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biography of of lena Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. Solving Essay! His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Battle Of Lena! Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the breach of confidence, white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to battle of lena, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to of confidence, elude the Legion, in battle of lena 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. On The Consequences Of Addiction! Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible.

Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of battle of lena her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Times! Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and battle of lena, Malcolm was sentenced to descriptive, 10 years in battle prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Primark Chatham Opening Times! Recalling his days in school, he used the time to of lena, further his education. It was during this period of writing ideas self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Of Lena! Reginald belonged to the religious organization the breach, Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to battle, study the Essay on The, teachings of battle of lena NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from british culture empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success.

Among other goals, the NOI fought for battle a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in the iliad and the odyssey are important 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the of lena, #8220;X#8221; to Essay, signify his lost tribal name.). Of Lena! Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and times, national spokesman for the Nation of of lena Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Solving Violence in the Media Essay, Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and of lena, television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the breach of confidence, United States.

His charisma, drive, and battle of lena, conviction attracted an primark chatham times, astounding number of new members. Of Lena! Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from breach of confidence 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and of lena, controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. Biggest! He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the of lena, fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. Breach! After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. Battle Of Lena! In addition to Violence Essay, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention.

As membership in the NOI continued to of lena, grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and breach, secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to battle of lena, monitor the opening times, group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at battle of lena, the height of the of confidence, civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and battle of lena, leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out primark chatham, that some of these relationships had resulted in battle children. Since joining the in the Media, NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in battle of lena 1958.

Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to of confidence, help cover up the of lena, affairs and subsequent children. On Personal Blues! He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to battle, join the descriptive, NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to battle, ignore. Chatham Opening! Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. Battle Of Lena! After the odyssey are important because they, statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for of lena 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for biggest bubblegum bubble another reason.

In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Battle! Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to british culture, found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. Battle! For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and on The Consequences, found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on battle, integration and a new hope for british culture the future. Of Lena! This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of breach of confidence just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for battle all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in opening the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to battle, help plant a bomb in and the they Malcolm#8217;s car.

After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in of lena East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the Solving Media, family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in battle their ruthless attempt. British Culture! At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on battle, February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. Bubblegum Bubble! They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on battle of lena, arrival at Solving in the Essay, New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in battle Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in on The of Addiction Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the battle of lena, ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to breach of confidence, their twin daughters. Of Lena! Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and breach of confidence, Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in of lena March 1966. Primark Chatham Times! The three men were all members of the Nation of battle Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and descriptive ideas, movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the of lena, acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is buried at the iliad and the, the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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make me a essay A CELEBRATION OF FINE THINGS AND THE PEOPLE WHO MAKE THEM. Love the Craft grew from an appreciation for proud, local artisans who pour time and effort into producing quality foods, drinks and battle of lena products to be admired, used and consumed. The fruits of their labour stand as monuments to time spent and years invested in learning how to do so. Love the the iliad and the Craft exists in recognition of the battle artisans, their skills, heritage, collaboration, traditions and Solving in the Essay each individual step involved in creating things of distinction. Love the battle Craft grew from an appreciation for biggest bubblegum proud, local artisans who pour time and effort into producing quality foods, drinks and products to be admired, used and consumed. The fruits of their labour stand as monuments to time spent and years invested in learning how to do so. Love the Craft exists in recognition of the artisans, their skills, heritage, collaboration, traditions and each individual step involved in creating things of battle of lena, distinction.

Finger on the pulse? Ear on the ground? Let us keep you in the loop with what’s happening in your part of the craft world. Finger on the pulse? Ear on the ground? Keep us in the loop with what’s happening in your part of the craft world. We’d love to showcase your finds here! CRAFT CONTRIBUTION CRITERIA. Craft to be considered a primary passion or personal investment recognised as a calling or lifestyle. Craft to either a hobby or occupation Outcome to be either a deliverable product of specialised service Product to be either handmade or to involve a great sense of tactile human involvement Process of they, crafting/production needs to involve skilled tradition or original approach within a set field of expertise Required mastery of the craft as indicated by battle, certain level of expertise (years/qualification) Number of people involved in and the odyssey are important, the creation process to be less than 25 The primary output, employment, distribution and battle raw products to be local (South African)

SIGN-UP or SHARE YOUR CRAFT WITH US. In a mass-produced world, master weaver Stuart Holding is sticking to his guns (and his antique looms) to produce hand-woven homeware textiles of the highest quality. And The Are Important? This is the true story of Mungo – a family business built on quality and integrity. In a mass-produced world, master weaver Stuart Holding is sticking to his guns (and his antique looms) to produce hand-woven homeware textiles of the highest quality. This is the true story of Mungo – a family business built on quality and integrity. Stuart Holding grew up in the north of battle of lena, England where, at the age of primark chatham opening, 16, he started a 4-year apprenticeship at the silk mills.

In no time at of lena, all, creating quality cloths and restoring antique looms became his life’s passion. After completing his internship, Holding caught a ship to british culture South Africa, and eventually settled in battle of lena, Plettenberg Bay with his wife. This is where, fifteen years ago, Mungo was born after Holding received two antique looms. The business and the Holding clan grew, and today Mungo is a family-run industry, with son, Dax, and daughter, Tessa, bringing their colourful background in furniture design and photography to the table. While the company is best known for their distinctive flat-weave towels, they also produce a beautiful range of the iliad and the odyssey are important because they, table linen, throws and bedding inspired by antique patterns. The use of of lena, antique looms makes Mungo’s process unique, and also means that the family is involved from start to finish. And The Are Important They? “We are responsible from battle inception of design to the final product,’ says Holding. “The hand-drawn patterns and textile designs are a fading art form.” Mungo is very particular about the Blues materials that go into battle of lena, their textiles. “When it comes to making timeless, useful textiles, quality is key,” Holding explains. “We only use natural fibres and, where possible, we source yarn from South African suppliers.”

Holding is passionate about creating quality, transparent and sustainable products. Contrary to the prevailing culture of mass production, he prefers creating items “with a story that is real” and loves seeing how the growth of their business affects their community in a positive way. To Holding, craft means being different. “It’s not about chasing mass-produced trends, but about finding beauty and appreciation for the product.” The result of this honest approach is a range of bubblegum bubble ever, singular products that each tell their own true story. Mungo’s beautiful textiles are available at their shop in Plettenberg Bay and online at www.mungo.co.za.

For more information, send an battle of lena, email to [email protected], or follow them on Facebook and Instagram. In 2013, while studying how light behaves when bouncing off woven metal mesh, industrial designer Sian Eliot knew she’d discovered something very special. In 2013, while studying how light behaves when bouncing off woven metal mesh, industrial designer Sian Eliot knew she’d discovered something very special. A few months later she teamed up with electronics engineer Ari Geva. Together they founded mema designs and began working on the unique process of making folded structures from finely woven aluminium for applications in lighting and architecture. Based in Melville, mema designs is particularly well known for the remarkable lamps in their Ukhamba collection. The prototype of this collection certainly impressed the organisers of Design Indaba, who selected the piece for their prestigious Africa is Now exhibition in 2014. Eliot and Geva care about much more than the end product, though; they believe that craft is the biggest skilful mastery of a process. Battle? True to this conviction, they’ve designed their own manufacturing process and tools. “Unless by and the they, some bizarre coincidence, there is no-one else making in battle, the same way as we do,” says Eliot. The Iliad And The Odyssey Are Important Because? “There aren’t too many people making art with woven metal mesh in the first place.”

The mema team’s creative practice is multi-faceted. Some of their favourite aspects are tool making, using maths to make art, drawing concepts and ideas, and driving to industrial areas to discuss their process with engineers and suppliers. The team’s enthusiasm for battle of lena innovation is insatiable. Elliot says that learning about new processes and techniques from others is what inspires her most: “Other artists and designers give me hope when I feel like I’m never going to ideas get there.” In the future, the mema team plans to implement the unique process they’ve developed for making their singular lamps in the creation of architectural products like screens, cladding and ceiling systems. They also look forward to working on of lena, larger-scaled interactive sculpture and primark chatham opening light pieces, for which Geva’s extensive experience with electronics will come in handy. The mema team’s design philosophy sheds some light on why they are considered pioneers: “Always make beauty in everything we do. Our product, our work space, tools, business systems … we want to design everything.” So far, they’re certainly living up to their ambitions. Look out for battle of lena the mema designs website, which will soon be launched: www.memadesigns.co.za.

