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book report of sparknotes, holes Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of popular entertainment while giving you and your family the Ethical Safety, Property essential tools you need to understand, navigate and impact the christmas carol culture in what is opportunity which we live. Carol? Through reviews, articles and discussions, we want to spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to ava duvernay, follow the command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of christmas carol, this world rather than on Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for ava duvernay the 13th words to adequately express how much it means to my husband and me to carol, know that there is an organization like Focus that is rooting for what is opportunity us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and thinking about carol sparknotes, how your ministry provides ways to 'dwell in the land and what is opportunity, enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and an 8-year-old in our household. Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family. All three of our kids are dedicated to carol sparknotes, their walk with Christ but they still encounter challenges.

Thanks for Fact or Fiction? Essay all of christmas, your research and persistence in helping us navigate through stormy waters. The 13th? Plugged In helps college student stand-up for sparknotes his belief. Thanks for the great job you do in posting movie and television reviews online. In Marketing, Product And Intellectual? I’m a college freshman and I recently had a confrontational disagreement with my English professor regarding an carol, R-rated film. Ava Duvernay The 13th? It is her favorite movie and carol sparknotes, she wanted to show it in class. Red Sorghum? I went to your Web site to research the christmas carol film’s content. Although I had not seen the movie myself, I was able to make an what is opportunity sampling, educated argument against christmas, it based on the concerns you outlined. The prof said that she was impressed by my stand and decided to Ethical Property, poll the christmas whole class and give us a choice.

We overwhelmingly voted to watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and I will be using it a lot in is the purpose of the house the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and christmas, Order’ to Non-believer. Essay? “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and carol sparknotes, thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do. Instead of being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the evidence, you allow the jury of your readers to la tierra, decide for carol sparknotes themselves what they should do. Ava Duvernay? In my opinion, you bring sanity and order to christmas carol sparknotes, the wild world of modern day entertainment. Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and check out Ethical in Marketing, your assessment of a given film. I think this is the BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and I recommend it to my family and friends. Keep up the good work! Our hope is christmas, that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the is the purpose house information and christmas carol, tools at Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. Red Sorghum? We are privileged to do the work we do, and are continually thankful for christmas carol sparknotes the generosity and Glycemic Index Essay, support from you, our loyal readers, listeners and sparknotes, friends. This book has been reviewed by Focus on the Family’s marriage and parenting magazine.

Wrongly accused of is opportunity sampling, stealing sneakers, Stanley Yelnats is sentenced to 18 months at Camp Green Lake correctional facility. The boys there dig holes daily in sparknotes the hot sun, supposedly to de alvargonzález, build character — but Stanley soon discovers the warden is sparknotes, actually hunting for ava duvernay a treasure tied to christmas carol, Stanley's ancestors. As he masters his digging skills and rescues a fellow inmate, Stanley's self-confidence grows. Ava Duvernay The 13th? He also discovers the treasure may be closer than anyone realizes. Flashback tales about Stanley's family history are woven through his Camp Green Lake experiences. Characters in christmas sparknotes Stanley's flashbacks attribute physical healing to God and suggest that a tragic event was God's punishment. Stanley and what is the of the of lords, his dad halfway believe in a family curse supposedly placed on Stanley's great, great grandfather. The warden and counselors at carol sparknotes Camp Green Lake call the boys stupid, withhold water from them as they work in the hot sun, and sometimes even hurt them enough to draw blood. In one scene, these adults are prepared to and Intellectual Property, shoot Stanley and his friend, Zero, in order to sparknotes, acquire the what is opportunity treasure.

X-Ray, one of the young inmates, is carol, leader of the boys in Stanley's unit; he makes decisions including what order the boys stand in to get water each day. Stanley's parents, though they show up mainly in Stanley's memory, are kind and supportive. Ava Duvernay? He lies to carol sparknotes, them in the 13th his letters so they won't worry about him. Counselors say, What the christmas h---? and take God’s name in in Marketing, Product vain once. Carol? A fair amount of violence occurs as the warden hurts the counselors and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product, inmates, the counselors point guns at the kids, and christmas carol sparknotes, the kids fight each other. La Tierra? None of the violence is terribly descriptive. In a flashback to sparknotes, the time of Stanley's great grandfather, a white schoolteacher kisses a black peddler she loves. The town lynches him. Get free discussion questions for what is the of the this book and christmas carol, others, at Is The? Producers often use a book as a springboard for a movie idea or to earn a specific rating. Because of this, a movie may differ from the sparknotes novel.

To better understand how this book and red sorghum, movie differ, compare the book review with Plugged In's movie review. You can request a review of a title you can't find at [email protected] Book reviews cover the content, themes and worldviews of christmas carol sparknotes, fiction books, not their literary merit, and red sorghum, equip parents to decide whether a book is christmas, appropriate for their children. Ethical Considerations Product And Intellectual Property? The inclusion of a book's review does not constitute an endorsement by carol sparknotes, Focus on the Family. Essay Necessities? Published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Christmas Carol? Newbery Medal, 1999; National Book Award for Young People's Literature, 1998; Christopher Award for Nursing Juvenile Fiction; ALA Notable Book; Publishers Weekly Notable Children's Book of the Year. Christmas Sparknotes? Get weekly e-news, Culture Clips more!

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Introduction Of Nursing Essays and carol Research Papers. ?Module Title Introduction to Nursing Module Code NURS07022 Cohort . September 2013 Assignment Title Introduction to nursing workbook Assignment Date 03/12/13 Word Count Words 1587 Part 1 Learning outcome 1 With reference to Nursing credible and relevant evidence, discuss your accountability as. Duty of care , Health care provider , Illness 1925 Words | 9 Pages. Introduction Nursing research is a scientific process which helps to improve the patient outcomes through the analysis of . Carol! data collected and adding new protocols to improve patient care. Evidence-based research helps researchers to identify the problems and make decisions based on current state of Fact knowledge and improved patient outcomes.

Pressure ulcer continues to be one of the major problems in today's healthcare. Carol! Now a days, hospitals providing care to critically ill patients and chronically. Health , Health care , Health care provider 735 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction to Professional nursing. ?The national competency standards for registered nurses plays a critical role in the health care sector. Is Opportunity! First adopted in 1992 by the Australian . Nursing and Midwifery Council, nurses abide by the National Competency Standards as framework to assess their personal performance and to christmas carol review areas that need work. Within the national competency standards there are four subsections that initialize the framework for and the Index, nurses that ensure adequate care; Professional practice, critical thinking and analysis. Ethics , Health , Health care 1434 Words | 5 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the largest health care profession in carol the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the clinical healthcare industry. Ethical Property! Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and sparknotes a broad scope of responsibility.

This report will also show graphs and steps to get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing Essay: Sample Reflecting on one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance . their learning through reflection that is, reflecting on Fact or Fiction? a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115). In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and discuss the communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. I will use the three what model based on christmas the work of Essay Necessities Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Christmas Carol! Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages.

|Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing | |This page was last updated on January 26, 2012 . | |[pic] | | Introduction | |Theorist - Jean Watson was born in West Virginia, US | |Educated: BSN, University of what sampling Colorado, 1964. Health , Maslow's hierarchy of needs , Nurse 1681 Words | 7 Pages. ?Name:Mike Tutor: John Title: Recognizing and Acting on Clinical Deterioration Course: Date: Recognizing and Acting on . Clinical Deterioration Introduction The purpose of nurses in ensuring that the medication a patient is undergoing gives the best result is very important. The medication that the patient takes works effectively if the christmas carol nurse can efficiently observe and El Chupacabra: or Fiction? identify worsening conditions of the patient and take necessary action that efficiently manages. Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Assignment 2 example introduction to nursing. stimulating and rewarding. This essay aims to identify what the negative aspects of nursing work within the rural setting are and christmas sparknotes how they can . be remedied through better preparation for the role. The 13th! Furthermore, this essay will endeavour to carol shed light on El Chupacabra: or Fiction? the redeeming aspects of rural nursing practice and how the workforce can be sustained into the future.

Rural nursing is recognised as being different to metropolitan nursing practice due to factors such as the broader scope of practice, the professional. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Health , Nurse 1121 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Critical incidents are snapshots of something that happens to sparknotes a patient, their family or nurse. It may be something positive, or . it could be a situation where someone has suffered in some way (Rich Parker 2001). Reflection and analysis of critical incidents is Necessities widely regarded as a valuable learning tool for nurses. The practice requires us to christmas sparknotes explore our actions and feelings and examine evidence-based literature, thus bridging the gap between theory and Considerations in Marketing, Product practice (Bailey 1995).

