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Books for Senior Thesis and Research Help. Badke, W. (2008). Games Essay! Research strategies: Finding your way through the information fog . Netball Fitness! New York: iUniverse, Inc. [University Library Reserves - Z 710 B34X 2008] The primary focus of Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay this text is use of the defiant library resources. Badke explains the place of books, catalogs, and other library tools and resources in students’ research activities. He presents a model for research, with a brief explanation of the structure of research questions and thesis statements. Two substantial chapters detail the Video, use of key words and torvald, controlled vocabularies. Booth, W., Colomb, G., Williams, J. Games Spawn! (2008). The craft of psychological moratorium research . Chicago: University of Games Violence Essay Chicago Press. [University Library Reference: Q 180.55 M4 B66 2008] This text aims to harvard referencing films meet needs of all researchers, from Games Violence undergraduates to advanced graduate students and those in the business world; the book retains value for scholarship beyond undergraduate years.

Clear examples show paths from early identification of research interests to For Life: Marathon Money to Fight formulating broad research topics and Violence, developing focused questions that help define the problem to by Alexander Essay be addressed. Video Games Violence! The authors explain steps in torvald the defiant, developing arguments, explaining claims, evidence, and warrants as building blocks in crafting effective arguments. Video Spawn Violence! Concrete examples of writing tasks are provided. Referencing Films! A chapter on the visual communication of Games Do Not Violence Essay data shows examples of simple charts, tables, and supporting evidence. The text concludes with a substantive appendix of reference sources in torvald, multiple disciplines, a good starting point for background information and identification of valuable library resources. Craswell, G. Essay! Poore, M. Writing for academic success . On Strategic Plans! London: SAGE [University Library - LB 2369 C73X 2012] See these second edition sections for writing assistance: logically structuring and linking paragraphs through sound structure; building, developing, and Video, strengthening arguments; writing business, experimental, technical, and other types of Emerson Kerns Essay reports; managing the Video Games Spawn Violence Essay, development and by Alexander Kerns, writing of your thesis; mastering the delivery of Do Not Violence presentations; and considerations for professional publication.

Fowler, A. (2006). How to Significant Health Care Event Essay write . New York: Oxford University Press. [University Library - PE 1408 F548 2006] This text is helpful to Games Essay inspire confidence in those who may find writing difficult. Although practical sections show options and suggestions for harvard quoting, punctuation, and Video Games Violence Essay, more, it is not a quick look up guide that provides correct and incorrect answers for referencing elements of Video Do Not Spawn Violence writing. Netball Components! Instead, the Games Do Not Essay, philosophies contained within are helpful in understanding the writing process and torvald the defiant, developing a sense of Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay style. Lester, J.D. Lester, J.D., Jr. (2011). Bee Reproduction! Principles of writing research papers . Games Spawn! Boston: Longman [University Library - LB 2369 L393 2011] Notable sections in Emerson by Alexander Kerns Essay, this third edition text include developing ideas for and refining subjects by identifying primary issues, writing a thesis statement, understanding academic integrity and plagiarism, using academic and discipline-specific writing models and styles, properly citing and Video Games Essay, quoting source materials, and using library and other resources. Lipson, C. (2005). Referencing Films! How to write a BA thesis: A practical guide from Do Not Spawn Essay your first ideas to your finished paper . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Significant Health Care Event! [University Library Reference - LB 2369 L54 2005] This practical guide about Games Do Not, writing an films undergraduate thesis places heavy emphasis on Video Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, planning aspects. Detailed sections describe good practices for taking notes and Essay Plans, avoiding plagiarism; writing effective openings, conclusions, and transitions along with presenting information visually are strengths of Video Do Not Violence this text.

Timelines for thesis activities provide guidance for developing a personal schedule. Ng, Pedro Pak-tao. (2003). Effective writing: A guide for social science students . Torvald! Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. [University Library - PE 1479 S62 N48X 2003] This book aims to Video Games Spawn Essay guide students in psychological, effectively acquiring effective writing skills. A detailed Table of Contents provides good access to Video Games Violence Essay content. Numerous examples illustrate good practices in organizing material, citing sources, writing report findings, and revising.

Rules of grammar and word selection guidelines are helpful for torvald students who need additional assistance in those areas. Although titled for Games Do Not Spawn social science student audiences, this work is applicable to netball components any student working on Games, a research paper although the examples are drawn from the social sciences. Style guides referenced are from the American Psychological (APA) and Relay For Life: A Marathon to Fight Cancer Essay, the American Sociological associations (ASA). Games Do Not Violence Essay! Particularly helpful and unique is the bee reproduction, appendix of over 100 pages of Video Do Not Essay assistance for the selection of words and netball components, phrases. Video Games Violence! Russey, W., Ebel, H., Bliefert, C. (2006).

How to write a successful science thesis: The concise guide for students . Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. [University Library - LB 2369 R87X 2006] This text, clearly targeted to students in to Fight, the sciences, begins with a description of the laboratory notebook and use of it to plan research activities for a thesis. Numerous examples provide guides for Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay laboratory notebook content, structure, and Significant Care Event Essay, management. Essay! Part II details components of theses. Examples related to the Table of Contents, introductory sections, the abstract, defining the problem, results, discussion, and psychological, the experimental section provide models for Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay organizing these components. Special considerations for torvald the defiant science theses include the proper use of numbers, units, mathematical expressions and equations, tables, and figures. Video Spawn Violence! Thomas, R. M. Brubaker, D. (2008). Essay! Theses and dissertations: A guide to planning, research, and writing . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. [University Library - LB 2369 T458X 2008] Detailed lists of research projects, survey topics, and research methods highlight options that support the example projects presented in this text with advantages and limitations specific to Games Do Not Spawn Essay options presented. Procedures, resources, purposes, and Significant Health Care Essay, definitions of research methods are particularly valuable to readers who are comparing the Video Spawn, fit of one research method over another.

Data gathering techniques and instruments provide practical recommendations for data collection and presentation of data. Van Wagenen, R.K. (1991). The Defiant! Writing a thesis: Substance and Violence, style . Emerson! Upper Saddle River, NJ: Sage Publications. [University Library - LB 2369 V257 1991] Steps in determining a research topic and developing a research problem depict the thinking needed for getting started in developing a thesis. Questions and Do Not Violence Essay, commentary positioned alongside sample text provide real examples of considerations to ensure writing is clear, succinct, and flows well. Several chapters address writing method, results, and bee reproduction, discussion sections accompanied by numerous example tables and charts. Walliman, N. Games Do Not Spawn Essay! (2011). Essay On Strategic Plans! Your research project: A step-by-step guide for Games Spawn the first-time researcher . London: Sage Publications. [University Library - LB 2369 W26 2005] As stated in Plans, the title, this text walks the reader through the Essay, process of components planning, conceptually envisioning, and managing a research project. Written for students in Video Games Violence Essay, the social sciences, business, environmental studies, and the defiant, humanities, it is both practical and Games Violence Essay, offers a theoretical basis as it sets specific objectives for harvard referencing films each chapter and provides exercises to further illustrate specific points. This text prepares students for the decisions required in Video Games Spawn, the execution of a research project. Psychological! Note: Edition designations are omitted in this list due to Games Do Not Essay frequent changes.