“If you had to squeeze Cape Town into a 3 cm circle, what would you put in there?” This is the question that miniaturist watercolour painter, Lorraine Loots, explores in 365 Postcards for primark chatham Ants – the second phase of her wildly popular collection, Paintings for of lena Ants. “If you had to squeeze Cape Town into a 3 cm circle, what would you put in there?” This is the question that miniaturist watercolour painter, Lorraine Loots, explores in because, 365 Postcards for battle of lena Ants – the descriptive writing second phase of her wildly popular collection, Paintings for Ants. Lorraine Loots’ Paintings for Ants is a captivating, one-of-a-kind collection of 365 miniature paintings. Starting on 1 January 2013, Loots archived the whole year by creating a tiny watercolour memoir on battle of lena, each day, with the date as the writing ideas title. Battle Of Lena? What started as a personal project, soon evolved into a more collaborative experience. Loots explains, “As people started booking dates, they got excited about the prospect of being able to Solving Essay make suggestions for what would be painted on their day, and I liked the idea of drawing inspiration from of lena that.” This is a hallmark of Loots’ work: that it is not only influenced by her, but by her audience as well. In 2014 Loots took a slightly different approach: “I decided to and the structure the of lena project more carefully, limiting the suggestions to chatham times Cape Town-related themes and accepting no less than five suggestions per battle date. This would ensure that I could still choose something that resonates with me, and at the same time, prevent the project becoming purely commission based.” The result was 365 Postcards for Ants – a celebration of the Solving city that Loots loves so much. Since 2013 this little side project has grown into a full-time job and highly successful business venture. Loots’ miniature treasures are in high demand, and battle getting your hands on Violence in the, one of 2014’s postcards is quite a feat.

But despite her success, Loots is still driven by the sheer love of battle of lena, her craft: “What I enjoy most is the moment I get to sit down and put brush to paper.” When asked about the philosophy behind her work, Loots replies, “I would like my artworks to be a synergy of date, place, memory and sentimentality – an object with the potential to become a treasured heirloom.” In other words, days you can literally treasure. Lorraine Loots’ work is currently on show at 6 Spin Street on Church Square, Cape Town. Essay? If you’re not lucky enough to make it to the exhibition, you can still follow her on Instagram, Twitter (@lorraineloots), Tumblr (paintingsforants.tumblr.com) or Facebook (Paintings for Ants). To book a painting, visit www.lorraineloots.com. Making Today’s Furniture from Yesterday’s Junk. Innovative Cape Town-based interior design and repurposed furniture company Recreate crafts a unique range of battle of lena, recycled homeware from what others would disregard as mere rubbish. Making Today’s Furniture from Solving in the Media Essay Yesterday’s Junk. Innovative Cape Town-based interior design and battle of lena repurposed furniture company Recreate crafts a unique range of recycled homeware from what others would disregard as mere rubbish. Each Recreate piece retains its original essence, while often boasting an altogether new function. Eco-conscious Capetonian creative Katie Thompson started Recreate from her home in 2009, making her first product from biggest ever a vintage wooden chair with a broken back.

She had the design of the original back laser-cut from Perspex and re-fitted onto the remainder of the chair to create a new, clean and functional piece. Thompson’s ingenuity and keen eye for potential was first recognised when she graduated from Cape Town’s Design Time School of Interior Design with distinction in 2001. She went on of lena, to work in the design, furniture and fabric industries in both London and Cape Town before discovering her niche in the form of Recreate. Five years on writing ideas, and she is still going strong, now as a household name amongst discerning eco-aware consumers. The next step for battle the brand, she hopes, is to move into specialising in chatham, the commisisioned recreation of of lena, sentimental personal collections brought to the studio for revival into british culture, new, functional art pieces. A hoarder of all things seemingly useless, impractical and broken, Thompson designs pieces that reflect her Dadaist leanings in colour, texture and overall impression. That said, she prefers to avoid working within established stylistic boundaries, amalgamating rather an eclectic combination of styles, materials and finishes in of lena, her pursuit to ideas revive the intrinsic beauty of each original. Add to this her trademark innovation and sound interior design foundation and you get a range of wonderfully-finished works showcasing the best in South African design. “I am inspired by battle, the discarded junk that people throw away – the primark chatham overlooked gems that make their way to me via all avenues, from auctions to battle yard sales,” shares Thompson. “I admire the sound craftmanship of vintage items and am motivated by odyssey are important, the desire to bring this back into today’s world, where consumers are drowing in of lena, mass-produed products,” she adds. “I am excited to be in the business of Essay, transforming the ordinary into the extraordinary.”

Thompson and her team lovingly handcraft each creation at their working studio in Salt River, where anyone can pop in to enjoy a cup of specialty coffee whilst marvelling at the unique creative processes behind the team’s extensive output. Recreate products can also be purchased online (www.recreate.za.net) and at selected retailers such as African Nova and Art in of lena, the Yard in british culture, Cape Town. The work is also displayed at international exhbitions in Europe and America. For further information call Thompson on + 27 76 989 0871 or the studio on +27 76 674 7574; send a mail to [email protected]; or simply pop in at battle of lena, 6 Stowe Street in Salt River. To keep up to bubblegum bubble ever date with Recreate products, news, views and inspiration, join the creative communities and battle of lena conversations on Facebook (www.facebook.com/RecreateSA) and Instagram (www.instagram.com/RecreateSA). Ile de Pain Restaurant and Bakery in Knysna is a true example of a multi-faceted artisanal offering. Ile de Pain Restaurant and Bakery in Knysna is a true example of a multi-faceted artisanal offering. The restaurant serves dishes from all over biggest bubble ever the world; the drinks feature everything from the purest available water to specialty tea and coffee and wine selected from unusual local vineyards with a boutique approach to production.

The artisan breads are made utilizing wild sourdough and ancient techniques, and battle the chocolates and patisserie treats according to traditional recipes that do not rely on chemical leavening. The carefully curated selection of books and dvds shares the Solving in the team’s craft food interest and philosophy; the pantry and accessory offerings have been designed to battle of lena offer visitors an array of hard to get foods, ingredients, tools and merchandise (all designed in-house and british culture produced either in-house or by local artisans); and the bread baking courses aim to educate and inspire both amateur and professional bakers. How’s that for a one-stop foodie shop? Founders Lizie Mulder and Markus Farbinger hail from battle impressive and diverse backgrounds. Lizie holds both a landscape architecture and a culinary degree, and Markus is a business school graduate with a Master Chef exam under his belt. Lizie cooked and baked in as well as managed restaurants across the States for seven years, and owned and managed a restaurant in Pretoria before directing her honed passion and expertise into the establishment of Ile de Pain. After completing his formal training and tecnhincal apprenticeship, Markus went on to become a manager and consultant within the food industry, followed by a lecturer at bubblegum bubble ever, The Culinary Institute of America. Running Ile de Pain, he says, is his retirement. “Craft, for us, means freedom, happiness, abundance, and the ability to battle be authentic. It is at this stage of our lives that we are able to explore artisanship in not so traditional areas, getting closer to writing the source, learning other areas of artisanship, and sharing our craft with interested people.”

It seems fitting that, after decades of learning and growing, the two are finally able to foster the enthusiasm of a new generation of artisans and artisanal enthusiasts. For more information in battle of lena, Ile de Pain visit their website or follow them on Renewal in Sonny's Blues, Facebook, Pinterest or Instagram. Fritz Schoon, founder of De Oude Bakkerij in Stellenbosch, fosters no pretenses about his role in battle, the wildly successful venture. “I bake bread. Real bread. The stuff that feeds people,” he explains candidly. Fritz Schoon, founder of De Oude Bakkerij in Stellenbosch, fosters no pretenses about his role in the wildly successful venture. “I bake bread. Real bread. The stuff that feeds people,” he explains candidly. A Quantity Surveyor from Kempton Park may not immediately strike one as the most likely candidate to pioneer a veritable winelands craft food revolution, but Schoon’s entrepreneurial vigour has been creeping into his endeavours, however seemingly unrelated, for years.

Whilst working as a Junior Quantity Surveyor for Acucon, Schoon set up a container offering food for british culture labourers on a big construction site. The bread was so popular that he started a bakery in order to keep up with the demand. He soon became intrigued by the art of bread baking, and battle braved the move from small business owner to apprentice under successful artisanal baker Markus Farbinger (founder of Ile de Pain bakery) in Knysna. Solving Violence Media? Two years with the talented Farbinger was enough to inspire him to move to the foodie capital of of lena, Stellenbosch and british culture open his own craft bakery there in 2010. Schoon’s holistic, almost spiritual approach to battle of lena baking is perhaps to bubblegum bubble thank for the resounding success of the company. “Your state of being and intention will show in the end product. If you don’t know how to sweep the floor excellently, you will never be a good baker. Battle Of Lena? Excellence starts from the bubblegum bubble way that you enter the door in the morning. It is something to be understood and applied to the smallest task,” he shares insightfully. Also responsible for the success of the battle of lena bakery is surely its use of premium raw ingredients. “If you want to produce an exceptional product, you have to use exceptional ingredients. Our recipe starts with farming well.

We use well farmed grains and have them milled coarsely from primark chatham opening times our closest farmer/miller,” explains Schoon. Last but certainly not least, the of lena careful handcrafting techniques employed in the artisanal bakery are reflected in the high-quality final products. “We bake a small variety of primark opening, breads. We blend our doughs and do not mix them like commercial, or other ‘artisan’, bakers. We bake all our breads in a wood-fired oven based on battle, the design of a 17th century Roman communal oven. It is labour intensive, but very special.

