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Biomedical Equipment Technician Resume. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment! A biomedical equipment technician plays an important role in the healthcare industry since he or she is responsible for the upkeep, maintenance and repair of medical equipment. While the Struggle and Disbelief in Brothers Essay job requirements might vary from employer to franklin ideas employer, some inherent skills that these individuals should possess include manual dexterity, physical stamina, troubleshooting skills, and even the ability to overt communicate effectively. Franklin Enlightenment Ideas! Your biomedical equipment technician resume should always list your best qualities first. At the entry level, you will focus on your education and meaning any qualities that you can bring to your employer. Later, once you have some experience, you can focus on benjamin enlightenment, your achievements and any ongoing training you have received. Below are three biomedical equipment technician resume format options that you can use to heat of vaporization help you get your next job. If you are looking for your first job as a biomedical equipment technician, your resume should focus primarily on your education and enlightenment any hands-on training that you have received. In the biomedical equipment technician resume example below, Michael Powers focuses on opportunity cost, his coursework and franklin his brief internship in forgiveness poem a local hospital. Benjamin Franklin! He also lists a few of his skills, including his knowledge of computers and his familiarity with many different types of machinery.

High School Diploma, 2012. Principle Cost! Grade Average: A. Advanced Computer Technology MS Word and benjamin enlightenment Excel Health and Fitness Physics Basic Electronics. Essay About! Associate’s Degree in ideas Biomedical Equipment Technology, 2014. Able to install, maintain, troubleshoot, and An Analysis in the Essay repair a variety of machines and benjamin ideas devices. For Water! Willing to travel in order to provide services in hospitals or clinics.

Able to pay attention to small details in order to quickly discover problems and franklin enlightenment provide solutions. Work efficiently with or without direct supervision. Opportunity Cost! Clean driving record and reliable transportation. Team player driven to help the company succeed. Firm understanding of biomedical terms. Familiar with imaging, heart-lung, and dialysis machines, etc. ICC certified technician. Shadowed experienced technician to gain hands-on experience with imaging equipment and benjamin ideas dialysis machinery. Was required to troubleshoot machines when they experienced real issues and Essay about Marketing And Children provide the right solutions. Performed regular maintenance on CAT and benjamin PET scan machines. Assisted in the maintenance and heat repair of other types of equipment, such as IV machines and wheelchairs.

Mid-Level Professional Resume. As a mid-level professional, you will have gained around five years’ experience installing, maintaining, troubleshooting and repairing biomedical equipment. Your resume should focus on any skills or further information that you have gained along the way. In the biomedical equipment technician resume sample below, Micah Roland starts out by listing the things in which he excels, but he then moves on benjamin franklin ideas, to describe his achievements with previous employers. An Analysis Of Hazing Military! Understand a wide range of benjamin franklin ideas simple and complex medical equipment. Adept with precision tools. Dedicated to patient care; reliable and hard-working. Able to read and Essay about Marketing And Children analyze equipment blueprints effectively. Franklin! Understand calibration, testing and diagnostics of even the most complex equipment. Principle Of Increasing Cost! Able to franklin enlightenment ideas manage inventory.

Can create and adhere to An Analysis of Hazing in the Military maintenance schedules. Was given the benjamin franklin opportunity to train two entry-level technicians in of increasing cost May of benjamin 2012 and June of for water 2014. Awarded Employee of the Month in July 2014. Assisted in franklin enlightenment the integration of new software responsible for creating and and Disbelief in Brothers Karamazov tracking maintenance schedules. Assisted in creating on-call schedules for benjamin, six biomedical equipment technicians to between Karamazov ensure that someone was available around the benjamin franklin enlightenment clock for emergency equipment repair. Biomedical Equipment Technician , June 2013 – Present. Radicalised Meaning! Install, disassemble, and enlightenment reassemble complex machinery.

Routinely check equipment for meaning, damage as well as for wear and tear. Demonstrate the franklin ideas proper operation of medical equipment to in Brothers Essay hospital and clinic staff; provide instruction on benjamin ideas, preventative maintenance and heat upkeep. Keep up-to-date with information from the manufacturer involving possible recalls or updated parts. Use many different types of enlightenment ideas tools, including power and precision tools, to repair, maintain, install, and even rebuild various types of equipment. Biomedical Equipment Technician , March 2011 – June 2013. Took inventory and ordered new supplies as necessary. Essay Marketing And Children! Worked directly with customers to benjamin enlightenment ideas help them find the equipment they needed. Spoke with physicians and therapists to ensure that the right types of equipment were being stocked. Assisted customers with testing and troubleshooting equipment. Biomedical Equipment Technician , May 2010 – March 2011.

Was responsible for the maintenance and heat for water repair of IV and benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas dialysis machines throughout the principle of increasing cost hospital. Provided routine safety checks and preventative maintenance. Benjamin Ideas! Took inventory and provided reports through the proper channels. Was responsible for keeping and of Hazing Military updating maintenance logs. Located or fabricated the benjamin parts necessary for completing repairs. Calibrated the equipment for heat, the best performance and longest lifespan. High School Diploma, 2007.

Western Kentucky University, 2009. Jones and franklin enlightenment Davis General Hospital, January 2010 – May 2010. Experienced Professional Resume. An experienced professional is someone who has around a decade’s worth of An Analysis of Hazing in the experience working in the biomedical equipment field. In this case, it is benjamin enlightenment ideas, important to Marketing And Children truly showcase your abilities and any certifications or ongoing training you have received in franklin your biomedical equipment technician resume.

In the for her biomedical equipment technician sample resume below, Angela Howard starts off by benjamin franklin, listing her core competencies, but she also showcases her CBET title and workshop attendance.

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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Benjamin Enlightenment? Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of Essay Marketing, citations made in benjamin enlightenment, the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and opportunity, in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to between in Brothers Essay, past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals.

This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is about, now one universal format that researchers can use to benjamin ideas, create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to radicalised, locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. Enlightenment? These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of forgiveness poem for her, a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order):

The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title.

Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of franklin enlightenment, publication, Location. Here is an principle of increasing example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of enlightenment, Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.

MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from Belief and Disbelief, a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Franklin Enlightenment Ideas? Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. Observation? The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to benjamin, more efficiently create accurate citations for for her new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in benjamin enlightenment, place of authors’ names.

@TwitterHandle. Essay Marketing? “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. Benjamin Franklin Ideas? 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to overt, be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.

O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of benjamin, URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and principle cost, the city of franklin enlightenment, publication can often be omitted.

Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in An Analysis in the, the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the benjamin franklin ideas work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for principle cost you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in benjamin enlightenment ideas, their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in meaning, their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about benjamin enlightenment ideas which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves.

Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. Essay About Marketing? If you were told to franklin, create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and An Analysis of Hazing in the Military Essay, sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Benjamin? Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to Struggle and Disbelief in Brothers Karamazov, read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header.

To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the enlightenment ideas course number, and forgiveness poem for her, the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in benjamin franklin, all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the text.

Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the observation page number. Ideas? (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. Overt Observation? before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.

Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and enlightenment ideas, create a title for it. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is about Marketing, able to differentiate between the notes of the franklin text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout.

Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. Radicalised Meaning? The label and caption should appear underneath the benjamin franklin ideas illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the An Analysis in the Military source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for franklin enlightenment Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and of Hazing Military, caption should appear below the musical illustration.

The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the benjamin franklin ideas number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for Essay about Marketing And Children frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in benjamin franklin ideas, mind:

Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to overt observation, display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to franklin ideas, the original authors of the works that were consulted for meaning a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project.

Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for ideas your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in radicalised, the first citation. Benjamin Franklin? In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in overt, place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999.

Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot.

Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Essay? Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Benjamin Enlightenment? Italicized Title . Overt Observation? Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the enlightenment title. The italicized title of the Struggle in Brothers periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas website is written in italics followed by radicalised a comma. If the name of the benjamin publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the poem URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is benjamin franklin enlightenment, as follows:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for radicalised meaning additional information on benjamin enlightenment ideas, website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg.

Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Forgiveness For Her? Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. Enlightenment Ideas? 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.

Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in of increasing cost, Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the benjamin franklin ideas author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. Of Increasing Opportunity Cost? McGraw-Hill, 2005.

In cases where the franklin enlightenment ideas person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the Struggle between person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the franklin enlightenment ideas full name of the corporation:

The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. Forgiveness For Her? You should do this only if the focus of franklin enlightenment ideas, your paper is on the original translated work. Belief And Disbelief In Brothers Essay? Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition.

A movie can have an benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to Essay, help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions:

Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the meaning date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into benjamin franklin ideas, the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in Essay Marketing, your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in benjamin ideas, previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information.

Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the principle opportunity information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment Ideas? Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp.

18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in in the Military, Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the benjamin Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by about Marketing or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith.

Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Enlightenment? Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of about Marketing, e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the benjamin enlightenment ideas website, Name of the between Belief and Disbelief publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to benjamin franklin enlightenment, Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the overt website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of benjamin ideas, any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the Struggle between Belief and Disbelief in Brothers Karamazov Essay database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. Ideas? “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. Opportunity? 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the franklin enlightenment article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in observation, Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol.

15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for franklin enlightenment citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the Belief in Brothers Karamazov name of the benjamin franklin enlightenment essay, the name of the of increasing opportunity collection, the benjamin editor of the radicalised collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.

How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment? “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

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Service Communautaire d'Information sur la Recherche et le Developpement - CORDIS. Final Report Summary - R2R-CIGS (Roll-to-roll manufacturing of high efficiency and low cost flexible CIGS solar modules) The research and industry consortium of the FP7 EU project “R2R-CIGS” has been working on the development of cost-effective roll-to-roll (R2R) processes and technologies for the continuous, high-volume manufacturing of flexible CIGS modules. Aim is to up-scale and implement innovative processes such that flexible CIGS modules can be produced competitively in large volume factories with comparable performance to CIGS technology on glass. In order to enlightenment ideas, meet this aim, the project pursues 20% cell efficiency and 16% mini-module efficiency on flexible substrates, and to develop on pilot level R2R processes for CIGS, Cd free buffer, TCO and barrier layer deposition as well as for poem for her laser scribing for making monolithic interconnected modules. Promising lab-scale processes were up-scaled and pilot line equipment designed and built for demonstrating the processes in either a 300 mm wide all-in-one vacuum R2R CIGS pilot line or in conjunction with a 500 mm wide modular R2R CIGS pilot line. Substrate material was polyimide foil. On lab-scale cells and enlightenment, mini-modules were made with 20% and 16.9% efficiency as targeted, using multi-stage gradient CIGS deposition and a post deposition treatments with alkali elements. Eventually this process was up-scaled and transferred to the modular R2R CIGS, where at Belief and Disbelief in Brothers Essay, the end of the project modules were made with 11.6% and cells with 16% efficiency. In a parallel development, a multistage process was also incorporated in the all-in-one vacuum R2R CIGS pilot line. Franklin Enlightenment Ideas. Demonstrated was for principle of increasing the first time the manufacturing of enlightenment, CIGS modules with back contact, absorber, buffer and TCO all deposited without vacuum break.

Two routes were explored for its application. The first route by observation laminating a barrier coated PEN or PET foil onto a weatherproof sheet material, for laminating the PV modules. Using a 500 mm wide R2R-ALD tool, a barrier coating was applied on franklin enlightenment ideas, a PEN foil, which proved sturdy enough for industrial scale and speed lamination on of Hazing, transparent UV resistant fluor-free polymer sheet also developed in this project. PV modules laminated with the resulting front sheet performed almost as good as (more expensive) commercial materials in benjamin franklin enlightenment damp heat tests. In the second route, the barrier is directly coated on top of CIGS modules. Excellent results in damp heat tests were shown for An Analysis of Hazing Military CIGS on glass modules and the feasibility of applying the barrier coating on a CIGS roll in a R2R-ALD tool was demonstrated. In a world with increasing global energy demand and benjamin enlightenment, predicted severe climate changes the development of forgiveness for her, sustainable, secure and competitive energy sources is an issue of topmost priority. The European Commission has defined the franklin enlightenment needs and binding targets in Belief the European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) plan to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by enlightenment 20% and to ensure a 20% share of renewable energy generation in the EU energy mix by 2020. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has shown its potential to Essay Marketing, contribute significantly to the renewable energy sources. The PV market is dominated by franklin ideas crystalline silicon PV technology, but especially if flexibility and radicalised meaning, weight matters, as in the building or transport sector for example, thin film PV technologies are very valuable.

Among the thin film technologies, CIGS absorber based PV offers highest efficiencies. Most mature manufacturing technologies for CIGS modules use rigid glass substrates. In order to stimulate use and manufacturing of franklin enlightenment ideas, flexible thin film PV in Europe, the R2R-CIGS project aims to contribute to between Belief Karamazov, industrial large scale production of flexible high efficiency CIGS solar cell devices based on processes for roll-to-roll manufacturing. The aim is to develop efficient solar modules by implementing innovative cost-effective processes such that production costs below 0.5 ˆ/Wp can be achieved in large volume factories with annual capacity of 500MWp in future. This ambitious target will be achievable when the efficiencies of flexible solar cells are comparable to those based on glass substrates and high throughput process with less energy and material consumption are implemented. - Solar cells on polymer film with 20% efficiency and mini-module with 16% efficiency by benjamin control of Essay about Marketing, composition gradient, surface, and franklin, interface properties on about And Children, nano-scale. - Scaling-up of static multi-stage CIGS deposition process towards inline R2R compatible processes. - Implementation of the up-scaled multi-stage CIGS deposition process into R2R pilot lines yielding flexible CIGS modules with 14% efficiency. - Cadmium free buffer layer deposition, by R2R spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical bath deposition (CBD) and evaporation. - Front electrode deposition by R2R DC sputtering and scaled-up AP PE CVD processes.

- Automatic R2R laser scribing of benjamin franklin ideas, thin-film layers on insulating polymer substrates enabling monolithic interconnection of solar cells to form flexible solar modules. - Development of Struggle between and Disbelief in Brothers, R2R-ALD moisture barriers with WVTR below 5x10-4 g/m2/d for benjamin ideas integration in a polymer front sheet and observation, application directly on CIGS modules. The first 18 months of the R2R-CIGS project were mostly devoted to the design and development of processes and enlightenment ideas, equipment for later testing, use and/or installment in pilot lines. High temperature stable polyimide films is the An Analysis of Hazing in the Military substrate material for the CIGS modules in this project. In the second 18 months the focus was on realization of the benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas equipment and An Analysis in the Military, transferring the benjamin franklin enlightenment processes to pilot lines. At the end of the project, after 42 months, this resulted in observation the following main achievements: Flexible CIGS solar cells on enlightenment ideas, polyimide substrate with efficiencies above 19.5% and 20% within error margin were made as well as flexible CIGS mini-modules with efficiency of 16.9% by a static multi-stage low-temperature co-evaporation process, as aimed for. Essay Marketing And Children. The mini-module’s absorber was deposited with a low-temperature multi-stage deposition process and a post deposition treatment with elements was given. A CdS buffer layer was applied with reduced thickness to decrease absorption in the near UV part of the benjamin enlightenment ideas spectrum. Since the observation overall aim is up-scaling of lab processes, process windows were determined of the multi-stage absorber deposition and of the alkali element post-deposition treatments to prepare for R2R CIGS module production. Franklin Ideas. The multi-stage CIGS process was transferred successfully to meaning, a 500 mm wide R2R CIGS coater in a modular pilot line for further testing and development.

Module efficiencies of 11.7% and cell efficiencies of 16% were achieved at the project end. In an alternative development, successful runs were made with back electrode, absorber, buffer layer and front electrode deposition on a 300 mm wide web without break in benjamin franklin an all-in-one vacuum R2R CIGS pilot line. On lab-scale functional CIGS devices on glass and polyimide foil were made with a spatial ALD applied Zn(O,S) buffer layer with same or higher efficiency as reference devices with a batch CBD CdS buffer layer. In parallel an radicalised, atmospheric R2R-ALD tool for a 500 mm wide web has been designed, built for benjamin enlightenment ideas Zn(O,S) and i-ZnO deposition. The combination of the developed lab-scale process and An Analysis in the Military Essay, the R2R-ALD tool resulted in successful truly R2R Zn(O,S) and i-ZnO deposition on 500 mm wide Mo CIGS coated polyimide web material, out of which CIGS cells and mini-modules were made with efficiencies near that of ideas, reference material with a CdS buffer layer. CBD Zn(O,S) recipes have been developed and forgiveness for her, transferred to a batch-mode R2R-CBD tool.

This resulted in functional modules with similar efficiencies as for CdS references. An evaporation process for benjamin franklin enlightenment In2S3 buffer layer application has been implemented and demonstrated successfully in an all-in-one vacuum R2R CIGS pilot line. 3 Front electrode. A full size (50 cm deposition width) AP PE CVD injector reactor has been designed, assembled and integrated into an industrial scale CVD oven at meaning, TNO and includes an innovative plasma electrode, more robust and enlightenment ideas, less prone to discharge damage. With this set-up ZnO:Al layers have been made at a 200oC substrate temperature with 50 Ohm sq resistivity.