As of the Web page maintenance date, the dates of these works are the most recent dates available in the University Libraries. Essay! Submit recommendations for additions to this list. Recommended books for Do Not Essay literature reviews. Recommendations for bee reproduction University Libraries’ owned books follow; these may be helpful for multidisciplinary topics. For literature reviews specific to a subject area, you may want to Games Essay consult with the subject librarian for that discipline. Psychological Moratorium! Ask for recommended texts for literature reviews for undergraduates who are writing an Games Essay honors thesis or for those graduate students working on the defiant, their master’s thesis.

See the list of Spawn Violence contacts on bee reproduction, the University Libraries Web page: http://library.albany.edu/subject/leaders/. Note: Ensure that you follow any instruction from your professor for Video Games Do Not Essay format, content, etc. The books that follow provide background for your literature review work. Please e-mail me titles of other books that have helped you; I will add them to For Life: A Marathon to Raise Money Cancer Essay this list. Hart, C. (1998).

Doing a literature review: Releasing the Do Not Essay, social science research imagination . Bee Reproduction! Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. [University Library H62 H2568X 1998] Hart’s text includes a rubric, Table 1.5, identifying excellent and distinctive work: Criteria for assessing a master’s dissertation. The literature review and evaluation section of this rubric details the criteria that need to be met to be considered outstanding. Per Hart (1998, p. 15), for undergraduate projects, literature reviews are “[E]ssentially descriptive, topic focused; mostly indicative of main, current sources on the topic. Analysis is Video Games Violence Essay of the topic in torvald, terms of justification.” Chapter 2 goes on to a more detailed explanation of the purpose of the review in research. Guidelines for planning work on a literature review are helpful to get started.

Although based in the social sciences, examples with clarifying notes may be applicable to other disciplines. These notes critically examine what works and does not work in the examples provided. Do Not Violence! Machi, L.A., McEvoy, B. T. (2012). The literature review: Six steps to psychological success . Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, Inc. [University Library Reference: LB 1047.3 M33 2012] The focus of the Games Spawn Violence, text is for Health Event graduate students in education and the social sciences who are working on a research project, thesis, or dissertation. Organized in Video Games Spawn Violence, a step-by-step format, the authors outline steps: selecting a topic, searching the on Strategic, literature, developing the Video Violence Essay, argument, critiquing the bee reproduction, literature, and writing the Spawn Violence Essay, review. Each step is torvald developed in Video Games Do Not Spawn, detail in the six book chapters. Elements of the A to Raise Money Cancer Essay, text that provide helpful points of reference include process diagrams, task lists, tips for Video Do Not Spawn Violence Essay researchers new to the process of creating literature reviews, exercises that test the readers’ understanding of steps in the process, key vocabulary definitions, and checklists at the end of each chapter to reinforce tasks described in that chapter. Significant! Ridley, D. (2012). The literature review: A step-by-step guide for Games Spawn Essay students . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. [University Library Reference: LB2369 R525 2012] The Introduction and Chapter 2 of this book define the referencing films, literature review, detail different types of literature reviews and Games Do Not Spawn Violence, their purposes, and describe how these reviews fit into Essay Plans, a student’s research. Video Violence Essay! Many examples illustrate the use of literature reviews in different contexts. Harvard! A significant portion of the text is dedicated to Video Essay research management and tools as well as how and Essay, what to search for Games Do Not Spawn literature review sources.

The section dedicated to writing the literature review includes an harvard referencing films explanation of in-text citations, references, and developing a critical viewpoint. Updated: April 7, 2016. Maintained by Video Games Do Not Essay Jean McLaughlin, University at Albany/SUNY. University Libraries , University at Albany, SUNY. 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany NY 12222 USA. (518) 442-3600. Copyright 2008-2017 University at Albany.

All rights reserved. Page maintained by jmclaughlin - Last updated Thursday, April 7, 2016.

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new media art essay What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Goeffrey Pingree. In the short space of a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at large. It is now obvious to Video anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of communication in general; the very notion of globalization, so consuming in today's world, is predicated on netball components the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and Video Do Not the digital systems and products for which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for most of us the latest communication and information frontier. Part of our experience of digital media is the on Strategic Plans, experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to think of Video, other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples.

We would have no problem citing instances of old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. Fitness Components? But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to understand what it meant for them to be new is a timely and Games Spawn Violence culturally important task, an exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of essays challenges the notion that to study new media is to referencing films study today's new media. All media were once new media; and Video our purpose in these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. We do so, in part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by experiences of bee reproduction, digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of communications. But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the material means and the conceptual modes of new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and question the mythic character and the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to transform.

This collection of essays explores such moments in Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay order to enrich our contemporary perspective on what media are, and on when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in part, to recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and thus to deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the Essay on Strategic, experience of modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for Games Spawn Violence, our project because this period is crucial to understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and fitness components how they do. The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and Do Not Spawn Essay information economies. Thus, the media forms and and Economics Essay practices studied in Games Do Not Spawn this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of newness that attends to all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in on Strategic Plans common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of Video Do Not Essay, diverse media, but also to understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.

1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of Essay on Strategic Plans, media use (which, of Video Do Not Violence, course, derive from bee reproduction, experience with other, established media), by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two. The crisis of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the Video Do Not Spawn Essay, medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for whom and the defiant why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of crisis. Spawn Violence Essay? 2 While it begins with the zograscope and ends in the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in its title. Harvard Referencing Films? Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only Video Games Spawn Essay obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular. Most of the foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for referencing films, very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in relation to those that lived, even the Games Spawn Violence Essay, most bizarre and the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the referencing films, total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to Games receive little attention from historians.

Lacking the Significant Care, validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an attention to Games Essay cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to past new media. Because our understanding of what media are and why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of Emerson Kerns Essay, representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of this kind of Video Spawn, analysis is easy to overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. Harvard? The first trope is the idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors.

From this idea follows the current belief that in the digital age the book is doomed, or, according to the peculiar auguries of earlier times, the Do Not Violence Essay, conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The Defiant? The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the Video Games Do Not Spawn, assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of Essay, their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the experience and the study of media today. Both of Duguid's tropes point to a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and Do Not Spawn Violence (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation. This assumption creates an Emerson and Economics Kerns, interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. Video? They are not, as we think of them, media at all.

A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for example, that a conversation with a friend on the telephone allows for a greater exchange of personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to a large degree, this thinking is persuasive. Referencing? New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is Spawn more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of Significant Care Event, data the exchange involves. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of Games Spawn Violence Essay, media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is Emerson by Alexander Kerns Essay a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from Video Games Spawn, context just won't work. Owing in part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to the defiant portentously as the media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Video Games Do Not? Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to mediate our understanding of their past. In the netball, process, we lose any understanding of the nuanced particulars of specific media.

In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay place a call. Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to on Strategic Plans say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of Spawn Essay, unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and Essay modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by a complex of forces#151;technological, to Games be sure, but also social, economic, and torvald the defiant representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of Video Games Do Not Spawn, these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the harvard referencing, commercially interested definitions spun by Video Games today's media corporations or the fitness, causal plots of technological innovation offered by Video Do Not Spawn some historians. Bee Reproduction? 6 For example, it is undoubtedly important to be able to note, as many scholars have, how the invention of the cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the kinds of things that only a deep analysis of specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.

We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the Games Do Not, emergence of a new medium is always the occasion for referencing, the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of what it does, and for whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the lure of a new medium for any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and Games Do Not Violence Essay negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and potential. Essay Plans? Today, for example, the internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of privacy in a connected age. The same sorts of issues and anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to Games Do Not Spawn Violence shape and the defiant reshape culture. Essays in this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of Video Do Not Spawn, communication mediate among people, pragmatically and conceptually. How do structures of communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?

How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by on Strategic Plans New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an Video Games Do Not Violence, open and diverse interrogation of emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about Emerson and Economics by Alexander Essay, framing: about how particular habits and media of communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in Video Games Do Not Violence Essay relation to competing forms of representation.

We have selected the cases of new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is also about Emerson by Alexander Kerns Essay, how we frame our own discussions of new media, for Video Spawn Essay, if this interrogation of emergent media is genuinely to illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the key terms that are in play in our own discussions and torvald attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in earlier#151;and different#151;contexts. In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often. But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about Spawn Violence Essay, their use and meaning squarely into the discussion itself as it proceeds.

Our use of the word technology is on Strategic a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the term helps organize our thinking about the Games Violence, material, instrumental conditions of modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about technology as a preeminent cause in bee reproduction history. 8 Thus although we rely on Games Do Not Violence this term as an organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from netball fitness, technology to technology as a form of Video Do Not Spawn Essay, convenience), we also wish to and Economics by Alexander Kerns Essay urge particular awareness of its hazards. Likewise with other key critical terms. We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained). Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of Video Games Do Not Essay, a given time and place.

Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to torvald moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of such pervasive concepts in self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the relationship between material and Do Not Spawn idea, between what people think or believe or wish and what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Components? Each of the essays in Video Do Not Spawn Essay the collection thus reveals, in bee reproduction some fashion, the strong relationship between the contexts for some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and Video Games public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on the emergence of bee reproduction, particular visual media (zograscopes, the physiognotrace, and stereoscopes, respectively) and Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay discussing how such media influenced notions of the defiant, individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and Spawn Violence Essay telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in bee reproduction relation to larger communities. All of the authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay enjoy their world are fashioned. Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.

Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). On Strategic? Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the often-mentioned circulation of Video Games Do Not Violence, print media as the basis of the public sphere, instead looking to shared social practices to Significant Care Essay understand how space is visualized. Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into 3-D as they enter the rational and impersonal arena of public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Video Do Not Blake, helps the harvard referencing, public to map itself. Video Games Spawn Violence Essay? Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by Essay its own experiences of both graphic and Video Games political self-representation. By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to Health Care Essay the cartography of the public sphere, showing the Games Essay, ways in which new media are adapted within the torvald, very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to Video Games Do Not Essay transform.

The rules for inclusion, for drawing the boundaries of a public sphere, are less concealed in Essay Plans Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented. Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in the titles of early American newspapers like the Video Do Not Essay, American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to Significant Care Event Essay electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of a national community. What their titles and Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of media conditioned the imagination of Games Do Not Essay, communities.

Newspapers were imagined in circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and paper. To other observers, the telephones that spread to rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and netball fitness components Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of writing and print, while raising questions about the instruments and the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and excommunication. Violence Essay? Although so often the focus of great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the customary arbiters of public intelligence. Nowhere are the unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the Significant Health Care Essay, culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and Video Do Not Spawn Violence Essay accurate representation.

The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the laboratory of British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of vision. Emerson Kerns? To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an Do Not, arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and Emerson by Alexander Kerns positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is. Video Spawn Essay? Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the meaning of what the stereoscope proved. Bee Reproduction? This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of Video Games Spawn Violence, virtual travel, appropriating the Emerson and Economics, world through pictures. At stake was far more than the prestige of Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the Games Spawn Violence, very category of the real, the consensual practices of accurate representation. Assumptions about components, what count as rules, about what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in Games Do Not Spawn Essay describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and torvald the defiant regulate notions of what it means to be human.

Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to learn the language of monkeys and stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and Video Games Spawn Essay linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the course of his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of knowledge deployed in various philosophic and netball scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for Games Spawn, example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and Emerson and Economics Kerns Essay language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and animals. Games Do Not Spawn Violence? Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the Essay on Strategic Plans, human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear.

As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, endeavor to improve on human capabilities. Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of a biologist, media can extend the body and its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and are incorporated by them. 11 Media are designed to fit the netball components, human, the Video Spawn Violence Essay, way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from ear to mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for Essay on Strategic Plans, individuals in the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in various ways to fit media, knowingly and not. Hands physically adjust themselves to different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of who they are. Some of these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of Video Games Do Not Violence Essay, electrical telegraphy in the United States against and within the fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Published during the 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users.

Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in part from the Essay, feminization of the workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to Video Violence explore identity in its relation to the body. In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of their medium unsettled. In other words, the newness of bee reproduction, new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media. 12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Ellen Gruber Garvey and Video Do Not Spawn Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the new represents the old in order to understand more fully the purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and Emerson and Economics Essay periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into Games Spawn Violence Essay new media in the form of scrapbooks. Newness in Emerson Essay this case resonated as much with personal and domestic experiences as it did with public and collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to as gleaning and connects to Do Not Spawn Essay the composition and use of the Web today. Young, on the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of early American cinema, reading filmic representations of telegraphs as only the torvald the defiant, most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different.

As he explains, these media shared a history as the Games Do Not, subjects of technological presentations and Plans electrical spectacles. Video Games Violence Essay? From the start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in the transmission of stories on the wire (that is, by telegraph wire services like the Associated Press) and the other in harvard referencing the projection of stories onto the screen in Games Do Not Essay actualities and protonewsreels. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of Health Essay, media studies by Video Do Not Spawn calling attention to the ways media are experienced and studied as the subjects of the defiant, history. No ten essays can do more than open the question, but opening the question is Video Essay crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the by Alexander, ultimate, the end of media history. Newness deserves a closer look.

To that end, we include a brief section of documents for Games Violence, discussion. Plans? These documents are not illustrations of our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and cultural meanings for media and Do Not promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in this volume, our captions to netball fitness these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the history of media is an Games Violence, ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001.

2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in referencing the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001. 4. Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book, in Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay The Future of the Book , ed. On Strategic Plans? Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and Games the Materiality of Communication , ed. Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the use value of the commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by the collective unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is Emerson Kerns Essay fashion. This semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent.

The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of 'cultural history' in Do Not Violence which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to netball the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and Video Essay Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. Fitness? James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of Games Essay, a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Law the Humanities 13, no. Significant Health? 1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Games Do Not Spawn Essay, Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).

11. Harvard Referencing Films? The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an anachronism applied to new media. As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of Games Do Not Spawn Violence, inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and by Alexander Kerns chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999). 12. The remediation of one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).

As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).

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essay press Note: this Renascence Editions text was transcribed by Risa.S. Games Do Not Spawn! Bear, July 2003, from the Lutrell Society reprint of the edition of 1704. Any errors that have crept into the transcription are the fault of the present publisher. The text is in torvald the public domain. Content unique to Video Violence Essay, this presentation is copyright 2003 the editor and films, The University of Oregon. Video Games Do Not! For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher. Printed in the Year, 1704.

S Ome Persons think that laying a Tax upon Printed News, may be of Service; but in my Opinion, it will only bee reproduction give Encouragement to the News Writers to Games, vent their own Opinions thro'-out England: besides the small Sum that can be raised by it is not worth mentioning. A LL Men pretend the Licentiousness of the Emerson by Alexander Kerns, Press to be a publick Grievance, but it is much easier to say it is so, than to prove it, or prescribe a proper Remedy; nor is it the easiest Grievance to Do Not Spawn Violence, Cure. To put a general stop to publick Printing, would be a check to Learning, a Prohibition of bee reproduction Knowledge, and make Instruction Contraband: And as Printing has been own'd to be the most; useful Invention ever found out, in order to Video Games Spawn Violence, polish the Learned World, make men Polite, and encrease the Knowledge of harvard referencing films Letters, and Games Essay, thereby all useful Arts and Sciences; so the high Perfection of Human Knowledge must be at a stand, Improvements stop, and the Knowledge of Letters decay in netball components the Kingdom, if a general Interruption should be put to the Press. To Restrain the Video Games Do Not, Licentious Extravagance of Authors therefore, and Significant Health Event Essay, bring the Press under Regulations, is the Video Games Spawn, Case before us, and this is for that Reason call'd, An Essay on the Regulation of the Press. 'Twould be endless to examine the Liberty taken by harvard referencing, the Men of Wit in the World, the loose they give themselves in Print, at Religion, at Government, at Scandal; the prodigious looseness of the Violence Essay, Pen, in broaching new Opinions in Religion, as well as in Politicks, are real Scandals to the Nation, and well deserve a Regulation.

No Nation in and Economics by Alexander Essay the Christian World, but ours, would have suffered such Books as Asgill upon Death; Coward against Do Not the Immortality of the bee reproduction, Soul; on Poligamy; against the Trinity; B t 's Theory; and abundance more tending to Atheism, Heresie, and Irreligion, without a publick Censure, nor should the Authors have gone without Censure and Punishment, in any place in Europe , but here. On these accounts, I cannot but agree that a Regulation, or due Restraint of the Press, is Video Do Not Violence a good work. But the next and most material Enquiry is, how shall it be obtain'd? By a License Office, says a Messenger of the Press, that I may be employ'd to make work in the Town, as has been done in Health Event the days of yore. That this is the hopes of a forward Party upon that head, is very plain to make out, but I shall avoid charging any Body, and only proceed to examine what are the proper Consequences of a License to the Press. First , It makes the Press a slave to a Party; let it be which Party it will, I meddle not with that; but whatever Party of Men obtain the Reins of Management, and Violence Essay, have power to Essay, name the Person who shall License the Press, that Party of Men have the Games Violence Essay, whole power of keeping the World in Ignorance, in all matters relating to Religion or Policy, since the Writers of that Party shall have full liberty to impose their Notions upon the World, and if any Man offers to reply, the Licenser shall refuse the netball, Copy. This has been accounted Arbitrary, and not the least Grievance in former Reigns; for Do Not Spawn Violence Essay indeed an absolute submitting the Press to the will of a Licenser, is bringing the Health, whole Trade of Books, and the whole Body of Learning, under the Violence, Arbitrary Power of Mercenary Men. The Labours of the most capable Scholar, the Elaborate Works of the most exquisite Artist, the most Practical Discourse on and Economics Kerns Essay the Divinest Subject, Dissertations and Transactions in all Sciences shall fall to the Ground, and Video Games Spawn Violence Essay, the Student lose his Years of Labour, and the World the Advantage of his Learning and netball fitness, Parts, unless a sum of Mony can be rais'd to bribe a Mercenary Licenser, and a Hackney Messenger.

'Twould be endless to reckon up the many Volumes on all needful Subjects, which were absolutely rejected in the days of the Press's Restriction, when the most Orthodox Divinity was suppress'd, because the Man was not approv'd that wrote it, and a Book was Damn'd for the Author, not the Do Not Violence, Author for the Book. This was a branch of Arbitrary Power in the Government; for in Rightful Governments they do not Tyrannize themselves, but if the Officers are allow'd to impose upon them, Under-Spur-leathers are always the Tyrants; a Government regulated by Laws, and Govern'd according to such Regulations, never willingly put it into the power of any Inferiour Officer to Tyrannize over and Economics by Alexander Kerns Essay, his fellow Subjects. I observe there are sorts of Video Games Spawn Essay people who are willing to promote a general License, and bee reproduction, very studious to defend it; but 'tis plain they are such as promote Principles in Video Spawn Essay Argument, which they can but very sorrily defend; and flattering themselves, from what Grounds I believe they themselves hardly know; that they may obtain a Licenser to Kerns Essay, their Advantage, they suppose from thence a liberty to obtrude their preposterous Notions upon the World, and by favour of a Law and an Arbitrary Licenser, partial to Do Not Spawn Essay, their own Factions, suppress the possibility of torvald the defiant a reply. These people are in the right to Do Not, desire such a thing, as a Licenser; for false and designing Reasoning, requires the support of Power to defend it from the invincible force of Truth and Demonstration. But methinks they should be able to see that the present Government is not so suited to those Principles, as that they should expect: so Arbitrary and unjustifiable an Office should be erected, after so many Years being laid side. The People of England do not believe the bee reproduction, Parliament will make a Law to Spawn, abridge them of that Liberty they should protest, for tho' it were more true than it is, that the netball fitness, Exorbitances of the Press ought to Video Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, be restrain'd, yet I cannot see how the supervising, and passing all the Works of the Learned part of the World by one or a few Men, and giving them an absolute Negative on the Press, can possibly be reconcil'd to the liberty of the English Nation. Laws are often made against the defiant Fa£ls not in them­selves unlawful, but as Convenience and Reason of Games Do Not Violence Essay State requires, and Circumstances may make a thing unfit to Significant Health Care Event, be allow'd in a Country, which would otherwise be no Crime; but in these Cases such Laws are enforc'd by a Penalty, and he that will suffer the Penalty, is always at Liberty to commit the Crime. But in this case a Man is abridg'd of his Liberty, and must not do this or that, whether it Transgresses the Law or no. For Example, a person having Writ a Book, brings it to one or other Licenser, the Video Games Essay, Law is not express that such a Book shall not appear in the World, there is no Crime committed, but the Book shall be Damn'd in its Womb, not because any thing in it is offensive to the Government, Irreligious, Blasphemous, or any other way Criminal, not because 'tis a Book unfit to appear, but because Mr. Licenser does not please to like it.

I know no Nation in the World, whose Government is not perfectly Despotick, that ever makes preventive Laws, 'tis enough to make Laws to punish Crimes when they are committed, and not to put it in Health Care the power of any single Man, on pretence of preventing Offences to commit worse. Even the Laws against Video Games Do Not Violence Theft and Murther, do not say they shall not commit the Crime, but if they do, they shall be so and so punish'd. 'Tis for the Commands of God to say, Thou shat not do this or that, Kill, Steal, commit Adultery, and the like; but Man can only Essay say, if any Man shall wilfully do this, or that, commit this or that Crime, he shall suffer such or such Pains, and Games Do Not Spawn Violence, Penalties; and films, some are of opinion, all men have a Native right, as to Human Liberty , to commit any Fact, if they submit to the penalty which the Video Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, Law inflicts; for as to its being a sin against God, the Laws have nothing to say to that, and as to a sin against Civil Government, there can be no such thing as a Crime till the Fact is netball components committed, and therefore to anticipate the Man by Laws, before the Crime, is to abridge him of his Liberty without a Crime, and so make a Punishment without a Transgression, which is illegal in its own Nature, and Arbitrary in the most intense degree. It might not be improper here to Examine what particular Inconveniences attend such a Law in our present Case, and upon what just Grounds I except against. 1. I object against it as the first step to restore Arbitrary Power in this Nation, and the worst way of restoring it, viz . by a Law. For to go back again to that which we once complain'd of as Arbitrary, is a tacit acknowledging the former Complaint to be groundless, and giving us cause to think that there's more steps of that Nature to Video Spawn, be introduc'd. 'Tis ill making Precedents in cases so dangerous, where the Liberty of a Nation is the defiant concern'd; and I cannot doubt but our wise Legislators will consider what the Consequences of Video yielding in the least point of the Subjects Priviledges are, and we have always found them very tender of the least; punctilio's of that great Fundamental, the Peoples Liberty. 'Tis needless to quote Cases, the general practice of the House of Significant Care Essay Commons, ever since the liberty of the Subject, was to secure the English freedom, and Do Not Spawn, carefully to watch against torvald all Encroachments of any sort, either from without or from any Parties among themselves. 2. 'Tis a Foundation of Spawn Frauds, Briberies, and and Economics by Alexander Kerns Essay, all the ill practices possible; the absolute conduct of so considerable an Article, being committed to the Breast of a few Men, every part of their proceedings are Arbitrary and Unreasonable: Nay, even when he passes a Book that ought to be pass'd, yet 'tis Arbitrary in him, because he passes it not because it ought so to Video Spawn Violence Essay, be pass'd, but because he has receiv'd some Perquisite, Gratuity, or other Argument to prevail upon him to do it.

Take this Licenser without a Fee, and fancy an Author brings a Copy to him, suppose of Divinity, and where is the Book against which he can find no excuse, tho' Penn'd with never so much caution? here it reflects upon the Church, there upon the Government; this seems to Plans, look asquint on such an Article of the Church of England , that at Video Spawn Essay, too much a Ceremony in Emerson and Economics by Alexander Kerns Essay the Liturgy and Video Games Violence Essay, Rubrick, and he cannot allow it to be Publish'd; but send him the next morning two or three Guineas , and you have the Imprimatur at Essay, first word. Suppose it be a Book of Games Violence Essay Politicks, then this Sentence is harvard referencing a reflection on this great Man, that on Essay another, this may signifie the Parliament, that the King or Queen, but still the Guineas sets it all to right again, the Gold makes the Book Orthodox and Plans, Loyal, and private Constructive Objections vanish in the Mist raised before his Eyes by the Mony. Then suppose this or that Licenser, a Party-Man, that is, One put in, and upheld by a Party; suppose him of any Party, which you please, and Spawn, a Man of the opposite bee reproduction, Kidney, brings him a Book, he views the Character of the Violence, Man, O , says he, I know the Author, he is a damn'd Whig, or a rank Jacobite, I'll License none of his Writings ; here is Bribery on one Hand, partiality to Parties on Essay on Strategic the other; but get a Man of his own Kidney to own the Games Violence, very same Book, and as he refus'd it without opening before, he is as easie to pass it now, not for the Good or Ill in the Book, but on both Hands for the Character of the Author. There is Emerson and Economics Kerns Essay another Engine of Fraud comes in to Video Games Spawn Violence Essay, make up this Complication of Frauds, and ill Practices, and that is the Messenger of the Press, and this serves for Emerson and Economics the Receiver, while the Games Violence Essay, t'other is the Thf, and he takes the Fees, and the Licenser does the Work, and so casting up together they bring all to an Account of Profit and Emerson and Economics by Alexander Kerns, Loss. Video Games Do Not Essay! This is the Broker of the Press, the Stock-jobber of the Emerson by Alexander Essay, License-Office; he Talks with you, and Video Essay, Treats with any Body to get a Book Licensed, and Essay Plans, Rates his Fees as he finds the Person more or less Obnoxious to his Master, or his Party. This is a New Mouse-Trap, and Video Violence Essay, he that will come into the Press must expect to be catch'd in it, and then in a little Time all the force of the Emerson by Alexander Kerns, Law, so far as design'd against Games Do Not the Exorbitance of the Pen is Evaded and Eluded, all revolves in the Bribery and Villainy of Officers and the defiant, Licensers, the Video Games Spawn Violence, Law looks like a Phantome of the Health Event Essay, Brain, made for one Man in an Age to raise a Fortune by, and he must turn Round to Video Games Violence, perform it. These Things have often been consider'd in Parliament, and have been the true Reasons why our Wise Representers, tho' willing enough to Restrain any undue Liberty, yet have always avoided this Pernitious Remedy, as a thing of much worse Consequence to the Constitution and Privileges of Englishmen , than the Licentiousness of the Press can be to the Government.

To Cure the ill Use of Liberty, with a Deprivation of Liberty, is like cutting off the Leg to cure the Gout in the Toe, like expelling Poison with too Rank a Poison, where both may struggle which Poison shall prevail, but which soever prevails, the Patient suffers. If the Exorbitance of some few People in Printing Seditious and Dangerous Books, must Abridge all the Men of Learning in the Nation of their Liberty in Printing, what after exceeding toil and unwearied Pains they are willing to Communicate to Posterity, then who will Study, who will breed up their Children to Letters, when all the Fruits of their Labours are liable to the Blast of the Arbitrary Breath of Mercenary Men. By such a Law, a Fellow of no Letters, of Knowledge too little to fit him for a Ballad-Singer, shall be Capable of Tyrannizing over the whole World of Learning, and no Book can see the Light without his leave, when after a Man has wrote enough to have all the World acknowledge him, and such a Work, which in some Countries he would have sufficient Gratification for, here he shall not bestow it on the World, without putting himself to the Charge of Bribing the Licenser, and so cannot give them his Labour, but he must give them his Money too. In this very thing the King of by Alexander France out does all the Princes of Europe , where such Encouragement is given to Video Games Violence Essay, Learning, that all useful Books in the World now speak French , and Significant Health Care, a Man may be an Video Games Do Not Spawn Violence, Universal Schollar, read Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and all the Antient Poets; Cicero, Plato, Epictetus, Aristotle, and all the Antient Philosophers; St. Athanasius , St. Augustine , and all the Primitive Fathers; Plutarch, Livy, and all the Antient Historians, and yet neither understand a Word of Greek or Latin , and pray let us Examine if ever the Press has been Restrain 'd to on Strategic, the Absolute Power of Video Games Essay a Licenser or Reviser, on the contrary all the Significant Health, Liberty and Encouragement imaginable has been given to the Press, all the Abbies, and publick Libraries in the Kingdom are oblig'd to take One, and when any Author has publish'd an Video Spawn Violence Essay, Extraordinary Piece, the King himself has thought fit to reward him with a Magnificence, peculiar to the Pride and State of the French Court. But this Liberty has been the Life of Learning, and ever since Cardinal Richlieu Erected the Royal Academy, no Nation in the World ever flourish'd in Learning like them. The English Nation has always carried a figure equal to their Neighbours, as to all sorts of Learning, and in some very much superior, and tho' without all those Encouragements, have not yet sunk their Character that way. But we cannot say that Learning is grown to such a height that it needs a Check, that it wants a Tyrant of the Press to govern it: Knowledge is much Improv'd, 'tis confess'd, but the World is not so over-run with Letters, that it should be Tax'd as a Vice, and Laws made to Suppress the little Degrees of it, that are attain'd to. What those Gentlemen propose to themselves who are so forward to procure, or at least so eagerly plead for this Padlock to the Press, I cannot imagine, unless it be that they have some grounds to hope they shall keep the Key. And what can the netball fitness, design of that Power be?

If it be that they would have the Advantage to Print what they please, and that the adverse Party should not have the Video Do Not Spawn Essay, liberty of the Press to Reply, is a sign the Emerson and Economics by Alexander Kerns, Cause they Embark in is not to be Defended, and Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, will not bear an Answer, and if it be that that they would have no Writing at all, but such points as they are doubtful in, 'tis an Unquestionable Argument that their Cause won't bear Canvasing, and that the less 'tis Examined into, the better for them. Some People have an bee reproduction, Arrogance peculiar to themselves, and can venture things into the World upon the Reputation of Games Do Not Spawn a bold Expression, presuming, no Man will venture Examination after the positive Assertion of their Pen. If these Gentlemen are so full of torvald Assurance, Anglicè , Impudence, as to affirm things without Ground, when other Men as well Read as themselves, are at their Elbows to Confute them, to Video Games Do Not Violence Essay, Examine their Authorities and reprove them when they Act without Authority; what work would such Men as these make in the World with their Cause, if this Padlock of the Press was set on by the Laws, and they were to Emerson and Economics by Alexander Kerns Essay, keep the Key, that is, in short, if they had a full License to vent their Notions, and the Law should place a Sentinel of their own at the Door of the Press, that no Man but he that had the Word should come there. We should have more Wise Nations quoted upon us for things no Nation ever did, and Precedents brought in by Wholesale, without any other Authority than the Imprimatur of the Party. New and Old Association-Men might then cry out of Rebellion in Scotland , from the Presbyterian , and make the World believe the Cameronians were up in Arms there to restore Episcopacy . Boys may beat Men if their Hands were Ty'd; if the Hands of a Party are ever Ty'd up by a Law of Licensing, 'tis not then who talks Sense, or Matter of Fact, nor who has the best of the Argument, nor who can say most to the purpose, but who shall be Licensed to speak what he has to say, and who not, who shall Talk, and Essay, who shall hold his Tongue. This I take to be the true state of the Case, and if it be so, I leave it to any body to judge, whether a License of the Press can be consistent either with the Encouragement due to Learning, the Event Essay, Liberty of this Nation, the Reason of the thing, or the Reputation of any Party who desire it. It remains to Enquire, First, Is it then fit the Licentiousness of the Press should be Unrestrain'd? And Secondly, How shall it be done?

To the First I reply. Licentiousness of all sorts ought to be Restrain'd, whether of the Games Violence, Tongue, the Pen, the Press, or any thing else, and it were well if all sorts of Licentiousness were as easy to Govern as this; but to Regulate this Evil by an Evil ten times more pernicious, is doing us no service at all. 'Tis apparent the Injury done to the whole Nation, by Emerson and Economics Kerns Essay, severely Punishing small things, and letting more substantial Grievances alone, is what there has been Cause to Games Spawn Essay, Complain of. There are Parties in all our Justice and Crimes have, or have not been Punish'd, as Parties and Sides have Govern'd. But I am not going to write a Satyr on Government, several has paid Dear enough for that; to netball components, give me Notice what is to be expected from such a Liberty; as 'tis in all the World so it has too much been here, where there are Powers and Parties always struggling, there must be a Byass of Justice as this or that Side prevails.

But 'tis pitty the Video Do Not Spawn Essay, Press should come into a Party-strife: This is like two Parties going to War, and one depriving the other of all their Powder and Shot. Ammunition stands always Neuter, or rather, Jack a both Sides, every body has it, and films, then they get the Victory who have most Courage to use it, and Games Spawn, Conduct to manage it. And thus 'tis in the Press, with submission to Powers, this I think is a just Consequence from Reason, that since this Nation is the defiant unhappily Divided into Parties, every Side ought to Games Do Not, have an equal Advantage in the use of the Press, and this can never be in Case of Licensing; for whatsoever Party assumes the Power of placing this Paper Magistrate, will, in effect, have an Exclusive Power over the Press, to give their Friends a full liberty of Affirming , and to refuse the other Side the liberty of Replying . Now, as our Legislation cannot be said to harvard referencing films, be of Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay any Party, because they are Whole; so they cannot make a Law which can be equal to the Whole, while it gives the Power to any one Party. It cannot be prov'd, that any one Party has more Right, as a Party , to Publish any thing than another, and therefore cannot in Justice have more liberty given them to do it: For no Man can justly Demand an Exclusive Power, where he had no precedent Right. Besides, 'tis a Scandal both to the Merit of a Cause, and the Wit of the Managers, that any Party shou'd fly to the defiant, the Law to suppress his Adversary's Pen.

If two Men fall Out, and one having struck the other, the Video Games Do Not Essay, Person who receiv'd the Blow instead of Significant Fighting him goes to Law with him for the Assault. 'Tis a natural Consequence for all Men to believe such a Man was afraid to Games Do Not Spawn, Fight; either he was a Coward in bee reproduction his Nature, or he thought himself over-matcht, and his Enemy would be too hard for him. So where a Party flies to Games Violence, the Engine of the Law to prevent their Opponent's appearing in Print, it looks like a Confession that they would have the Advantage, if the Liberty was not Restrain'd by the Law. But then to have a Law which should be so Circumstanc'd, as that one Party shall Write and bee reproduction, Print, and the other shall not, this has a further Scandal in Video Spawn Violence Essay it, it not only Confesses superiority in the Enemy Suppressor, but seems to have something base in the Party, like getting two Men to hold a Man while I Beat him. The Grand Question then seems thus, You own the Liberty of the Press ought to be restrain'd, but you are of the Opinion a Licence is Arbitrary and Unequal.

How then would you have the end Answer'd? 'Tis not for me to direct the Legislative Authority, nor do these Sheets pretend to it, but to me the properest Methods seem to be such as follow. 1. To make an Act that no Man shall, by Writing or by netball, Printing, Argue, Dispute, Reflect upon, or pretend to Vindicate such and Video Spawn Essay, such Points, Persons, Bodies, Members, c. of the bee reproduction, State or the Church, or of any other Matter or Thing as the Law shall mention, and they will be such as the Law-makers see proper to Do Not Spawn, insert. 2. That if any shall presume to do so, they shall be punish'd in such or such a Manner. By the first, all Men will know when they Trangress, which at present, they do not; for as the Case now stands, 'tis in the Breast of the Courts of Justice to torvald the defiant, make any Book a Scandalous and Games, Seditious Libel, and harvard referencing, nothing is more ridiculous than the Letter of an Indictment in such Cases, and the Jury being accounted only Judges of Evidence, Judges of Fact, and not of the Nature of it, the Video Games Do Not Spawn, Judges are thereby Unlimited.

In the Case of Mr. Delaun , who was Indicted at the Old Baily, for Writing a Book, call'd, A Plea for the Nonconformists, says the Indictment, and the said Delaun did then, and there by Force and Arms write the aforesaid Scandalous and Seditious Book, against the Peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Crown and Dignity, which are the Significant Health Event, actual Words in most Indictments of that nature. All these Evils would be Obviated, and Men might know when they Transgress, and when they do not. Laws in their Original Design are not made to draw Men into Crimes, but to prevent Crimes; Laws are Buoys set upon dangerous Places under Water, to warn Mankind, that such Sands or Rocks are there, and the Language of them is, Come here at your Peril. The Crime of an Author is Video Games Do Not not known; and I think verily no Book can be wrote so warily, but that if the Author be brought on his Tryal, it shall be easy for a cunning Lawyer, ay for bee reproduction a Lawyer of no great Cunning, to put an Innuendo upon his Meaning, and Spawn Essay, make some Part of it Criminal. Thus it was in the Case of B axter's Comment upon the New Teflament; Algernon Sidney's Answer to Sir Robert Filmer; De Laun's Plea for the Nonconformists; Anderton's two Books; and so it may be with this Book, or the best in the World. Now since there are Dangers thus conceal'd in the Law, and no Man can tell when he offends, 'twould be a wholsome Piece of Justice to all the Nation, to place a Buoy on the Rock, and harvard, whoever splits on it afterwards would deserve no pity. Such a Law would be a sufficient Restraint to the Exorbitance of the Press, for Do Not Spawn Essay then the Crime would be plain, and Men would be afraid of committing it. Whereas the present uncertainty of the Crime seems to and Economics by Alexander, be the greatest Occasion of the Crime, for Men are apt to be bold in a Thing which they cannot find expressly Condemn'd by the Letter of the Law. Secondly , As the Crime may be stated, so may the Punishment, and then no Man can be at the Mercy of Video Spawn Essay arbitrary Men; no Sidneys will be found to have Sentence revers'd, and Attainders taken off; no De Launs die in Prison under Exorbitant Fines; no post Factum's, no Complaint can be made by the Person offending, because they know what they were to trust to.

And above all, the End of restraining the Press would be obtain'd by it; for when Men know both the Crime and on Strategic, the Punishment, they would be much more wary of the one for fear of the other. I humbly conceive, the uncertainty of both at present, is the real, if not the only Ground of the Licentiousness of the Press. Games! When I am told the present Liberty of the Press is a Grievance, I must say, the reason is plain, 'tis because there is a Liberty, and no Law to Essay on Strategic, ascertain the Fact. But let the Law adjust the Crime, and tie it to the Penalty, that Authors may know what to trust to; there needs no Licenser to pick Men's Pockets, permit Crimes when he is paid for them, and refuse useful and valuable Books if he is not fee'd. But here remains a Question unanswer'd, that in other Cases is Video Games Essay not usual. There are many ways to by Alexander, commit this Crime, and lie conceal'd; the Crime may be committed, and the Malefactor hard to be found, and Do Not, therefore the Licensing the Press was thought necessary to fitness components, prevent the Fact, because when committed, the Video Spawn, Offender is not easily brought to the defiant, Justice. This is easily answered, and the Parliament has thought fit, in two Cases, to make a Precedent that exactly reaches the Case, and they are, first , in the Case of buying stolen Goods; and the other is, in putting off, or exchanging counterfeit Money; both which, tho' Accessaries to the Crime, are now made equally Criminal with the Principal, if knowingly done. If in the Case of the Do Not Spawn Violence, Press, a Law be made to make the last Seller the Author, unless the Name of Author, Printer, or Bookseller, be affix'd to the Book, then no Book can be published, but there will be some body found to answer for it. Whoever puts a false Name, to bee reproduction, forfeit. . Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay! . . c . Nor can this be thought hard upon the Seller of the Book, because as he knows the netball components, Consequence, no Bookseller will be so foolish as to sell any Book that has not the Name of some Printer, Bookseller, or Author affix'd to the Title; and so this Law will answer two Ends together; be a means to prevent the Crime, and fix the Offender if it be committed.

If the Name of the Author, or of the Printer, or of the Bookseller, for whom it is printed, be affix'd, every Man is safe that sells a Book; but if not, then no Man will sell it, but he that hath some private Reason for propagating what the Book treats of, and such a Man has some Title to pass for the Author. I place the Excellency of a Law very much, as before, in the Power and Efficacy it has to prevent the Crime; and the Justice of that Law can never be plainer, than when the Fact is ascertain'd, the Penalty settled, and Video Games Spawn Essay, the Criminal describ'd: No Man can then be Guilty, but he that is wilfully and knowingly so, and netball components, whoever is Games Do Not Spawn Violence so, let him suffer, no Man will be concern'd for him. All the Excuse that ever I could meet with for a Licenser, was built upon the Difficulty of discovering the true Author of a Book, and the Difficulty being such, that no Laws could easily be made effectual, to fix the Writer of any thing, they found room for Essay Plans the Stratagem of a Licenser. I call it an Excuse for it, because 'tis plain, the Licenser was not found out as a Remedy for the Evil: But the Design of a Licenser being first resolv'd on, the pretended Difficulty was made a Handle to introduce the new Engine into the World, and place this Monarch of the Video Games, Press, as a Tyrant to exercise his absolute Authority over the World of Letters, and so suppress one Mischief by another. But leaving the Press in the full Enjoyment of all its just Liberties, and answer all these Ends, while 'tis yet fenc'd about with due Restriction of Laws, every Man may have a full Freedom of promoting the Extent of Learning, exercising his Parts, defending his Arguments, and Care Essay, answering his Adversary, and yet at the same time will know how far he may go with safety, and when he transgresses : If any Man then gives offence, he knows it, and what he must expect; if any Man does thus offend, the Law knows the Video Games Spawn Violence Essay, Offender, and how to punish him: All things would run in the open free Course of Laws. Bee Reproduction! Criminals and Laws, Offences and Punishment are due Opposites, and ought always to stand in view of one another. If the Video Games Spawn Violence Essay, Punishment or the netball components, Law is conceal'd from the Offender, he is Video Violence trapann'd into the Crime to his Destruction, when he knows nothing of the Matter, and Significant Care Event Essay, the Law is made a Gin or Snare to hook him into Punishment, which is contrary to the Nature of Laws, and the Practice of all just Governments. A Law therefore to settle what an Author may or may not do, to bring the Offences of the Pen to a Regulation, and then to annex the Punishment to Video Essay, the Crime, would bring all this Matter to Care, a Square. Authors would be known as soon as the Book, because this Law would oblige the Video Do Not Spawn Essay, Printer or Bookseller to place the films, Author's Name in the Title, or himself.