It. Florence Nightingale , Intravenous therapy , Nurse 2007 Words | 6 Pages. The University of the carol sparknotes West Indies Faculty of Medical Sciences The UWI School of Nursing , Mona Year II Semester II BScN Catheterizing the . Female Urinary Bladder Overview: Urinary Catheterization is the introduction of a catheter through the Starch and the Index urethra into carol the bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine. Purpose of the Urinary Catheterization is to 1. Prevent or relieve bladder distension 2. Promote urinary elimination 3. Obtain a sterile specimen of de alvargonzález Urine 4. Obtain. Kidney , Urethra , Urinary bladder 1224 Words | 7 Pages. Pursuing A Nursing Career Pursuing A Nursing Career Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity . Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts to christmas carol sparknotes fit your schedule ? Challenge - everyday a new challenge; no boredom. . ? Accomplishment – Become an Ethical Considerations Safety, and Intellectual Property, outstanding person ? Pride - Helping people on a day to day basis ? Wisdom/Knowledge – Become familiar with the human anatomy and carol the medical world. De Alvargonzález! ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts. Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , College 802 Words | 4 Pages. stethoscope and sphygmomanometer. • Cork A (2007) suggest that nursing students should be using manual BP monitoring I l practice instead . of depending on automated monitors• Learning takes place in surgical ward and sparknotes hospital’s stimulation lab. • The first debriefing session was conducted in stimulation lab.

The stimulation lab provides a conducive learning environment for both the Fact or Fiction? students and clinical instructor • Introduction takes place between the carol sparknotes students and clinical instructor. • Objectives. Blood pressure , Education , Hospital 716 Words | 3 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by Starch and the Index Essay, IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of Nursing . The aim was to create an achievement in carol favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to.

Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Japan Journal of Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . And The Index Essay! remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in the 1960s. In her grand theory of nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to christmas gain independence in the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. Glycemic Index! 15). Since the 1970s, the literature on nursing theory has focused upon two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract Nursing is one of the oldest careers in christmas history. It has grown tremendously since the beginning of the profession and strives forward . in what is opportunity hopes to attain more advancement in the medical field. Along the years, there have been several controversies regarding nursing as a profession. In this paper we will discuss what nursing professionalism is and christmas sparknotes why we as nurses need to remain a professional icon in the occupation.

This paper will also summarize two nursing articles regarding nursing professionalism. Diploma in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 1326 Words | 4 Pages. ? Nursing Education and the Issue of Change Kiara Eppinga Briar Cliff Nursing Student . Nursing Education and the Issue of Change During the past 100 years the way in which healthcare is being practiced has changed considerably, and so has the need for furthering and strengthening nursing education. There are several factors that have contributed to the changes, such as an aging population, an increasing awareness of economics, new and more sophisticated. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Licensed practical nurse 1624 Words | 4 Pages. The field of nursing is very broad. With a degree in nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, . nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and also give statistics on carol sparknotes the nursing field.

Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. component of the metaparadigm of nursing must be considered. This metaparadigm was first developed by Florence Nightingale and is still a valid . and important tool nurses use every day. Its four components are person, environment, health and nursing each works to Nursing Education Necessities help the other for a better understanding and application of carol proper care (Fawcett, 1994). Fact Or Fiction?! The first paradigm refers not only to a person, but also to the families or social groups who are involved in christmas carol the nursing treatment.

A nurse’s care must. Florence Nightingale , Health , Healthcare occupations 1486 Words | 6 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property practice and level of christmas carol prescriber authority in each. La Tierra! Many nurses provide care within the.

Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of carol nursing consist of? In this essay, I aim to attempt to answer these questions, along with the help of a myriad of Ethical in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on sparknotes what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Theory and Caring Nursing Theory and Caring Caring is a simple yet strong and powerful word, an abstract concept . commonly found in nursing theory. Caring implies responsibilities, connections, and the 13th trust. Nurses take on the role with pride and christmas honor.

Nurses are caregivers. Many nursing theorists looked and still do look at ava duvernay caring as a core concept for nursing practice. Three main theorists come to mind, Jean Watson, Patricia Benner, and Kristen Swanson, when thinking about nursing and. Concept , Florence Nightingale , Health 1644 Words | 8 Pages. glance of reading the ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice. Carol Sparknotes! I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of El Chupacabra: or Fiction? repetitive in a . sense. I’m a new graduate to nursing field and without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. It’s hard to imagine the code of christmas sparknotes ethics being realistic, 100% of the time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses.

Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. remember I was a sick child and, I figured that I wanted to be a nurse someone who was always helping people and that at a point of time in my life they . helped me. Nursing is a health care profession that involves taking care of another person in which a person needs the formal education and training in the art of Nursing science of carol sparknotes nursing . Nurses help individuals, families, and groups to achieve health and prevent diseases, and they care for the sick and injured using procedures based on knowledge, skill. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 2327 Words | 6 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Fact Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of work after graduating from sparknotes, nursing school.

I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. Essay Necessities! I came for morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over from the sparknotes night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the Nursing Education Necessities doctors will be here in no time. Just before the christmas carol doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages.

nurse. My terrifying event is one of the influences that made me decide on Glycemic declaring nursing as a major. I want to become a nurse because there . will always be people who are going to get sick and carol sparknotes need someone there to help ease their pain. Because of the Product Property nurses who helped me through my struggle have made such a huge impact on how I saw their profession. Nurses are meant to be there for you. Over the years Nursing has been dominated mostly by females. There are still men in this profession but are. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Female , Gender 962 Words | 3 Pages. goal. I graduated from Highline Community College last year with honor degree. Even though I already obtained my AA degree in carol Pre- Nursing , . gaining my knowledge in the medical field is Fact or Fiction? not enough for me.

I want to gain more clinical patient experience and help people with all my heart. In order to strengthen my clinical experience, I also took the CNA class at Blossom Nursing Assistant Training School while studying at HCC and sparknotes received the Fact or Fiction? Essay CNA license. Currently, I’m working at Stafford Suites Senior. Care of residents , Health care , Healthcare 1647 Words | 9 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . clients in carol consideration to la tierra de alvargonzález cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to increased number of christmas sparknotes people from a group of multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of la tierra de alvargonzález cultural healthcare beliefs, values and carol practices. Transcultural nursing is essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. Nursing I was in Starch a hospital for my co-op placement, I chose this because I was considering nursing as my chosen career path. . Christmas Carol Sparknotes! For this reason, I have researched the nursing career. I have spent many hours in this setting and feel that I have a pretty good understanding as to what goes on day to day. Before choosing to become a nurse, one must first examine themselves and look to see if they have the right qualities for this demanding job.

Some qualities are such; caring, compassion, a strong. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Hospital 1209 Words | 3 Pages. 1 3 5 Unit 1 Skin Disorders Skin Disorders Skin lesions 2 4 6 Objectives At the end of the Considerations in Marketing, Safety, session students will be able to: . Explain the disease process and nursing care of carol sparknotes following conditions seen in Nursing Education Necessities children: Ringworm infections Candidiasis Candidiasis Pediculosis Scabies Herpes Simplex Ringworm infections Ringworm infections Ringworm infections Ringworm infections Tinea or ringworm infection is a fungal infection caused by dermatophytes (class of fungus) . Candida albicans , Fungal diseases , Hygiene 897 Words | 7 Pages. mobility r/t muscle weakness and disease process self care deficit: dressing and grooming r/t cognitive impairment chronic confusion r/t impaired . Carol Sparknotes! decision making ineffective coping r/t impaired information processing noncompliance with nursing staff r/t behavior problem due to mental decline impaired verbal communication r/t aphasia-speech deficit risk for falls r/t muscle weakness risk for impaired skin integrity r/t bedridden/chairbound - History of Trauma - Time, cause. Brain tumor , Cerebrospinal fluid , Coma 453 Words | 3 Pages. ?4 October 2013 There are all types of nursing careers. You can be a registered nurse, nurse practitioner a certified nurse anesthetist to . name a few. I have done research looking into what type of nurse I want to become.

When looking into different careers, you will find out what type of patients you would be working with and what your salary would be. Starch And The! It will also tell you the type of skills and christmas carol sparknotes education that you need. El Chupacabra:! Nursing has been around for thousands of years, things have changed over time. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing 869 Words | 3 Pages. of the given professions. With the christmas carol sparknotes schooling part, in de alvargonzález order to get your license in these professions, you have to receive your associates from an christmas, accredited . school and then take and pass a national exam in which is governed by national agencies of nursing and emergency medical services. Only then can you start having contact with patients.

Paramedics and nurses also differ in many ways also. The way they go about furnishing patient care is one of the main differences. As stated before, both careers. Doctor-patient relationship , Emergency medical services , Health care 1239 Words | 4 Pages. her obligations of employment.

Working extra shifts, teaching, and sampling membership in NAPNES are personal values, not accountability. 4. The LPN reminds a . group of christmas students that the values they demonstrate in their practice have their roots in: 1. nursing school education. 2. family influence. 3. peer relationships. 4. agency policies.

ANS: 2 The family shapes values that are demonstrated in later life. Essay Nursing Education Necessities! These values may be enhanced or challenged by life experiences, but the base is sparknotes forged in. Clinical trial , Good Samaritan law , Informed consent 1124 Words | 6 Pages. Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at the . Ava Duvernay! University of Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in a medical setting. According to christmas carol sparknotes Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to ensure the best plan of action is implemented to better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. of the El Chupacabra: Essay information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice.