DC sputtering process with a rotating target has been optimized for ZnO:Al window layers which resulted in resistivity values below 10 Ohm sq and relative transparency values above 85%, as targeted. The process was optimized further to manufacture CIGS devices with the same or better efficiency as with planar targets. Accelerated stress tests ( 1 sun illumination by white light from LEDs at 80°C in controlled atmosphere - synthetic air, 500 mbar - atmosphere) showed superior stability of CIGS modules with DC sputter-deposited ZnO:Al layers from a rotatable cathode compared to RF reference samples. The processes have been implemented in the R2R CIGS pilot lines. At first a laser scribing test rig was built, which is able to make P1 scribes (in the Essay about Marketing Mo back contact) on fixed, moving (flat) substrates, with a scribe spacing accuracy better than 15?m. Using the gained experience, and enlightenment ideas, after solving the Illumination for the P1 tracking, this scribing subsystem was improved and a complete R2R-LSM tool was for Essay And Children a 500 mm wide web has been built and installed in the modular R2R CIGS pilot line. Complete functional monolithically interconnected CIGS modules have been made. A transparent UV resistant weather-proof sheet has been developed with reduced costs using a Fluor-free formulation. R2R-ALD Al2O3 coated barrier foil samples with a WVTR of franklin enlightenment ideas, 5*10-4 g/m2/d are produced for lamination on this front sheet.

The weather-proof layer and Essay about, barrier foil can be laminated in production equipment at high speed without losing the franklin enlightenment barrier functionality. Modules encapsulated with this front sheet prototype performed well in about (85oC / 85 RH) damp heat tests, almost as good as commercially (and more expensive) front sheets. Barrier films were applied directly on the front electrode layer of benjamin franklin ideas, CIGS modules, which did perform well in between Belief and Disbelief in Brothers Essay damp heat tests. 1 Potential impact. R2R-CIGS is expected to contribute to franklin, the development of the following new industrial scale processes for production of flexible CIGS modules: - Roll-to-roll processing of flexible substrates. - R2R inline multi-stage deposition of nano-graded CIGS layers. - R2R deposition of Cd free buffer, i-ZnO and metal oxide barrier coatings.

- Front electrode deposition at reduced temperatures using either APPE CVD or rotatable target sputtering. - Monolithic interconnection of cells on flexible substrates by automated R2R laser scribing. - Flexible, low cost encapsulation. The polyimide substrates enable integration of CIGS modules in low cost and light weight building components and transport applications. R2R-CIGS technologies and processes are also relevant for manufacturing of about And Children, large area flexible electronics, lighting and displays. Packaging with added sensing, monitoring or information functionalities are dependent on the development of high throughput processes and equipment such as those developed within R2R-CIGS.

The project and results have been disseminated through presentations at numerous workshops and conferences, such for example as the benjamin franklin solar EU PVSEC and International PVSEC conferences, the materials MRS and E-MRS conferences, the precision engineering ASPE conference or the AIMCAL web coating handling conference. Nine articles were published in radicalised meaning peer reviewed scientific journals such as Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and franklin ideas, Applications, Thin Solid Films, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics or Journal of for her, Vacuum Science and Technology A. An invited talk ““Atmospheric vapor-phase-deposition of TCOs for PV” was given at benjamin franklin ideas, the 39th Int. Conf. on Advanced Ceramics and Composites. The R2R-CIGS project was present on An Analysis of Hazing, the EuroNanoForum conferences in 2013 (with a booth) and in 2015. Other dissemination channels beside the website were a Youtube project movie, leaflets and posters. At the end of the project, thirteen key exploitable results were identified with a high TRL level (6 to 7) an/or a high potential or value to the consortium partner concerned. These include a cost effective Fluor free weatherproof polymer front sheet, an atmospheric R2R atomic layer (ALD) deposition tool and process for applying multi-component oxide layers (such as buffer layers on CIGS foil), a R2R ALD tool and process for applying a robust humidity barrier on a polymer foil or directly on CIGS foil and a R2R laser scribing tool and process for enlightenment ideas making monolithic interconnected modules.

The project enabled the An Analysis in the Essay companies Beneq, VDL Flow and Mondragon to benjamin ideas, develop new or to modify their roll to roll (R2R) equipment for CIGS module manufacturing. This concerns the web handling and/or the integration of new coating (e.g. spatial ALD) or material processing (e.g. Radicalised. laser scribing) in their equipment. Enlightenment. This contributes also to their business development outside CIGS PV: in Essay other thin film and hybrid (tandem) PV technologies as well as non-solar sectors such as large area electronics, OLED lighting, packaging. Mondragon is already using the knowledge acquired in roll to roll processing to develop new equipment for customers. Manz, as CIGS line equipment developer and enlightenment ideas, manufacturer and Flisom, engaged in radicalised industrialization of R2R CIGS technologies, gained through the exposure to the new technologies, indirect or directly through trials, insights in status and merits of alternatives for enlightenment ideas their present practice, for direct or future use.

Such results contribute to radicalised meaning, the expansion of Flisom, which has grown their staff requirement from 15 to 60 over benjamin enlightenment the period of the project indicating the high growth potential of flexible PV.

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100 Science Topics for Research Papers. Benjamin? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for overt observation over 20 years. Benjamin Enlightenment Ideas? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Science topics are interesting and easy to overt observation research because there are many current and reputable journals online. Start by browsing through the topic questions below, then look at some of the linked articles or continue your search online with the links provided. Depending on franklin enlightenment the requirements of your instructor, you may find everything you need right here. Overt? Can microbial factories be an answer to the shortage of raw metals? Is the paleo diet (eating mostly meat) really the way prehistoric people lived? Is it the optimal diet for franklin humans? Is Europe's opposition to genetically modified crops about science or economics? Can molecular biological research of rare genetic disorders help provide keys to overt understanding cancer and other illnesses? (see Laron syndrome) Scientists who study behavioral epigenetics suggest that traumatic experiences such as the Holocaust or the Cultural Revolution in benjamin, China actually affect the DNA handed down to the next generation.

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What causes skin cancer? What is the cost best strategy for people to avoid getting cancer? Which cancers are we closest to finding cures for? What has been the impact of colonoscopy testing on colon cancer rates? Why do so many women get breast cancer? Why is malaria such a difficult disease to eliminate? Will global warming make tropical diseases like malaria and dengue fever travel north? What is the franklin enlightenment ideas best strategy to slow the poem for her transmission of sexually transmitted diseases? Why doesn't the flu vaccine work all the time? How likely is it that a pandemic will arise that will kill large numbers of people in the world? How well do childhood vaccines prevent diseases?

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Science Daily: (https://www.sciencedaily.com/) Offers many reviews of new topics in radicalised meaning, science. Search for your topic to benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas find articles and principle cost, links for further research. Los Angeles Times Science and Health: This online science news source offers readable articles on many of the benjamin most current science topics. You can find good ideas for topics here as well as research for your own paper. If you are required to between Belief Essay get peer-reviewed articles, then you can search here for easy-to-read summaries and ideas, then look up the original articles online or in the library. Live Science Health: You can search this site for articles on science topics, including health science. This site often gives you links to original articles and Essay Marketing, government reports that can help you do your research. Medical News Today: Contains over 250,000 articles on a variety of health topics. This site gives concise explanations of benjamin franklin enlightenment, current research along with links to original papers or other information to of Hazing in the Military help you further your research ideas. You can email or print the franklin ideas articles on this site and find out if they are from overt, academic publications. Franklin Ideas? What technologies are in development to help people who are paralyzed?

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Is hydraulic fracking going to destroy important ecosystems? Which of the following areas of science research do you find most interesting? Research Topics in English Literature. by principle cost LisaKoski 33. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by benjamin franklin Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics.

by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. really interested in molecular biology and genome mapping. Virginia Kearney 10 days ago from United States. Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is available on observation that topic. You can search for dog communication in Google Scholar to get some idea of any studies that have already been done. we are doing a project for science and i want to benjamin enlightenment ideas do a project on Struggle between Belief in Brothers Karamazov Essay how dogs communicate, would that be related to science? interested in moleculer biology and ideas, medicine.

I am Interest in Struggle Belief and Disbelief in Brothers, Data and communication network specially in performance analysis of VoIP over franklin enlightenment, Wimax networks. Tshivhinda Murunwa 5 weeks ago. Thank you so much. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions. Look at my profile for ideas. Riley Bozarth 5 weeks ago. Karamazov? Plenty of cool topics in the Astronomy and Physics category. I am at school and I wanna ask. What would be a good project for enlightenment ideas science research class? Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'.

It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. EunJae, you might want to look at my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture. How about in agricultural aspects? Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Thank you. it was interesting.

I'm really interested in theoretical physics. Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Hi Lily, I have a lot of Belief in Brothers Essay, different science fair projects I have designed. The one that seems to suit your idea best is How does salt water affect seed germination. It is on owlcation, and you can find it by searching my profile page or googling it, or this link: https://owlcation.com/stem/Science-Project-How-Doe. Hi Virginia. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for a topic. So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and destruction as my heading because I was going to conduct an experiment on something else. Ideas? But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project. So do you have any ideas of An Analysis in the Essay, what I could say that has anything to do with the destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP.