Nor is it the small Advantage of this Law, to have the Punishment of Authors adjusted; for I know nothing in which our Laws have been executed with a greater Irregularity, no Crime has been punish'd with such improper Punishments, such arbitrary Latitude, or such inconsistent Variety. In other Cases we have Crimes and Punishments link'd together; if a Man robs a House, counterfeits the Coin, or kills a Man, he knows what he has to trust to, but Authors have never known their Punishment: We have had the very same Crime punish'd with trifling Fines of Video Games Twenty Shillings, and exorbitant Fines of a Thousand Marks, and yet the Twenty-Shilling-Man hath the greatest Guilt; writing of a Book has been punish'd with Fines, Whippings, Pillories, Imprisonment for Life, Halters and Axes: How 'tis possible the torvald, Guilt of the Pen can extend to merit all these several Penalties, is a thing I never met with a Lawyer yet that could resolve. There must be something else than Law in the Case; when I shall commit an Video Games Do Not Violence, Offence, and be fin'd 20 Mark, or perhaps less; another, for the same Crime, shall not be prosecuted at all; another hang'd or beheaded. All the World cannot shew me a Crime punished by such unequal Variety, where the Kerns Essay, Crime is the same in Kind, and Video Spawn, can only differ in Circumstances; nor is it possible those Circumstances can have so much Variety, such unusual Distance in their Nature, as there has been in the Punishments; but all this comes from the Law having left the and Economics Kerns Essay, Punishment unsettled, and plac'd it in the unlimited Judgments of Men. This Law would also put a Stop to a certain sort of Thieving which is now in full practice in England , and which no Law extends to punish, viz . some Printers and Booksellers printing Copies none of their own.

This is really a most: injurious piece of Violence, and Spawn Essay, a Grievance to all Mankind; for it not only robs their Neighbour of their jusT: Right, but it robs Men of the due Reward of Industry, the Prize of Learning, and the Benefit of their Studies; in bee reproduction the next Place, it robs the Reader, by printing Copies of Video Games Do Not other Men uncorrect and imperfect, making surreptitious and spurious Collections, and bee reproduction, innumerable Errors, by which the Design of the Author is often inverted, conceal'd, or destroy'd, and the Information the World would reap by a curious and well studied Discourse, is dwindled into Video Games Do Not Spawn Violence Confusion and Nonsense. 'Twere endless to instance in the Mischiefs which have been done of harvard referencing films this kind. Video! An Author prints a Book, whether on a Civil or Religious Subject, Philosophy, History, or any Subject, if it be a large Volume, it shall be immediately abridgd by netball components, some mercenary Bookseller, employing a Hackney-writer, who shall give such a contrary Turn to the Sense, such a false Idea of the Design, and Video Do Not Violence, so huddle Matters of the greatest Consequence to­gether in abrupt Generals, that no greater Wrong can be done to the Subject; thus the sale of films a Volume of twenty Shillings is Do Not Spawn Violence Essay spoil'd, by perswading People that the Substance of the Book is contain'd in the Summary of 4 s . price, the bee reproduction, Under-taker is ruin'd, the Reader impos'd upon, and the Author's perhaps 20 Years Labour lost and undervalued : I refer my Reader, for the Truth of this, to the several Abridgments of the Turkish History, Josephus, Baxter's Life, and the like. I think in Justice, no Man has a Right to make any Abridgment of a Book, but the Proprietor of the Book; and I am sure no Man can be so well qualified for Games Do Not Spawn Violence Essay the doing it, as the Author, if alive, because no Man can be capable of knowing the true Sense of the Design, or of harvard giving it a due Turn like him that compos'd it. This is the first Sort of the Press-Piracy, the next is pirating Books in smaller Print, and meaner Paper, in order to Video Games Do Not Spawn Essay, sell them lower than the bee reproduction, first Impression. Thus as soon as a Book is publish'd by Video Spawn, the Author, a raskally Fellow buys it, and immediately falls to work upon it, and bee reproduction, if it was a Book of a Crown, he will contract it so as to sell it for two Shillings, a Book of three Shillings for one Shilling, a Pamphlet of a Shilling, for 2 d . a Six-penny Book in a penny Sheet, and the like. This is down-right robbing on the High-way, or cutting a Purse, (were they not afraid of their Deserts) is a Ruin to Do Not Spawn Violence Essay, Trade, a Discouragement to Learning, and the Shame of a well mannag'd Government.

The Law we are upon, effectually suppresses this most villainous Practice, for every Author being oblig'd to Emerson by Alexander Essay, set his Name to the Book he writes, has, by this Law, an Video Games Do Not Violence Essay, undoubted exclusive Right to the Property of it. The Clause in the Law is a Patent to fitness, the Author, and settles the Propriety of the Work wholly in himself, or in Video Spawn Violence such to whom he shall assign it; and 'tis reasonable it should be so: For if an Author has not the right of a Book, after he has made it, and the benefit be not his own, and the Law will not protect him in that Benefit, 'twould be very hard the Law should pretend to punish him for torvald the defiant it. 'Twould be unaccountably severe, to make a Man answerable for the Miscarriages of a thing which he shall not reap the Video, benefit of if well perform'd; there is Significant Health Care no Law so much wanting in the Nation, relating to Trade and Civil Property, as this, nor is there a greater Abuse in any Civil Employment, than the printing of other Mens Copies, every jot as unjust as lying with their Wives, and Video Spawn Violence Essay, breaking-up their Houses. This Grievance a Licenser will never remedy; nay these People who aft them in bee reproduction secret, and Video Games, without Principles, are out of the reach of a Licenser, for they value not the Law, are unaccountable themselves , and have their Hawkers and Mannagers under them. But if an Essay Plans, Author has a Right of Action given him by Law, not against him only who shall print his Copy, but against the Publisher of it also; and this Law being made full and express, the Evil will die, for no body will dare to sell the Book, when the vilainous Pirate has finish'd the Impression.

It has been objected against such a Regulation of the Press, That it will fill the Do Not Essay, Town with scandalous Lampoons and torvald the defiant, Pasquinadoes , which will be handed about in manuscript, and do as much harm as Printing. To this I must answer, A Restraint upon the Press will do so, and always did; and I appeal to any Man's Judgment, to Video Games Do Not Spawn Violence, shew me a time when ever the Town swarm'd with things of that Nature, as it did in King Charles the on Strategic, Second's Time, King James 's, and some part of Video Spawn Essay King William 's, when the Press was under the Essay, Government of Video Spawn a Licenser, and Emerson and Economics Kerns, therefore this Law can no way be more instrumental to Video Games Spawn, it than that was, nor I think will not be so much. I can see no further Objection against my Opinion, and shall be very willing to consider it when I meet with it; in the mean time, if any one can propose a better Method, more agreeable to the Justice of the Nation, and netball components, more effectual to all the Ends that are needful to Spawn Essay, be consider'd, I hope he will not be discourag'd by this Essay, from making the Proposal.