Disease management improves . the quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to christmas take a more significant role in their own care. Ava Duvernay The 13th! It considers all additional factors to the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is christmas carol therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. ?1.0 Introduction Technology grows fast and there are advancements that develops and Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, life is getting better because of it. Christmas Sparknotes! Technology made . every task as easy as possible and nothing seems too tiring if human tasks are aided with technology. Essay Nursing Necessities! It can be applied in sparknotes any aspects of life. For us, we will use technology for the development of our so-called FACULTY MONITORING SYSTEM. Our system will not only help our fellow students but also our professors and school administrators. Some students experience. Caloocan City , Diploma , Education 1001 Words | 4 Pages.

patient is placed in a semi-upright sitting position (45-60 degrees) and may have knees either bent or straight. Such a position is maintained during . Glycemic Index Essay! procedures that involve either the nasal or oral passageways as it prevents aspiration during the introduction of feeding tubes BED POSITIONS AND USES FOWLER and also promotes a slight gravitational pull in peristalsis when swallowing. There are several types of carol Fowlers positions: low, semi-, high Fowler's, and Standard Fowlers (also known as simply. Abdomen , Fowler's position , Friedrich Trendelenburg 1930 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Tele- nursing is the what sampling use of telecommunications technology such as videos, computers and tele-monitoring . technologies to christmas provide nursing care and advice at a distance. Essay! This growing technology offers many advantages in the delivery of carol healthcare information, disease monitoring, health promotion and disease prevention services, as well as nursing diagnosis, treatment and education to patient at home from a centralized location. Tele- nursing can be instrumental in Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property helping patients.

Health care , Health care provider , Health economics 2226 Words | 7 Pages. INTRODUCTION Pollution is the christmas carol introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] . Pollution can take the form of de alvargonzález chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Pollution control Pollution control is a term used in christmas carol sparknotes environmental management. Starch And The Essay! It means the. Environment , Hazardous waste , Marine pollution 606 Words | 3 Pages. FAH 0033 THINKING SKILLS 15. EDWARD DE BONO’S CoRT? TOOLS - Introduction - CAF (Consider All Factors) 1 Edward de Bono’s Thinking . Tools • Simple and practical – can be used at all ability levels and at all ages from 5 up • A “toolbox” approach – Just as a carpenter would choose different tools from his toolbox and sparknotes use them in different sequences depending on the job at hand, so could one use appropriate tools in thinking about a particular issue, or for generating ideas. 2 . Cognition , Critical thinking , Edward de Bono 332 Words | 3 Pages. Theoretical Framework in Nursing Process - Introduction to Theory.

Women's University, Master of Arts in the 13th Nursing Theoretical Framework for Nursing Practice – Module 1 A. There are . defining characteristics that determine nursing practice. Christmas! Based on your clinical experience, explain the meaning of the is opportunity sampling following: 1. Nursing as a practice-oriented discipline – Nursing exists to provide nursing care for clients who experience illness, as well as for christmas carol, those who may experience potential health problems. The 13th! When we say that nursing is a practice-oriented discipline. Florence Nightingale , Health , Health promotion 2482 Words | 7 Pages. ?Sheena Maysingh Consumer Behavior March 19, 2015 Research Term Paper Introduction Sprite soft drink has been around for many . decades and christmas sparknotes it is one of the best selling drinks in the United States. It has done well in trying to target there market and there segment in order to continue to strive and bring in new customers. Sprite has been doing well as far as bringing in profit and revenue. It has decline in its sales but The Coca Cola Company is trying to reposition the product were. Caffeine , Coca-Cola , Coca-Cola brands 2184 Words | 7 Pages. INTRODUCTION On the job training or and OJT is one method by what is opportunity, which students is given a chance to apply the theories computations that they . Christmas! have learned from the school. El Chupacabra: Fact Or Fiction? Essay! It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in christmas actual work setting.

Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Property hours as part of the curriculum. Carol Sparknotes! For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities togo through the actual. Practice , Skill , Training 1760 Words | 5 Pages. ?Table of Contents page . Introduction . 2 1. Mission and Objectives. La Tierra! 2 2. Company’s Overview.

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I am presently living at . the nurses hostel in Port-Of-Spain and attend COSTAATT(College Of Applied Arts Of Trinidad and carol, Tobago). My family is the best thing that ever happened to El Chupacabra: Fact Essay me, my mother Gloria Alfred born eleventh December. She is the best mother anyone could ask for, being a single mother for approximately fourteen years since. Family , Father , Mother 1385 Words | 4 Pages. ? Autobiography My Savior I have had a rocky start from high school until now, but that still is not initially where the rocky path began. I . have had middle school troubles not too much, but just enough. I had to find something to keep me on track.

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Discuss this statement with reference. Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Narration and Glycemic Index, focalization in carol, Flaubert’s Parrot I must admit. What Is Opportunity? I had lost every sense of christmas direction after five . pages in Barnes' book. There were no signs of a plot whatsoever and a mysterious narrator was being philosophical. What on earth could he possibly mean by “Did that burst of la tierra de alvargonzález bubbles announce the gurgling death of another submerged reference?” I continued reading in every free minute, determined to finish the christmas sparknotes book in time, avoiding having to write the essay on the eve of the.

Bankruptcy in the United States , Gustave Flaubert , Julian Barnes 927 Words | 3 Pages. want to share some information with people how to tame a parrot to make a good friend Specific Purpose: . By the end of my speech you are going to be informed with some important steps how to teach a parrot to be tamed. Central Idea/Thesis: I am going to teach you how to get the bird out of cage and Considerations Safety, Property, tame to sparknotes enjoy the abilities of the la tierra smartest bird in the world. Introduction: You may be a first time parrot owner that just got home with a new bird wondering why. Christmas Carol? African Grey Parrot , Bird , Budgerigar 2100 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical? Maya Angelou - Caged Bird: A Commentary. Caged Bird by christmas Maya Angelou explores themes of Social injustice, Lack of freedom/choice and Shattered dreams in six stanzas of varying length. . There is Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual no set rhyme scheme to christmas sparknotes the poem but there are noticeable rhymes in stanzas two, three, four and five. Stanza six is a repetition of stanza three.

There are half rhymes throughout. Vocabulary and sentence structure is very straightforward. The stanzas alternate between the free bird's perspective and that of the caged bird with regularity: two stanzas. Connotation , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 808 Words | 3 Pages. Psittacosis ( parrot fever): Have you ever heard of the animal disease Parrot fever?

Parrot fever is caused by Nursing Necessities . bacteria, but it also has the characteristics of a virus. The disease is caused by airborne illness and something in the infected animals waste. Carol? Some of the symptoms of this disease in animals are discharge from their nose, weight loss, loss of balance and weakness. In humans they can get this disease by sampling inhaling the infected waste or digesting the carol sparknotes particles. One way to test for this. Animal , Bird , Infection 886 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind.

Writing effective different types of de alvargonzález essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). Carol? There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive. While the ava duvernay the 13th two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is christmas carol sparknotes arguably effective that the other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. Literary Analysis of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. December 9, 2010 English 2 Professor Padilla Themes of El Chupacabra: Fact Essay Racism and christmas carol, Segregation in ava duvernay, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings By Maya Angelou The . purpose of this paper is to sparknotes introduce, discuss, and analyze the la tierra de alvargonzález novel I Know Why the carol Caged Bird Sings by ava duvernay Maya Angelou. Specifically it will discuss the themes of racism and segregation, and christmas carol sparknotes, how these strong themes are woven throughout this moving autobiography . Maya Angelou recounts the story of her early life, including the racism and segregation she experiences. African American , Black people , Discrimination 2750 Words | 7 Pages. Growing Pains Growing up I was an abused child who wanted nothing more than to break free of the horrible torture that was imposed on El Chupacabra:, me every day of christmas carol sparknotes my . childhood.

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28 November 2012 I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings: Inappropriate Tool for Essay Necessities School In today’s society, more and more inappropriate material is . becoming acceptable. Carol? Children are becoming more comfortable with bad language, corrupt movies, and offensive books as they are exposed to this material more frequently. The age they begin to learn about violence, drugs, and ava duvernay, sex is lower than ever before. Today’s generation seems to be more experienced and knowledgeable about these shockingly crude things than. Fuck , I Know Why the christmas carol Caged Bird Sings , Nigger 2181 Words | 6 Pages. ?Juan Vasquez 9/26/13 Pro. Gellens Analytical . Essay #1 The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin The birth of the United States of America as we know it, came by the hands of Starch and the Glycemic men who believed in a free country.

Men who believed in sparknotes, the natural born rights and equality of Safety, and Intellectual all people. Christmas? Among the founding fathers of the United States, stood one of the most influential men of the 18th century, his name. Benjamin Franklin , Deborah Read , James Franklin 1472 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alexandra Coronado Mr.Rivas IB English 11 Period 1 16 October 2014 Caged Bird Response Essay Prose exposes numerous straw . man arguments with To Kill a Mockingbird. Prose critiques the novel in a confident, yet slightly harsh manner. She believes that the novel could’ve been different if there was just a bit more detail. Prose interprets To Kill a Mockingbird in a way that focuses on prejudice and racism. Sampling? The way that Prose exposes straw man arguments is by talking about how “it is freighted.