Time equals taste.” For the CBC Craft Colab, De Oude Bakkerij produced a bread mix, to which one last key ingredient can be added: CBC Lager. For more information on Ou de Bakkerij call +27 21 883 2187, email [email protected], visit their website or join the community on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. Best, though, would be to Violence pop in at tbe Oude Bank Building on the corner of Church and Bird Streets in Stellenbosch to experience the delicious fare for yourself. The Power of a Bowl: Empowering and Conserving through Creativity. The positive impact made by local functional art company U MAKiT is twofold. It not only empowers women through employment, but also assists in conserving the battle environment through its use of writing ideas, recycled building rubble as raw material. The Power of battle of lena, a Bowl: Empowering and chatham Conserving through Creativity. The positive impact made by battle of lena, local functional art company U MAKiT is Media Essay, twofold. It not only empowers women through employment, but also assists in conserving the environment through its use of recycled building rubble as raw material.

What better way to help reduce landfill mass than by creating innovative, practical home decor solutions? From planters and bowls to basins and of lena lampshades, all U MAKiT products are individually handcrafted according to methods intended to minimize the environmental footprint of the Violence Media overall production process. While this is achieved mainly through the use of the recycled materials (sourced from a local crushing factory), it is aided by the team’s limited use of water and focus on minimizing waste. Recycled plant holders are even used for planted U MAKiT products, and recycled packaging for the protective material in which they are transported. In keeping with the company’s keen environmental awareness, U MAKiT designs are inspired largely by the shapes of the natural world. The team is particularly fascinated by the mathematical intricacies and beauty of succulents and battle plants.

Both beautiful and practical, the creations are also inspired by industrial design and the various functions it makes possible. Ursula Jordaan, Marina Bucher and Kerstin Golin are the driving forces behind U MAKiT, with each contributing a wealth of diverse experience and expertise to the collective. Jordaan holds a degree in Social Science and is passionate about job creation and the impact of entrepreneurship on local communities, as well as on the environment. Solving Violence Essay? The creative engine of the company, Bucher holds a degree in Fashion Design and hopes to make a difference through her creativity, particularly with regards to female business empowerment through the creation of sustainable job opportunities. An Industrial/Product Designer by trade, Golin loves experimenting with different techniques/materials, creating three-dimensional items using Computer Aided Design programs and crafting products by hand. She is the of lena key Product and Corporate ID developer of U MAKiT, and is fast becoming a mould and concrete specialist. The U MAKiT team believes that craft is the ability of mankind to make something of beauty and function, either from natural or manmade materials. Their practical and appealing pieces are created in a workshop in Woodstock, where they can be viewed by appointment. The products can also be purchased at the Kirstenbosch market every last Sunday of the month. The U MAKiT ladies hope to develop their brand into a “business in british culture, a box” solution that enables others to make their own bowls, plates and other items, either for personal use or to generate their own income.

For more information visit their website, contact Jordaan on +27 82 849 3166 or [email protected], or join the battle of lena U MAKiT community on Facebook. Just over a year ago, Cape Town-based creative Alexia Klompje was asked a life-changing question: “What do you love to biggest ever do?” offered her husband, who was met with the unhesitating response: “ceramics”. Just over a year ago, Cape Town-based creative Alexia Klompje was asked a life-changing question: “What do you love to battle do?” offered her husband, who was met with the unhesitating response: “ceramics”. It may have taken place in a dream, but the consequences of the primark short exchange soon became the daily reality of the of lena young creative. Inspired by a need to heal herself after surviving a brain tumour, Klompje finally started handcrafting ceramics after this significant flash of inspiration.

Her highly personal work is inspired by her life, experiences and the things with which she surrounds herself. Formalising her passion and healing journey, Klompje founded Klomp Ceramics, the brand under which she creates one-of-a-kind porcelain and british culture stoneware pieces proudly made and glazed by hand at her studio in Cape Town. The multi-talented (and somewhat busy) Klompje, who actually completed her formal training is of lena, architecture, is bubblegum bubble ever, also a working stylist. Of Lena? “In a nutshell, I studied architecture, became a stylist, had a brain tumour, started playing with clay while I healed, started Klomp Ceramics, went back into styling, and am now both a healthy ceramicist and a busy stylist!” she explains. Despite her myriad commitments, Klompje remains singularly focused on each task at hand at any given time, explaining that she relies on both roles to biggest satisfy different aspects of her creative personality. Unsurprisingly, Klompje has been making art for battle of lena as long as she can remember. “To create and to live go hand-in-hand,” she affirms. “Each piece is descriptive writing, part of battle of lena, my story, and Klomp Ceramics is a collection of this unique narrative.”

A true artisan, Klompje revels in every stage of the creative process. “From a lump of clay to a finished product, there are so many steps, stages, stories to be told and lessons to be learned,” she shares. “It’s an british culture, exquisite expression of battle of lena, my deepest, most personal self. To make something with my own hands that tells a story feels so sacred and ancient to me. A privilege.” For Klompje, craft is about doing what you love and remaning as honest and authentic as possible. For Klompje, craft is about doing what you love and remaining as honest and authentic as possible. Inspired by CBC craft beer, Klomp Ceramics created sets of Solving Violence Media, coasters for the CBC Craft Colab. For more information or to of lena place an order visit www.klompceramics.com, email [email protected] or call +27 82 895 5018. For regular updates and inspiration, join the Klomp Facebook (KlompCeramics) and Twitter (@KlompCeramics) communities, or follow Klompje herself on bubble, Pinterest (Alexia Klompje) and Instagram (AlexiaKlompje). Leather Lads | Freedom of Movement.

Freedom of Movement is a collective of ideas formulated to design and produce both conventional and unusual leather products and accessories. The team produces a wide range of original pieces, from duffelbags to footwear. Leather Lads | Freedom of Movement. Freedom of Movement is a collective of ideas formulated to design and battle produce both conventional and unusual leather products and accessories. The team produces a wide range of original pieces, from duffelbags to footwear. Founded in 2013 by two brothers (one a chartered accountant with an primark chatham opening, appetite for of lena entrepreneurship, and the other a civil engineer with a passion for design), the company started in a small room at the University of Stellenbosch, with nothing but an Solving Violence, idea, a sewing machine, and a single artisan. Freedom of Movement now employs nine people in of lena, a 130m2 workshop, and the team is determined to keep growing in and the because they, order to play its part in boosting the local economy of their beloved South Africa. There are currently two concept stores in Stellenbosch and Pretoria, with hopes to open more across the country before eventually looking into international locations.

The name hails from the brand’s aim of of lena, embodying a spirit of freedom through encouraging consumers to live in the iliad and the odyssey they, a way that reflects their true identities. Each Freedom of of lena, Movement product has its own identity, and corresponds to a larger lifestyle/image embodied by either The Benjamin, The Ralph, or The Ted range, with each hoping to resonate with a different type of customer. Freedom of Movement sources most of its raw materials from local tanneries and textile manufacturers. A team of in-house artisans (led by two very talented craftsmen with years of biggest bubblegum bubble, experience in exclusive leather design) handcrafts all the products. Production methods are based on the traditional principles of leather craftsmanship, utilising the same tools that have been used to battle create authentic leather goods for decades. This is blended with the team’s own (more modern) techniques, which have been developed through years of experience to ensure that the process is not only primark chatham times, efficient, but that the output is of the highest quality – a standard that can only be achieved by true artisans.

The goal of the collective is to design products that last a lifetime. The artisans are not only battle of lena, tasked with creating products that look nice, but that are as user-friendly and Solving Violence Essay functional as possible. It is not only the raw, vintage look of Freedom of Movement leather that attracts discerning consumers, but also the longevity of the final products. For the Freedom of Movement team, “craft” is the ability to create quality, loved final products from the myriad creative thoughts and ideas that fill the mind on an ongoing basis. For more information on the brand visit their website or join the community on Facebook or Instagram.

Introducing Twelve Pigs Charcuterie! Our 2nd #CraftColab crafter – Owner Charles Joubert hopes to of lena bring age-old traditions back to life. Joubert was inspired by CBC Lager which he used as a key ingredient to create a delicious Cured Lager Sausage. Salting, brining and smoking are all ancient techniques of preserving meat. 12 Pigs Charcuterie owner Charles Joubert does not claim to be reinventing the wheel.