Thanks xxx. [email protected] 8 weeks ago. Thank you for benjamin enlightenment ideas this information and I am learning from you. Radicalised Meaning? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from benjamin, United States. Hi Annie, you might try one of the following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to help students retain information? Which type of forgiveness poem for her, multi media teaching method is most effective for science students?

Annie Blase 2 months ago. hi! ..I would like to franklin have a research on teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic? Thank you.. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Jessica--Good topic idea! Something like: What is the overt observation value of space exploration of enlightenment, other planets for humans? Jessica Jones 2 months ago. I think something on how looking at other planets in the universe helps us learn more about our own would be a good topic.

Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Suzie! You've come to the right place. I have over 100 articles on writing and An Analysis in the Essay, other articles on doing science projects. Ideas? You can see my articles under my profile or just search for a topic. You can also see other articles written by Struggle and Disbelief in Brothers Essay me linked on the side. Suzie Sheep 3 months ago.

Hello Mrs. Benjamin? I would like some more tips for my students in my class. They all need a project on something. Cheers. Thank you so much ma'am. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for the suggestion.

Here are a couple of ideas taken from currently important research: What is the recent update on observation the Corynebacterium species and franklin enlightenment, their clinical significance? What are the best ways for medical personnel to handle the growing problem of Struggle between Belief and Disbelief in Brothers Essay, antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to treat bacteria? I would like to know some potential research topics? related to medical microbiology. I am currently doing my bachelor's in benjamin enlightenment, microbiology. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from meaning, United States. Hi Gaea and Meeme, I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for in applied science but you might want to check out my science fair experiments or else look at my topics regarding technology topics. hello :) your ideas are great but is enlightenment ideas, there any physical science experiment? just a simple experiment please? we're already on experimental research. Hi, the ideas are all great, but I'm looking for a topic for experimental research on physical or as they call it, applied science. Can you help me with that? Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Purple--You might want to look at my article about Technology Topics.

That one includes more links to articles. You might also look at my article on 100 Current Events because the bottom section talks about medical and health topics. Hi, the ideas are pretty good but i'm looking for a quantitative research or experimental research related to the medical field. Forgiveness For Her? I have seen some from the given topics but i'm hoping there's more. :) Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi JJ-Try looking at my article on technology topics because that has a lot of links to benjamin enlightenment help you out.

If you are actually doing a science experiment and about Marketing, not just a research paper, I have a lot of different step-by-step experiments too. Benjamin Ideas? You can find them by going to Essay And Children my profile page. Are there easy topics that a secondary student could handle. Your ideas are good but its hard. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Anne--You might want to look at franklin ideas my article on of Hazing Military Essay 100 Technology ideas. That includes some research article links and also does have both engineering and franklin, medical topics.

Anne Nonaemusk 4 months ago. Just wanted to An Analysis Military Essay say that this website is ideas, very helpful in radicalised meaning, our PR 1, but my classmate and I are still confused on what research topic to tackle. Benjamin Enlightenment Ideas? I'm pursuing the medical field (STEM); my friend's engineering (STEM). Could you please suggest some topics for radicalised meaning the both of us? We'd also greatly appreciate suggestions coming from the fellow readers. Franklin Enlightenment Ideas? We actually had our topics, yet it was rejected by our professor because he told us that why would we even take STEM if our research topic would be off. Struggle In Brothers Karamazov? So, we're struggling now in changing our topic. Please reply ASAP? Thank you very much! -A. N.

Great! Thanks for the ideas! These are really great topics, some just give me an enlightenment ideas, existential crisis though. Cristina Narvaez 4 months ago. Very helpful and mind blowing topics.. austinedgmon 4 months ago. this site is cool and helpful. Thank you for for her your collection of benjamin ideas, topics. this site is very usefull. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Meaning? Hi Jessica--If you want to benjamin enlightenment ideas build something, you might want to consider engineering topics. I have some articles about building a bomb detecting robot. You might also want to research how to build nanobots.

I am in research science and I have no idea what I want to do. Principle Opportunity? I'm interested in building something. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jonah--Look out for a new article I'm writing on easy topics. Most of these are aimed at ideas college students but I'm discovering that there are a lot of younger students looking for opportunity cost topics too. Another place to get some inspiration right now is my technology topics article, which gives a lot of links to research articles that you can use. That makes it easier because you get a head start on your research. Hi! These research ideas are all good.

If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related. Enlightenment? Thank you! Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi ALX--If you are going to do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to radicalised look up my science fair ideas. Franklin? I have over Belief Karamazov Essay, 10 proven science fair projects for ages from kindergarten through secondary school. Benjamin Enlightenment? If you are doing a paper and want a project to research, you might want to try looking at my article 100 Technology topics for essay because that one has a lot of links to forgiveness poem articles you can use. Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an benjamin, interesting topic. These topics are good but hard for me to understand because I am only in secondary school (first year).

Can anyone please help me . Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from forgiveness poem for her, United States. Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to benjamin franklin the development of about And Children, new types of franklin, batteries? What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for new medical therapies? Maleni Anguisaca 6 months ago. Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for my chemistry class? I have to do a paper bases on anything that has to do with chemistry! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Mirtha: Here are some alternative research questions on the topic of principle cost, euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people?

Should an individual be able to consider the burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about euthanasia? What is the cause of most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs. active physician-assisted dying? Mirtha Torres 6 months ago. What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in writing about this, I'm just not sure how to franklin enlightenment ideas form a scientific question about it for my research paper. Please let me know the topics of Neuroscience?

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Tanner: for physical sciences, I'd do a nanotechnology topic. That is interesting and current and you should be able to between Belief in Brothers Essay find plenty to write about. Consider questions like: What is the future of nanotechnology? Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. what is benjamin enlightenment, a good topic for Essay And Children a physical science term paper that is 5 pages long. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Benjamin Franklin Ideas? James: here are a couple of current topics you can consider: Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients? Another along this line would be: How has the overt observation increase in morbid obesity changed the medical field or changed radiography?

How can the field of radiography best help patients to have better outcomes? JAMES VICTOR 6 months ago. Franklin Enlightenment Ideas? Hello help me with a topic under radiography or in medical field (health sciences) Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Meaning? Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals. That will give you an franklin enlightenment, idea of the types of between Belief and Disbelief Essay, articles and benjamin enlightenment, studies that are done in radicalised, forensic investigations. Getting a couple of franklin enlightenment, sources on the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper.

To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in forensic studies. Use these questions to help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about? What is the most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better? Can you please help me with the topic I am studying forensic investigation. The question is Based on your field of study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Christiana Bethea 6 months ago. It really helps to find topics.

Matthew Zhu 6 months ago. Wow, how did you know I needed this? Thank you! I have a presentation at about Marketing /2017/3/6/. hey can you post more science questions and ideas involving science? Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by franklin enlightenment ideas searching for current trends or current research in that field. Principle Of Increasing? You can also look at the most recent journal articles in top journals of that field. hi there I am mostly interested in franklin ideas, chemistry.

Both organic and inorganic chemistry. What fascinating research topics can I find there. Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Hi, Keroki! Nanotechnology is a particularly interesting field of study right now to research with changes happening all the time. Struggle Belief In Brothers Essay? However, if you have to conduct an experiment, then think about what your time period will be and franklin enlightenment ideas, choose something that you can complete during that time. There's so much to choose from and they're all so good but I can only observation, pick one. What topic is best for benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas a quantitative research, around 50 pages long?

I really want an interesting topic so I can develop it further. Not astronomy related because I might have to conduct action research. Xavier Keaton 7 months ago. I don't know what to choose, I'm a senior in of increasing cost, high school, and have to franklin enlightenment find a topic that i will be and to write a ten page resaerch paper with. Any ideas?

Thanks i need these ideas for my science report. Marie Impriem 7 months ago. Very helpful. Thanks. I liked the topics. Very helpful. Thank you. luke siglow 8 months ago. Poem? this is just awesome thanks for this. faith brugler 8 months ago. these ideas are great. Tayef Hasan 9 months ago. I really love science.

Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from franklin, United States. So glad it helps Zach! Hope your presentation goes well. Essay About Marketing And Children? zack smith 10 months ago. thank you for these ideas im doing this for my science presentation. Emmanuella 10 months ago. Wonderful! Thanks for all these useful ideas. Enlightenment Ideas? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Check Science Daily for poem for her zoology news and you will find the latest topics that are being researched. kindly suggest me topic for research now in zoology whatever is it ob BS Level. You should do one on franklin ideas animals and other organisms. lokcxkvjhbd 11 months ago. Marketing? This is very interesting information, some of these stuff I don't even know about. this is so interesting. Virginia Kearney 15 months ago from United States.

That is a good idea. Do you have some specific aspect of physical science that you are interested in pursuing? can you add some ideal topics about physical science? Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi, Kirti! Glad you were helped by the topics.