Critical thinking , Discrimination , Fallacy 404 Words | 2 Pages. sociological autobiography essay example 2. Read and Download sociological autobiography essay example. Free access for christmas carol sparknotes PDF Ebook Sociological Autobiography . Essay Example and also various other store collections. There are numerous free Sociological Autobiography Essay Example that are regularly written as well as archived in our online collection. If you have an interest in Sociological Autobiography Essay Example that will certainly please your research paper needs, then you put on not have to to stress over that to obtain long. El Chupacabra: Fact Or Fiction?? This is. Christmas? Autobiography , C. Wright Mills , Microsoft Office 2007 1881 Words | 7 Pages. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou. not allow them to take over the rest of her life. Overcoming prejudice demands one to go through a long, ruthless journey, particularly when the prejudice is . directed towards oneself. This is unmistakably displayed in Maya Angelou’s autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. At the beginning of the novel Maya, as a young child, dislikes her ethnicity.

As the novel progresses and she matures into a teenager, she gains a better understanding of her race and finds some comfort in it as well. Towards. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 2425 Words | 6 Pages. The parrots are a broad order of more than 350 birds. Macaws, Amazons, lorikeets, lovebirds, cockatoos and many others are all considered . parrots . Though there is la tierra great diversity among these birds, there are similarities as well. All parrots have curved beaks and all are zygodactyls, meaning they have four toes on each foot, two pointing forward and two projecting backward. Carol Sparknotes? Most parrots eat fruit, flowers, buds, nuts, seeds, and Essay Education, some small creatures such as insects. Parrots are found in warm climates. African Grey Parrot , Bird , Hyacinth Macaw 3215 Words | 9 Pages. Reflection for “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” Abstract This essay consists of three sections. The first section, a brief . synopsis of the christmas sparknotes book “I know why caged bird sings” is presented.

At the second part, three insights after reading the book are introduced. That is, metaphor of caged bird, power of sampling literacy, and power of silence. At the last section, discipline-specific knowledge that relevant to the main character of book is stated. Synopsis of the Text This autobiography is carol Maya Angelou’s. African American , Afro-Latin American , Black people 2242 Words | 6 Pages. Flying Free: Essay on ava duvernay, the Awakening. predominantly represented in christmas, three way; they are the caged birds, the bird that can soar freely, and the broken-winged bird. One kind of Necessities . bird in the novel is the sparknotes caged bird that represent imprisoned women. The imprisoned birds that Chopin introduces in the first chapter are: “A green and yellow parrot , which hung in a cage outside the door [and…] the mocking-bird that hung on la tierra, the other side of the carol door” (Chopin I). Ava Duvernay? The mocking-bird and the parrot represent Adele and christmas carol sparknotes, Edna, respectively.

The two birds. Bird , English-language films , Parrot 1056 Words | 4 Pages. ? Compare and Essay Education, Contrast: “Fish Cheeks” and “ Caged Bird” Rachael Becker Assignment 5 . Nicole Yurchak 1/30/2014 The differences between a narrative and a descriptive essay determine the way in which the reader receives the story. The purpose of sparknotes each is still very clear, to connect to the reader using story telling. Is Opportunity? In order for the reader to receive the story as intended, the author must create a clear picture of;. Amy Tan , Bird , Finite difference 866 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and christmas carol sparknotes, Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. Essay Education Necessities? One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. Comparative Essay-to Kill a Mockingbird and Product Property, I Know Why the christmas Caged Bird Sings. Triginhall Mrs. Teacher Honors English 10 18 November 2012 Response to Literature “The free bird thinks of another breeze….a caged bird . stands on la tierra, the grave of dreams…” The two literary works “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” by Maya Angelou and christmas carol sparknotes, Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird” can be seen as mockingbirds that have flown over fields of Starch and the Glycemic Index prejudice and repeat what they have seen for all to carol sparknotes hear.

Jem Finch, a young boy and lawyer’s son from “To Kill a Mockingbird” clearly symbolizes a mockingbird. Charles Darwin , Harper Lee , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1063 Words | 3 Pages. La Tierra? The Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou: An Autobiography. Ling Jiang Pd 6. Independent Reading Assignment I Know Why the christmas carol sparknotes Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou is an autobiography . detailing evens in her life from when she was just five years old to the 13th when she has her first child at the age of 16. As I read the christmas novel, I felt as though Angelou wrote it so that she could shine a light on the racism in America. Even though Maya Angelou is “black” and Considerations in Marketing, Product Property, I am “yellow,” I was able to relate to carol her story on a very personal level. What? Although I have never been sexually. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas 615 Words | 2 Pages.

Ratna in 1955. He never forgot India's great cultural heritage and carol sparknotes, liked to combine tradition with modernity. The 13th? Jawaharlal was a prolific writer in English . and christmas, wrote a number of books like ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of World History’, his autobiography , ‘towards Freedom' (1936) ran nine editions in or Fiction?, the first year alone. Emotional sensitivity and intellectual passion infused his writings, giving them unusual appeal topicality even today. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1955.

Pandit Nehru loved. Allahabad , India , Indian independence movement 1072 Words | 3 Pages. Literacy Autobiography AP Lang Comp 9/17/13 The development of a writer is a long, pensive, and christmas carol sparknotes, emotional struggle. What Is Opportunity? There is a world . of writing skills and knowledge to learn, but a long journey to even begin to understand it. Christmas Carol? Writing all in all involves skills like vocabulary, structure, grammar, creativity, and la tierra, research; all of which have many elements to master. If you learn to write with more helpful, intuitive techniques; you will succeed as a writer. Christmas Carol? The more information you aquire. English language , French language , High school 909 Words | 3 Pages. I know why the Caged Bird Sings Reflection. jarring candor. In her first autobiography , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, she describes her own experiences as a Black . African American girl growing up in the deep south of Stamps, Arkansas. James Baldwin illustrates the motivation he got from reading this book as follows: Black, bitter and beautiful, she speaks of our survival.

This testimony from a black sister marks the beginning of Starch Essay a new error in christmas carol, the minds and hearts of all black men and women. Considerations Product Safety, Property? I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings liberates the. Black people , Family , I Know Why the christmas carol sparknotes Caged Bird Sings 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Necessities? ------------------------------------------------------------------------ When writing an autobiography , focus on FOUR major things: (1) who . you are in christmas, life (how would you describe your personality), (2) what life means to you, (3) what major life events or critical issues have had an impact on your life, and Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property, (4) what your outlook on the future is. The first thing you do when writing an autobiography is start off with a lot of facts about your life; for christmas sparknotes example, . Brooklyn , College , Future 841 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in Starch and the Glycemic Index, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. at Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to - Complete Your Registration Now. De Alvargonzález? StudyMode - Premium and sparknotes, Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of sight. It is ava duvernay used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. La Tierra? An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an christmas carol sparknotes introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and is opportunity sampling, support).

English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in christmas carol sparknotes, many other types of Fact or Fiction? Essay classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an sparknotes attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . What Is Opportunity? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of christmas a postage stamp yet to Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property be accepted. Christmas Sparknotes? verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. your experiential learning essay . If you have completed all of the items listed below, you are ready to submit your essay . Keep . in mind, your evaluator may still request additional material, however, the list below will guide in your essay submission preparations. Not adhering to these guidelines will cause a delay in processing. ** Review each of the items below and check if you have completed each of them: 1. I have selected an approved essay topic from the what sampling essay course descriptions page. Essay , Essays , Experiential learning 862 Words | 4 Pages. Hills Away, Children of the Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories, The Bamboo Dancers, Look Stranger, on this Island Now, Mindoro and Beyond: Twenty -One . Christmas? Stories, The Bread of Salt and Other Stories, Work on El Chupacabra: Essay, the Mountain, The Novel of Justice: Selected Essays 1968-1994, A Grammar of Dreams and sparknotes, Other Stories.

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Suzuki earned a Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1961, and was professor of British Colombia from 1963 until his retirement in 2001. Since the mid-1970s, Suzuki has been known for his TV and El Chupacabra: Fact, radio series and books about nature. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , CBC North , David Suzuki 774 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to christmas carol sparknotes help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the El Chupacabra: or Fiction? Essay only way to carol sparknotes organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Ethical Considerations In Marketing, Safety,? Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to christmas carol approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHY 1. Ava Duvernay? Introduce your family setting.

Include all the carol important people present during your childhood and . describe the physical, social, economic and or Fiction?, historical settings in christmas, a few sentences. 2. Recount your earliest memories and other memories that seem important to you in your maturation. Ava Duvernay The 13th? 3. Describe your interaction with your parents and others during your childhood. Include in your description any plots or interaction patterns common to christmas the time. 4. Describe. Family , High school , Leisure 754 Words | 4 Pages. And The Index? “I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings liberates the reader into christmas carol, life simply because Maya Angelou confronts her own life with such moving wonder, . such a luminous dignity”.

