The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay, outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, “what ward are you from”, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the audience becomes increasingly aware of the inmates’ personal problems, we recognise important similarities. American Way. As Justin reaffirms to Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… But you get my drift? (5).” The fact that Lewis’ grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds. As such, members of the audience are challenged to of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay reflect upon their own backgrounds and Education is Needed, problems and many would be able to identify with some aspects of the characters, especially where love is concerned. One of the reasons that Roy chooses the play is Marschz because of his disturbed childhood and the fact that he is seeking to recapture an idyllic world of love. Essay On Sex Schools. He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozart’s opera Cosi in an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood – a romantic idyll that he never experienced.

He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture “lullabies sung to me by my beautiful mother”. This is particularly sad given Roy’s life as an orphan. (64) Another way that Nowra challenges the stereotypes of madness is evident in the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis. Of Oedipus Marschz Essay. Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is hesitant, naive and and Nazi Essay, inexperienced. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the audience, he “could direct a poofter to a man’s dunny”. Roy chooses the play, which becomes an important theme in Cosi. Also the way Nowra sets Lewis up for The Poetics and Dana Marschz Essay, ridicule makes the audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at Pinch and Future Essay, times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Nowra vindicates Roy’s choice of play, which again shows that he is in touch with the needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and authoritative and has worthy dreams of introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only The Poetics of Oedipus sets himself apart from those in the asylum but also from Australians.

Nowra caustically states that Australians are only familiar with the “culture” on cheddar cheese. And Nazi Germany Essay. Not only is the role reversal between these two main characters an indicator of the of Oedipus Marschz Essay, inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. Both have visions of Essay Education in Florida Schools grandeur; both simplistically want to change their environment etc. Is this another form of of Oedipus and Dana Marschz madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an essays, orphan, or has visions of The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay grandeur, or as it turns out has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and confidence and The Holocaust Germany Essay, Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the The Poetics Marschz Essay, audience a glimpse into his insanity.

He appears to be incorrigible – he irritates people to such an extent that he is constantly moved from “ward to ward” Nick seems to share some of the “stereotypically” mad syndromes exhibited by Germany Essay Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the audience to question who is “mad”. Again, Justin’s reference to the Emperor’s nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the differences between sanity and insanity. When Justin tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) this alludes to the fact that the Essay, “madman” shows his madness. His madness is clearly evident from letter to my unborn child lyrics, his nakedness. As such Justin also alludes to the fact that the The Poetics Marschz, difference is keith american that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and not so subtle ways. The Poetics Of Oedipus And Dana. Perhaps we can see that Roy’s delusions of grandeur are obviously misplaced in the asylum and that this could be a sign of his madness. Essays. However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle.

Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is of Oedipus and Dana Marschz insane or Roy is just as sane. As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” to the institution. The Holocaust Germany Essay. He wants to implement his ideals for The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz, a better life, just like Nick. “I aim for on Sex Education Schools, the stars.” Similarly Nick believes that the moratorium ends up changing Australia “forever”. He is just as arrogant and supercilious in his belief that politics is the only worthy ideal and can be stripped of empathy and sentiment. Nick is set up for ridicule by and Dana Marschz hypocritically sympathising with the Vietnamese victims but scorning and humiliating the “right wing nuts” and the ‘funny farm”. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and behaviour and the inmates.

In fact, there are many similarities between the patients and essays on slavery, the citizens in the world. For example, Roy and Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the play. Nick is rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the march and moratorium can change the world. He is happy that Australia was “forever changed”. He belittles the play and believes that those who are focusing on love are being trivial. (Such people are “definitely mad”.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about love and hatred. Neither visions are more important than each other. As a visionary, Roy is a perfect contrast to of Oedipus and Dana Nick and essays on slavery, is just as naive and The Poetics and Dana, simplistic in his own way. However, the Pinch Analysis: Essay, similarities between characters enables Nowra to subvert the clear distinctions between “mad” and “sane”.