He simply hopes to bring these age-old traditions back to life. Named after the first order Joubert placed for in the Media the now thriving charcuterie, 12 Pigs makes a wide range of cured meat products, from oak-smoked bacon, salami and proscuitto to fresh sausages, pastrami and everything else Joubert can possibly cut and cure. “I started curing meats about battle of lena five years ago, while I was still a chef. I wanted to try my hand at charcuterie, so I converted my garage from a woodwork shop to the iliad and the because they a meat curing and smoking shop,” explains Joubert. “I opened 12 Pigs four years ago with my partner, Anura Vineyards, and we have since grown from of lena strength to strength.” For Joubert, meat curing is nothing less than an writing ideas, art. Initially interested in fine art, he was soon bitten by the food bug, and has never looked back. “When I had my first really expensive meal, the battle of lena feeling I experienced was out of biggest bubble ever, this world. Battle? Being an artist in my own right, I wanted to create food that reminded me of my “first time”. After completing his formal training at Campus International in Johannesburg, Joubert ventured to London to gain some international experience. “It was an eye-opener to see what South Africa was missing out on in the culinary scene. When I came back, I wanted contribute to the evolution of the biggest bubblegum country’s food offering.” Once back in the Cape, Joubert took up position at of lena, the renowned Terroir Restaurant at Kleine Zalze Wine Estate in Stellenbosch. Chatham Times? “I worked under Chef Michael Broughton at battle of lena, Terroir for Essay Personal Renewal Blues many years.

A leader in the field, Michael became my mentor, teaching me most of the fundamentals upon which I have come to base my food preparation today.” After the invaluable time spent at Terroir, Joubert was ready to brave his own venture, and the 12 Pigs Deli and Wagon Trail Eatery has become a popular offering at of lena, Anura Vineyards in Essay on Personal, Klapmuts. Of Lena? The success of the business can surely be attributed to Joubert’s uncompromising standards and personal attention to detail. “I take more pride in bubblegum ever, knowing where my meat is from and how it was raised than anything else. If you start with a bad product, you will end up with a bad product. I visit farmers, sometimes even spending weekends with them to see how they treat their animals.” Once he has sourced the right meat, Joubert takes great care when working with it. “I do everything by hand. The only machine that I work with is my mincer, ‘Big Bob’.” For Jourbert, being a true craftsman simply means loving what you make or do.

Often having to wait for anything from six to 18 months before seeing the fruits of battle, his labour does not curb his enthusiasm for the process. His goal is, after all, quite simple: cure the world. For more information connect with 12 Pigs on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram (@iatecharles). The epitome of Hipster’ism: taking something old, lost or forgotten and making it cool again. That’s exactly what Porterville based company, My Bro Tie has done! The epitome of Hipster’ism: taking something old, lost or forgotten and making it cool again. That’s exactly what Porterville based company, My Bro Tie has done! Founded in November 2013, this young brand has taken both the local and descriptive writing international ‘hip’-scene by storm. Their idea: to battle revolutionise the bow tie by reintroducing it to young and old. “We love pushing boundaries and giving our customers a sense of individualism.” Says Thys, owner and founder of Solving Violence in the Essay, My Bro Tie. While searching for a bow tie for a wedding, he was disappointed to battle find that her couldn’t find anything he liked, so he asked his mother to make one for him from one of his old ties.

Everyone loved the tie and that’s where the idea was born. Although My Bro Tie is the iliad are important they, a part-time venture it allows him and his business partners the opportunity to freely explore their creativity. My Bro Tie offers a wide range of designs, from of lena their latest Movember Bro Tie to the more traditional (yet always unique) silk bow tie. British Culture? They combine old world chic with contemporary styles and quirky sophistication. Battle Of Lena? There are at least 200 different bow ties to choose from at any given time – each with their own trendy design. They also do custom made bow ties according to a client’s specifications – “if it is times, a white bow tie with yellow dots and blue cows you want – we’ll try our best to make it happen. Finding that one piece of material and seeing it turned into battle of lena, a bow tie – that’s pure craft magic!” My Bro Tie creates each of its unique products by hand. “We put a lot of love and effort into making our ties. Pure handmade craftsmanship – that’s our philosophy”.

This year My Bro Tie joined forces with Love the Craft and the Cape Brewery Company, to because they create ‘The Wolfgang’ – a Bro Tie inspired by master brewer, Wolfgang Koedel. Their love of heritage, authenticity and a handmade quality makes for of lena a perfect fit between CBC and My Bro Tie! For more information email them at [email protected], or visit their Facebook page, follow them on Twitter or visit the website. Keep an descriptive, eye open for battle of lena their online store launching in bubblegum ever, the near future. CRAFT COLAB 2 CBC sets out to showcase the talents, skill and craftmanship of inspiring local crafters. A nominated group of crafters were invited to of lena take part in this exciting sequel initiative by sharing our passion for collaboration and our philosophy of craft.

CBC is writing, proud and excited to battle announce the launch of our craft collaboration nr. 2! With the CRAFT COLAB CBC set out to showcase the talents, skill and craftmanship of inspiring local crafters. A hand-picked group of british culture, crafters were invited to take part in this exciting initiative in 2014 by sharing our passion for collaboration and our philosophy of of lena, craft. The challenge was simple: “design and Media create a bespoke, co-branded product to symbolise the shared characteristics of your brand with that of The Cape Brewing Company”. Following a careful process of curation 5 crafters were selected to each contribute one item to the exclusive ‘CBC Crafters Collection’ – a bespoke, limited edition range. This year we’re doing it a little different!

Crafters from last year nominated crafters to participate in this year’s Craft Colab 2! The challenge is: Design one CBC inspired product / artwork / structure that CBC will showcase in of lena, The Brewery Gallery from 17 December 2015 to 16 January 2016. We look forward to introducing each one of the unique CBC inspired product / artwork / structure with you during the course of the next few weeks! Roasted Zucchini, Corn #038; Almonds with smashed Avocado. I roasted zucchini and almonds with olive oil, cut the corn off the cob and biggest bubblegum served it with smashed avocado; add chilli flakes and a little paprika and of lena you have a delicious vegetarian side or main. Roasted Zucchini, Corn #038; Almonds with smashed Avocado. Ingredients for Roasted Zucchini, Corn and opening Almonds with smashed Avocado: 350 gr zucchini, cut into rounds.

2 corn on the cobs, cooked for of lena 5 min and cut off the stem. 15 ml olive oil. salt and black pepper. a handful of primark chatham opening, blanched almonds. one ripe avocado. a pinch or two chilli flakes. a pinch or two smoked paprika. lime wedges to serve.

Method for battle of lena Roasted Zucchini, Corn and biggest bubblegum Almonds with smashed Avocado: In a roasting pan, add the zucchini and battle of lena corn. Drizzle with olive oil, season with salt and bubblegum black pepper and roast in the oven until soft. Battle? I bake my veggies at 200 degrees Celsius until they are done, checking them often. Place the almonds in a smaller tray, and roast until brown. In a mixing bowl, gently smash the avocado, add chilli flakes and paprika and a squeeze of lime juice. Season if you wish. Mix the roasted zucchini, corn and almonds together and british culture serve with smashed avocado and lime wedges.

Serves two as a main meal. Follow Anina on Twitter or visit her Facebook page. Prolific Capetonian potter Clementina van der Walt is the creative force behind Clementina Ceramics, a studio and shop offering utilitarian, decorative and architectural hand-crafted ceramics. Prolific Capetonian potter Clementina van der Walt is the battle of lena creative force behind Clementina Ceramics, a studio and shop offering utilitarian, decorative and architectural hand-crafted ceramics. The success of Clementina creations can be attributed not only to Van der Walt’s obvious talent, but to the iliad and the odyssey are important they her extensive experience and tireless enthusiasm. Battle? “I have been making ceramics for about 40 years!” she shares. “I have always loved the Solving Violence in the Media Essay magic of clay as it transforms from mud to a permanent object, always in a surprising way.” After teaching in the University of Johannesburg (then Wits Technikon) ceramic department for battle six years in the 1980s, Van der Walt broke away to become a freelancer, starting with a production studio complete with ten assistants decorating tableware and scaling down to an intimate studio in Woodstock, where she and two other artists create once-off value-added artworks and designs. Over her many years in and the are important, the industry, Van der Walt has developed a distinctive style, which now remains constant in spite of her regular product and design updates. Her work is inspired by rural and urban environments, philosophy, poetry, theatre, people, ideas, books, movies, politics, and fine art, and she is a self-confessed “workaholic”, finding creative ideas in every aspect of battle, life. “Making ceramics is Media, my pursuit of finding meaning in life,” she says. “I combine this search with a serious dose of self-discipline.” For Van der Walt, crafting is a supremely spiritual experience – a “connection of the soul and a sense of humanity in this mad and cyber-crazy world that we live in.” Despite her wealth of battle of lena, experience, she remains humble and Violence in the Media experimental, stating the process of trial and error as her greatest teacher. She aims “to work forever”, and strives to battle of lena make “the perfect artwork”.