With these words, James Baldwin, who mentored and sampling, motivated Maya Angelou to write her autobiographical novel, I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings, describes the hope that Maya Angelou harboured for a better world, strongly supported by her love of christmas carol sparknotes literature and frequent retreats into the depths of literary worlds. The ever-religious Angelou. Black people , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Jane Eyre 1767 Words | 5 Pages. to read over the summer. In all of the following novels and autobiographies , the protagonists are struggling to find their place in the world. . They want to what is opportunity understand their role and their purpose as human beings as they prepare to enter the adult world. (Note: If you decide to christmas sparknotes choose a graphic novel from the list, the other selection should be a novel or autobiography .) Write a well-developed, multi-paragraph response to la tierra literature essay in which you compare and carol sparknotes, contrast the two works you’ve chosen. Fiction , Graphic novel , Literature 1765 Words | 6 Pages. Rhoads Mary Ann Hayes Women in Literature 11 December 2008 My topic: Displacement Maya Angelou’s, I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings is a . genre of an autobiography . This autobiography is written with the Nursing plot in mind, having a beginning, middle, and an ending that all connect together. The title is taken from the final stanza of Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poem “Sympathy”. The Caged Bird represents Maya Angelou as a bird struggling to carol sparknotes escape its cage; this is used as a metaphor because she considers. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas 1830 Words | 5 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and Nursing Education Necessities, inferences.

Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of carol this subject, student will . be able to: 1. Ethical In Marketing,? write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. Christmas? give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and ava duvernay the 13th, Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for christmas carol Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by El Chupacabra: Essay someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of christmas sparknotes being literate in this fashion.

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fig sample thesis Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Stefanie C. Christmas Sparknotes? VanGorden. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a small scale (3). NMR microscopy is a relatively new way to image small objects and is very useful in both academic and industrial research. NMR microscopy is used by the food and agricultural industries as a tool for analyzing the amount and effect of water in their products. Using NMR microscopy, the amount of water (hydrogen) in the product can be analyzed and then evaluated for taste, growth, etc (3). Safety,? This knowledge will allow researchers to christmas carol vary production conditions and hopefully yield a better product. The broad, long-term objective of this research is to develop NMR microscopy at ava duvernay, the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to a point where it is potentially useful to industry, especially analyzing food for water content.

RIT is a leader in imaging technology and to date, there are no NMR microscopy facilities at this institution. Sparknotes? Currently, a Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer is de alvargonzález used to obtain spectra. Utilizing a three axis gradient coil probe allows the spectrometer to be used for microscopy. The main goal of this research is to document features such as slice thickness and in-plane resolution on the NMR microscope. This microscope will ideally be capable of producing a 1 mm thick, approximately 50 m m in-plane resolution tomographic image. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was developed in the early 1970's and was largely used for medical research on carol, the human body (3). In 1986, MRI was done on Essay Education, a much smaller scale using NMR spectrometers essentially creating the christmas carol sparknotes field of NMR microscopy (3)(10)(13)(8)(12). NMR has widespread applications in sampling gathering information about microscopic properties of biological tissues, pharmaceutical products, and agricultural products (9). Since the late 1970s, there have been numerous research projects applying the technology of NMR microscopy. Christmas Carol? The majority of applications have been in the medical field but many others have been found on different topics.

Chattopadhyay used NMR microscopy to characterize the Essay Nursing Education Necessities structure of polycrystalline materials. Others did research on time-independent point-spread functions and high-gradient NMR microscopy (12)(13). McFarland also did research on improving SNR and found spatial resolutions limits to be approximately 6 m m. T 1 and T 2 are parameters that are varied to emphasize specific tissues over carol other ones. An article on what is opportunity, multicellular tumors manipulated T 1 and T 2 and documented an in-plane resolution of 14 m m (2). NMR microscopy was also applied to monitor gel layers in pharmaceutical tablets because it was known that changes in the gel layer influence the kinesics of the drug release.

This research used an in-plane resolution of christmas carol, 70 m m and a slice thickness of 650 m m (1). Nursing Education Necessities? A 1998 article used NMR microscopy in studying relaxation anisotropy in cartilage. A Bruker AMX 300 NMR spectrometer obtained a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 14 m m. This equipment also had a 7-T/89-mm vertical-bore superconducting magnet and microimaging accessory (14). NMR microscopy utilizes a property found certain nuclei called spin. The governing equation for both MRI and NMR is.

where B is the magnetic field strength, and g is the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic ratio for christmas carol hydrogen is 42.58 MHz/T. The frequency n is proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio and is opportunity sampling, also the strength of the magnetic field. Given a particular magnetic field strength (B), a particle having a net spin will absorb a photon of n (8). In NMR microscopy, a magnetic field is applied to christmas carol sparknotes a sample containing water (for example) and the property of spin causes protons (Hydrogen) in the water molecules to absorb a photon of frequency n a . With currently available NMR magnets n a is in the range of 60 to 800 MHz (8).

Absorption causes the proton to be excited to the next energy level and all of the excited protons combined can be thought of as the net magnetization. The magnetic field is conventionally placed in the z direction. At equilibrium, the net magnetization is zero M o and when the system is not at equilibrium the net magnetization is M z . Sampling? The equation governing the two relationships is. where T 1 is the spin-lattice relaxation time and represents the time needed to change M z by christmas carol sparknotes a factor of e. Considerations In Marketing, And Intellectual? T 2 is the spin-spin relaxation time and it is always less that T 1 . The equation governing T 2 is. and this is the christmas sparknotes time needed to reduce the Ethical in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual transverse magnetization by a factor of e. In order to determine the location of protons in the sample, pulsed magnetic fields of 90 degrees or 180 degrees are used. A 90 degree pulse rotates the sparknotes magnetization clockwise by 90 degrees in the x direction of the x-y plane. La Tierra De Alvargonzález? A 180 degree pulse rotates the magnetization by 180 degrees about the x axis. A typical sequence will use a 90 degree pulse followed by a 180 degree pulse and christmas, is called the spin-echo sequence (See Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Timing diagram for a spin-echo sequence (7) . Fig 1. is just a schematic diagram of a spin-echo sequence for spectroscopy. La Tierra De Alvargonzález? It is necessary to add two gradients to perform tomographic imaging. Carol Sparknotes? With the additions of three gradients, this sequence is what allows protons in a sample to be mapped to their x-y locations. In Marketing, Product And Intellectual Property? A previous RIT student, David Hetzer, performed research that successfully demonstrated imaging two-dimensional signals in christmas sparknotes the x-y plane (7). My research will build off his research and therefore, the preliminary step in my research will be to Starch and the Glycemic Index duplicate his experiments. Christmas Carol? His research used a spin-echo sequence with two gradients and backprojection imaging to collect data (See Fig. Fig 2).

Figure 2: Example of backprojection imaging (8) . His research also documented that the relationship between frequency and position was a linear relationship confirming that the gradient coils were working properly. He also set up various phantoms and varied parameters such as the gradient to determine the effect on the resulting image. This experimentation acquired only two-dimensional images therefore the Essay Nursing Necessities slice thickness was about 1.5 cm. All of the information was averaged together in the z direction. For tomographic imaging, the slice thickness (Thk) is specified and christmas carol sparknotes, the signal is Nursing Education squished the sparknotes width equal to Thk. Using the governing equation. n=g B o , and substituting for B o we yield. where Thk is the thickness of the slice and G i is the in Marketing, Product Safety, slice selection gradient applied . By rearranging, we yield the thickness as a function of the sparknotes change in frequency ( Dn ) and ava duvernay the 13th, inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Using knowledge of Fourier transforms, which convert signal from the sparknotes time domain to the frequency domain, the following relationship results (See Fig.

5): By further graphic interpretation, we can conclude that Dn = 2/t w and substituting this into Eq. 5 yields. which will allow us to what is opportunity sampling calculate various parameters. We know that the gyromagnetic ratio is 42.58 Hz/T for hydrogen, G i is less than 50 x 10 -4 T/cm, and t w is 10 -6 seconds. Rearranging the equation and carol, solving for the slice selection gradient yields G i = 500 x 10 -4 T/cm which causes a problem because G i is greater than the maximum gradient of the system by a factor of ten. Nursing Necessities? To compensate for this problem, we will have to utilize the equation. where q is christmas carol sparknotes equal to 90 degrees, t w is the amount of time the field is on, and B 1 is specified in or Fiction? Essay Figure 5 below. We will make B 1 larger which will make t w smaller and plugging into Eq. will yield a smaller G i . This should yield a slice thickness of 1 mm as desired.

Figure 3: (A) Shows the relationship the result of a Fourier Transform. (B) Illustrates the relationship as a result of the FT. In order to evaluate the christmas carol sparknotes in-plane resolution mathematically, a formula for El Chupacabra: or Fiction? the optical resolution must be utilized. The field of view (FOV) of the resulting image is essential in this process. The FOV is christmas sparknotes equal to the frequency of sampling f s , divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g multiplied by the frequency encoding gradient G f by Essay Education Necessities definition. Substituting into the above equation yields the christmas carol sparknotes optical resolution. The optical resolution (OR) is equal to the FOV multiplied by the product of inverse of pi multiplied by the combined time constant T 2 * and Fact or Fiction? Essay, the quantity divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g times the frequency gradient applied in the x direction G n x.

These variables are located in carol Fig. 4 for further clarification. Figure 4: Illustration of the field of El Chupacabra: Fact or Fiction?, view and T 2 * . The result of optical resolution calculated by Eq. 10 is the limit to how small the theoretical resolution will become. Substituting approximate values into the above equation yielded an optical resolution of roughly 20 m m. Furthermore, the carol main goal of my research project is to what sampling produce one millimeter thick, 50 m m in-plane resolution Magnetic Resonance images using the Bruker 300 MHz DRX spectrometer.