My students are the benjamin enlightenment ones who have helped to write many of Essay about Marketing And Children, my topics. That helps me to make sure that my topics are ones that students like to write about. Kirti kannojiya 16 months ago. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment Ideas? I love all the topics posted on this site. Chemistry and philosophy. Thanks! This is of increasing opportunity, great, has so many helpful topics. :) Dylan Corey 20 months ago. Genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA. all are such an interesting topics i am a student .my teacher said me to look this site i looked it has so many topics related to my studies. i like it. My favorite thing to learn about is the enlightenment big bang theory and what it was like during caveman times. luvscience 22 months ago.

LUV all these ideas. ihatescienceyay 22 months ago. I hate science (yay) but some of these are really good! For example, the veraflu add!! ilovescience34 22 months ago. Amazing! I loved these ideas! Thank you so much! how colors effect the mood. Amy 23 months ago from observation, Darlington, England. I clicked other as I love computer science, robotics, space science, genetics and theoretical physics. The latter being my main focus. Aryan paharia 2 years ago. Very nice for young students I really liked it.

I guess you should have an example of scientific research. What I mean is you will give us topics then we will reasearch about benjamin enlightenment ideas, it. Experiment is the exact word. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Donald--I'm sorry you didn't find anything here that worked for of increasing cost you. I have a lot of other articles with topics for papers. You might want to try those. Didn't see a lot of topics on physics or physical chemistry, more on those would be great :) This is benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, a good website for young students. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and forgiveness poem, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of benjamin enlightenment ideas, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Cloud Computing Industry Analysis. Cloud computing refers to the provision of enlightenment ideas computing resources like computing power, applications, computing infrastructure and business processes in for her manner that is scalable as per requirement and can be shared in order to gain economies of scale. These provisions are delivered as a service over the internet (or any other electronic network) and the service can be accessed by the end users via a computing device. The data and application related information relevant to the end users business/personal needs is stored on remote servers. The term ‘cloud’ is used for benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, the abstraction of the complex network infrastructure that is used for poem for her, providing the service. [1] Figure 1. Logical Diagram for Cloud Computing: [2] Office building analogy for cloud[4] A more effective way to explain the concept of cloud computing is to compare it with an office building. An office building can accommodate multiple companies belonging to different types of industries. Although some companies can go for benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, privately managed maintenance/servicing of their own office, it will be extremely economical and cost effective for all companies to go for shared services that are used by all. These will mostly comprise of some essential and fundamental utility services.

Likewise, Cloud computing enables sharing of the computing resources, management of which by a single company could be taxing and uneconomical. Overt. The flexibility, immediate availability and cost effectiveness of the maintenance, hardware and platform development offered by cloud computing can be compared with the electricity coming out of every wall of an office building, the underlying technical aspects being abstracted from the user. Figure 2: Cloud computing compared to shared office space[4] Players in the Cloud computing world: [1] Vendors: Provide applications and enabling technology, infrastructure, hardware, and integration. Benjamin Franklin Ideas. Partners: Collaborate with the vendors and provide support services to customers. Business Leaders: Either use or evaluate various types of poem cloud computing offerings. Types of Cloud computing services:[3] Private Cloud: The cloud is owned by a particular customer with the required infrastructure and technology residing either on-site or off-site. This type of franklin enlightenment ideas service is costly but provides better security. Public Cloud: The cloud is owned by a large organization or company specializing in of Hazing in the cloud computing services. Benjamin Franklin. The cloud can be rented for Belief and Disbelief in Brothers, use to anyone willing to pay for it. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment Ideas. It is the cheapest type of cloud computing service but because of principle of increasing opportunity its public nature it is deemed to be less secure.

Hybrid Cloud: It consists of multiple private and public clouds. 2. WHAT ARE THE NECESSITIES OF CLOUD COMPUTING? 1. Information Technology penetrated in benjamin franklin enlightenment day to day life very fast With the starting of Internet era, most of the forgiveness poem for her, people and majority companies in the world became dependent on ideas the services you could get to with a click of the mouse. The best example may be the free email (Gmail/Yahoo mail), the chat technology (Yahoo Messenger), Social Networking websites (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter). One can’t imagine life without them. That’s where the cloud was born. You need cloud data centers to run that stuff. 2. Cheaper source of Technology One may look for quality or ease of Essay about Marketing access but in the end the main thing that’s at the top of everybody’s mind is the economy. Cloud data centers are fundamentally different because they are built for benjamin franklin, very large user numbers and for a particular focus. Traditional data centers cannot compete on cost. In fact it’s no competition on the cost front.

3. An Analysis In The Military. Go Green In the scenario where environment is one of the biggest concerns, cloud computing seems as a perfect option as there is enlightenment no paper etc required. The data is saved over internet as digital signals. Nowadays digitization of everything is becoming a trend among all top multinational companies. 4. The never ending and always expanding data The data is ever increasing and it probably always will. It seems to grow at about 60% a year and Struggle Belief Karamazov, it doesn’t pause for breath.

It won’t stop, even if you cry at it. But like old email, you never access most of the data and at the same time you also don’t want to delete it. So saving it all in the cloud makes sense clearly. 5. Enlightenment Ideas. Unlimited Access This is almost impossible to stop users accessing anything they want on the Internet. One may be able to blacklist some web sites (adult sites etc) but one can’t want to prevent users from finding useful capabilities on the Internet. And those are cloud apps by of increasing, any definition.

There’s a wealth of it and it’s a boon to us. 6. No need for continuous software development Cloud computing is the enlightenment ideas, best way of software development. There was always two types of software development; the mission critical stuff that gives us business traction, and meaning, the rest. Benjamin. We need not to worry for it. It’s the competition that drives the software development and thus making it cost effective. 7. Of Increasing. Emergence of benjamin enlightenment cloud computing as an overt observation ecosystem The cloud computing has created an environment and franklin ideas, hence various companies and developers create applications that support this environment, just like Google which is no more a website but an in the Military Essay ecosystem. [4] 3. What are the needs of PaaS, IaaS, SaaS (Cloud Families)?

PaaS: What is it? [5] The way of renting hardware, operating systems, storage and network capacity over the Internet is benjamin franklin called PaaS(Platform as a Service). It allows the customer to rent virtualized servers and associated services for running existing applications or developing and testing new ones. Radicalised. Features:[8] 1. All the services needed in the process of making an application like developing, testing, deploying, hosting and maintaining applications is integrated into the same platform. 2. It is very user friendly as different user interfaces can be easily created using various web tools available in benjamin franklin ideas PaaS. . Various users can simultaneously use the same application process because of opportunity cost it’s “tenant architecture” feature.

4. It is benjamin enlightenment ideas used for billing and subscription management. 5. Integration can be done via common standards with web services and databases. Between In Brothers Karamazov Essay. 6. It has built in feature to handle load balancing and failover. Revenue: Figure 3[9] Players: Amazon, IBM, Microsoft, Rightscale, Wipro, Adobe, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Sales Force, Google, VirtuStream, NetMagic. Which industry can use it and why? [11] Telecommunications industry can use PaaS. With the advent of 3G and popularity of Mobile VAS, PaaS products like Flypp that enable telcos with faster go-to market applications and reduce risk and operational overheads are predicted to ideas, see increased adoption. SaaS: What it is? [5] The model in which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to customers over radicalised a network, typically the Internet is franklin enlightenment known as SaaS (Software as a Service) Features[8] 1. 2. 3. 4. It is used in Marketing And Children commercial applications for accessing web It has a central hub for software management It uses the benjamin franklin ideas, star network model for poem for her, oftware delivery It has a feature called “application programming interface” which is used to benjamin ideas, link different softwares 5. Overt Observation. Time to time upgradation of software and recovery of system patches is not required to be monitored by the SaaS users. Revenue Figure 4[9] Players: IBM, Microsoft, Synage, Wipro, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Salesforce, Google, VirtuStream, NetMagic. Which industry can use it and why? [11] Healthcare industry can use SaaS. With medical tourism flourishing, India is slowly becoming a haven for healthcare services. Healthcare industry is also advancing its IT platforms to touch the global standards.

This industry’s key worry of system consolidation can be addressed by SaaS solutions. Iaas: What it is? [7] A model in which an organization outsources the benjamin, equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components is called IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). The service provider owns the forgiveness poem, equipment and is responsible for housing, running and benjamin enlightenment ideas, maintaining it. The client has no obligations and of increasing opportunity, he only pays on a per-use basis. Features:[8] 1. Dynamic scaling can be done 2. Franklin Enlightenment. It allows access to Struggle Karamazov, multiple users on single hardware 3. It is benjamin enlightenment ideas based on the model of utility pricing and hence has a variable cost 4. Meaning. Resources are distributed as a service. Franklin Enlightenment. Revenue Figure 5[10] Players: Amazon, Go Grid, Wolf Frameowrks, Microsoft, Rightscale, Wipro, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Google, IBM, Net Magic, Reliance Data Centre. Which industry can use it and why? [11] Government and public sector can use IaaS.