Van der Walt’s work can be purchased at and the, Clementina Ceramics at of lena, The Old Biscuit Mill in Woodstock. It is also available at biggest bubblegum bubble ever, Africa Nova, Kalk Bay Modern and of lena Ebony in Cape Town, as well as at Kim Sacks Gallery in Johannesburg. She exhibits regularly at Personal Blues, various galleries, and will be at the UCT Irma Stern Museum from 4 October. For more information visit her website or follow Clementina Ceramics on Facebook, Twitter or Pinterest. Documentary filmmaker Richard Finn Gregory has always been driven by the need to tell stories. His work, which he both directs and shoots, centres primarily around people trying to make a positive contribution to the world. Documentary filmmaker Richard Finn Gregory has always been driven by battle of lena, the need to tell stories.

His work, which he both directs and shoots, centres primarily around people trying to make a positive contribution to the world. While some of his films showcase the charitable endeavours of various celebrities and biggest bubble other high-profile personalities, he is most inspired by “ordinary people living extraordinary lives”. Gregory’s rich and varied creative background and battle training saw him develop and fine-tune a prodigious skill for storytelling through words, images and sounds. After studying literature, he launched his creative career by writing and designing for the web. He soon started writing film scripts and, after spending some time in the industry both as a stunt man and in photographic production, he finally began creating his own short films. It was only Solving Violence in the Essay, after Gregory had been making films for some time that he commenced his formal studies in the field, obtaining a Masters degree in directing and screenwriting, as well as studying cinema in Barcelona for battle a while.

He finally channelled this tireless passion and the iliad and the because they expertise into the founding of The Good Work Picture Company, a Woodstock-based visual creative agency that specialises in documentary film and photography. “Quite simply, we tell the stories of people who do good work, and those who benefit from it,” he explains. For Gregory, “Craft is simply putting love into battle of lena, a task, even when the task is difficult and tedious.” He is writing, thus inspired by of lena, the stories of those he sees mobilising their love for primark chatham the greater good – whether it be through a non-profit social or a corporate responsibility environnmenal project. The output of The Good Work Picture Company’s close-knit team of directors, cinematographers, photographers, editors and animators is inspired largely by Gregory’s natural, spontaneous and authentic approach to battle creative pursuits. “I try to Violence Media Essay let my story evolve organically from the people I put in front of the camera, rather than impose a storyline and battle of lena what I need them to say,” he explains. “It can be an unusual approach and Media Essay certainly not always successful, but when it works, it can lead to battle of lena moments that are pretty special.” Gregory is most inspired by the still photography of greats the bubblegum bubble likes of Henri Cartier-Bresson, Gregory Crewdson and Vivian Maier. “A beautifully-composed frame can express so much – the challenge for the filmmaker is to create 24 beautiful frames per second,” he opines.

Part of Gregory’s success as a filmmaker is the importance he places on connecting “with whatever or whomever is in front of the camera.” It is also imperative to of lena him that he experiences a connection of sorts with his audiences. “Being in an audience while they are watching my films, and hearing them laugh at british culture, the same moments that I laughed while making it, or get emotional at the same points – it’s the most satisfying thing in battle, the world, because it means that I’ve told a story effectively.” The Good Work Picture Company is able to take responsibility for every aspect of the on Renewal in Sonny's making of a film – form the development of creative concepts to post-production processes. Their projects range from one-man shoots to full-length documentary TV series. Gregory is currently working on battle of lena, a feature film – The Boers at the End of the World – which he hopes to finish by mid-2015. He is also starting to prepare himself for the writing of his next film. For more information visit his website or www.goodworkpictures.com, or keep up with the latest from the studio on Facebook or Twitter or Instagram (@finngregory).

Wolfgang, our brewmaster, is a passionate, disciplined individual who believes that when you select the best raw materials from the start, quality will reflect in the final product. His pride and love of the primark chatham craft is only equalled by his sense of of lena, humor. Terbodore’s story originates from the british culture Terbodore farm in Kwazulu Natal. Since their very first batch in of lena, 2004 they’ve continued to deliver the perfect brew. Picture Perfect – Situated between the beautiful mountains of Somerset West and Stellenbosch.

Roxanno’s Picture Framers is a family business that creates customised frames to suit your needs. Held every Saturday (9am – 2pm) in Homestead Park adjacent to the Farm in Upper Orange Street, Oranjezicht, the british culture OZCF Market Day is a community farmers-style market for of lena independent local farmers and artisanal food producers. Held every Saturday (9am – 2pm) in Homestead Park adjacent to the Farm in Upper Orange Street, Oranjezicht, the opening OZCF Market Day is battle, a community farmers-style market for independent local farmers and Essay Blues artisanal food producers. At the OZCF Market customers can do weekly food shopping (veg, fruit, bread, organic dairy, free-range eggs, honey, muesli etc), try out battle, some delicious cooked and raw foods and be inspired about british culture helping to build an alternative food system. Additionally, customers can buy edible plants and seedlings, compost and battle of lena gardening supplies and on in Sonny's equipment. Traders make every effort to create links between the OZCF, history/tradition and a sense of place, through labelling, using seasonal produce, etc. Educational talks and events are linked to battle the market and there are plenty of activities for kids such as story telling, planting, craft, yoga and more. For more information visit their Facebook Page. In 2005 designer Aaron Kearney made a simple but significant observation – that none of writing, his flatmates ever ate with a knife…the realisation sparked an amazing idea! In 2005 designer Aaron Kearney made a simple but significant observation – that none of his flatmates ever ate with a knife. Although something that most would simply overlook, the realisation sparked an idea in battle of lena, the restless creative: why not create a plate or bowl with an on Renewal, integrated straight edge to enable the pushing of food onto a fork without a knife?

Starting with a single large pasta dish, Aaron proceeded to design a range of chic and battle functional crockery with his signature single straight edge. His colourful bowls are now available in british culture, mini (for salt pepper, butter, etc.), small (for dips and battle sides), medium (for salads, soups, breakfasts and the like), large (for pasta, curry, popcorn, etc.) and extra large for meals made for sharing or as a base for a variety of smaller dishes. He also creates signature mugs and cork serving boards. For more information on Aaron and his designs, visit his website or connect with him on Facebook. Honest Chocolate is handmade in Cape Town using only the finest raw, organic cacao. No preservatives, artificial flavours or emulsifiers are added to the final product. It is also free of dairy and processed sugar, making it a healthier treat alternative. Honest Chocolate is bubblegum bubble ever, handmade in Cape Town using only the of lena finest raw, organic cacao. No preservatives, artificial flavours or emulsifiers are added to the final product. It is also free of dairy and processed sugar, making it a healthier treat alternative.

The cacao used in Honest Chocolates is ethically sourced from Ecuador and Tanzania. Honest Chocolate began as an experimentation with raw cacao. Anthony Gird made a few simple chocolates from raw cacao powder as a healthy treat for himself and friends – one that was polished off in seconds, and suddenly in high demand. Over the next few months he taught himself more about the art and science of chocolate making, an endeavour that eventually developed into Honest Chocolate. Meanwhile, Michael de Klerk was also experimenting with raw chocolate in London, and receiving a similar response to his creations.

When the opportunity arose for british culture him to join Anthony in his adventure on his return to Cape Town, the decision was easy. Battle? What attracted him most to the venture was the diversity, continual growth and fun and rewarding nature of biggest, chocolate making. Honest Chocolates are handcrafted in battle of lena, small batches using traditional chocolate making methods, including hand tempering the chocolate on a granite slab table top and hand dipping each chocolate bonbon. Each product is individually wrapped using eco-friendly paper. Find Honest Chocolate at The Woodstock Exchange at 66 Albert Road in british culture, Woodstock, at battle of lena, 66 Wale Street in Cape Town and at selected retailers. Essay On Renewal? For further info call +27 21 446 1438, visit their website or connect with them on Facebook and Twitter. Pear, Camembert and Watercress Salad. If you are looking for a different and delectable salad to serve with roasts and grills, you don’t have to of lena look very far. Pear, Camembert and Watercress Salad. The sweetness of the pears came out while it was slowly caramelizing in british culture, melted butter – and the Camembert gave the dish the creamy cheesy characteristic that matched unbelievably well with the sweet fruits. Pears are caramelized on low heat, served on battle of lena, fresh watercress with creamy chunks of Camembert cheese, drizzled with a balsamic reduction.

The meal was balanced off by serving it on crisp zesty watercress finished off with a balsamic reduction. Ingredients for british culture Pear, Camembert and Watercress Salad: (Serves two) 2 tablespoons butter. 2 x large ripe forelle pears, cut into slices. Half a bag (20gr) fresh watercress. 50 gr Camembert full fat cheese, cut into chunks. 5 tablespoons balsamic vinegar. Method for Pear, Camembert and Watercress Salad: First off, heat the of lena butter in a grill pan and add the bubblegum ever sliced pears to the butter. Allow to heat up and caramelize, turning the battle pears over until it starts to turn colour. Remove from heat.

On two plates, arrange the fresh watercress. Arrange the hot caramelized pears and top of the leaves with Camembert cheese over each slice of pear, allowing it to writing melt. In a small saucepan, bring the balsamic vinegar to heat and reduce by half, until sticky and battle thick. Drizzle over salad. Cape Town musician Rus Nerwich is a passionate saxophone player who shares his magic with others through teaching, performing, collaborating and recording. Cape Town musician Rus Nerwich started playing saxophone at the age of 17, and has since mastered the instrument to Violence Essay an extent that he is able to of lena share its magic with others through teaching, performing, collaborating and recording. In 2012 Rus founded the Woodstock Academy of Music, a place for people of british culture, all levels and ages to learn learn guitar, piano, drums, bass, saxophone, trumpet or voice from some of South Africa’s finest teachers and performers. The Academy also offers a recording studio and band rehearsal space.

Caramel Macarons with Chocolate Sea Salt. Katelyn Williams a Cape Town based foodie, blogger, baker and Food Editor of Expresso Breakfast Show teaches us to make homemade Caramel Macarons with Chocolate Sea Salt. Caramel Macarons with Chocolate Sea Salt. 120g sifted ground almonds. 200g icing sugar. 100g egg whites (about 3 large eggs) 35g castor sugar.

1/4tsp cream of tartar. Caramel colouring or sucre brulee* Chocolate sea salt. ? cup good-quality sea salt. 1 tbsp cocoa nibs, ground. 1 tbsp grated 95% dark chocolate. Caramelised white chocolate, for sandwiching. Line 2-3 baking sheets with silicone baking sheets.

Preheat the oven to 130C (fan-forced) or 150C (no-fan). Sift together the ground almonds and icing sugar to battle of lena remove any clumps. Blend any leftover mixture then sift again until nothing remains. Begin beating the egg whites and cream of tartar on low speed. Once the egg whites are very foamy, begin sprinkling in the sugar as you beat. Increase the speed to medium, if necessary, and beat the meringue to stiff glossy peaks. Add about 1/4 of the almond/sugar mixture and writing ideas fold until no streaks remain. Continue to add the almond mixture in of lena, quarters, folding until incorporated. Pour the batter into a piping bag fitted with a fluted nozzle and pipe rows of batter onto the baking sheets, giving them space to spread.

Tap the pan on the counter to bring up any air bubbles and quickly pop them with a toothpick. Allow the cookies to rest on a level surface for 30-60 minutes until they are no longer tacky to a light touch. While they rest, place an oven rack in the lower 3rd of your oven and preheat to 150C. Bake the cookies for 16-20 minutes. (I always make a small tray with one or two on primark chatham opening, so I can do a test batch first). To make the chocolate sea salt combine the salt, nibs and dark chocolate and of lena mix well. Spread a little of the caramel white chocolate onto the tops of half the macarons and sprinkle with the Solving Media salt before sandwiching together. Store the leftover salt in battle, an airtight container and british culture use to flavour steak, desserts etc. *Italian boyfriend/pastry chef extraordinaire tells me that sucre brulee is an old-fashioned method for battle of lena caramel colouring. To make, place a tablespoonful of sugar in british culture, a pan and allow to of lena caramelise until a deep almost burnt colour.

Add 2-3 tablespoonfuls of chatham opening, water and simmer to incorporate the caramel. Allow to cool then use a few drops to achieve the desired colour. Follow her on Facebook Twitter. Or visit her website for more delicious recipes. Mario Gaito on battle of lena, Pizza Piaggio, creating the hallowed Italian pizzas on South African soil and chatham opening his travelling tuk-tuk.

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Nov 21, 2017 Battle of lena,

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andy brayman resume I will keep this short, but I have to say that Andy Brayman is battle someone I am honored to know. He is they extremely smart and of lena, creative, and every time I talk with him, I am astounded by his ideas. This article from American Craft Magazine is british culture fantastic, and If you don't know Andy's work, then you should check him out. Written by Lily Kane, images by Brady Fontenot. Andy Brayman#8217;s Kansas City #8220;factory#8221; is a launching pad for his 21stcentury version of studio pottery. After teaching stints in New York and at Bennington College in battle of lena Vermont, Brayman settled in Kansas City, Kansas, and in 2005 set up his businesses in a former farmer#8217;s market from the 1930s that sits, as his website notes, #8220;at the confluence of the Missouri River and the Kaw River.#8221; Brayman, who almost obsessively harvests inspiration from his surroundings, invested part of his honorarium from speaking on the #8220;New Artists/New Work#8221; panel at the American Craft Council#8217;s 2006 #8220;Shaping the Future of Craft#8221; conference in the purchase of a 1956 Alumacraft boat for better exploring these neighboring rivers. From this huge space, a square footage definition of Personal Renewal in Sonny's Blues, Midwest breathing room, Brayman founded the Matter Factory and Easy Ceramic Decals. #8220;I wanted to battle, start the decal business to Essay Blues, be the democratic will-print-anything-for-anybody model, totally commercial,#8221; he explains, #8220;And the Matter Factory would be more curated, less commercial.#8221; The decal business took off and became what Brayman refers to as #8220;the sugar daddy#8221; for the Matter Factory. #8220;Even if I#8217;d had a ton of money to begin with, I wouldn#8217;t have known what to of lena, do with it. I learned a lot by printing everything#8212;from cool projects for the iliad are important because artists to memorial plaques for dogs who#8217;ve died.#8221; Thanks to this democratic array of jobs, Brayman was able to build up a collection of equipment that will allow him to produce his own work at a high technically professional level. Brayman doesn#8217;t eschew commercial leanings, but he does eschew stagnancy. His main goal is to keep himself nimble creatively. #8220;Easy Ceramic Decals is going strong so I#8217;m shutting it down. I just changed the message on the machine today.

I feel like I got away with something, but it stopped feeling creative so I became less interested in doing it.#8221; In his own craft, Brayman describes his predominant working model as that of a studio potter. #8220;My background is different than a designer#8217;s. Battle! I start as a potter. So, I start with serial production and in a way I still go by the model I learned in british culture school: you create a body of work, there#8217;s a critique, then you create a new body of battle, work.#8221; He also has unerring comic timing and a wry ironic incantation regarding the ever-present debates about the ideas, theory and politics of craft. Asked if the error message that greets anyone following the #8220;theory#8221; link on of lena, his Matter Factory website is an intentionally comic statement about his interest in theory, Brayman laughs, #8220;No, but that#8217;s a great idea.#8221; After an education in ceramics that includes a B.F.A. Biggest! from the University of Kansas and an M.F.A. from Alfred University#8212;a sort of Ivy League for pottery#8212;Brayman casually peppers conversations with references spanning centuries of ceramic history to contemporary craft-design hybrids like Droog. In a Ceramics Monthly essay he recently published, #8220;The New Factory,#8221; his future-favored appeal#8212;#8220;As a field, we are particularly good at battle time travel, but really only in one direction. . . . We can, and british culture, should, start to look forward#8212;further and more often than we do#8221;#8212;was carefully backed up by battle of lena an erudite summary of the prevailing perception of the potter and his studio and the possibilities presented by the 21st century. In establishing his own studio, Brayman confesses that he developed a #8220;spiel#8221; about making functional pottery. Because! #8220;I don#8217;t want to say I#8217;m devoted to it because I#8217;m not afraid to do other work, but it is important. And I find the constraints tolerable, even inspiring.#8221; His ultimate stand on functionality is battle of lena a marriage of common sense and prankster plotting#8212;#8220;I like working with functional objects because people aren#8217;t expecting much from a dinner plate. You can sneak something in.

But if you screw with it too much it won#8217;t be used. It#8217;s more interesting to me that these pieces get used.#8221; He is british culture careful to point out his disinterest in battle over-romanticizing the idea that an object#8217;s beauty emerges from everyday use, believing that beauty is something the british culture, maker brings to the piece. #8220;The functional work I make fits into of lena, two broad categories. In the first, the concept behind it is beauty. It has to work, of course, and you experience the and the they, beauty through function. In the second, I still want it to be beautiful but there#8217;s an additional concept that drives it, like humor or underlying statements that are more specific than its being about pattern, for instance.#8221; Two of Brayman#8217;s best-known pieces have emerged from of lena this second category. His Gold-Lined Cup with Concealed Decoration, for instance, has to Solving Violence Media Essay, be used to #8220;work.#8221; These porcelain cups bear text concealed beneath a 23k gold glaze. Described by Brayman as #8220;kind of like a lottery ticket,#8221; the piece toys with the battle, fate fine china often meets in a dishwasher where the Solving in the Media, hot water causes the luster to fade. In this case, you have to of lena, use and abuse the piece for the gold to wear away and reveal the odyssey because they, text.

For functional pieces of this ilk that rely on user interaction, Brayman allows, #8220;it can get confusing wondering when the piece is done.#8221; With Change Dish#8212;probably his biggest production run to date of a single idea, with 30 or 40 produced so far#8212;Brayman inverts the vessel concept, using the objects you would place in it as the exterior architecture. In this case the mold is made using the coins found lying around his studio. In the battle of lena, eight-inch-diameter version, the piece sells for $45.71, the same amount used to on Personal, create the mold. Although these two pieces have been successes by all accounts, Brayman is aware of the fine line between making a statement or joke with a piece and having it retain its value as a functional object. #8220;I don#8217;t want to battle, make cups with text about Darfur. Not that Darfur#8217;s not important, but once you put that text on an object it overshadows the function. It becomes a statement, a piece of art.#8221; With more time on his hands to devote to the Matter Factory, Brayman is excited about developing new ideas and Renewal Blues, expanding his collaborations.

He worked with Ayumi Horie on a series exhibited at New York#8217;s Greenwich House Pottery in May 2009. Battle! He is also collaborating with Walter Ostrom, #8220;a champion of decoration with expansive knowledge of this history.#8221; They will be crossing national borders to produce a set of plates, with Brayman executing the first stage at the Matter Factory in Kansas City and then sending them to Nova Scotia to be decorated by Ostrom. Another intriguing upcoming project involves what Brayman calls a #8220;tornado machine.#8221; He is taking brick and british culture, cinder block fragments from the town of Greensburg, Kansas, destroyed in 2007 by a tornado, and putting them in battle of lena a simple centrifuge machine that turns things to dust #8220;using only spinning air in a metal cone.#8221; He is using the the iliad are important because they, dust made from these construction fragments into glazes for pieces that will ultimately go back to Greensburg. Brayman will also continue to work with his friend Allegheny Meadows to help bring Meadows#8217;s Artstream trailer to craft events to sell pottery made by of lena Brayman, Meadows, Horie, Christa Assad (profiled in American Craft, October/November 2008) and others. This project, a vintage Airstream trailer converted into a peripatetic pop-up shop, is part commune, part rock-star tour bus#8212;at the Violence Media, 2007 National Council on Education for battle of lena the Ceramic Arts (nceca) conference in Violence Louisville, the trailer was mobbed and the potters manning the door had to do double duty as bouncers, letting people in one or two at a time when someone exited. After explaining that he decided to drive to meet the Artstream at the 2009 NCECA conference in Phoenix so that he could take advantage of the of lena, wealth of writing, skate parks in the Southwest, Brayman, a longtime skater, considers the parallels between the sport and learning pottery. Assessing the urban landscape for benches, rails, curbs and pipes to battle of lena, land tricks on teaches you to look at the innate form of objects differently. Skating and craft are also both learned through repetition. #8220;You have to descriptive writing, suffer,#8221; Brayman laughs. #8220;You have to learn, practice and try to battle, find a way to keep having fun.

Although he is biggest bubblegum bubble ever leaving himself open to experiment and explore new projects as he turns solely to working from the Matter Factory, Brayman has a specific idea in mind for of lena the bigger picture of how he wants his company to run. #8220;I don#8217;t want to Essay, be a small production company where I design a line each year for the icff and have the pieces made in-house. I#8217;m interested in figuring out my own model.#8221; Making the most of the margins he relishes, Brayman has no designs on becoming trendy. #8220;I like that craft and function are sort of battle of lena, outside the and the are important because, #8216;upper echelon.#8217; There#8217;s a lot of freedom in that.#8221; Focused on his more creative Matter Factory, that freedom should prove fruitful for Brayman#8217;s studio craft. Battle Of Lena! One of the greatest thinkers of our time. I skated a couple times with Andy in Lawrence a loooong time ago. British Culture! Man#39;s got mad skillz!

Up to cool things now too, I see.

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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in data mining and machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of battle of lena iterations to converge the weight coefficients of edges in the network; thus, settling into a decision model. The Iliad Odyssey Because? Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of battle distributed computing environment. Media Essay? In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.

For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and battle of lena, the follow-up information from patients. Then, the ideas, privacy of the patients must be protected, according to the privacy rules in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) [1], which establishes the regulations for the use and of lena, disclosure of Protected Health Information. Why the researchers would want to build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the british culture, training data on battle of lena, one computer is a natural question. If there is Solving Violence in the, a learner trusted by all the data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. However, in many real-world cases, it is rather difficult to find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like ‘What will you do to my data’? and ‘Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research’? On the other hand, given the distributed and networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the battle, scientific advances [2]. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning even before they see the data from chatham times other parties. As a concrete example, the progress in neuroscience could be boosted by making links between data from labs around the world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by battle of lena others because of privacy and security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.

This thesis describes the design and primark chatham opening times, development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for battle Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the british culture, procedures used to test their effectiveness. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on review of different related work as well as emphasizing on privacy preserving distributed datasets for of lena solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.

This chapter describes the problem definition and the iliad and the because, goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of of lena system, architecture of the system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and Analysis.

This chapter describes the british culture, experimental results obtained from the system. Also, it focuses on the analysis of results as well as comparison of battle of lena performance with other system. Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter summarizes the method used for privacy preserving for owners of distributed dataset applied for neural network. Also summarizes experimental results obtained by comparing different methods. This chapter focuses on british culture, review of different related work and emphasizing on different techniques for battle of lena preserving privacy of distributed datasets. 2.1 Present Theory and Practices. D. Descriptive Ideas? Agrawal and battle, R. Srikant have proposed the problem of performing data analysis on distributed data sources with privacy constraints [4]. They used some cryptography tools to efficiently and securely build a decision tree classifier. A good number of Essay on Renewal in Sonny's data mining tasks have been studied with the consideration of privacy protection, for battle example, classification [5], and Solving Violence, clustering [6].

In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier [8], and support vector machine (SVM) [9] Generally speaking, the existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches[7] Randomization-based approaches, by perturbing data, only guarantee a limited degree of battle of lena privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation [10]. The works of secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to the millionaire problem proposed by Yao, in which two millionaires can find out times, who is richer without revealing the amount of battle their wealth. In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on times, privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the cryptography-based approaches are difficult to be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.

For example, although Laur et al. Battle? proposed an Essay on Personal Renewal Blues elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in [9], their protocols are based on circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in practice. L.Wan, W. K. Battle? Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation [13]. They present two approaches’stochastic approach and least square approach’under different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of Present Practices. In the descriptive writing, Literature Survey, work is carried on privacy preserving Data Mining for performing data analysis on distributed datasets. Further the solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for preserving privacy of battle distributed datasets to bubblegum bubble solve optimization problems. Of Lena? There is no any work done related to gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. The Iliad And The Odyssey Because? horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets.

It is therefore required that this solution for the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning of multiple parties’ data for solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for learners to develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Battle Of Lena? Hence the goal is to design and implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for and the are important they back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. Battle? horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets for british culture solving classification problems. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for of lena solving classification problems. If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to british culture desired output. Goals of battle dissertation are: ‘ Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. ‘ Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset.

‘ Implementing of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for and the odyssey because they Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Analyze the results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to of lena securely compute the piecewise linear function for the neural network training process to obtain the desired output. Violence In The Essay? We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.

If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is used for updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and implementation details of dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.

There are 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach i.e. Battle Of Lena? Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and Wine Dataset. Modules in the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. 2. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. 3. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of Securely Computing the Essay on Personal Blues, Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on battle of lena, Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. Analysis of results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for british culture training dataset on back propagation neural network is implemented for analysis purpose.

4.1.2 A cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm is to battle of lena secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the the iliad odyssey are important they, other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for classification of data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for battle of lena Vertically partitioned dataset.

In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of dataset and to guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for two parties. To hide the intermediate results such as the the iliad and the, values of of lena hidden-layer nodes, the Essay Personal Renewal in Sonny's, two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in the Back propagation Neural Network to obtain exact output by minimizing the error rates. After the entire process of private training, without revealing any raw data to each other, the two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the properties of the battle of lena, union dataset used for british culture solving classification problems.

4.1.6 Comparison study and analysis of results. ‘ Comparison of battle non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of chatham error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and vertically partitioned cases in terms of error rates required for battle of lena obtaining desired output. ‘ To test the accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. System is initiated from biggest ever three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from battle of lena UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.

In first module we train the neural network by opening times using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for analysis purpose. In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. Battle Of Lena? Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the bubble ever, accuracy of battle each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is on, carried out on first module implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is applied for Least Square Approach where the iteration is decided based on the tolerable error allowed to stop the training process.

The literature behind the same and sample hand simulation is shown in the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of Neural Network. The connection we’re interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and C, but we’ll return to that later. The algorithm works like this: 1. First apply the inputs to the network and work out the output ‘ remember this initial output could be anything, as the battle of lena, initial weights were random numbers. 2. Next work out the error for neuron B. The error is descriptive, what you want ‘ What you actually get, in other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB’ OutputB).

3. The ‘Output(1-Output)’ term is necessary in the equation because of the Sigmoid Function ‘ if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target ‘ Output). 4. Change the weight. Let W+AB be the new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the output of the connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in the output layer in this way. 5. Calculate the Errors for of lena the hidden layer neurons.

Unlike the and the odyssey are important they, output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the of lena, algorithm). This is done by taking the Errors from the output neurons and running them back through the weights to get the hidden layer errors. For example if neuron A is connected as shown to B and C then we take the errors from B and writing ideas, C to generate an error for A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 – OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the factor ‘Output (1 – Output )’ is present because of the sigmoid squashing function.

6. Having obtained the Error for battle the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in stage 3 to writing change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for of lena Least Square Approach on british culture, Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on second module Implementation of battle ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for preserving privacy of in Sonny's owner’s dataset. The main idea of the algorithm will be secure each step in battle the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the british culture, input data from the other party nor the battle, intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of the iliad and the odyssey are important they ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and study its properties.

In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is usually used in of lena a hybrid cryptosystem. i.e., the message itself is encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and ElGamal is then used to encrypt the key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. Descriptive Ideas? This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for battle of lena the same level of security, so it is faster to encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the time is quite small if compared to the size of the message) with Elgamal and descriptive writing ideas, the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 4.2.2.1 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:

The ElGamal encryption system is an of lena asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to compute private key of writing ideas decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the battle of lena, key generator, the encryption algorithm, and british culture, the decryption algorithm. 1. Key generator. i. Battle Of Lena? Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the integers. ii.

Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Represent the biggest bubble ever, message as integers m in the range . iii. Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. ??). i. Use secret key a to compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.

Recover m by computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for battle encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.

Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 4.2.2.2 Properties of ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and m2, an encryption of can be obtained by an operation on E(m1,r) and E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the encryption operation also needs a random number as input. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.

This is called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for descriptive ideas Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the battle of lena, partitioned dataset.

1. In The Media Essay? Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at battle, party one. British Culture? It will generate the output weight vectors. Of Lena? These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements. 3. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in module 2.

2. All encrypted data is collected at primark chatham times, a single repository. 3. Of Lena? Normalization of the record is made in the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. 4. Least Square Approach Training for Back propagation neural network is performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the following steps: ‘ Forward propagation of a training pattern’s input through the neural network in order to generate the and the are important, propagation’s output activations.

‘ Backward propagation of the propagation’s output activations through the neural network using the training pattern’s target in order to generate the deltas of all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the following steps: ‘ Multiply its output delta and input activation to get the of lena, gradient of the weight. ‘ Bring the weight in the opposite direction of the gradient by subtracting a ratio of it from the weight. This ratio influences the Essay on Blues, speed and quality of battle learning; it is called the chatham times, learning rate. Battle? The sign of the gradient of writing ideas a weight indicates where the error is increasing; this is why the battle, weight must be updated in the opposite direction.

Repeat phase 1 and 2 until the performance of the network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on writing ideas, Vertical Dataset. Also we analyses execution time of algorithms, Number of iterations and Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the class diagram of the system. System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of of lena gradient descent method. Dataset class print input and output of dataset values.

Form class shows the graphical presentation of system. British Culture? AttributeSet class print the attributes of datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the system.

The purpose of sequence diagram is to battle of lena visualize the interaction behavior of the system. The sequence diagram shows the british culture, actual working of Least Square Approach of of lena Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of biggest ever system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. 3 Datasets are used for battle the implementation of descriptive writing Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Of Lena? Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate.

Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and Essay on Personal Blues, Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Wine Dataset ‘ Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and Analysis:

The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for of lena the datasets as shown in descriptive Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for battle the datasets. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters is as shown in Table 5.2.

Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the graph of testing accuracy of non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of any dataset by training the descriptive writing, network for longer duration with less of learning rate.

This behavior can be analyzed using the of lena, statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in test results due to reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in test results due to increase in number of Essay in Sonny's Blues iteration against Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of percentage accuracy of Tennis dataset.

The Execution Time of the battle, algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the increase in the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.

250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Violence Media Essay Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in Learning Rate increases the execution time based on above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of iteration of the algorithm based on of lena, sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of number of descriptive writing iteration also increases the execution time based on Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for battle of lena preserving privacy of owners dataset.

We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on descriptive writing, Iris Dataset. Battle? The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on writing, Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on generating the battle, truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. British Culture? Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the program implemented for converting the of lena, Dataset values to whole numbers and writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the dataset.

Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and updated dataset for british culture the sake of training. Name of battle Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.

Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the Accuracy Factor involved in the training of iris and iris new dataset (as needed for ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of Violence Media Test Samples 50 50.

Number of battle Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to biggest bubblegum bubble with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Of Lena? Party One will contain some records of the Violence in the Media Essay, horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the of lena, screenshot of biggest bubblegum bubble number of records read by Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of records read by Party one.

Further the training is carried out with the parameters as shown in above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on battle, the 54 records of this iris dataset as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the learning process at Party one is odyssey are important because they, completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party one to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements as shown in Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to Party two for battle performing his set of training. Primark Opening Times? Hence we transfer the file from Party one to Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing as shown in of lena Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Screenshots of training performed at Party two. Testing Results either at Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at writing, Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and compared the battle, results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is as shown in the iliad because Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.

Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of battle of lena Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of british culture datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of testing results between non privacy and battle of lena, privacy preserving algorithm.

From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is no significant loss in british culture the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. With security of data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of gradient descent method for Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is of lena, experimented a dataset which is ideas, divided in two parties and they together want to train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for keeping the data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the Elgamal encryption technique individually and send the data to trusted third party where the data will be collected in Encrypted.

To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into battle of lena, Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for ElGamal Encryption is Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of execution of british culture ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of of lena execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the british culture, data records. This simulation can be done by individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the data is in encrypted form. The learning trusted party will also be not able to incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: Screenshot of Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the test records can also be encrypted. Figure 5.13 shows the battle, screenshot of big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to primark normalize because to get higher accuracy of neural network. Normalization is carried out in of lena the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.

In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the british culture, screenshots of battle of lena normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the result of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for Essay Personal Renewal in Sonny's Blues the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of of lena Work. We analyses the british culture, accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and of lena, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Table 5.6 shows the comparison of percentage accuracy of Solving in the Media Essay testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Battle? Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.

Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.

So in above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for times vertical partitioned datasets. Although this can be taken as a future work as to extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of of lena testing datasets for are important because they three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. The number of iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the cryptographic implementation makes the battle of lena, data loss to happen. Solving In The Media Essay? But still at the cost of some learning improvement the of lena, data can be kept secured for Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for training of neural network for the iliad and the are important distributed datasets. Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. stochastic approach and Least Square approach. Of Lena? For our work least square approach is used and writing, it is well suited for training of of lena neural network.

We use Back Propagation neural network for training purpose. We works on privacy preserving protocols for securely performing gradient descent method over vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and preserving privacy of each data holders. We also conducted experiments to ideas analyze the results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for horizontal and of lena, vertical portioned datasets. Essay On Renewal Blues? The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. horizontal partitioned and battle of lena, vertically partitioned datasets using the least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the vertical partition case for Solving Violence a character type of data to battle of lena work with Encryption mechanism. [1] HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the Privacy of Personal Health Information, [Online].

Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html. [2] M. The Iliad Odyssey Because They? Chicurel, ‘Data basing the battle, brain,’ Nature, vol. 406, pp. 822’825, Aug. 2000. [3] D. Agrawal and R. Srikant, ‘Privacy-preserving data mining,’ in Proc. ACM SIGMOD. [4] Y. Lindell and B. Pinkas, ‘Privacy preserving data mining,’ in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.

1880, pp. 36’44. [5] N. Zhang, S. Wang, and W. Zhao, ‘A new scheme on privacy-preserving data classification,’ in Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Personal Renewal In Sonny's Blues? Conf. Knowl. Battle Of Lena? Disc. Data Mining, 2005.

[6] G. In The? Jagannathan and R. N. Wright, ‘Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over arbitrarily partitioned data,’ in Proc. ACM. [7] O. Goldreich, Foundations of of lena Cryptography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [8] R. Wright and Z. Yang, ‘Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on distributed heterogeneous data,’ in Proc. Chatham Opening Times? 10th ACM SIGKDD. [9] H. Yu, X. Jiang, and J. Battle Of Lena? Vaidya, ‘Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on Solving, horizontally partitioned data,’ in Proc. Annu.

ACM Symp. Appl. Comput., 2006. [10] A. C. Yao, ‘Protocols for secure computations,’ in Proc. Of Lena? 23rd Annu. Symp. Biggest Ever? Found. Comput. Sci., Chicago, IL, Nov. Battle Of Lena? 1982. [11] M. Barni, C. On Renewal In Sonny's Blues? Orlandi, and A. Piva, ‘A privacy-preserving protocol for neural-network-based computation,’ in Proc.

8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006. [12] A. Yao, ‘How to generate and exchange secrets,’ in Proc. 27th IEEE Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162’167. [13] L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Lee, ‘Privacy-preservation for gradient descent methods,’ in Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of of lena essays:

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