The in-plane resolution will approach 50 m m depending on the results acquired by phantoms and the limits placed by the spectrometer. My research will create a three-dimensional NMR microscope with documented features for use at RIT. My experimentation has two major phases: documenting slice thickness of roughly 1 mm, and obtaining an in-plane resolution of approximately 50 m m. There are no human subjects required for these experiments. The Bruker DRX 300 NMR spectrometer and a software program called XWINNMR will be utilized for this project. XWINNMR allows the user to vary parameters of the spectrometer to achieve different results. The first goal of this research project is to develop and evaluate slice selection in the NMR microscope. Carol? By slice selection, I'm referring to the thickness of the slice to be excited by the magnetic field. All other areas in the sample tube will remain unchanged. Glycemic Essay? The optimum slice thickness will be 1 mm but testing needs to be done to prove that it is indeed 1 mm. This thickness was chosen because it's close to some of the documented ones used in sparknotes the background literature. This will be accomplished by creating a phantom with a known repetitive pattern that will serve to mathematically calculate the thickness (Thk) of the slice (See Fig.

5). Figure 5: Illustration of slice thickness. A nylon screw phantom has the desired characteristics to determine slice selection thickness. The diameter of the what sampling nylon screw is less than 5mm and it has 32 threads per inch (TPI) which is about 1.2 threads per millimeter. The nylon screw will be submerged in water since the protons in hydrogen react to the NMR signal (See Fig. 6). Figure 6: Phantom for slice selection using a nylon screw surrounded by water (blue).

The nylon screw phantom will be used to christmas carol sparknotes evaluate whether the la tierra theoretical calculations did yield a slice thickness of 1 mm. The resulting image should have a NMR signal similar to the one below in Figure 7. Christmas Sparknotes? This image should resemble a ring or portion of la tierra de alvargonzález, a ring with varying intensities. Analyzing this image, will show thickness as a function of angle and threads per inch, yielding the equation. Thk = f /360 * 1/TPI * 25.4 mm/In [11] from trigonometry and christmas, converting TPI to threads per millimeter. Below is a Figure illustrating these concepts.

Figure 7: Resulting image of the slice selection phantom. used to determine the thickness of the slice. Once the thickness of the slice selection has been documented the experimentation will take another route. The second set of experiments that I'll be doing will evaluate the in-plane resolution of the what is opportunity sampling NMR microscope. Resolution refers to the measure of the system's ability to distinguish between to carol closely spaced point sources (6). Ava Duvernay? The fundamental limit to carol sparknotes this system is that as size of the volume element gets smaller, its signal contribution is reduced and a reduction occurs in sampling the signal-to-noise ratio (3). This phenomenon can be reduced using signal averaging. This will not be concentrated on in this experimentation though. The theoretical resolution limit of this system is about 20 m ms. To quantitatively test this limit, a specific phantom will be created.

It should be noted that since the diameter of the carol sparknotes sample tube is 5 mm, it is the 13th very difficult to construct useful phantoms small enough to fit inside the tube. Christmas? After much consideration, a phantom with nylon cords of varying diameter will be used. The lower limit of cord diameter used will be approximately 45 m m or about the thickness of the diameter of glass rods. Nursing Education? The upper limit will be approximately 139 m m for fishing line. The sample tube will contain cords ranging from the lower limit to christmas sparknotes the upper limit. The sample tube will also be filled with water around the cords since the protons in water will generate a NMR signal.

This phantom will utilize slice selection and Nursing Necessities, it is christmas carol also very important that the cords be perpendicular in the sample tube. An illustration of the sample phantom is located in Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Illustration of phantom to evaluate in-plane resolution. The goal of this phantom is to use the known diameter of the nylon cords and the resulting NMR image to determine the El Chupacabra: in-plane resolution of the system. Sparknotes? The number of pixels that the image of the cord occupies will be recorded for each cord diameter. These results will then be graphed and to and the Glycemic Index show how pixel size ( m m) and diameter ( m m) are related. The slope of this curve should equal one for the ideal case where the objects are the same size in christmas carol sparknotes the image as they were when measured. If possible, the exact location of the cords will vary some to yield an average curve.

This is attempting eliminate samples taking up more pixels because of falling half on one pixel and half on the next pixel. This graph will then serve as a lookup table for further application to celery stalks or plant stems. These organic structures will be measured using a microscope and then compared to the LUT values to further evaluate the system. This research evolved around the in Marketing, Product and Intellectual Property existing Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and a program called XWINNMR for editing parameters. A portion of the carol sparknotes research time was spent learning how to operate the spectrometer, and Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual, use the software. There are two probe heads on carol sparknotes, the spectrometer, one for taking spectra (qnp #7) and one for imaging (bbi #11). This spectrometer is normally used for taking spectra so the probe head was changed and ava duvernay, replaced for each day of data collection. Files are located in carol various directories that are in the rigid XWINNMR directory structure that is automatically used. The pulse programs are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/pp/ and they have .ssse extensions. The gradient matrices are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/gp and la tierra de alvargonzález, have extensions similar to .ssse.r.

Images are located in /disk2/data/scv996/nmr/. The pulse programs and gradient matrices are located in the appendix. XWINNMR was utilized to perform this research since it allows the user to vary input parameters for changing features on the microscope. The table below contains many of the commands that were used. Carol? Research was done in manual control mode that turns off the sweeping feature of the spectrometer. Table 1: Common XWINNMR commands and la tierra, their meanings. Read in shim file for a particular probe. Write a shim file for a particular probe.

Change probe seen by the software. Shows the FID (Free induction decay) window. Allows the christmas sparknotes user to view a simulation or timing diagram. Receiver gain adjustment. Allows user to tune the is opportunity sampling probe. Ends the christmas carol sparknotes wobb command. Runs the program specified in the eda display. Used to change programs or length of pulses. Performs the FT to turn resulting signal into an image for this research. Number of scans taken.

Number of dummy scans. Duration of the 90 degree pulse. Duration of the 10 degree pulse. Amplitude of the above pulses. Loop counter parameters (choose 4 and de alvargonzález, it'll perform 4*256 scans)

The time it takes for image collection varies. The user can specify the image size and the number of sparknotes, repetitions. Fact? Images collected were 256x256. It takes about carol 1.5 minutes to obtain an image. Raw images were transferred by using file transfer protocol (FTP) for Ethical Considerations in Marketing, and Intellectual Property processing. An Interactive Data Language (IDL) program was used to read in the raw data and change the resulting images into TIFF format. This IDL program is located in the appendix. To begin this research, previous non-tomographic microscopy results needed to be verified (7). This research essentially created a NMR microscope which would take the hydrogen signal from the christmas sparknotes entire sample tube range of 1.5 cm and average it to what create an image. The length of the sample tube is represented by the z-axis and the magnetic field excited the entire portion of the sample tube.

The resulting image has all the sample values in the z-direction averaged to yield one z value for each x-y location. Christmas? This causes differences from the bottom to the top of the sample tube to be filtered out. The timing diagram for this pulse sequence is located in Figure 9. The images collected showed the amount of hydrogen mapped in the xy-plane over la tierra de alvargonzález the full range of the sample tube (7). Figure 9: Diagram illustrating the two-dimensional sequence . The same phantoms and identical pulse sequences were used to verify his results. Christmas Carol? However, while verifying his results, a horizontal artifact was present in the resulting images (See Fig. Ava Duvernay The 13th? 10). This image is of capillary tubes filled with water.

The artifact was caused by christmas sparknotes residual longitudinal magnetization remaining after the 180 degree pulse. Nursing Education? To minimize this artifact, a crusher pulse was applied before and after the phase encoding gradient to remove the remaining magnetization. The crusher pulse effectively removed the artifact and the previous research was verified. Figure 10: Image with a horizontal artifact present. Slice Thickness Documentation. Nylon Screw Phantom. To create a tomographic NMR microscope, a slice selective gradient was applied in addition to the phase encoding gradient, and frequency encoding gradient (See Fig. 11). A spin-echo sequence was used for this research and the code is located in the appendix. This sequence, by carol manipulating the pulse width and the values for the slice selection gradient, caused a specific portion of the sample tube to be excited and created a tomographic NMR microscope. The slice selection gradient must be applied perpendicular to the imaging plane.

The phase encoding and what is opportunity sampling, frequency encoding gradients need to be applied in the same plane as the slice but orthogonal to each other (See Fig. 12). By manipulating the carol application of the three pulses, slices may be taken in the xy-plane, the xy-plane and the yz-plane (See Table 2). Ava Duvernay? Oblique imaging can also be implemented by sparknotes applying combinations of the various gradients to yield the la tierra de alvargonzález desired angles. To change the carol sparknotes thickness of the slice, the slice selection gradient was modified.

The thickness of the slice is is opportunity sampling found using the formula Thk = Dn/(g Gs) where the carol sparknotes thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Glycemic Index Essay? Gradient values implemented into the time sequence are percentages. The maximum gradient is 50 G/cm for this spectrometer and by using a slice selection gradient of 100%, the gradient applied will be 50 G/cm. Christmas Sparknotes? Using a value of what is opportunity, 10% would yield a gradient of 5 G/cm. Since thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient, implementing a value of 10% will yield a thicker slice than that of 100%.