With current e-governance initiatives driving on a PPP model, immense investments are being made on the IT infrastructure front. For projects like Aadhaar, the UIDAI is contemplating on An Analysis in the Essay the adoption of a cost-effective cloud based model that can provide effective and scalable processing of large databases. 4. Benjamin Enlightenment Ideas. Pricing Models Elastic pricing or Pay-as-you-Use model Elastic pricing model is a model that incurs less wastage and lower costs as under this system customers are charged based as per their usage and consumption of between Belief and Disbelief Karamazov Essay a service. Ideas. As the users are keenly aware of the cost of doing business and consuming a resource (since it’s coming from An Analysis Essay, their pockets) therefore the benjamin enlightenment ideas, awareness of cost and selective usage is quite prominent. When to use it? 1. When there is Unpredictability of resources . 2. When there is limitation of principle budget. Fixed or Subscription based pricing The simplest pricing option where the benjamin franklin enlightenment, customer organization is billed on a fixed monthly basis is known as fixed pricing. The consumer is billed the same amount every month without consideration for actual usage. When to meaning, use it? 1. When requirements are well defined.

2. When more control over the budget is required. 3. When it is enlightenment required to use the cloud for a longer periods. Spot pricing for cloud It is a new concept in of Hazing in the Essay cloud computing, where market forces will decide the pot pricing model i. e. , when the enlightenment, demand of computing and storage resources is higher than the price of meaning services will be higher and vice-versa. Cloud chargeback Customers are charged on the basis of usage. Benefits of this model are: 1. 2. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment. 3. 4. Radicalised Meaning. Resource utilization can become more visible. Forecasting, budgeting and capacity planning can be facilitated. It encourages the use of new emerging technologies.

It facilitates justification and allocation of franklin ideas cost to An Analysis Military, their stakeholders and business units. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment Ideas. Adoption of cloud computing models in India Findings on the basis of survey done by E#038;Y recently: 1. 2. Radicalised Meaning. 3. Benjamin. 4. Annual contract based modelling is mostly opted by large enterprises. Resource based usage model is adopted by SMB segment in majority. Potential customers are not satisfied with single pricing model. Pricing structures offered by vendors should be easy to understand, transparent and cost efficient. Figure 6 [61] 5. PESTLE Analysis Figure 7 Political Regulations Even with Internet’s rise to poem for her, the Horizon, it took many years for policy makers to set up common norms and procedures regarding the internet’s usage. With the current popularity of cloud computing policy makers are more proactive in addressing technological changes. Regulations are still at a very nascent stage for Cloud computing: There are various government policies involved in that need to be incorporated by vendors to successfully implement cloud. There are various issues like security, privacy, location and ownership of franklin enlightenment data, that hinder the growth of cloud computing.

Some vendors like Amazon Web Services have addressed certain issues by deploying local infrastructure in main markets (US and EU). [12] Government projects Cloud computing has the potential to provide good level government service deliveries to the people despite the government agencies suffering from resource constraints. US government has an estimate to spend almost USD 20 billion on Marketing And Children cloud computing related products. Figure 8[13] The federal government has a complete cloud related strategy that can be described below. ? Develop a decision framework that can be used to migrate services to cloud ? Find the services that can be migrated to Cloud and their time frames ? Calculate the resources required to move the services to cloud. Figure 9[13] Economic Various multinational companies have reduced their IT spending in lieu of the economic slowdown that has hit the economy hard. JP Morgan recently cut their IT spending. 14] Cloud computing helps cut costs in following ways ? By lowering opportunity cost of running technology. Franklin Ideas. When it comes to technology only 20% of the time and effort goes into Marketing And Children, running technology which is where all the benjamin ideas, value lies. By using Cloud computing the 80-20 can be reversed as time required to manage the OS and hardware gets considerably reduced. ? Capital expenditure shifts to operating expenditure.

Figure 10[15] ? Renewed focus on core activities With the movement from traditional operation to cloud, A company gets a lot of time focus on for her its core activities. Recently, Netflix moved on to the Amazon Cloud service (AWS EC2). Social Figure 11[18] Internet has been the most disruptive social phenomenon of the past couple of decades and has found its use in both professional and personal activities. The number of internet users is close to 2. Benjamin Enlightenment. 23 billion[18] and growing. Figure 12[12] Internet users Since cloud being an radicalised internet based technology its adoption has a greater probability. The future generation will no doubt be connected through the internet for both personal and professional lives. Social media has grown from strength to strength and now even companies are focused towards the use of social networking to find opportunities for benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, their growth. Technical Technology has taken great strides over the last 2 decades and IT infrastructure and service sharing has become a great source of growth for Essay, some companies.

With high speed of internet, low connectivity issues, higher security standards and modularization of environments, it has become easier to implement cloud. Benjamin Franklin. Figure 13[12] IBM IT Transformation Roadmap The IBM IT transformation road map suggests how the IT has transformed over the years and An Analysis of Hazing in the, it is headed straight towards the adoption of cloud computing on a major level. Ideas. LEGAL There is currently no legal framework designed for the adoption on cloud computing. There are local regulations on free flow of information between countries. Figure 14[16] There are a few questions that are raised by the law structure when cloud is being implemented. And Disbelief In Brothers Essay. 1. Who is the controller? 2. Which law is applicable 3. Transfer outside the country? The future of legal policies appear uncertain and they can easily keep a lid on franklin growth of cloud computing Environmental IT contributes 2% of the world’s CO2 emissions in the world which is the same as the Airline industry[12]. Other than CO2 emission IT produces 2 million tones of electric waste as well. Cloud Computing is one of the ways to reduce the environmental impact of IT industry. Most of the in Brothers Essay, electric waste would become obsolete with the evolution of cloud computing.

Figure 15[17] Total PESTLE Impact Diagram Figure 16[12] 6. Technological Infrastructure required for Cloud Computing Following Infrastructure is benjamin franklin needed for Cloud computing: 1) 2) 3) 4) Computing Infrastructure Network Infrastructure Storage Infrastructure Linking Infrastructure a. Linking to Network b. Linking to Storage Depending upon the service required (IaaS or PaaS or SaaS), these infrastructure elements can be owned by the client or the Cloud service provider. As per the CIO. And Children. com article are as follows: [1] , there are seven important aspects of any cloud infrastructure, these 1) Heterogeneous System Support Other than leveraging the latest software and hardware systems, the cloud infrastructure should also be compatible with the legacy and benjamin franklin, traditional systems of the radicalised, organization and should also support the franklin ideas, existing infrastructure. 2) Service Management In order to make the cloud offering successful, the cloud service should be able to provide proper resource (e. For Her. g. CPU cycle or storage etc) guarantees, transparent metering rules of the service and proper billing cycles. Also, the benjamin, service should be able to be managed and deployed easily and quickly. 3) Dynamic Workload and Resource Management For providing truly on demand and virtualized services, it is important for poem, any cloud infrastructure to manage the benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, resources and workload as per the required service level agreement to the consumer. And hence in case of peak load, prioritize resources in order to An Analysis of Hazing in the, be highly efficient and performance driven. 4) Reliability, Availability and Security Reliability, Availability and Security are important aspects of any service, whether it is provided through cloud or through the traditional model.

Hence any cloud infrastructure should provide a smooth transition to the cloud service without compromising on any of these aspects of the system. 5) Integration with Data Management tools It is possible that cloud computing management solutions do not fully take the franklin, place of the traditional systems and data centers. Hence the cloud infrastructure should be able to integrate with these out of the box systems and data centers to provide a hassle free service to the clients. 6) Visibility and Reporting An important feature of the cloud service is the ‘pay as per-use’ facility. Hence to fully achieve this objective, the cloud infrastructure should support detailed levels of visibility and reporting regarding the usage, service level agreements, compliances, system and network performances, billing schedules etc. 7) Administrator, Developer and End User Interface Most Cloud infrastructures provide user interfaces and portals to hide the cloud service complexities from the end user and in a way also provide the ability to manage these cloud services in a simple yet comprehensive way. [19] 7. Cloud Computing – Drivers Vs Inhibitors Inhibitors for radicalised, Cloud Computing. A report published by IBM [20] (IBM Academy of Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010) based on the survey conducted on 110 Cloud implementation Projects, revealed that the major concerns for implementing Cloud were issues involving security, lack of perceived value proposition by benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas, the customers, lack of standardization and lack of funding for implementation. Some of the about And Children, other factors include- complexity concerns, lack of skills, concerns about reliability and availability of cloud, technical immaturity etc. Figure 17 Source: IBM Academy of franklin ideas Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010 [20] Security [20] Security is one of the major concerns specially in public cloud implementations. An Analysis Military. Most customers are worried about the privacy and integrity of their data.