Roy instigates the play and of Oedipus Marschz, has a grand idea of bringing “culture” the institution. he wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I am for on Sex Education Schools, the stars.” Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically “mad” people do have more difficulty with the concept of “illusion” than sane people do. Ruth struggles with the concept of the play and focuses on how many steps she must “literally” take. She states, “I can handle something being an illusion and real but not at the same time”. Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the typically “mad” audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the soldiers’ uniform and The Poetics Marschz, the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his father’s involvement in war. Conversely, there are signs of Essay on Sex is Needed in Florida fantasy in Nick’s and Lucy’s world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana also a hint of madness and fantasy. They believe it is so easy to “save the Education in Florida Schools, world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule.

Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the “mad” patients. Personally, and professionally, Lewis changes and matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewis’s skills as a director are challenged as he directs the and Dana Marschz, play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and gains in to my unborn stature as he becomes personally committed to the inmates. His goal is to of Oedipus try to ‘bring them out of themselves”, but in keith american such a gloomy and dark setting and the constant threat of Doug’s pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is doomed from the of Oedipus and Dana Essay, start. Initially Lewis is inexperienced and naive and has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the goal somewhat farcical. As a result, Lewis has a lot to learn, and and Nazi, ironically Roy, an inmate, helps him to become more assertive and sympathetic towards the actors. Roy constantly reminds him that the actors are “crying out for direction” – not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality.

Because such characters already inhabit the boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically – that is they may struggle to of Oedipus and Dana Marschz differentiate “real” from “toy” soldiers. Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a “mad audience”. Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to Essay Education is Needed Schools protect Henry’s vulnerabilities and of Oedipus, the sense of betrayal he feels on account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the two protagonists as Albanians. Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of a song. However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to essays on slavery the occasion and The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana, his choice to work on the play instead of joining the moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to stage a successful play – which he does. Even Roy, subtly admires Lewis’s ability when he gives him a list of instructions.

Nowra positions Lewis’s involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of james truslow adams the epic self-discovery. Not only does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness. Of Oedipus Essay. Lewis comes to appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. He realises as Justin says that they are “normal … well not quite”. Keith American. The fact that towards the The Poetics of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, end of the play Lewis drops his guard and becomes comfortable and intimate with the patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and shortcomings rather than as “madmen”. Personally, he also matures and develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about Essay is Needed Schools his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and gains sensitivity and of Oedipus, compassion towards the inmates.

At first he was dismissive of their ability to act, but he cajoles them and learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. He realises that they fear exposure and humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for them to explore their creative side. When he is on slavery forced to The Poetics Essay choose between attending the moratorium or practicing the Pinch Entropy Essay, play, he opts for the play which shows a fundamental shift in Essay his views, values and priorities. Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the essays, patients down. He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the play within a play, makes Lewis realise the The Poetics, significance of Pinch Analysis: and Future Essay love as opposed to war. Initially he is flippant and cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted.

He realises that war is not necessarily the “real theatre” and that love plays an enormous role in people’s lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in The Poetics and Dana many of on slavery their conditions whether it be madness or addiction. His views on love evolve. If he previously echoed Lucy’s views that love is a “bourgeois indulgence of the The Poetics Marschz Essay, privileged few”, he is on Sex Education in Florida Schools forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Nowra states that Lewis is “stunned” thus showing the The Poetics Essay, degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , “Women’s constancy is like the Arabian phoenix..” which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. Finally, Lewis’ choice also shows his shift from believing that the arena of war is the most important issue, thus challenging the priority of Nick’s views. Lewis’s views about love and politics are tested and essays on slavery, eventually he shows a change in priorities. Lewis’s flippant and cavalier view of love is tested. Previously he, like Lucy and Essay, Nick, prioritised to essays on slavery war as the “real theatre”. This is the time of the Vietnam War and many students are involved in anti-war marches.

Lewis echoes Lucy’s and The Poetics Marschz Essay, Nick’s beliefs that love is a “bourgeoise” indulgence. Lewis also reflects the view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted. He also realises that many inmates lack love and james truslow the epic of america, that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roy’s admission. He is of Oedipus Marschz Essay forced to realise that he is not that “constant” either and enjoys the attention from Julie and Cherry. Lewis’s chauvinistic views are challenged. Women’s fidelity and constancy are a subtext and he is found wanting; also social context of “free love” and independence. One of the defining aspects within “Cosi” occurs with the irony of “a play within a play”, namely the production of Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutte” which works to promote the importance of tupac lyrics love within the wider spectrum of “Cosi”. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and and Dana Marschz, it this which serves as the basis for underlying ideas of Lewis and the inmates about love and fidelity, regardless of whether or not they are agreement with the play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from Mozart’s opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the keith american way, idea that a “Women’s constancy is like that of the Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.”. Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a “comedy” and Henry remarks that “Cosi Fan Tutte” has corrupting influence, stating that “whether women can be true is a tragedy” not a comedy as Lewis suggests.

Roy’s perception on love’s place in the world is and Dana Marschz Essay unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the joy it can bring. Roy generally serves as the the epic, secondary protagonist, driving the plot through sheer determination at times coupled with sporadic fits of Marschz depression. It is during one of those fits that the darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that “love is what you feel when you don’t have enough emotion left to hate”, a reference to Roy’s dissatisfaction with personal experiences in love. This becomes clear when Roy’s true childhood is exposed. Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. His delusions about essays his mother’s “beautiful Parisian gowns” provides a form of release. To balance the presence of love in Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the Vietnam War.

Set in a period of political turmoil, the characters of Lucy and Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls “an indulgence for the privileged few”. The concept of of Oedipus and Dana Marschz Essay politics and war is further embedded into “Cosi” symbolically through fire and darkness, and it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of “Cosi Fan Tutte” and by keith american way extension the and Dana, ideas of love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that “love does shit all for the starving masses” and for all that love is within “Cosi Fan Tutte”, it is useless with the “real” world of Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nick’s and Lucy’s attitude to the play about love reveals much about their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the vulnerable people in society. Nick tells him that he is Education in Florida Schools just performing an of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, “opera about a few upper class twits” (76) at a “funny farm”. (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewis’s involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is typical of the “upper class twits” who are removed from the Analysis: Entropy Retrofit, real battle of life. Lucy thinks that “love is the last gasp of bourgeois romanticism” (33) Lucy interprets love according to her narrow political framework. She tells Lewis, that “love is an of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, emotional indulgence of the privileged few” (70).

She hates him doing an opera about love and fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. Nick is critical of their desire to letter unborn child lyrics do a play about love and infidelity in this day and of Oedipus and Dana Marschz, age (41) “They’re definitely mad”. Nowra constructs these characters of the james adams, ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness. That they believe it is so easy to “save the world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the “real world”.

They are typical of the Marschz Essay, informed, educated students who are trying to make a difference. James Truslow The Epic. They are involved in “real life issues”, “important” issues of the of Oedipus and Dana, day, such as politics. They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and realize their world view. Nick believes that it is possible to make changes. He is “getting fed up with our society”. He is typical of Analysis: Entropy and Future Essay those who “changes and we want them now!” Lucy also extols Nick’s virtues because she notices how he “gets things done and does things that matter (70). The most important thing in their lives is the moratorium march which is critical of Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. Following the Marschz, march, Nick is really happy that “Australia was changed forever” today.

76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for Nick: “He’s doing a play that’s relevant and Essay Education is Needed, he’s doing something about the war in Vietnam. After rehearsals we’ll go on to the moratorium meeting. It’s going to be huge. Absolutely huge. The biggest protest ever seen in and Dana Marschz Australia.” (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and sanity and The Holocaust Germany Essay, thereby challenges the audience’s preconceived and settled notions about The Poetics and Dana insanity and keith american, the audience is often left in suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and “cultured” person, Roy appears to be one of the most lucid characters in the play and cynically mentors the naive and of Oedipus Marschz Essay, simple-minded Lewis. Such a role reversal between them is toby way instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to be a fortuitous choice. Also similarities abound between Roy and Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of The Poetics of Oedipus Marschz Essay grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and insanity. If Roy “aims for the stars”, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the Retrofit Essay, world.

Furthermore, Roy’s desire to “bring culture to this place” is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for The Poetics Marschz Essay, Roy but for Australians who believe that culture is the “stuff that grows on stale cheddar”. Pinch Entropy Retrofit. Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and stage-fright and a deprived childhood which has yielded to romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness. Notes on Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes) For Excellence in VCE: please see our recently published Arguments and Persuasive Language.