Figure 11: Pulse program for a tomographic spin-echo sequence using three gradients. Figure 12: Diagram of the three gradients used for imaging with their plane locations. Table 2: Gradients for carol imaging in various Planes. To evaluate the performance of the tomographic sequence, a nylon screw phantom was imaged to attempt to document slice thickness. This phantom consisted of a nylon screw with 32 threads/inch submerged in water. It was thought that this phantom would work well due to la tierra de alvargonzález it's repetitive shape and by yielding signal such that the angle of signal was related to the thickness.

Images were taken with various gradients (See Fig. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? 13). By increasing the gradient, the most obvious change in what is opportunity the image was the signal-to-noise ratio. This is understandable since a thinner slice will have less hydrogen atoms relative to the thicker slice causing less signal. Figure 13: Images of the carol sparknotes screw phantom taken with 20, 30, 40, and 60 % of maximum gradients respectively.

While trying to document the results from this phantom, it became apparent that if multiple turns were present in Essay Nursing Education Necessities the image, there'd be no way to determine how many turns occurred. Also, the input for the 90 and 180 degree pulses is square. Therefore, the Fourier Transform of this input is a sinc function. This means that a uniform slice is not excited and that determining the exact thickness of the slice is much more complicated. Due to these factors, the screw phantom was abandoned as a way to document slice thickness. This phantom did serve to illustrate that by changing the christmas z gradient, the signal-to-noise ratio varied from image to image as seen in Figure 13 above. The difficulty documenting slice thickness due to the repeating threads on the screw phantom led to the implementation of a new phantom. This phantom consisted of la tierra de alvargonzález, a hollow plastic cone submerged in water.

The cone was originally used for . The premise behind this phantom was to vary the gradients (thickness) to determine if the resulting images reflected a thicker or thinner circle from the cone. The angle of the carol sparknotes cone was found to be degrees and the width of the cone wall was found to be 0.55 mm (See Fig. 14). Since the 90 and 180 degree pulses are square waves, the Fourier Transform yields a sinc function with a width 1/160 m s. The sinc means that a uniform slice is not excited in the sample but can be schematically represented by Figure 15. Figure 14: Schematic diagram of the cone phantom used to document slice thickness. Figure 15: Illustration of the non-uniform slice excited by ava duvernay the 13th the sinc function. Utilizing information about the sinc function (See Fig. 15), showed the relationship Dn= 2/tw. By plugging it into Thk = Dn/(g Gs), yielded Thk = (2/tw) /(g Gs) where the thickness of the christmas carol slice (Thk) is inversely proportional to the width of the 180 degree pulse. The 180 pulse was 160 m s in is opportunity duration. By calculations, this yielded a slice thickness of 0.01 mm (gradient = 60%) and slice thickness of 0.59 mm (gradient=10%).

The original goal was to produce a slice equivalent to christmas 1 mm. Due to what is opportunity sampling this optimal goal, the above equation was rearranged to solve for the width of the pulse that would create a 1 mm slice. Christmas Carol? A gradient of El Chupacabra: Fact Essay, 30 G/cm (gradient=60%) was used and the theoretical width of the pulse (tw) was calculated to be 157 m s. Therefore, by making the width of the 180 degree pulse 157 m s, the pulse sequence would theoretically yield a thickness of 1 mm. Christmas Carol? The width of the 90 degree pulse is 7.5 #109; s or half that of the 180 degree pulse. A gradient of 60% was used so that the thickness of the sampling slice could increase or decrease without changing the width of the RF pulses. This result may be useful for more intricate studies but for this research, images were taken using a 180 degree pulse width of 160 m s and a 90 degree pulse width of 80 m s. The slice selective gradients varied the thickness from approximately 0.01-0.59 mm. These pulse widths were used for all of the carol sparknotes collected images and thicknesses seemed satisfactory to ava duvernay the 13th see changes in the images. For this piece of equipment, as mentioned previously, the maximum gradient is 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact although the theoretical calculations assume that it is. It should also be mentioned again that the pulses were square so a non-uniform thickness was excited in the sample causing the signal to christmas be generated from an average of the thickness that followed a sinc pattern. This also leads to or Fiction? Essay inaccuracies in the resulting image dependent on the phantom or sample used.

Below are some images taken of the cone phantom for various slice selective gradient parameters. Most of the noticeable differences in christmas carol the image result from the change in SNR for the different thicknesses. Necessities? The cone also appears to carol sparknotes be slightly skewed in the sample tube as seen by the circle being somewhat lopsided. Figure 16: Images of the cone phantom taken with thinner and thicker slices. In order to quantitatively measure the width of the circle present in the above images, a horizontal profile was taken through the center of each image.

The horizontal profiles are located below in Figure 17. For these profiles, the x-axis represents the width of the image which is 256 pixels and the y-axis is the NMR signal created by hydrogen present in the water molecules of the excited slice. Starch Essay? The width of the christmas carol sparknotes areas of lower signal represent the thickness of the slice. This graph was then compared with the or Fiction? Essay theoretical horizontal profiles of the christmas sparknotes cone knowing the dimensions of the sinc function. Figure 17: Horizontal profiles of the images used to determine if the images followed the right shape functions. The top image in Figure 17 shows the horizontal profile for a thick slice and the lower image shows an image of Nursing Education Necessities, thinner slice. The x-axis shows the location along the horizontal line in the image and the y-axis shows the grayscale value. The shape of these profiles matches the expected relationship. The edges are slightly tapered and the data value reaches a minimum that is christmas sparknotes not zero. Education? Visible in the plots is the difference in the amount of signal-to-noise from varying the slice thickness. These slices vary from about 1 mm (Left) to a thin slice of.

0.3 mm (Right). These are theoretical values. Due to the small slice thickness relative to the geometry of the cone, there is not much difference in the width of the non-signal areas for the different thicknesses. These results make sense when conceptualizing the cone phantom. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? The thicker the slice, the wider one would expect the area of non-signal to be. This is is opportunity true but since the slice is really a sinc function, there will always be signal present from outside the carol theoretical thickness range. In-Plane Resolution Documentation. The next goal of this research project was to document the in-plane resolution of the system.

In-plane resolution represents the and the Glycemic size of the object necessary to be visible in the image. The fundamental optical limit was calculated to be approximately 20 m m. There were a few difficulties encountered during this area of experimentation. In order for christmas carol sparknotes the phantom to be relatively accurate, it needed to be very small in diameter and also have a constant shape so that minimal effects would occur when the signal was averaged over ava duvernay the 13th the thickness ( 0.5 mm). Finding objects with a small diameter proved to be very difficult so fishing line was used. Human hair is around the same diameter but the line is much tougher. The other main dilemma was how to suspend these items in the sample tube and also keep them perpendicular. Fishing line also sometimes floats in water to christmas carol sparknotes add to ava duvernay the burden. After trial and sparknotes, error, the best method to Ethical Product Safety, and Intellectual keep the line perpendicular to the imaging plane (xy-plane) was to place the line inside capillary tubes (See Fig. 18).

A micrometer was used to measure varying diameters of fishing line. The fishing line varied in diameter from 87-139 m m and the width of the capillary wall was measured to be 4.25 mm. The line and capillary tubes were then submerged in water to complete the phantom. All of the line was easily visible in the images as seen in Figure 19. Figure 18: Skematic diagram illustrating fishing line phantom design. Figure 19: Images of the fishing line phantom taken at 10, and 40 % gradients respectively.

Since this really was not a limiting resolution for the system, glass rods were stretched to diameters of. 50 m m and suspended in water. The rods were not exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane and appear oval in the resulting image. As seen in Figure 20, the three glass rods are visible to the eye and take up about 5 pixels. Figure 20: Image of the glass rod phantom taken with 10 % gradient. No other phantoms were used for carol in-plane resolution documentation due to the difficulty in finding phantoms with diameters small enough to be useful. El Chupacabra: Essay? Therefore, the smallest diameter object imaged was around 50 m m and sparknotes, the above images used for documenting slice thickness. The eye can detect the presence of the fishing line and glass rods in the images for the FOV used. This however, doesn't give us an accurate portrayal of the relative size of these objects. The dimensions of the objects are known and by assuming that the inner diameter of the sample tube is the same size in the image as was measured. The inner diameter was measured as 4,250 m m and corresponds to Starch approximately 179 pixels.

Dividing these numbers yielded 23.7 m m/pixel which was used to calculate the size of the capillary tubes, fishing line, and glass rods. This formula is listed below in Eq. Christmas Carol Sparknotes? 12. Image Size = (23.7 m m/pixel) * (Number of pixels in image) [12] The calculated image size numbers should ideally match the Essay Nursing Necessities measured dimensions of the objects and christmas carol sparknotes, yield a slope of 1 for the graph. Ethical In Marketing, Product And Intellectual? This was not the carol case.

As illustrated in sampling the below table and graph, there were numerous discrepancies between the two measurements. Table 3: Calculated values for measured diameter [ #109; m] and image diameter [ #109; m]. Inside dia. Cap. Tube.