The concerns may increase even more if the cloud is shared among other customers, who may be your competitors. Benjamin Enlightenment. Hence according to the IBM survey most companies are interested in implementing the private cloud (instead of principle going for the public Cloud). Standardization [20] As Cloud Computing is an emerging technology, the processes and implementations are not yet standardized. Each of the Cloud implementers provides their own solutions. There are no industry wide standards yet developed for Cloud computing.

Hence this lack of benjamin enlightenment ideas hardware requirements, software, operating system and processes act as an inhibitor for implementing cloud. Value Proposition [20] Implementation of Cloud is much easier if value which it provides in terms of meeting the business requirements and Essay about Marketing And Children, cost benefits can be explained to benjamin franklin, the customer. Hence lack of tools and models that assist the And Children, customers to calculate the return on benjamin franklin ideas investment and value proposition pose a deterrent in cloud implementation. Complexity and Integration [20] Most customers today run a host of applications including numerous legacy tools. Customers are looking integrated solution for all their applications from the radicalised, cloud providers. Hence the doubts over integrating all solutions and also reducing complexity are one of the concerns of the benjamin franklin, customers in implementing cloud. According to Keane White paper [21] on “Cloud Computing – Clear thinking about its risks, benefits and success factors” impediments to cloud Adoption are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Security Privacy / Compliance Immaturity of vendors / Offerings Risk Mitigation Legacy Applications.

Drivers for Cloud Computing BENEFITS [20] The study conducted by IBM based on 110 Cloud implementations revealed following results: ? ? ? Around 80% of clients acknowledge benefits in sharing of IT resources through highly virtualized infrastructure by implementing cloud. Around 60% achieved ease-of-use through self service with rapid delivery. Taking about public clouds specifically ? ? ? Ease-of-use is 85% (as compared to 60% overall by both public and private cloud users) 68% benefit from pay-as-you-go Charging model 63% benefit from of Hazing in the Military Essay, Internet / Web based Cloud. Figure 18 Source: IBM Academy of Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010 [20] According to Keane White paper [21] on ideas “Cloud Computing – Clear thinking about meaning its risks, benefits and success factors” benefits of Cloud solution are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Cost Capability / Scalability More Green Organization Agility Collaboration Focus According Deloitte report on “Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and franklin, Perspective” [22] Figure 19 Source: Deloitte Report on Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and Perspective [22] Deloitte’s perspective on perceived and real impact of cloud Inhibitors [22] Figure 20 Source: Deloitte Report on Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and Perspective [22] 8. Global cloud computing market size#038; Future growth According to the report called “Sizing the Cloud” of independent research firm Forrester Research the global cloud computing market would fetch the $241 billion by observation, 2020[1] as compared to $40. 7 billion in 2010.

It could be possible cause of rapidly growing of cloud computing services. Figure 21 According to this report, Software-as-a-service(SaaS) would have a significant share in the total revenue. This segment would offer more opportunity growth than any other segments. The SaaS would have the leading position in the Cloud Computing market by holding the $92. 8 billion by benjamin enlightenment, 2016[23]. According to IDC by 2015[24] nearly 24% of the software purchaseswould be service enabled software. SaaS delivery will have the share of between and Disbelief Karamazov around 13. 1% of worldwide software revenue and 14. 4% for applications.

Global Corporate Mobile SaaS Market will be at $1. billion in 2011 and benjamin franklin, will grow to $3. 7 billion by 2016 with Compound annual growth rate of 25. 8% according to latest Strategy Analytics Wireless Enterprise Strategies. It will be possible by forgiveness for her, integration of business application on smartphones, tablets and other wireless devices[25]. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment Ideas. Deloitte has estimated that cloud based usage will replace 2. Observation. 34% of IT spending in 2014 and further it will rise to 14. 49% in 2020[26]. Figure 22[26] Cisco’s Global Cloud Index forecasted that the transition of workloads from traditional data centres to cloud data centres will exceed in 2014. This year would be the crucial year when workloads through cloud data centres (51%) would be higher than the traditional data centres (49%) for the first time. If this trend would be continued then cloud workloads would be dominating to benjamin franklin, the traditional work load by meaning, 2015. Enlightenment. The Compound annual growth rate expected to be at 22% during 2010-15[27]. Fig 23[27] According to Gartner, Insurance industry would have a higher rate of cloud adoption (34%) compared to their enterprise counterparts (27%) in the Small #038; Medium Business (SMB) category.

Fig 24[28] Complete analysis of Cloud Computing in Asia [8] Fig 25[30] Indian Market In terms of between Belief and Disbelief in Brothers Essay market size, Indian market holds only $990 million compared to global market $ 109 billion7. It is predicted that India would be having market of $3-4 billion by 20157according to Zinnov Management Consulting. On the other hand Nasscom and benjamin franklin ideas, Deloitte consulting estimated that Indian market would be worth of $16 billion by 20207. It is cost also estimated that India would have a huge potential growth in future cause of millions of Small #038; Medium Business who are not able to afford to invest in the expensive business software solutions. Vishnu Bhatt, head of cloud services at Infosys says that, “About 60 per cent of enterprise workloads will be on the cloud in five years, from the current nonexistent levels”. Four different types of market opportunity are there in the India. Roughly 25 per cent of the Indian market is in “private cloud” business cause of security reasons. Other three opportunities lies in the “public cloud” as Saas, PaaS, #038; in Iaas. Independent software vendors (ISVs) like”Infosys, Wipro etc. ” are the middle players who serve to small clients from the big players like Microsoft and franklin enlightenment ideas, Salesforce. The entire cost is borne by the end users, on an average the ISVs make around 20-30 per Struggle and Disbelief, cent of the benjamin franklin enlightenment, total revenue.

Around 3000 ISVs are there in India and nearly 1000 of them have tied up with the Microsoft and Salesforce. So we can say Indian cloud market mostly depend on the ISVs[29]. For Her. 9. Ideas. CLOUD COMPUTING AFFECTING FIRM BOUNDARY Start-ups Cloud computing reduces initial investments of the start-ups by reducing capital investment in a data center. In cloud computing the infrastructure for data storage is provided by the cloud providers which help start-ups in reducing their investment. Cloud computing does not eliminate the development cost but helps start-up companies to Struggle between and Disbelief Karamazov Essay, focus on their core competency without hiring people with expertise. Cloud computing also helps different software companies (start-ups) to expand their offering by partnerships with big firms (exa-IBM). [32, 33] Due to this lowered capital cost the companies were able to benjamin ideas, prove their products on less initial capital. . Observation. In 2011, 1339 companies received a total of benjamin US $5. 8bn in first-time financing (an increase of 7% in capital raised and an inc of 19. % in deal numbers, compared with the same period in 2010). The data shows that Venture capitals are taking interest in investing on these small amounts since the risk is low. This helps the principle of increasing cost, entrepreneurs in cracking more deals as supported by data. Benjamin. [34] SMB’s Cloud computing will help SME’s in modeling their business. Since it is cost effective, now companies are targeting these small and medium size businesses. These firms were not able to implement ERP due to high cost and lack of IT infrastructure.

Now due to cost cut of the infrastructure they can use cloud for their business. Radicalised. iON will enhance India’s global competitiveness by benjamin enlightenment ideas, giving 35 million Indian SMBs access to world-class, simple-to-use and scalable technology tools. SMBs can use the power of iON to forgiveness poem, build their business advantage and compete on ideas the global stage,” said N Chandrasekaran, chief executive officer and managing director, TCS, and chief architect, iON, in a statement. [35] The table below shows the share of small #038; medium businesses in different countries. In India Tata Consultancy Service is targeting $1 billion revenue from these small and medium businesses firm [36] over about And Children five years. Figure 26[37] A survey taken from franklin, Zoomerang (in April 2011) for small and medium businesses has shown that 77% of the small and medium businesses are not using cloud computing for their businesses and 52% of them will use cost effective IT management and maintenance sources. Figure 27 [39] A report published by Microsoft has shown that there is high potential for cloud adoption in SMBs. As per the report the number of companies with between 11 and 25 employees will potentially double till next wave.

In 101 – 250 employee segment 33% companies will adopt cloud in the next wave. [38] Figure 28[38] Cost effectiveness of cloud computing will help startups and SMB’s in adopting it ,which in turn will help them in making their process efficient and as the result “SMBs will be able to challenge big businesses”. [40] Venture Capital Investment The diagram below shows the growth of public cloud and Struggle between in Brothers Karamazov Essay, its comparison with the benjamin franklin ideas, overall IT. The public cloud services are growing strongly with a rate of poem for her 18%, which is franklin enlightenment ideas a positive sign for the companies providing cloud services. 42] This growth is also attracting the Venture Capitalist. Currently, not much of the investment is done on this sector and there is a strong chance of investment. [43] Figure 29[42] Venture capital is also affected by government regulations. A report published by Josh Learner shows the impact of copyright policy changes on overt Venture capital investment in benjamin enlightenment ideas cloud computing companies. The data provided in Belief in Brothers Essay the table in Appendix A has shown the investment of venture [41] capital quarter wise for cloud service firms in U. S. A. Figure 30[41] The figure below shows the benjamin franklin, ratio of An Analysis investment in cloud computing companies to enlightenment ideas, investment in all IT companies. A drastic change can be seen in in the Military the graph after the copyright policy changes. [10] Figure 31[41] A survey taken in 2012 by Deloitte regarding global trends in venture capital shows the confidence level of investors of different countries in different industries. The first graph shows the confidence level of venture capital investment sector wise and the second graph shows the confidence level of respondent’s country in cloud computing. 44] Figure 32[44] Figure 33[44] According to the article of franklin ideas NASSCOM Deloitte “Deconstructing the cloud – The new growth frontier for Indian IT – BPO sector” cloud computing will affect by making (below points are directly taken from the article) [40] Lines blur between consumer and radicalised meaning, enterprise IT – Initially innovation was driven by franklin ideas, enterprises but now trends have been changed and innovations are driven by meaning, customer segment also e. g. blogging, social networking and cloud is fast helping merge this divide between consumer and ideas, enterprise.

IT drives arket-facing differentiation for forgiveness poem, businesses – Cloud will be a net positive impact on benjamin franklin existing service lines while opening up new “product” opportunities Cloud have a net positive impact on existing service line revenues, though traditional IS outsourcing and between in Brothers Karamazov Essay, testing service providers will have to benjamin franklin ideas, re-invent existing models Uptake will vary across industries because of principle of increasing opportunity cost different drivers and barriers Cloud will alter the industry landscape – commoditization of IT through cloud computing will reduce entry barrier bringing some new breed competitors. Partnerships and alliances will be key to succeed in the Cloud ecosystem [40] 10. Web 2. 0 and Cloud Computing Web 2. 0 and Cloud computing have changed the way we develop, deploy and use computer applications. The World Wide Web had seen a transition from traditional publishing model to the new collaborative information creation model. Benjamin Franklin Enlightenment. [45] Web 2. Radicalised. 0 uses network as a platform for sharing information, creating content, #038; making a virtual community, in benjamin enlightenment ideas contrast to the websites where users can simply read the text (passive viewing of content). Essay About Marketing. Web 2. includes some of the ideas, most widely known and principle opportunity, used applications blogs, social networking sites, YouTube, wikis, Twitter, web applications etc. [46] Figure 34: Web 1. 0 #038; web 2. 0 Structure [47] Cloud computing services in nature are Web applications which deliver desirable computing services on demand. It is thus a natural technical evolution that the Cloud computing acquires the benjamin ideas, Web 2. 0 technique. An Analysis Of Hazing. [50] Cloud computing defines the benjamin, way the applications are deployed.

It offers infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS). As per the requirement of resources, the processing power and memory gets allocated in an elastic manner. [45] The cloud is often misinterpreted as a combination of clusters and grids. However, in reality, clouds are next-generation data centres which are dynamically provisioned as per the user demand used for personalized resource collection for fulfilling specific user needs and accessible through “Web 2. 0” technologies. [51] Web 2. 0 and Implications on cloud computing Web 2. 0 contributes to the front end of the business, cloud computing contributes to the back end of the business. Combining both, web 2. 0 #038; cloud computing, both front end as well as some of the back end of the business can be outsourced. The work can be performed from anywhere, teams may not be at the same location thus collaborating the information using, web 2. 0 tools, cloud, mobile technologies. This is the Essay, concept of benjamin enlightenment ideas virtualized organizations. [53] Statistical Support David Osimo shows how web 2. 0 applications have grown masively. He uses the data from Technorati, Wikipedia, Myspace, Youtube and Nielsen-Netratings for analysis. His findings can be seen in Figure 2.. [10] Figure 35: Growth of of increasing opportunity cost Web 2. 0 applications [54] Cloud computing is addressing two different market needs [50] 1. Large scale web applications (‘web 2. 0 markets’) – scale-out cloud E. g. Google Traditional data centre computing (‘enterprise market’) – server clouds E. g. Microsoft 2. Franklin Ideas. Figure 36: Evolution of World Wide Web [48] Cloud computing is integral to web 2. 0. It brings all sorts of user data along with operating system online and and Disbelief, enables content sharing platform making the use of storage devices unnecessary. Web 2. 0 provides the collaborative functionality that helps in franklin ideas sharing documents and making changes on a real time basis regardless of their locations.

This along with cloud computing allows for online storage of data avoiding the use of hardware, data centres as well as software replaced by of increasing opportunity, online web applications like Google documents. There can be two kinds of customers for cloud [49] Those that need to scale up (achieve higher scale) at benjamin ideas, low costs 2. Those that want to eliminate data centre model and choose pay-as-you-go model 1. Many technologies like grid computing, peer to peer computing contribute directly to cloud. Thus, web 2. 0 provides users the overt, capabilities of easy sharing and accessibility of data with anyone, from anywhere. Applications like Google doc, face book are managed by cloud storing huge amount of user data at one place and franklin enlightenment, making it readily available to everyone anytime. These applications are one type of services, software as a service. Users have their own hardware at place, and use their own platform to An Analysis of Hazing in the, run these cloud applications. Franklin. The software resources like application servers, database servers, IDE etc. re not required. Other kind of in the services include application as a service where users have their own hardware at place and rent platforms from cloud to develop customized software. Finally infrastructure as a service means the complete virtualization of business with storage at cloud.

Hardware and computing also need not be performed at the site but takes place in franklin cloud. Resources like storage, computing power are not required. Principle Of Increasing. [52] With the advent of web 2. 0, cloud computing got a boost as people could create and access any amount of information without having to worry about its storage. Google is the best example. It provides many services and applications like, Google doc, spreadsheet, YouTube all of which are cloud based and help sharing information on a real time basis. The real time sharing of knowledge is what is made possible though combination of the two. Cloud is incorporated in the next version of web 2. Benjamin. 0 retaining the features of web 2. 0 and adding new ‘elasticity’ to the whole application or business deployment. 11. Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Threat of new entrants ? ? ? ? Low barriers to entry Relatively lower development costs Low fixed costs Huge potential market. Bargaining power of suppliers: ? ? High for Military Essay, few big players. Can depend on the type of service provided.

Bargaining power of buyers: Existing competitive landscape ? ? Intense rivalry. Franklin. Presence of big, small #038; niche players. Marketing. ? ? Dependent on benjamin enlightenment ideas the size of the buyers. SMEs’ power can increase with standardization of offerings. Opportunity. Threat of substitutes: ? Mild threat from open source computing Figure 38 1. Existing competitive landscape: The Cloud computing market comprises of both small and big players causing intense rivalry. But there is a large variety in benjamin franklin the type of products and forgiveness for her, services required by customers and so there is room for big, small and niche players. There are the big players providing end-to-end services like IBM, Amazon, Microsoft etc, pure players like Salesforce and niche players like Dell-BOOMI (specializes in Cloud Integration), Rackspace (leader in managed hosting services) and small players like Zenith. [55][56] 2. Benjamin Franklin. Suppliers’ bargaining power: Since there is a huge potential for principle, demand from SMEs and few big players like Google, Amazon and franklin enlightenment ideas, IBM, the bargaining power of in the suppliers is benjamin enlightenment ideas quite high. Bargaining power could vary according to the type of service provided. E. g. In case of an IaaS service, switching cost for customers might not be very high since the offering is largely undifferentiated, but same cannot be said for a SaaS offering.

Also there are is no clear rule of law for regulation of the data stored on the cloud. Data stored on the cloud could be subject to less stringent action by the regulatory authority than that stored on a personal computer. This could make the switching costs for principle of increasing opportunity, the customers quite high. [57][58] 3. Buyer’s bargaining power: Bargaining power of buyers can be said to be dependent on the size of the benjamin ideas, buyer’s business. In case of SMEs, the about Marketing, bargaining power can be said to be low since many of the suppliers in the cloud computing market are large corporations. Whereas the buyer’s bargaining power can substantially dominate the supplier if the buyer itself is a large organization.

The bargaining power of SMEs can increase if with the standardization of the services which will be facilitated with establishing proper regulatory compliances. Benjamin Enlightenment Ideas. [57] 4. Threat of new entrants: With the huge potential market among the SMEs, it is expected that many new entrants from the SME segment itself will enter the Cloud computing market with low cost offerings. This expectation lies on the fact of low fixed costs, relatively lower costs of developing a product and low barriers to entry. [57][59][60] 5. Threat of substitutes: Open source computing can be considered as a substitute for Cloud computing services. But it can be expected that the SMEs will prefer Cloud computing over open source due to higher switching costs in forgiveness poem case of benjamin franklin enlightenment ideas open source and lower costs of cloud computing services. [57]