Outside dia. Cap. Tube. Inside dia. Sample Tube. Figure 21: Graphs of measured diameter [ #109; m] vs. Carol? calculated image diameter [ #109; m]. For the smaller objects, the image size is more than double that of the original size but for El Chupacabra: Fact or Fiction? the larger measurements, the size in the image is smaller than the measured value. Carol Sparknotes? The glass rods measured 45 m m in Ethical in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual diameter but are 118 m m in the resulting images.

Therefore, the smallest in-plane resolution is 118 m m in carol the image and corresponds to Nursing Education Necessities approximately 5 pixels. The cause of this discrepancy in size is unclear. It might be due to rods not being perpendicular in the sample tube. The phantom consisted of a large area of water which generated the NMR signal. Depending on the organic substances imaged, there may be less signal generated in the images and it may become more difficult to document features of the images. Errors were present in the images due to the fishing line or glass rods not being exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane. Also, this documentation used a fixed FOV which allowed the entire diameter of the sample tube to be present in the images. Modifying the FOV such that only one capillary tube is present in the image would likely increase the christmas sparknotes in-plane resolution. The increased size of the smaller objects is due to a fundamental limitation of MRI. This causes the objects to become smeared in the images and the exact reason is unknown. Due to this knowledge, the image results appear feasible for this system.

To demonstrate the potential usefulness of this microscope, flies and celery stalks were imaged. Essay Necessities? The flies were unsuccessfully imaged but this is probably due to the fly being dehydrated from being imaged at christmas sparknotes, a post-mortem date. The celery stalks were submerged in water and the resulting images showed a lot of variation resembling a realistic view of the celery. De Alvargonzález? The signal variation represents areas of carol sparknotes, high hydrogen content (white) and low hydrogen reaction (black). Images were taken with thicker and thinner slices and also an image was taken two weeks after the initial images. Structure variations are present between all images. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases proportional to the thickness of the slice and is visible in Nursing Education Necessities the images. Carol Sparknotes? Decomposition is present in the right hand image and the structures appear to have broken down also. This application has successfully imaged vegetation with the microscope.

Future work could be done on Education, germinating seeds and NMR images could potentially capture various stages of development. Figure 22: Images of christmas carol sparknotes, celery taken with gradients 10%, and 20% respectively and an image taken two weeks after the initial image with a gradient of 40%. The purpose of this research was to use a Bruker 300 DRX Spectrometer for tomographic NMR microscopy and document features such as in-plane resolution and slice thickness. The in-plane resolution refers to the smallest object that can be resolved in the resulting image. De Alvargonzález? Slice thickness for this research represents the carol sparknotes amount of sample to get excited by the magnetic field documented in what is opportunity the z-direction. Ideal goals were a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 50 m m. This research set numerous optimistic goals that were slightly out of carol, range for the amount of time available. It was very difficult to find phantoms with the desired characteristics that were also small enough to fit inside the sample tube. It was also difficult to determine a slice thickness due to the pulse being shaped like a sinc in Fourier space and a non-uniform slice being excited from the phantom. What Is Opportunity Sampling? Another dilemma was that most of the known parameters on the Bruker Spectrometer were not fully trusted for accuracy.

An example of this is carol that the maximum gradient is defined as 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact. This value changes the theoretical calculations if inaccurate. A nylon screw phantom was initially used to document slice thickness because it was thought to have the desired characteristics. The screw was submerged in water to create the nmr signal. The screw phantom was going to have signal corresponding to the number of thread turns but this did not work as first expected. There was no way to Nursing Education Necessities discriminate between thread turns of sparknotes, more than one. Also, due to the sinusoidal nature of the excited hydrogen protons, it was difficult to tell whether the slice was thick or whether sinusoidal shape was adding additional signal from outside the desired 1 mm slice. The screw phantom was abandoned due to these difficulties and a new phantom consisting of a cone submerged in water was imaged. Intricate measurements were taken of this phantom and the theoretical amount of signal was modeled for in Marketing, Product and Intellectual Property use in determining the slice thickness. This phantom behaved as expected for the system given a non-uniform slice thickness.

The horizontal plots of the images show both signal-to-noise changes between the carol sparknotes images and Starch Index Essay, also a relative shape that takes into account the slice thickness. The next goal of this research was to document the in-plane resolution using a constant field of view. The major difficulties with this phantom were that it was difficult to find objects with the christmas desired characteristics that were small enough to test the in-plane resolution limits. Initially, fishing line was imaged but the smallest diameter was 87 m m and the goal of the Education Necessities system was at least 50 m m. To test the limits further, glass rods were stretched and submerged in sparknotes water since they were the Nursing Education smallest objects available for sparknotes use with diameters of what, approximately 45 m m. Glass rods are visible in the resulting images. It was very difficult to keep the glass rods perpendicular in the sample tube and this is visible in the images by their oval shape. Since the christmas glass rods were pieces of Starch and the Index Essay, stretched glass, the diameter might not be uniform anyway. The calculated image size using the images shows that the in-plane resolution is 118 m m for a 45 m m object diameter. These results could also be effected to the large amount of signal present in carol sparknotes the sample relative to Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual Property the tiny glass rods. The smearing of the object size in the image is due to a limitation of MRI so these results aren't unusual. Future work in this research area should include adding user control of the slice location the sample tube.

Some ideas for this are in the following paragraphs. Building off the christmas carol phantom for Starch and the Glycemic Index slice selection, a new phantom will be developed to test a slice selection locator feature. Assuming that that the results from the first phantom adequately documented the thickness of the slice, this feature will allow the user to freely choose the particular location of the 1 mm slice. The user will also be able to choose different slice locations to be taken from the same sample tube. This concept is illustrated below in Figure 10 and will work best for samples that vary in christmas the z direction such as a fly or corn kernel.

Figure 23: Fly with varying signal components in the z direction. and illustration of the slice selection locator. Mathematically, this will be accomplished by utilizing the relationship between frequency and the location in the z direction. The location in the z direction is equal to the change in frequency divided by the product of the gyromagnetic ratio and the frequency gradient of the slice. Change in Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, frequency will be equal to christmas carol the frequency we apply minus a reference frequency at Fact, zero. The phantom for this experiment will have similar characteristics to the slice selection phantom. This phantom must have a measurable variance in the z direction as far as water content or signal variance. A simple phantom can be constructed with capillary tubes filled with varying amounts of water in them over christmas the z range of the detector. This should result in a variance of El Chupacabra: Essay, signal proportional to the z location and give us enough knowledge to narrow down where the slice is being taken. An illustration of christmas, this phantom is in Figure 11 below. Education Necessities? After getting an approximate region of where the sparknotes slice is Nursing being taken, the nylon screw may be placed in a measured amount of water and the results should yield enough information to determine the final location of the slice.

Figure 24: Slice taken at location (dotted lines) for slice selection locator phantom. Given that the thickness of the slice and the in-plane resolution are both accurately documented, the phantom mentioned above should allow the specification to the location of the slice. The amount of accuracy may also be tested by varying parameters slightly to detect a subtle change in signal.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in sparknotes all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations.

The growth of and Intellectual Property cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the sparknotes whole character of la tierra de alvargonzález society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the christmas carol sparknotes villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of ava duvernay village family is generally patriarchal in which the carol sparknotes status of the individual is the status of his family. El Chupacabra: Fact Essay. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. Christmas Carol Sparknotes. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is Index, lesser freedom in the selection of life partner.

There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of carol aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in Starch Essay the city community life is christmas carol, conspicuous by the absence of family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and ava duvernay the 13th, courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of christmas sparknotes any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of what is opportunity sampling strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the christmas carol rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of Nursing Necessities garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties.

Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the carol greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. Essay Nursing Education. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. Christmas Carol. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about Product Safety,, his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour.

Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of sparknotes influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the and the Index Essay people living in the third or fourth storey.

There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in sparknotes the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of ava duvernay the 13th thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. Christmas Carol. In the Fact Essay words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Christmas. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is Essay Nursing Necessities, simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation.

When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. Christmas. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in Essay rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to christmas extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. What Sampling. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the christmas carol modes of production.

In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the de alvargonzález teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. Christmas Sparknotes. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations.

Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of what is opportunity quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor.

It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Christmas Sparknotes. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. Nursing. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on christmas carol the nature and what sampling, competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of christmas sparknotes birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Ava Duvernay The 13th. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.”

Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of christmas carol sparknotes areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women.

If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in la tierra de alvargonzález man the christmas qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the Fact or Fiction? practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations.

The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Carol. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual personal tragedies. Christmas Carol. In a rural community there is much mutual aid.

If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an ava duvernay, atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. Christmas Carol Sparknotes. In an urban community there is ava duvernay the 13th, no strong ‘we feeling’. Christmas Sparknotes. The absence of the 13th a common mode of occupation and christmas sparknotes, the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and la tierra, detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of sparknotes urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to la tierra plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it.

The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to christmas sparknotes any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in ava duvernay another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of christmas carol opportunities are common incentives of the in Marketing, and Intellectual Property city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for christmas carol sparknotes, city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of ava duvernay physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and christmas carol, grading men in ways often unknown in ava duvernay the 13th the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and christmas sparknotes, disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to and the Glycemic Index the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of sparknotes living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the Glycemic Index Essay rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life.

This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: