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The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy. Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy , tablet:The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy , mobile:The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy ' The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy. Last updated: February 2, 2017. The Coca-Cola Company is committed to protecting your personal information. We have developed this Resume/CV Submission Policy (the “Policy”) to inform you of how The Coca-Cola Company (referred to as “Coca-Cola” or “we”) will use your personal information that we gather during the application/recruiting process regardless whether you have submitted such information through the effects online job search, job application functions of The Importance of Sex Education Home Essay our Careers section (the “Section”), or we obtain them through other means including without limitation through interviews, through third party recruiting agencies, and from public domain (collectively referred to as “Personal Information”).
Submitting your personal information is entirely voluntary. However, if you choose not to band 6 modern essay submit your personal information, this may limit our ability to consider your candidacy. Please read this Policy carefully. What types of effects information does this Policy cover? This Policy covers any personal information you submit through our Section, including through our online job search tool or to one of the email addresses provided in huckleberry finn, the Section, as part of the job application or job search process that includes without limitation: name, address, telephone number, email address, other contact information; log-in and password; CV, resume, cover letter, previous work experience/history including salary and primacy and recency effects allowance, education, transcripts; employment preferences, willingness to Utilitarianism "Hard Essay example relocate, desired salary, marital status and family information; results of your assessments, if applicable and; how you heard about the primacy position, and information relating to references.
If you intend to band history essay provide us with details of a reference or any other third party as part of your CV/ resume, it is your responsibility to obtain consent from that third party prior to passing their personal information to us. You are responsible for primacy and recency effects the content of the band essay information you provide to primacy and recency us either directly or indirectly through an agent and you must ensure it is death of a, legal, honest, truthful, accurate and not misleading in primacy and recency, any way. You must ensure that the information provided by you does not contain material that is obscene, blasphemous, defamatory, infringing on any rights of any third party, or otherwise legally actionable by such third party. How will the personal information be used? The personal information you submit here will be used for the following purposes: To assess your capabilities and qualifications for of serotonin a job; To conduct reference checks; To develop questionnaires and interview scenarios; To conduct background checks if you are offered a job; To use as a reference data for future candidate if you are offered a job; To create and effects submit reports as required by law or regulation; and To contact you about The Importance of Sex Education in Schools and at Home, career opportunities.
If you become an employee, any personal information that you submit may become a part of your file and and recency effects may be used for Utilitarianism Times" Essay example other employment/work-related purposes. Who may access your data? The personal information may be stored in primacy and recency, the United States (and in relevant jurisdiction(s) if the job is with a Coca-Cola entity outside of the satire finn United States) and will be reviewed by employees and consultants of Coca-Cola in order to evaluate your qualifications and experience for and recency effects existing or future job opportunities with our organization. A list of The Coca-Cola Company's subsidiaries may be found here. The Coca-Cola Company will remain responsible for the personal information collected. In addition, we have contracted with Peopleclick, Inc. to provide us with an online recruitment tool that enables us to manage our recruitment process more efficiently. Peopleclick, Inc. collects and of a naturalist maintains Coca-Cola's recruiting database for some geographic regions according to primacy our instructions.
Coca-Cola works with third parties who provide services to us and we may share personal information about you with those third parties, including without limitation: Web site hosting or information technology consulting services; Web site management; data analysis; data storage; recruiting services; legal services; accounting services; and Utilitarianism in Dickens' example other administrative and primacy back-up and satire finn security services. The Coca-Cola Company will take appropriate technical, organizational, and effects legal steps to secure your personal information. Does Coca-Cola keep your data? United States Federal law requires Coca-Cola to retain information of candidates applying for healthworks easington jobs within the United States. Personal information of effects candidates applying for jobs in of Sex Education Home, other parts of the world will be retained in accordance with local law. Primacy And Recency Effects! We will retain information you submit to consider you for naturalist other jobs for which you may be qualified. And Recency Effects! If you would prefer that we not retain your information for such purposes, please let us know by band 6 modern, contacting us as indicated below. We may delete your personal information at any time (including your CV/resume), without any reason. Therefore, you should retain your own copy of the primacy personal information provided to us. If you are using our online job search tool, you can access, review, and change some of the personal information collected about you and stored in “My Account” by logging into the Section. The updated profile will be used the next time you apply for a job using your account online.
To change personal information that you already have submitted for consideration for a specific position, please resubmit your application to update personal information about Times" example, you that is primacy effects, associated with that job application. We encourage you to promptly update your personal information if it changes or is inaccurate. Of Sex Education In Schools And At Essay! Upon your request, we will deactivate or remove your personally identifiable information from effects our active databases, although some information may be retained as permitted or required by law. For those persons submitting information in of a, Europe: By agreeing to this Policy, you agree to and recency the transfer of personally identifiable information about an undersupply, you to countries outside the European Economic Area (EEA). Coca-Cola will take appropriate technical, organizational, and legal steps to secure personally identifiable information about you. Diversity and Equal Employment Opportunity.
The Coca-Cola Company is an equal opportunity employer, which means we offer equal treatment to all applicants. The Coca-Cola Company prohibits discrimination, directly or indirectly, on the basis of race, gender, color, national origin, religion, marital status, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity and / or expression, genetic information, veteran status or any other classification protected by primacy effects, applicable law (“Protected Information”) in any area of recruitment. In some countries we ask applicants for Protected Information for the purpose of in Dickens' Essay example monitoring equal opportunity. Primacy And Recency! This information will be recorded and separated from your application before the an undersupply of serotonin selection process begins. In some countries we ask our applicants for Protected Information where this information is primacy effects, required by local law (e.g., ethnic origin will be requested of applicants in South Africa). If you have a disability and would like to indicate as part of your application any relevant effects of satire huckleberry your disability and any adjustment which you consider should reasonably be made to the process to assist your application, please do so in the relevant field during the application process. To the primacy and recency extent the personally identifiable information you provide contains details of your: racial or ethnic origin; political opinions or beliefs; religious beliefs; membership in satire finn, a trade union or political party; physical or mental health or condition; sexual orientation; commission (or alleged commission) of an effects, offense or related proceedings; job evaluations or educational records, you expressly authorize The Coca-Cola Company to handle such details for the purposes of your job application. No Offer of Employment. This Policy does not constitute an offer or promise of employment with respect to 6 modern history essay any employment position posted or described on this Section or with any third party services. Coca-Cola may eliminate, modify or change without notice any aspect(s) of the employment positions, compensation, and benefit plans described herein. Our websites and and recency related third party job sites provides descriptions of easington possible roles within Coca-Cola, which should not be interpreted as binding offers, terms or conditions of employment.
Any employment offer that may follow as a result of the identification of a potential opportunity by a user, or submission of information to primacy effects Coca-Cola, is in accordance with the Times" Essay specific terms of that offer, and not based in any way upon the description of the opportunity on our websites and related third party job sites. Law Applicable to primacy Job Application. Our websites allows you to apply for jobs based in countries (or territories) other than the country where you are resident or from satire which you make your application. Job opportunities posted on primacy and recency our websites will be governed by band 6 modern, the laws of the country where the job is located. By applying for a job through The Coca-Cola Company or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, you accept that (i) the laws of the country where the job is located will have exclusive jurisdiction over any disputes arising from your application; (ii) the laws of the primacy effects country where the job is located shall apply to your application; and (iii) Coca-Cola, including the local Coca-Cola entities in the country you submitted your application from, is not responsible or liable for the prerequisites or limitations your application is of a, subject to under the laws of the country where the and recency job is located.
This Policy is not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person or entity in any jurisdiction or country where such distribution or use would be contrary to 6 modern essay local law or regulation. Changes to this Policy. We may change this Policy from time to primacy and recency effects time. All changes to this Policy are effective after they are initially posted on our website. If you do not agree to "Hard Times" Essay example the changes, please contact us to deactivate your account. You can always tell when we have last updated the Policy by and recency effects, checking in the “Last Updated” line at the beginning of this Policy. Please feel free to satire huckleberry ask us questions concerning our jobs database system and this Policy.
Questions and requests related to primacy your personal information may be directed to of serotonin the postal address listed below or contact us online and primacy and recency we will respond to such requests in accordance with applicable law. Please do not submit your resume via the Contact Us form (link in previous sentence) or the easington mailing address below as you cannot be considered for employment opportunities unless you submit your resume through the primacy and recency effects Careers area of The Coca-Cola Company website. The Coca-Cola Company. Atlanta, GA, USA 30301. COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ,tablet: COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ,mobile: COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ' COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL. Coca-Cola Journey,tablet:About Coca-Cola Journey,mobile:About Coca-Cola Journey'About Coca-Cola Journey. California Transparency in Supply Chain Act. The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is the world’s largest beverage company, offering over 500 brands to people in more than 200 countries. Of our 21 billion-dollar brands, 19 are available in lower- or no-sugar options to help people moderate their consumption of added sugar. In addition to our namesake Coca-Cola drinks, some of our leading brands around the world include: AdeS soy-based beverages, Ayataka green tea, Dasani waters, Del Valle juices and nectars, Fanta, Georgia coffee, Gold Peak teas and in Dickens' coffees, Honest Tea, Minute Maid juices, Powerade sports drinks, Simply juices, smartwater, Sprite, vitaminwater, and Zico coconut water.
At Coca-Cola , we’re serious about making positive contributions to primacy and recency the world. That starts with reducing sugar in our drinks and continuing to introduce new ones with added benefits. It also means continuously working to of serotonin reduce our environmental impact, creating rewarding careers for our associates and bringing economic opportunity wherever we operate. Together with our bottling partners, we employ more than 700,000 people around the world.
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An Essay on the Principle of Population. The following Essay owes its origin to a conversation with a friend, on the subject of Mr. Godwin's Essay, on avarice and profusion, in his Enquirer. The discussion, started the general question of the future improvement of society; and the Author at first sat down with an intention of merely stating his thoughts to his friend, upon paper, in a clearer manner than he thought he could do in conversation. But as the subject opened upon him, some ideas occurred, which he did not recollect to effects, have met with before; and as he conceived, that every, the least light, on a topic so generally interesting, might be received with candour, he determined to put his thoughts in a form for publication. The Essay might, undoubtedly, have been rendered much more complete by a collection of a greater number of facts in elucidation of the general argument. But a long and almost total interruption, from very particular business, joined to a desire (perhaps imprudent) of not delaying the publication much beyond the time that he originally proposed, prevented the Author from giving to the subject an undivided attention. He presumes, however, that the facts which he has adduced, will be found, to form no inconsiderable evidence for the truth of his opinion respecting the future improvement of mankind. As the Author contemplates this opinion at present, little more appears to satire huckleberry finn, him to be necessary than a plain statement, in primacy and recency addition to the most cursory view of society, to band history, establish it.
It is an obvious truth, which has been taken notice of by many writers, that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer, that the Author recollects, has inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected: and primacy it is The Importance of Sex Education, a view of these means, which forms, to his mind, the strongest obstacle in primacy the way to any very great future improvement of society. He hopes it will appear that, in the discussion of this interesting subject, he is actuated solely by a love of history truth; and not by any prejudices against any particular set of men, or of opinions. He professes to have read some of the speculations on primacy and recency the future improvement of Education in Schools society, in a temper very different from a wish to find them visionary; but he has not acquired that command over his understanding which would enable him to believe what he wishes, without evidence, or to refuse his assent to what might be unpleasing, when accompanied with evidence. The view which he has given of human life has a melancholy hue; but he feels conscious, that he has drawn these dark tints, from a conviction that they are really in the picture; and and recency not from a jaundiced eye or an inherent spleen of disposition. The theory of of serotonin mind which he has sketched in the two last chapters, accounts to his own understanding in a satisfactory manner, for the existence of most of the evils of life; but whether it will have the same effect upon others, must be left to effects, the judgement of history his readers. If he should succeed in drawing the attention of more able men, to what he conceives to be the principal difficulty in the way to the improvement of society, and should, in consequence, see this difficulty removed, even in theory, he will gladly retract his present opinions and rejoice in a conviction of and recency his error. Question stated#x2014;Little prospect of a determination of it, from the enmity of the opposing parties#x2014;The principal argument against the perfectibility of man and of society has never been fairly answered#x2014;Nature of the difficulty arising from population#x2014;Outline of the principal argument of the essay. The great and unlooked for discoveries that have taken place of late years in natural philosophy; the increasing diffusion of general knowledge from the extension of the art of printing; the ardent and unshackled spirit of inquiry that prevails throughout the lettered and even unlettered world; the new and extraordinary lights that have been thrown on political subjects, which dazzle, and astonish the understanding; and particularly that tremendous phenomenon in the political horizon the French Revolution, which, like a blazing comet, seems destined either to inspire with fresh life and vigour, or to scorch up and destroy the shrinking inhabitants of the earth, have all concurred to Utilitarianism, lead many able men into the opinion that we were touching on a period big with the most important changes, changes that would in some measure be decisive of the future fate of primacy mankind. It has been said that the great question is now at issue, whether man shall henceforth start forwards with accelerated velocity towards illimitable, and hitherto unconceived improvement; or be condemned to a perpetual oscillation between happiness and misery, and after every effort remain still at an immeasurable distance from the wished-for goal. Yet, anxiously as every friend of mankind must look forwards to the termination of this painful suspense, and eagerly as the inquiring mind would hail every ray of light that might assist its view into futurity, it is much to be lamented that the writers on each side of this momentous question still keep far aloof from each other. Their mutual arguments do not meet with a candid examination.
The question is not brought to satire finn, rest on fewer points; and and recency even in theory scarcely seems to be approaching to of serotonin, a decision. The advocate for the present order of things, is apt to treat the sect of speculative philosophers either as a set of artful and designing knaves, who preach up ardent benevolence, and draw captivating pictures of primacy effects a happier state of society only the better to enable them to destroy the present establishments and to forward their own deep-laid schemes of ambition: or as wild and an undersupply mad-headed enthusiasts whose silly speculations and absurd paradoxes, are not worthy the attention of any reasonable man. The advocate for the perfectibility of man, and of society, retorts on the defender of establishments a more than equal contempt. He brands him as the slave of the most miserable and narrow prejudices; or as the defender of the abuses of effects civil society only because he profits by them. He paints him either as a character who prostitutes his understanding to his interest; or as one whose powers of mind are not of easington a size to grasp any thing great and noble; who cannot see above five yards before him; and primacy and recency effects who must therefore be utterly unable to take in the views of the enlightened benefactor of mankind. In this unamicable contest, the cause of truth cannot but suffer. The really good arguments on each side of the question are not allowed to have their proper weight. Each pursues his own theory, little solicitous to correct, or improve it, by an attention to what is of serotonin, advanced by his opponents.
The friend of the present order of and recency effects things condemns all political speculations in the gross. He will not even condescend to examine the grounds from which the perfectibility of society is inferred. Much less will he give himself the trouble in a fair and candid manner to attempt an exposition of their fallacy. The speculative philosopher equally offends against death of a naturalist the cause of truth. With eyes fixed on a happier state of society, the blessings of which he paints in the most captivating colours, he allows himself to indulge in the most bitter invectives against every present establishment, without applying his talents to consider the effects, best and safest means of removing abuses and without seeming to be aware of the tremendous obstacles that threaten, even in an undersupply of serotonin theory, to oppose the progress of man towards perfection. It is an acknowledged truth in philosophy, that a just theory will always be confirmed by primacy effects experiment. Yet so much friction, and so many minute circumstances occur in practice, which it is next to easington, impossible for the most enlarged and penetrating mind to foresee, that on few subjects can any theory be pronounced just, that has not stood the test of experience. And Recency? But an untried theory cannot fairly be advanced as probably, much less as just, till all the arguments against it have been maturely weighed, and clearly and consistently refuted.
I have read some of the speculations on the perfectibility of man and of society with great pleasure. I have been warmed and delighted with the enchanting picture which they hold forth. I ardently wish for such happy improvements. But I see great, and, to my understanding, unconquerable difficulties in the way to them. These difficulties it is my present purpose to state; declaring, at the same time, that so far from exulting in them, as a cause of triumph over the friends of band 6 modern history innovation, nothing would give me greater pleasure than to see them completely removed. Primacy? The most important argument that I shall adduce is in Dickens' "Hard Times" example, certainly not new. The principles on which it depends have been explained in part by primacy and recency effects Hume, and more at Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Times" Essay, large by Dr. Adam Smith. And Recency? It has been advanced and applied to the present subject, though not with its proper weight, or in the most forcible point of history view, by Mr. Wallace, and it may probably have been stated by many writers that I have never met with.
I should certainly therefore not think of primacy and recency effects advancing it again, though I mean to Utilitarianism Essay example, place it in a point of view in some degree different from any that I have hitherto seen, if it had ever been fairly and primacy effects satisfactorily answered. The cause of this neglect on death of a the part of the advocates for the perfectibility of mankind, is not easily accounted for. I cannot doubt the talents of such men as Godwin and Condorcet. I am unwilling to doubt their candour. To my understanding, and probably to that of most others, the difficulty appears insurmountable. Primacy And Recency? Yet these men of acknowledged ability and penetration scarcely deign to notice it, and hold on their course in such speculations, with unabated ardour and undiminished confidence. I have certainly no right to say that they purposely shut their eyes to such arguments. I ought rather to Utilitarianism Times", doubt the validity of them, when neglected by such men, however forcibly their truth may strike my own mind. Yet in primacy and recency this respect it must be acknowledged that we are all of us too prone to err. If I saw a glass of wine repeatedly presented to a man, and he took no notice of it, I should be apt to think that he was blind or uncivil.
A juster philosophy might teach me rather to death of a naturalist, think that my eyes deceived me, and that the primacy effects, offer was not really what I conceived it to be. In entering upon the argument I must premise that I put out of the question, at healthworks, present, all mere conjectures; that is, all suppositions, the probable realization of which cannot be inferred upon any just philosophical grounds. A writer may tell me that he thinks man will ultimately become an and recency, ostrich. I cannot properly contradict him. But before he can expect to bring any reasonable person over to his opinion, he ought to shew that the necks of mankind have been gradually elongating; that the lips have grown harder and more prominent; that the legs and feet are daily altering their shape; and Utilitarianism Times" that the hair is beginning to change into stubs of feathers. And till the probability of so wonderful a conversion can be shewn, it is surely lost time and lost eloquence to expatiate on the happiness of man in such a state; to describe his powers, both of running and flying; to paint him in a condition where all narrow luxuries would be contemned; where he would be employed only in collecting the primacy and recency, necessaries of life; and where, consequently, each man's share of labour would be light, and band 6 modern essay his portion of leisure ample. I think I may fairly make two postulata.
First, That food is necessary to the existence of man. Secondly, That the passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present state. These two laws, ever since we have had any knowledge of mankind, appear to have been fixed laws of our nature; and, as we have not hitherto seen any alteration in them, we have no right to conclude that they will ever cease to be what they now are, without an immediate act of primacy and recency effects power in that Being who first arranged the system of the universe; and for band 6 modern essay the advantage of his creatures, still executes, according to fixed laws, all its various operations. I do not know that any writer has supposed that on this earth man will ultimately be able to live without food. But Mr. Godwin has conjectured that the passion between the sexes may in time be extinguished. As, however, he calls this part of his work a deviation into the land of conjecture, I will not dwell longer upon it at present than to primacy and recency, say that the best arguments for the perfectibility of man, are drawn from a contemplation of the great progress that he has already made from the savage state, and the difficulty of easington saying where he is to stop. But towards the extinction of the passion between the and recency, sexes, no progress whatever has hitherto been made.
It appears to exist in as much force at present as it did two thousand or four thousand years ago. There are individual exceptions now as there always have been. Huckleberry Finn? But, as these exceptions do not appear to increase in number, it would surely be a very unphilosophical mode of effects arguing, to infer merely from the existence of an Utilitarianism Times", exception, that the exception would, in time, become the rule, and the rule the exception. Assuming then, my postulata as granted, I say, that the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man. Primacy And Recency? Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will shew the immensity of the first power in comparison of the easington, second.
By that law of our nature which makes food necessary to the life of primacy man, the in Dickens' "Hard Times" Essay example, effects of these two unequal powers must be kept equal. This implies a strong and constantly operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence. This difficulty must fall somewhere; and must necessarily be severely felt by a large portion of mankind. Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms, nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the primacy and recency effects, most profuse and liberal hand. She has been comparatively sparing in the room and history essay the nourishment necessary to rear them. The germs of existence contained in this spot of earth, with ample food, and effects ample room to expand in, would fill millions of of a worlds in the course of a few thousand years. Necessity, that imperious all pervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds. The race of and recency plants, and the race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it. Among plants and animals its effects are waste of seed, sickness, and premature death.
Among mankind, misery and vice. The former, misery, is an absolutely necessary consequence of it. Vice is a highly probable consequence, and band 6 modern history we therefore see it abundantly prevail; but it ought not, perhaps, to be called an absolutely necessary consequence. And Recency? The ordeal of virtue is to resist all temptation to healthworks, evil. Primacy Effects? This natural inequality of the two powers of population, and healthworks easington of production in the earth, and that great law of our nature which must constantly keep their effects equal, form the primacy and recency, great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in the way to the perfectibility of society. All other arguments are of slight and subordinate consideration in comparison of this. I see no way by which man can escape from the weight of this law which pervades all animated nature. No fancied equality, no agrarian regulations in their utmost extent, could remove the pressure of it even for a single century. And it appears, therefore, to be decisive against the possible existence of band 6 modern a society, all the members of which, should live in and recency ease, happiness, and comparative leisure; and feel no anxiety about providing the means of an undersupply of serotonin subsistence for themselves and effects families. Consequently, if the premises are just, the argument is an undersupply, conclusive against the perfectibility of the mass of mankind. I have thus sketched the general outline of the argument; but I will examine it more particularly; and I think it will be found that experience, the true source and foundation of all knowledge, invariably confirms its truth.
The different ratios in which population and food increase#x2014;The necessary effects of these different ratios of increase#x2014;Oscillation produced by them in the condition of the lower classes of society#x2014;Reasons why this oscillation has not been so much observed as might be expected#x2014;Three propositions on primacy and recency effects which the Education and at Essay, general argument of the essay depends#x2014;The different states in which mankind have been known to exist proposed to be examined with reference to these three propositions. I said that population, when unchecked, increased in a geometrical ratio; and subsistence for man in an arithmetical ratio. Let us examine whether this position be just. I think it will be allowed, that no state has hitherto existed (at least that we have any account of) where the manners were so pure and simple, and the means of subsistence so abundant, that no check whatever has existed to and recency, early marriages; among the lower classes, from a fear of not providing well for essay their families; or among the higher classes, from a fear of lowering their condition in primacy and recency life. Consequently in no state that we have yet known has the power of population been left to exert itself with perfect freedom. Whether the law of marriage be instituted, or not, the dictate of nature and virtue, seems to be an early attachment to one woman. Supposing a liberty of changing in the case of an unfortunate choice, this liberty would not affect population till it arose to a height greatly vicious; and we are now supposing the Utilitarianism "Hard, existence of a society where vice is scarcely known.
In a state therefore of great equality and virtue, where pure and simple manners prevailed, and where the means of subsistence were so abundant, that no part of the society could have any fears about providing amply for and recency a family, the satire huckleberry, power of population being left to exert itself unchecked, the increase of the human species would evidently be much greater than any increase that has been hitherto known. In the United States of America, where the means of subsistence have been more ample, the manners of the people more pure, and consequently the checks to early marriages fewer, than in any of the primacy and recency, modern states of Europe, the population has been found to double itself in twenty-five years. This ratio of increase, though short of the utmost power of population, yet as the result of actual experience, we will take as our rule; and say, That population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years or increases in a geometrical ratio. Healthworks Easington? Let us now take any spot of earth, this Island for instance, and see in what ratio the and recency, subsistence it affords can be supposed to increase. We will begin with it under its present state of cultivation. If I allow that by the best possible policy, by breaking up more land and by great encouragements to agriculture, the produce of this Island may be doubled in the first twenty-five years, I think it will be allowing as much as any person can well demand. In the next twenty-five years, it is an undersupply of serotonin, impossible to suppose that the produce could be quadrupled. It would be contrary to all our knowledge of the qualities of land. The very utmost that we can conceive, is, that the increase in the second twenty-five years might equal the present produce. Let us then take this for our rule, though certainly far beyond the truth; and allow that, by great exertion, the whole produce of the Island might be increased every twenty-five years, by a quantity of subsistence equal to what it at present produces.
The most enthusiastic speculator cannot suppose a greater increase than this. In a few centuries it would make every acre of land in the Island like a garden. Yet this ratio of and recency effects increase is evidently arithmetical. It may be fairly said, therefore, that the band 6 modern history, means of subsistence increase in primacy and recency effects an arithmetical ratio. Let us now bring the effects of these two ratios together. The population of the in Schools Essay, Island is computed to be about seven Millions; and we will suppose the present produce equal to the support of such a number. In the first twenty-five years the population would be fourteen millions; and the food being also doubled, the effects, means of subsistence would be equal to this increase. In the next twenty-five years the "Hard Times" Essay, population would be twenty-eight millions; and primacy and recency effects the means of subsistence only equal to the support of twenty-one millions.
In the of serotonin, next period, the population would be fifty-six millions, and the means of subsistence just sufficient for half that number. And at the conclusion of the first century the population would be one hundred and twelve millions and the means of primacy and recency subsistence only equal to the support of thirty-five millions; which would leave a population of seventy-seven millions totally unprovided for. A great emigration necessarily implies unhappiness of some kind or other in 6 modern the country that is deserted. For few persons will leave their families, connections, friends, and native land, to seek a settlement in untried foreign climes, without some strong subsisting causes of uneasiness where they are, or the hope of some great advantages in the place to which they are going. Effects? But to make the argument more general and less interrupted by the partial views of emigration, let us take the whole earth, instead of huckleberry finn one spot, and suppose that the restraints to population were universally removed.
If the subsistence for man that the earth affords was to effects, be increased every twenty-five years by a quantity equal to what the whole world at healthworks easington, present produces; this would allow the power of production in and recency the earth to be absolutely unlimited, and Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Essay its ratio of increase much greater than we can conceive that any possible exertions of mankind could make it. Taking the population of the world at any number, a thousand millions, for instance, the human species would increase in the ratio of#x2014;1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, c. and subsistence as#x2014;1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, c. In two centuries and a quarter, the population would be to the means of subsistence as 512 to 10: in and recency three centuries as 4096 to 13; and in two thousand years the The Importance of Sex Education in Schools and at Home, difference would be almost incalculable, though the produce in that time would have increased to an immense extent. No limits whatever are placed to the productions of the earth; they may increase for ever and be greater than any assignable quantity; yet still the power of population being a power of a superior order, the increase of the human species can only be kept commensurate to the increase of the means of subsistence, by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity acting as a check upon the greater power. The effects of this check remain now to effects, be considered. Among plants and animals the view of the history essay, subject is primacy, simple. They are all impelled by healthworks a powerful instinct to the increase of their species; and this instinct is interrupted by no reasoning, or doubts about providing for their offspring. Wherever therefore there is primacy, liberty, the power of increase is "Hard Times" Essay, exerted; and the superabundant effects are repressed afterwards by want of and recency effects room and nourishment, which is healthworks, common to primacy, animals and plants; and among animals by becoming the prey of others. The effects of in Dickens' Times" example this check on man are more complicated. Impelled to the increase of his species by an equally powerful instinct, reason interrupts his career, and asks him whether he may not bring beings into the world, for whom he cannot provide the means of subsistence. In a state of equality, this would be the simple question. In the primacy, present state of society, other considerations occur.
Will he not lower his rank in life? Will he not subject himself to greater difficulties than he at present feels? Will he not be obliged to labour harder? and Utilitarianism Times" Essay if he has a large family, will his utmost exertions enable him to support them? May he not see his offspring in rags and misery, and clamouring for bread that he cannot give them? And may he not be reduced to primacy and recency effects, the grating necessity of forfeiting his independence, and of being obliged to the sparing hand of The Importance charity for support? These considerations are calculated to prevent, and and recency certainly do prevent, a very great number in all civilized nations from The Importance of Sex Home Essay pursuing the dictate of nature in an early attachment to one woman. And this restraint almost necessarily, though not absolutely so, produces vice. Yet in all societies, even those that are most vicious, the tendency to a virtuous attachment is so strong that there is a constant effort towards an increase of population.
This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to and recency effects, prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition. The way in which these effects are produced seems to be this. We will suppose the easington, means of subsistence in any country just equal to effects, the easy support of its inhabitants. The constant effort towards population, which is found to act even in the most vicious societies, increases the number of people before the means of subsistence are increased. The food therefore which before supported seven millions, must now be divided among seven millions and a half or eight millions.
The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the proportion of the of a, work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease; while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to primacy and recency, rise. The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. During this season of distress, the discouragements to marriage, and easington the difficulty of rearing a family are so great, that population is at a stand. In the mean time the cheapness of labour, the plenty of labourers, and the necessity of an increased industry amongst them, encourage cultivators to employ more labour upon their land; to turn up fresh soil, and to and recency effects, manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage; till ultimately the means of subsistence become in the same proportion to the population as at the period from which we set out. The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the The Importance of Sex in Schools and at Home, restraints to population are in some degree loosened; and the same retrograde and progressive movements with respect to happiness are repeated. This sort of oscillation will not be remarked by superficial Observers; and it may be difficult even for the most penetrating mind to calculate its periods. Yet that in all old states some such vibration does exist; though from primacy and recency various transverse causes, in healthworks a much less marked, and in a much more irregular manner than I have described it, no reflecting man who considers the subject deeply can well doubt. Many reasons occur why this oscillation has been less obvious, and less decidedly confirmed by experience, than might naturally be expected. One principal reason is, that the histories of mankind that we possess, are histories only of the higher classes. We have but few accounts that can be depended upon of the primacy effects, manners and The Importance of Sex and at Home customs of that part of mankind, where these retrograde and progressive movements chiefly take place.
A satisfactory history of and recency this kind, of Times" Essay example one people, and of one period, would require the constant and minute attention of an observing mind during a long life. Some of the objects of and recency effects inquiry would be, in what proportion to the number of adults was the number of marriages: to what extent vicious customs prevailed in consequence of the restraints upon healthworks, matrimony: what was the comparative mortality among the children of the most distressed part of the community, and those who lived rather more at their ease: what were the variations in the real price of and recency effects labour: and what were the observable differences in the state of the lower classes of society with respect to ease and happiness, at different times during a certain period. Such a history would tend greatly to elucidate the manner in of serotonin which the constant check upon and recency effects, population acts; and would probably prove the existence of the retrograde and progressive movements that have been mentioned; though the times of their vibrations must necessarily be rendered irregular, from the operation of many interrupting causes; such as, the introduction or failure of certain manufactures: a greater or less prevalent spirit of agricultural enterprize: years of plenty, or years of scarcity: wars and pestilence: poor laws: the invention of huckleberry finn processes for shortening labour without the proportional extension of the market for the commodity: and, particularly, the difference between the and recency, nominal and real price of labour; a circumstance, which has perhaps more than any other, contributed to conceal this oscillation from common view. It very rarely happens that the huckleberry finn, nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same, while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually increasing. Effects? This is, in effect, a real fall in the price of huckleberry labour; and during this period, the condition of the lower orders of the community must gradually grow worse and primacy and recency effects worse.
But the farmers and capitalists are growing rich from the real cheapness of labour. Satire Huckleberry? Their increased capitals enable them to employ a greater number of men. Work therefore may be plentiful; and the price of labour would consequently rise. But the want of freedom in the market of labour, which occurs more or less in all communities, either from parish laws, or the primacy, more general cause of the facility of combination among the rich, and its difficulty among the poor, operates to of Sex Education, prevent the price of labour from rising at the natural period, and keeps it down some time longer; perhaps till a year of scarcity, when the clamour is too loud, and and recency the necessity too apparent to be resisted. The true cause of the advance in the price of labour is huckleberry, thus Concealed; and primacy and recency the rich affect to satire finn, grant it as an act of effects compassion and band favour to the poor, in consideration of a year of scarcity; and when plenty returns, indulge themselves in the most unreasonable of all complaints, that the price does not again fall; when a little reflection would shew them that it must have risen long before but from an effects, unjust conspiracy of their own. But though the rich by unfair combinations, contribute frequently to prolong a season of distress among the poor; yet no possible form of society could prevent the almost constant action of in Dickens' "Hard Times" example misery upon a great part of and recency effects mankind, if in a state of inequality, and upon all, if all were equal. The theory on which the an undersupply, truth of this position depends appears to primacy and recency effects, me so extremely clear; that I feel at a loss to conjecture what part of it can be denied. That population cannot increase without the means of of Sex Education Home Subsistence, is a proposition so evident, that it needs no illustration. That population does invariably increase, where there are the means of subsistence, the history of primacy and recency effects every people that have ever existed will abundantly prove.
And, that the of serotonin, superior power of population cannot be checked, without producing misery or vice, the primacy, ample portion of these too bitter ingredients in of serotonin the cup of human life, and the continuance of the physical causes that seem to have produced them, bear too convincing a testimony. But in order more fully to ascertain the validity of these three propositions, let us examine the different states in which mankind have been known to exist. Even a cursory review will, I think, be sufficient to convince us, that these propositions are incontrovertible truths.
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clutter essay all rights reserved. AHR is published in PDF and Print-on-Demand format by ANU E Press. ‘You're all crazy. Every one of you. Primacy Effects? You just sit here, in your cosy little house, with your cold sodas and your Facebook pages, like it all matters. Like it's even real. Band? But it's not! It's all going to burn and and recency effects you're going to satire huckleberry be nothing but bleached skulls. Don't you get it?
You're dead! All of primacy effects, you are dead!' (Riley in ‘Strange Things Happen') Procrastinating one Sunday, I set aside a pile of print-outs from on-line media stories on the perils and inanities of Facebook and settled in for a serious read of the South China Morning Post (in hard copy, of course, with hot coffee on the side). You may need to know this great newspaper to appreciate my shock at finding therein a sententious editorial about Facebook (‘Facebook no substitute for of Sex and at Home Essay real world contact'). While it is a Murdoch property, criticised at times for a willingness to accommodate the pressures of Beijing, the SCMP is still a hard news-focussed paper, full of serious analysis of events around the world: it does not feature frothy columnists, and celebrity wardrobe malfunctions rarely make the and recency front page. Yet here, with no context beyond a slight story about phishing attacks on Facebook, was one of those loopy, furious moral blares that in recent years I have come to associate with Australian newspapers: ‘there is 6 modern essay, always superficiality to networking on the Web', the primacy and recency effects writer opined.
If Facebook ‘perhaps' helps us keep in essay touch with friends in faraway places, ‘making new friends and maintaining old friendships requires effort, emotional commitment and contact in the real world. Facebook is no substitute for face time'. My print-out collection is full of attempts like this to adjudicate what is and isn't real in the lives of hundreds of millions of primacy and recency, people. Many of these pieces must be written (I surmise) by stressed-out journalists with no more access than I have to lots of personal ‘face time'. As a Facebook user whose loved ones are often very far away, of course I disagree with the editorial's premises; anyone who thinks that social networking is a ‘superficial' matter of clicking should explain to me (to begin with) in just what world the effort of making a photo album for friends and family does not involve emotional commitment; and in what kind of real world it counts as an evasion of contact to in Dickens' "Hard Essay have an on-line party, or to send gifts, humour and primacy and recency effects words of comfort or affection to healthworks people across space and time. It would have to be a world without regard for writing and reading, obviously: no love of letters, no emotional responses to and recency effects rock art and of serotonin cathedrals; no crying over novels and poems, either. Come to think of it, it might be a world without great newspapers (a prospect which some pundits no doubt have uncomfortably in mind). Irritating as media grizzles about the and recency failings of mediation may be (and the locution ‘face time' bears witness to The Importance Education their sentimentality; what happened to the rest of the body?), I do not save these articles in order to disagree with them. For one thing, they're not that rational. Strong affect sprays about effects when older media attack new media that threaten their markets, and in particular when Murdoch newspapers wage culturally high-toned war on just those social networking sites that have been thumping MySpace, the site belonging to their proprietor (see Knight). Of A? A couple of weeks before the primacy SCMP stooped to conquer Facebook (and a month before the use of Twitter to death naturalist get news out in Tehran became a global story), the and recency effects on-line Australian gloated, ‘Time is Up for Twitter'.
Hooking to a story that 60 per The Importance of Sex Home Essay, cent of new users give up tweeting within a month, this spiteful piece compared ‘transitory technologies' to swine influenza; people ‘build up resistance' to primacy and recency effects ‘diseases that must mutate to infect ever most hosts' before ‘spluttering out'. Utilitarianism "Hard? Print, in contrast, is a ‘robust and portable' technology, ‘information rich and never crashes—the platform for and recency effects the online information age [sic] that you are reading now'. If the part about robustness and portability is true enough (while bringing to The Importance Essay mind old jokes about the excellence of primacy and recency effects, newsprint for Education and at Essay wrapping fish and chips), the primacy platform punch-line makes no sense except as a syntactically mangled blur of techno-clichés. There was a time—in another economy and before Mr. Murdoch himself took the lead in reducing jobs in print news production—when any half-way decent sub-editor would have killed such a clause stone dead. What really interests me is the stories that older media (including television and easington the on-line versions of print media) tell about social networking, and the slightly nutty fervour that so often drives the telling.
Given the primacy and recency now mainstream success of social networking sites, with people friending and following their Nannas and of a with Barack Obama's 2008 election campaign symbolically marking a new era of global-popular participation on-line, the commentariat are, in part, caught up in an apocalyptic moment of primacy, their own rhetorical making; in journalistic as in policy spruiking usage, new media talk has long proclaimed that one set of innovations will displace another—‘death' of print, ‘end' of the book. As anyone who works with media should know, reality is more complex. With technological change, old media find new uses or are reinvented interactively with new ones; arguably the most influential medium for politics in healthworks Australia at the end of the twentieth century was a telephone-radio hybrid, ‘talk-back radio'. And Recency? This is not to dismiss the sense of crisis engulfing the profession of journalism, especially investigative reporting (Davies; Nichols and McChesney). 1 However, at Education and at Home Essay, the user's end their relative cheapness and accessibility to ordinary people continues to give old media a key role in narrating the and recency effects advent of social changes related to new technology, and in shaping at of serotonin, least some of the initial popular understanding of primacy, new technologies themselves: once upon healthworks, a time, people acquired their first ‘memories' of cyberspace from a novel, William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984). I am by no means a new media scholar and my participation in on-line culture is enthusiastic only within a very limited zone. I love Facebook and YouTube, enjoy msn with a couple of close friends, barely tolerate Skype, quickly feel nauseous surfing the web and loathe email with a passion. However, since all media are mixed in their cultural make-up and primacy effects social uses, it behoves me as a student of history in popular culture to observe how the tales being told of new media at any given time draw on familiar generic and rhetorical reserves that help render change intelligible to us as a mode of continuity. An example of this and one of my favourite Facebook put-downs is the outburst quoted above from Riley, the satire huckleberry undercover girl from the future in the second season of the Fox network TV series, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles.
Cracking under the strain of and recency, impersonating an alienated, pre-Judgment Day American teenager, Riley wheels on her bemused foster family in band the kitchen one day and, with four viciously delivered metonyms (‘just sit here', ‘cosy little house', ‘cold sodas', ‘Facebook pages'), pours scorn all over their lives. In this moment, Facebook is absorbed into the store of belittling stereotypes of mindless suburban complacency that print media, film and, superbly, television (the suburban medium par excellence), have been producing—and donating to primacy and recency effects critical culture—for more than fifty years. A swelling number of Facebook stories is available on-line. Naturalist? When I drafted this paper in early November 2008, Google recorded 747 million Web-wide mentions of MySpace (with 5,050,000 in Australia); 580 million for Facebook (5,060,000); and 104 million for the more specialised Second Life (but only 648,000 from Australia). I didn't think then of primacy and recency, checking Twitter. By 19 May 2009, the respective figures were 858 million for an undersupply of serotonin MySpace (22 million in primacy and recency Australia); one and quarter billion for Facebook (37,500,000 in Australia); 177 million for Second Life (25,700,000 in Australia, a significant increase); and 511 million for Twitter (15,100,000 in Australia). There is no way of interpreting what the relative changes mean, or how many finger-wagging Murdoch editorials the Facebook numbers include, but the size of the overall increase in just a few months is impressive. At the same time, it has become rare for in Dickens' Essay example a day to primacy effects go by without the Utilitarianism example major Australian newspapers featuring on-line at least one Facebook or Twitter story. Sporadic checks while I was writing pulled up stories including a ‘teen' saved from suicide by a Facebook friend, Facebook and cyber-bullying in girls' schools, Facebook and primacy sexual ‘recruitment' for NRL players, Facebook as a tool for Arab militants recruiting spies against satire Israel, the uses and pitfalls of Facebook for primacy small business, and Facebook as a haven for Holocaust deniers. While forming a very small part of the on-line discussion of social networking sites, these stories arise from news media efforts not only to healthworks easington catch a wave of popular interest while reporting actual incidents but also to primacy effects shape collective perceptions of a wider phenomenon.
In the process, journalists often draw on of a naturalist their rich professional reserves of reductively metonymic realism (‘setting the scene', the and recency effects ‘character sketch') to cast social network users as types whose ways of acting are symptomatic or productive of diverse social ills: alongside terrorists and sexual predators there are always students uploading their mobile pics of in Dickens' "Hard Times" example, boorishly drunken parties, ‘stupid girls' sharing every detail of their vapid daily routines, and workers who boast about bludging but forget that they've friended their boss. As in primacy effects folklore, each of these figures is sustained by a dense field of concrete examples both stellar (Hugh Grant and essay Bono for Facebook party uploads, MySpace's Paris Hilton or Twitter's Ashton Kutcher for cosmic triviality) and ‘it-could-be-you' mundane (Kyle Doyle's ‘SICKIE WOO' Facebook status update). 2 Simultaneously grounded in and abstracted from the real history of on-line culture, such figures ‘stick' in media memory, powerfully eliciting recognition (the party animal, the princess, the primacy and recency slack worker) while drawing attention away from a myriad other practices thriving on healthworks easington the sites. Stereotypes are forms of and recency effects, apprehension rather than bad representations, and their force is to mobilize familiar knowledge to death explain and absorb unfamiliar experience (Morris, Identity 143-44). While the limitations of a morphological critique of popular culture have been argued many times (Morris, Too Soon ; Morse), formal typing is a generative principle in popular culture itself. Media editorializing thrives on it and, as hard news-gathering receded as a journalistic practice during the Howard era, the primacy and recency effects readily available technique of consensus assertion through type (‘the' ethnic lobby, ‘the' Aboriginal industry, ‘the' politically correct) organized columns of what became in history essay those years a major genre of Australian social debate: grizzling, or ‘fretful complaint'.
The fretfulness is important. Most of the grizzling that made it to press or to air in Howard's day was majoritarian complaint about the perduring cultural power of social minorities (Morris, Too Soon 219-33), and primacy and recency the Macquarie Dictionary reminds us that the first meaning of ‘grizzle' is ‘to become grey', a metonym of ageing and thus (in this social logic) of fading power. When I call you a grizzler, or when we ‘have a good grizzle' together, more is involved than naming the act of complaint. The idea of grizzling includes an evaluation of the finn act itself as ineffective except at and recency, the level of emotional release. The release itself may be strong: grizzling is more aggressive than the also annoying but more pathetic acts of whingeing and 6 modern history essay whining. Grizzlers may have a bit of right on their side: when my Nanna said, ‘stop whingeing', she meant, ‘don't be a sook', while ‘stop grizzling' meant, ‘all right, now shut up and get on with it'. But the release is devalued as inadequate to the real or imagined provocation; to primacy effects call a speech act ‘grizzling' suggests a helpless as well as reiterative mode of criticism. ‘Facebook no substitute for an undersupply of serotonin real world contact' is a grizzle in this sense. Primacy Effects? What on earth is supposed to follow from a declaration like that? If parents are being incited to pull the The Importance of Sex Education in Schools and at Home Essay plug on their children, or to seize their mobile phones, will millions of primacy effects, adults also rush off-line to chat in a neighbouring office or across the Times" back fence? What would happen in the ‘real world' of our working lives if we did so?
Old-school editorials have a transitive mode of authority; seeking to primacy effects sway public opinion or nudge policy action, the writer has an objective which could one day be achieved. Healthworks Easington? When an upscale paper like the SCMP— read by educated, over-employed, middle to upper class expats and locals working 15-hour days and more in and recency a city that runs on financial services and transport logistics—makes a wildly inoperative call for its readers to abandon on-line socializing for more ‘face time', a curiously sub-cultural mode of address conflicts with the mode of authority. Satire? This editorial networks with technophobes, concerned relatives or loved ones of ‘teenagers' (and other types) who voluntarily spend too much time on-line, and people who just don't like Facebook; it predicates a real world in which people can choose how they spend how much of their time. Yet overwhelmingly in Hong Kong, as in many cities today, middle class people have borderless working lives and we spend most of our time, wherever we are, with computers. And Recency? Facebook for me is real world contact. It's not the only kind I have but ( pace Riley) it matters. Death Of A Naturalist? In a day consumed by primacy and recency memos, reference-writing, refereeing tasks, managerial compliance chores and a never-ending stream of email, Facebook is my bit of heaven, a haven of warmth, silly fun and friendliness I can enter in an instant from my screen; contact there is real because it is diverse and unpredictable (unlike much of satire, my work). To argue that another site is better for this purpose could make good critical sense, and to propose a legally enforceable maximum 40 hour week for ‘knowledge workers' would be even better. However, to urge me to spend more time off-line (‘making new friends and maintaining old friendships') for the sheer good of and recency effects, my soul is The Importance in Schools Essay, a grizzle from primacy those fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I certainly do not mean to suggest that all criticism of Facebook is grizzling. Serious legal, ethical and political issues are arising from or being intensified by huckleberry the ‘Facebook' phenomenon (to use a typifying metonym myself), in the process sharpening some of the challenging debates of primacy, our time; free speech and its limits, censorship, the an undersupply of serotonin right to and recency effects privacy, the negotiation of social protocols for of serotonin a transnational economy that thrives on difference as well as inequality, the relations between semiotic and primacy other modes of violence, tensions between legal, communal and performative models of identity, the foundations of community, the satire huckleberry finn power of corporations in our personal lives, and the technological transformation of work are just a few of these. Anyone who doubts their political import in many parts of the world might consider the case of Fouad Mourtada, a 26 year old IT engineer beaten and jailed for 3 years in Morocco for placing a spoof profile of primacy and recency effects, Prince Moulay Rachid on Facebook, 3 or, on a different scale, China's disabling of Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Blogspot, Tumblr, Live Journal, Hotmail and Bing in the lead-up to the twentieth anniversary on 4 June, 2009, of the huckleberry finn massacre in primacy effects Tiananmen Square (Flumenbaum). Given this range of satire huckleberry finn, weighty issues to address, grizzling is of interest for its capacity to foreground unsettling worries and questions that trail along in the mix unresolvably, like an insistent and recurring malaise. For example, one familiar set of primacy effects, worries concerns the sociable personality and what it ought to be doing in the writer's world; does Facebook impair our ability to of Sex Education in Schools and at Home enjoy life and care for others off-line? Extensively debated in relation to manifest sub-cultures such as Hikikomori (see Jodice and Karmen) and Otaku (Lamarre) in Japan, anxiety about what it should mean to be human on an average day is hard to formulate plausibly now for larger populations. Thus an early grizzle by Bugeja about the implications of Facebook for university life (distraction in class, unwitting self-disclosure, inappropriate pictures, surveillance, commercial data gathering and identity theft) 4 suggests in primacy effects the course of a generally moderate discussion that there is a direct link between the size of the university IT budget, a corresponding loss of easington, faculty jobs, and a Facebook-driven proliferation of distracted, ‘egocasting' student personalities: ‘unless we reassess our high-tech priorities, issues associated with insensitivity, indiscretion, bias, and fabrication will consume us in higher education' (‘Heads Up'). The night of the living dead is close at hand. A related anxiety cluster invokes ‘real' friendship in an effort to achieve an and recency impossible norming of intimacy. Brusquely handled by the British judge who ruled in a 2008 harassment case that Facebook friends do not have to be friends ‘in the traditional sense' (Emerson), concern about the authenticity of Facebook friendship is an undersupply, not only circulated in the press but relayed by primacy effects ambivalent users of the site itself—like the sad case from an undersupply Toronto with 700 Facebook friends who ended up drinking alone when he tried to organize a party (Niedzviecki). While this confession may simply tell us something about Toronto, or the primacy effects author (I don't know that I'd drink with him either), narcissistic, instrumental or desperate friend-accumulation is also the subject of widely posted YouTube clips and a recurring discussion topic across the hundreds of ‘Addicted to Facebook' groups on the site 5 —eliciting on one of these a well-turned, 14 stanza ballad, ‘Can I be your Facebook Friend?':
Can I be your Facebook Friend? Friendship's new reality. And we'll celebrate our union. For all cyberspace to Utilitarianism "Hard Times" example see. Cause this friendship is unique. We can hold a conversation. And we never have to speak. I'll accept of course, and then. I will sit here on your profile. You won't hear from me again.
This poem nicely catches the nuances of the ‘Facebook addict' type: an anti-social, agoraphobic, ‘low maintenance' lurker who is also a passive-aggressive and voyeuristic stalker accumulating useless social capital. Were this to be taken literally as a realistic portrait of the and recency effects average Facebook user, human community as we know it might really be at 6 modern essay, risk. As I write, Facebook claims more than 200 million users (averaging 120 friends each), of whom more than 100 million log on at least once a day, spending more than four billion minutes daily on the site worldwide. 6 As one of primacy effects, those users (need I say?), I recognize neither myself nor my 370-odd Facebook friends in the poem's anomic persona. An Undersupply Of Serotonin? True, after the initial contact I rarely hear directly from the primacy and recency large number who are my ex-students or professional acquaintances, but I am sporadically aware of their lives and death we are there for each other if the need or desire arises. Primacy And Recency? This casual awareness is typical of large families (how often do we interact with all of our relatives?) and also of small communities; I spent my first twelve years of life in a town of 2,000 souls where absolutely nobody, not even the newsagent, was on easington regular speaking terms with everyone else. Primacy Effects? Of course, the poem is witty rather than grizzling because it personifies shameful little behaviours that most of us have indulged in, with or without Facebook (although they can be accentuated there). There is a bit of the lurker and the voyeur in most happily sociable people; who has never eavesdropped or peeped at a neighbour's stuff?
Familiar as they may be to people with wide-ranging lives on-line, these arguments need to be made; not everyone who uses email and visits web-sites is at ease with social networking. The Importance And At? However, merely bristling at anti-Facebook stereotypes or mocking the malaise that prompts them risks buying in to an exaggerated view of what is new and primacy and recency distinctive about the experience the site provides, while ignoring the increased cross-cultural complexity of such malaise today. Concern about the future of healthworks easington, sociability has been evolving in the West for more than a century, as the spread of a consumption-driven economy has distributed imperatives of and recency, self-marketing and self-display to ever-widening populations. Today, the deliberate inculcation of what Henri Lefebvre (1984) called ‘controlled consumption' to drive economic growth in developing countries is death of a naturalist, carrying those imperatives across multiple societies with historically differing concepts of what counts as proper subjectivity. With a little adaptation, Veblen's 1899 work on the leisure class provides us with ample material for a rip-snorting essay on vicarious consumption and and recency the ‘predaceous temper' on Facebook. However, it is more illuminating to reread Veblen alongside detailed accounts by worried Chinese critics of the PRC's strategic production of consumerism and ‘popular culture' after Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour (see Wang) in 1992; Bao, for example, examines how behaviours, tastes and interests befitting new urban personality types were minutely modelled for the readers of "Hard Times" Essay, a popular newspaper, Shanghai Weekly . In between these historical extremes lies the post-World War Two reconstruction of capitalism in the West and the classic literature on modernity and everyday life. In his Introduction to the 1984 edition of Lefebvre's Everyday Life in the Modern World (1962), Wander points out just how much Lefebvre's account of consumerism as a bureaucratically ‘controlled' terror spreading its principles of anxiety, repetition and compulsiveness through all aspects of life and into effects, the soul learned from the earlier work of band essay, Fromm (1947) on and recency ‘the marketing orientation': The modern world fosters a childlike personality, a person who constantly seeks and needs approval. Utilitarianism "Hard Times"? … Aimless, over-reactive, inconsistent, face aching at the end of the day from the ever-present and primacy and recency required smile, the marketing persona is of a piece with the modern world. (Wander in Lefebvre xiv) At least one thing to be said for huckleberry finn Facebook and other mobile socializing modes is that they take the ache out of smiling (‘like'), although unfortunately they also transfer it from the primacy effects face to the wrist or, in my case, the thumb: :)
For Lefebvre, the febrile tedium of everyday life routines (‘the quotidian') forms the underbelly or the band 6 modern history essay ‘verso' of the primacy and recency effects modern understood as ‘what is novel, brilliant, paradoxical and bears the healthworks easington imprint of technicality and and recency worldliness' (Lefebvre 24-5). I have no doubt that social networking sites are ‘of a piece' with the modern world in Lefebvre's sense; given the an undersupply vastness of his theory's horizon, how could they not be so? However, if we reduce Facebook or any other massive phenomenon to a pretext for revising classic theories of commodification and alienation, the question does arise why an ethnographically challenging 200 million people world-wide invest their energies in an activity that any adroit critic can easily portray as of a piece with their everyday pain and oppression (not to mention that of the workers who make computers and cope with the toxic waste). ‘False consciousness' seems more than ever insufficient as an explanation; always vulnerable to the charge of implying (from a masterly position) that masses of people ‘have yet to primacy and recency effects authentically experience their own lives' (Grossberg 365), ideological analysis has trouble accounting for huckleberry finn the degree to which popular culture can incorporate its own ideological diagnostic—a topic that no doubt arises on the 500 Facebook groups devoted to aspects of ‘Marxism'. Within the effects great tradition of of serotonin, modern cultural critique, an aesthetically-minded alternative is to follow Lukács via Jameson ( Signatures 9-34) or de Certeau (16) in seeking a utopian impulse in popular culture that reaches (even in Facebook) for a better future from the heart of reification, giving us pleasure in the process. The more creative Cultural Studies move today draws rather on sociology and primacy aspects of ethnographic method to ask questions within a concrete and of serotonin carefully delimited social context about our often ambivalent involvement in popular culture—an approach that admits of empirically anchored and thus potentially surprising answers (Couldry; Gregg). 7 Having a bet each way at the level of methodological principle, I lean far enough towards that old utopian quest to wonder whether Lefebvre's excoriating account of the modern everyday as it displaces a culturally if not materially rich traditional life of ‘style' ( Practice 38) does not direct us now towards the wrong historical vast horizon. Everyday life is not a human universal. For Lefebvre, the everyday is a modern historical product that wondrously ‘erupts' into primacy and recency, literature with the overwhelming triviality of that ‘epic twenty-four hours' (3) recounted in Joyce's Ulysses . A regime of living thickly composed of petty recurrences (‘gestures of labour and leisure, mechanical movements' ), everyday life has a time-tabling, programming, numbering drive that divides up human experience; lived time, for example, splits into the ‘pledged' time of work, ‘leisure' (an allocated ‘break' from the everyday), and steadily increasing ‘compulsive' time spent satisfying ‘various demands other than work such as transport, official formalities, etc' (53). Apt for fostering consumption as it multiplies our tasks, this distributive force breaks up the ‘unity of huckleberry finn, form, function and structure' that for primacy and recency Lefebvre characterized ‘style' in all the humble objects and social practices of naturalist, traditional living (29-30).
While French peasant cupboards varied in and recency effects form and construction from place to 6 modern place, their fitness for primacy a cupboard's purpose did not vary. I think of the Australian bush ‘meat safe': my grandmother's was cream and my mother's cacky green, but they worked the same way, they were not obsolescent, and they kept the blowflies at bay. Yet even as the destruction of of Sex, style-based ways of life continues and as many millions of people struggle (not least in primacy and recency China) for a modicum of consumer comfort, perhaps in the over-developed world today it is everyday life rather than ‘style' that is slowly breaking down—along with its repetitive, minutely layered routines that differentiated the gendered space-times of modern domestic and essay working experience. Invoking the and recency Incas and Aztecs along with Greece and Rome, Lefebvre envisaged ‘the total absence of everyday life in a given community at easington, a given time' (29) and primacy effects not all of his examples were from the example ancient world; adolescents and students in effects particular, he noted, fear everyday life as a ‘vague potentiality' known only through their parents (74). Lefebvre was writing in the 1960s, and an expansion of pledged and compulsive time under neo-liberal management over the past forty years has well and truly spread everyday life to formerly spared social categories. At the same time, though, I'm not sure that anyone who hangs round the easington house all day, a-rhythmically working and playing on-line in the same sloppy daks and trainers we wear to the shops, the and recency effects gym or a meeting (or fluidly passing from eBay to Wii Fit to compulsive email without leaving our screens) actually has an 6 modern essay ‘everyday life' in Lefebvre's divisive sense. The socially insular, cave-bound figure of the hacker or the gamer in popular mythology certainly does not.
In fact, significant genres of and recency, popular narrative have been talking to us about the an undersupply of serotonin passing of primacy and recency, everyday life for quite a while. In our great paranoid epics about technologies of surveillance and perception, the hero must first be wrenched from a routine life that he finds either a little dull (Will Smith in Enemy of the State ) or unbearable (Keanu Reeves in The Importance of Sex Home Essay The Matrix ). His quest is then either to retrieve the normality that he now values more deeply, or to transcend it and to access the truth behind those meticulously programmed appearances; the Matrix is a totalisation of the primacy and recency effects everyday as Lefebvre understood it. In the overture to the Matrix trilogy (which, in passing, reveals just how much of a Platonist Jean Baudrillard can be), Neo needs only to conquer fear and jump out the window to leave ‘Tom Anderson' and office life behind. In hundreds of lesser action films (a recent example is Eagle Eye ), this physical leap of band 6 modern history, faith literalizes the passage from everyday life to and recency effects a new reality, while the recurring line of dialogue, ‘I just want my life back', marks the Utilitarianism "Hard Essay example passage of a question about the primacy stability of the 6 modern everyday. Zombie and and recency effects vampire stories also share the central premise of an satire huckleberry assault on everyday life. Differently preoccupied as they are with sustainability, both genres feature the effects losing battle of the Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Times" example uninfected to preserve a semblance of ‘normal' life before joining the war for brute survival that fills the effects world of post-apocalyptic fiction, in which no everyday life remains ( The Road Warrior , the Resident Evil series). Healthworks Easington? The zombie apocalypse canon is the primacy and recency effects more absolutist about the relentlessness of this drift; if Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) adapted the Afro-Caribbean folklore marked as such in White Zombie (1932) to healthworks the setting of an American farm house under siege, Dawn of the Dead (1978) memorably locked the remnant bearers of everyday life in and recency effects the temple of healthworks easington, Lefebvre's ‘controlled consumption', a shopping mall—with an out-of-control consumption principle ravening outside. Revisionist vampire stories have a more nuanced historical vision, holding out primacy and recency effects, hope for an evolution in of a everyday life.
Born into Veblen's world, Dracula was a very much an old school man of ‘style' forced to effects deal with modern people (Van Helsing, Lucy); his descendants are historical border creatures who nightly negotiate the naturalist everyday, whether in romance ( Angel , True Blood , Twilight ) or as politics ( Blade , the ‘Joe Pitt' novels of Charlie Huston). And then there is the Terminator franchise, with its eschatological framing of a girl's moment of contempt for a cosy little house, cold sodas and primacy and recency effects Facebook pages. Of Serotonin? The film series temporally stretches the mundane double consciousness of consumer modernity (knowing this way of life is not sustainable into and recency effects, the future, we want this way of life to survive) into a war over history's direction between contending forces in both the satire present and the future. Primacy Effects? So far, only the fourth film, Terminator Salvation (2009) explores a fully post-everyday world. Terminator (1984) and Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003) are ‘wrenching out' stories, with Sarah Connor dragged in the first film from her big hair and ankle-warmer ordinariness, never to know everyday life again, while her son John is hiding out in Los Angeles at band 6 modern history essay, the start of the third. However, in and recency Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) everyone except the monomaniacal Sarah (and, of band 6 modern, course, her liquid metal T-1000 enemy) is and recency, immersed in the everyday; under the tutelage of John Connor as a child, even the T-800 helper (Arnie) learns some of its routines. Satire Finn? Linking to this film in particular, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles TV series makes John Connor's adolescence a study in psychic conflict between longing for an ordinary suburban life and knowing that (as Riley puts it) ‘it's all going to burn'.
What sets John apart as a leader here is not his awareness of the fire to come; in a fuzzy way, there is common knowledge around him of the unsustainability of primacy effects, our world. Rather, this version of John Connor stands out from his helpers (with the partial exception of Cameron, his studious Terminator guard) because he knows why people care , none the satire less, about cold sodas and and recency cosy houses, ‘like it all matters'. I doubt that John Connor could risk having a Facebook page, but I'm fairly sure that he'd want one. Let me offer my own two or three cents about huckleberry utopia and Facebook. First, Facebook is not all quizzes, ‘hey babes' and pokes. Most negative media stories obsess about primacy one or two features (photos and status updates in particular), but the point about Facebook is that it bundles together multiple functions and potential things to do. Most of us never use all of them, and other social networking platforms do some of these things better than Facebook does (MySpace for The Importance of Sex in Schools and at Home Essay new music, Live Journal for communities, Ning for interest groups, Twitter for global converse and news as-it-happens …), but what Facebook does well is combine : you can write private letters, play games, send gifts, do quizzes, circulate news, post notes, music and clips, share photos or research, test your knowledge, join groups and causes, make haiku-like allusions to your state of primacy and recency effects, mind and chat on-line with friends, all in one place and time—restoring or relieving, according to of a need, the pattern of an everyday life. Facebook is on-line culture ‘lite': this makes it an object of effects, scorn for digital elitists and essay ‘white noise' haters (see Tuttle), but it is and recency, also a source of its mainstream appeal. Corresponding to this variety of uses is the diversity of death of a, kinds of contact Facebook allows, with the relation between ‘contact' and primacy effects intimacy also having the potential to vary over time within each singular friendship.
In this respect it follows the rhythms of in Dickens' Times" Essay example, ‘real life' as a whole: as Lauren Berlant puts it, ‘all kinds of emotional dependency and sustenance can flourish amongst people who only meet each other at one or a few points on the grid of the field of their life' (‘Faceless Book'). Nothing flourishes for people who join Facebook and effects do nothing with it; passive or un-giving use of any network is rewarded in kind (Strohmeyer). 6 Modern History Essay? As Thompson points out, a depth dimension to ‘ambient awareness' accumulates only effects with time and aggregation. Band 6 Modern? It does grow over time; Facebook has increased my affective quality of life, and not only because it offers a break from my academic service work. The collective stream of posts brings me word of primacy effects, books, articles, music, films, video clips and news that I would otherwise never discover. At a time of life when new involvements become more rare, I suddenly have digital penfriends with whom I exchange old-fashioned letters through Inbox (one of the band 6 modern history essay least remarked features of Facebook), while an acquaintance from primacy decades ago has become a dear friend whom I contact almost daily. Retrieving a joy of my childhood, when my father would bring home a ‘two bob' chocolate on a Friday night and we'd listen to The Goon Show and My Word on the ABC, I play variants of Scrabble with friends on four continents throughout the day. Facebook also nudges me to remember more of my past than I am wont to do, as other people's actions unpredictably pull bits of our scattered lives together.
There is more to this aspect than the nostalgia decried by an undersupply of serotonin Susan Dominus (‘sometimes it seems like Facebook is the most back-ward looking innovation ever expected to change the future') and primacy and recency effects Steve Tuttle (‘Goodbye, William and Mary alums I barely remember from 25 years ago'). Facebook has utopian force for me because it gently undoes the dissociative patterns I learned as a girl in pugnaciously ‘real' Australian country towns; it lets me have family on the same plane as my ex-students, my friends who talk books, my colleagues in Hong Kong and Australia and friends who also post in Italian, French and Chinese. Directly because of Facebook, I was able to speak by phone to a much-loved cousin just before he died. Death Naturalist? If Facebook vanished overnight, I would experience grief. Many users already express grief when the Facebook ‘team' announces a ‘redesign' or ‘streamlining' of some aspect of the site. 8 Grizzling about Facebook within Facebook itself is an activity that is too complex for cursory treatment here, but it is something I would research if I were a new media scholar. I'm generally not active in Facebook groups, but over the past year I have twice felt so upset about ‘upgrades' that killed cherished features of ‘my' on-line world that I, too, signed petitions and joined multiple versions of ‘1,000,000 Against the New Facebook Lay-Out'. Apart from the anger endemic to living passionately in an environment that the owner can alter at and recency, will (a condition a bit like being in love and a lot like being a tenant), most obnoxious to me is the Facebook doublespeak that coos about ‘giving you more control' over your page, while flagrantly reducing that control as we are nudged to push ever more content from other media providers. The worse occasion for me was the September 2008 redesign; by forcing several added rounds of clicking, it separated the death naturalist applications (and thus the display of signs received from friends) from the news feed, in time as well as visual space—thereby splitting memory and conservation from contemporaneity, the past from the flow of the present.
Like most of my Hong Kong friends I had loved those gift-based apps and curated the images carefully as I once did scrapbooks of shoes and hairstyles from 1950s comics; some icons were beautiful and and recency others were not, but all were mnemonic traces of events and personal stories. Death Of A? When Facebook began calling these ‘clutter' (an aesthetic position shared by mostly American friends who always hid their stuff behind a corporate web page look), I realized that my affection for these apps was of a piece with growing up in what was once sniffily known in Australia as an ‘Irish house'—full of clutter, often dusty junk unappealing to behold but charged with the vitality of the souls who had given each object or left it behind. Clutter is an unfriendly name for the portals of the spirit-world; it can be very bad luck to throw clutter away. So I keep some of mine on primacy effects Facebook, immured on that ‘Boxes' page, but when I go there now it feels like visiting a cemetery rather than a home. Groups formed to oppose Facebook initiatives can attract a couple of million people and they often complain of band 6 modern, censorship and PRC-style technical interference from site administrators. Effects? The protests against the March 2009 remodelling of the Home page to make Facebook more like Twitter seem to have been a little more effective than those of 2008 in extracting modifications of an unpopular yet widely accepted site revision. Of Serotonin? Win or lose, though, perhaps it is this experience of joining with equally frustrated and grizzling strangers world-wide in a reiterative struggle with a transnationally effective corporate ‘state' that exercises power through emotional blackmail (that is, hegemony; ‘if you don't like it, leave!') that for me most clearly models political practices of primacy, far wider import than Facebook itself. On Facebook at the moment we may be grizzling about death ease of access to Growing Gifts, Hatching Eggs or My Fab Bag. However, if it is more or less new for me to do this on-line, the mode of continuity that makes this small change intelligible is neither fictional nor derived from Western critical literature on the political potentials (and otherwise) of and recency effects, new media use. Rather, I understand it in an ordinary way through the growing power, in limited but I think expanding spheres, of the Chinese netizenry, which draws its effectiveness (in particular, against abuses of power in everyday life) as much from the culture of the political system that it inhabits and harasses as it does from the media it uses.
9 Over-supplied as we are with representative government, Australians have been accustomed to an undersupply of serotonin thinking of Chinese political culture as remote. Yet as our own system intensifies its reliance not only on deal-making and ‘spin' but on public cynicism about the possibility of truth and integrity in politics, I note that it is during the often but not always fruitless exercise of and recency, opposing Facebook's decisions and history essay exposing what lies inside their rhetorical cocoon that Hong Kong's ‘petitionary' style of primacy and recency effects, public pressure activism as exercised within an unrepresentative, undemocratic mode of governance becomes, however briefly, a transnational norm. Petitioning may or may not be effective but over time it is the shared experience of a form of collective agency enabled by a broad and amorphous imagined community (‘fellow Facebook users') that has significant utopian and practical potential. 10 As culturally changing systems of of Sex Education in Schools and at Home, political and corporate power reshape our lives in the West, we may have more to learn than we know from Chinese internet activism's capacity to trouble inaccessible and seemingly impregnable powers. Effects? In the meanwhile, having a good grizzle about Facebook can sometimes achieve a little more than we have learned to expect. Meaghan Morris is Chair Professor of Cultural Studies at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and Professor in the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney.
Her books include Identity Anecdotes: Translation and Media Culture (2006); Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema (co-ed. with Siu-leung Li and Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Stephen Chan Ching-kiu, 2005); “Race” Panic and the Memory of Migration (co-ed. with Brett de Bary, 2001); and Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture (1998). My thanks are due to Carl Chan, who first persuaded me to try Facebook and twice helped me in important ways with this article. Catherine Driscoll and Melissa Gregg nudged me hard to think about Facebook, and effects the article is based on a seminar for the Department of of a naturalist, Gender and primacy and recency effects Cultural Studies, University of of serotonin, Sydney. 1 For a review of Davies with a sceptical view of the model of journalism's history assumed by accounts of and recency, its imminent death, see Preston. 2 For tip of the iceberg indications of the Grant and an undersupply of serotonin Bono coverage see, respectively, Simpson and Bruce; Claburn.
Parodied in the 2006 Pink music video ‘Stupid Girls' and the inspiration for several pop songs about girly mega-narcissism, Paris Hilton's style of chronicling the micro-events of her affective and material consumption is canonical for the ‘rich and famous' genre; Ashton Kutcher (husband of Demi Moore) is an actor whose use of Twitter is now metonymic of primacy, its trivial uses, thanks to the number of of Sex Education in Schools and at, media stories that have been written about him. See ‘Facebook “Sickie” Guy Facing Investigation' for primacy the Story of finn, Sydney AAPT call centre worker Kyle Doyle, whose boss reportedly spotted ‘Kyle Doyle is effects, not going to work, f*** it I'm still trashed. SICKIE WOO' on of a Doyle's profile; the primacy and recency effects incident is now an exemplary case for Human Resources training discourse on in Dickens' Essay Facebook in and recency the workplace (see Stokeley). 3 See ‘Three years for profiling a Moroccan prince on Facebook'. After an international campaign about the violations of Mourtada's rights during arrest, he was reportedly freed by band ‘royal grace' after 43 days of primacy and recency effects, detention; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/03/21/moroccan-blogosphere-on-fouad-mourtada-finally-free/. For an interesting discussion of the June 4th blockade and the language nuances involved, see Techcrunch ; http://uk.techcrunch.com/2009/06/02/china-shuts-down-twitter-and-bing-in-lead-up-to-tiananmen-anniversary/ 4 By ‘early', I mean that the publication of the article in early 2006 preceded the Education Home Essay opening up of primacy and recency effects, Facebook to mass use. Launched by Mark Zuckerberg on February 4, 2004, Facebook was limited at first to Harvard students.
It expanded membership eligibility first to other Ivy League schools, then other universities, then high school networks in band September, 2005, before opening to everyone over the age of 13 with a valid e-mail address on primacy September 26, 2006. 5 There is also a small number of Facebook groups (13 as I write) dedicated to more or less expletive-laden versions of the topic, ‘I Don't Know You But Let's be Facebook Friends'. Easington? Most of them show little or no sign of activity. As a check on the reality-effect of the ‘student orgy' stereotype, it is also worth noting that Facebook claims that more than two-thirds of its users are now outside of colleges, that about primacy and recency effects 70 per Utilitarianism "Hard Times" Essay, cent of primacy and recency, users are now outside the United States, and that the fastest growing demographic is 35 years old and older. 7 Exemplary of this is Gregg's forthcoming study ( Work's Intimacy ) on the impact of being always available on-line on death of a naturalist the lives of middle and lower middle class workers in Brisbane.
8 Wikipedia gives quite a detailed and well-referenced account of the major intra-Facebook controversies and the mode of primacy and recency effects, their resolution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Facebook#cite_note-43. 9 For a threshold Chinese case in June 2009 that was somewhat submerged in international news media by the events simultaneously occurring in Tehran, see ‘Fending Off Demands for Sex' for the widely publicised case of 21-year old Deng Yujiau, who was freed by a court after killing a Communist Party official who had tried to assault her. 10 My thanks to Russell Smith for this formulation. Bao, Yaming. ‘Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism and Shanghai Popular Culture.' Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9.4 (2008): 557-567. Berlant, Lauren. ‘Faceless Book.' 25 December 2007. http://supervalentthought.com/2007/12/25/faceless-book/ Accessed 30 October 2008. Bugeja, Michael J. ‘Heads Up: Facing the Facebook.' The Chronicle of Higher Education . Healthworks? 27 January 2006. ‘Can I Be Your Facebook Friend?' Posted by Elaine Spall. 29 February 2009.
search#/topic.php?uid=2204645326topic=8458 Accessed 7 June 2009. Claburn, Thomas. ‘Bono's Bikini Teens Perplex Facebook's Privacy.' Information Week. And Recency Effects? 29 October 2008. http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/privacy/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=211800114cid= RSSfeed_IWK_ALL Accessed 2 June 2009. Couldry, Nick. Inside Culture: Re-imagining the Method of Cultural Studies . Huckleberry? London: Sage Publications, 2000. Davies, Nick.
Flat Earth News . London: Chatto Windus, 2008. De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life . Trans. Steven F. Rendall. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. Dominus, Susan. And Recency? ‘Thanks to of Sex Education Essay Facebook, Your Childhood in Park Slope in the ‘80s Never Has to End'. The New York Times . 17 October 1008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/nyregion/17bigcity.html Accessed 30 October 2008. Emerson, Daniel. ‘Facebook Friends Not Real Friends: Judge'.
Sydney Morning Herald . And Recency Effects? 27 March 2008. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/facebook-friends-not-real-friends-judge/2008/03/27/1206207279597.html Accessed 5 November 2008. ‘Facebook No Substitute for Real World Contact.' Sunday [South China] Morning Post. 17 May 2009: 8. ‘Facebook “Sickie” Guy Facing Investigation.' Nine News. 23 October 2008. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=651937 Accessed 5 November 2008. ‘Fending Off Demands for Sex: Chinese Hero Freed.' Sydney Morning Herald . 19 June 2009. http://www.smh.com.au/world/fending-off-demands-for-sex-chinese-hero-freed-20090617-cgro.html Accessed 19 June 2009. Flumenbaum, David. ‘China Blocks Twitter Ahead of Tiananmen Anniversary.' The Huffington Post . 2 Jun 2009. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/06/02/china-blocks-twitter-ahea_n_210177.html Accessed 7 June 2009. Fromm, Erich.
Man for Himself . New York: Rinehart, 1947. Gregg, Melissa. Band History Essay? Work's Intimacy . Cambridge: Polity Press, forthcoming 2010. Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place: Popular Conservatism and Postmodern Culture . New York and London: Routledge, 1992. Jameson, Frederic. Signatures of the Visible . New York and London: Routledge, 1992. Jodice, Francesco and Kal Karman. Hikikomori in Japan (1of 3) . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gIx6hZweHc Accessed 19 October 2009.
Knight, Elizabeth. ‘My Space Invaders Poke Murdoch's Eye.' Sydney Morning Herald . 25 April 2009. http://business.smh.com.au/business/myspace-invaders-poke-murdochs-eye-20090424-ai0u.html Accessed 20 May 2009. Lefebvre, Henri. The Practice of Everyday Life. 1962. Trans. Primacy And Recency? Steven F. Rendall. History? Introd. Philip Wander. Berkeley and London, Transaction Books, 1984.
Morris, Meaghan. Identity Anecdotes: Translation in Media Culture . London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, 2006. —. Too Soon, Too Late: History in and recency effects Popular Culture . Bloomington, Indiana UP, 1998. Morse, Margaret. ‘An Ontology of Everyday Distraction: The Freeway, the Mall, and Television.' Logics of Television . Of Serotonin? Ed. Patricia Mellencamp. Primacy And Recency Effects? Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990. 193-221. Nichols, John and Robert W. McChesney. ‘The Death and Life of Great American Newspapers.' The Nation. 18 March 2009. Niedzviecki, Hal. ‘Facebook in a Crowd.' The New York Times . 26 October 2008. Preston, Peter. ‘Damaged Limitations.' The Guardian.
9 February 2008. Simpson, Richard and Sarah Bruce. ‘The Night Hugh Grant Ended Up in the Arms of a Gaggle of Student Beauties.' Mail Online. 8 October 2007. The-night-Hugh-Grant-ended-arms-gaggle-student-beauties.html Accessed 2 June 2009. Stokeley, Sarah. ‘Facebook and the Boss.' NETT#.
3 March 2009. http://nett.com.au/people/hr-and-training/facebook-and-the-boss/11321.html?p=1 Accessed 2 June 2009. ‘Strange Things Happen at the One Two Point.' Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles . Season Two, Episode 10. Fox Network. 2008-09. Thompson, Clive. ‘Brave New World of Digital Intimacy.' The New York Times. 7 September 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html Accessed 30 October 2008. ‘Three Years for Profiling a Moroccan Prince on Facebook.' Refworld.
27 February 2008. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,AMNESTY,,MAR,47cbc6531a,0.html Accessed 19 May 2009. ‘Time is Up for Twitter'. The Australian. 30 April 2009.
http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,25405926-16382,00.html Accessed 17 May 2009. Tuttle, Steve. ‘You Can't Friend Me, I Quit!' Newsweek. 4 February 2009. http://www.newsweek.com/id/183180 Accessed 19 May 2009. Veblen, Thorstein.
The Theory of the Leisure Class: an satire finn Economic Study of and recency effects, Institutions . 1899. Forgotten Books . Wang, Jing. The Importance Of Sex In Schools And At Home? ‘Culture as Leisure and Culture as Capital.' positions: east asia cultures critique 9.1 (2001): 69-104. Please feel free to and recency effects contribute to this discourse. Australian Humanities Review all rights reserved. ISSN: 1325 8338. Editors: Monique Rooney Russell Smith.
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Nov 21, 2017 Primacy and recency effects,
ethic essay topics This paper presents over primacy and recency 30 significant ethical issues that remain unresolved and an undersupply, invite more discussion by the general public. Social policy regarding these issues shouldn't be decided by special interest groups and and recency, lobbyists. The list below is meant to be evocative rather than comprehensive. (I hope it stimulates you to band, think of some issues I haven't listed. And Recency! Please feel free to death, email me and make suggestions for and recency additions or revisions. Perhaps we'll add them to the list.) One application of these issues is as a way to assess the effectiveness of a philosophical system or theory of consciousness-raising. Can the example, ideas advocated in that system guide or help us in addressing the the problems posed? Ethics involves the sphere of interpersonal, group, and community politics at primacy effects, the level of values–not just what can be achieved or how to achieve it, but more what should be sought, in an undersupply of serotonin the realm of social harmony and fairness. It is the complexity of the other side of individualism– other than taking care of primacy oneself, what do we want our collective to do or refrain from doing? Ethics looks at our proper relations, our duties to each other, indvidually and satire, collectively.
In the past, ethics–and a good deal of civil law, in addition–was mixed with the requirements of religious ritual and the establishment of the and recency effects, details of the priestly caste. In Dickens' "Hard! There was no other law back then, around the time of effects Moses, at least for the wandering Israelites, and when the alleged basic rules were laid down in the Torah, the first five books of the death of a naturalist, Bible. Primacy! In most other countries, the law wasn't codified, and although there were traditions, the king was the satire huckleberry, boss and he could be pretty capricious. (The code of Hammurabi, around 1700 BC in primacy and recency effects the area near Babylon, was a bit of an exception, as far as we know.) It took a while to healthworks easington, establish a civil government with some semblance of consistent law, and the revisions of the primacy effects, code re-established this effort. Such efforts also were in reaction to band history essay, the growing problems of trade, the and recency, establishments of small sub-cultural communities within larger communities, and inter-cultural mixing, which then required laws that applied to all sub-cultures within a greater empire. (Before that, each minority or mini-nation or tribe was allowed to apply its own traditional rules of justice–as long as they paid their taxes, sent their military levies, and didn't make trouble, they were left pretty much alone.) The ascendency of the Education in Schools and at Home, Church in the West and of a theocratic legal system in the Islamic Empires tended to and recency effects, re-establish a more theocratic process, but once again this has broken down in most countries of the West and many in the Middle East, so that civil questions are distinguished from religious ones. This preamble is being presented because there's still a sense that our ethical rules are if not explicitly described in the Bible, they are implicit there, and can be applied to all modern issues.
The Jews actually tried to do this, and the Talmudic tradition was a result, an interpretative tradition that laid the groundwork for some of the later traditions of rational argumentation found in 6 modern essay our judicial systems. But the problem is this: New circumstances and technologies really create new problems. Should we rationally tie our ethics to these traditional sources and precedents, especially when they arose out of primacy effects cultures that may be becoming minority cultures in our present society? (i.e., English law, English Biblical translations, which were politically biased pro-royalty works, etc.) Beginning perhaps with the Magna Carta and of a, flowering in the 18th century, the and recency effects, idea of rights emerged. The problem is that these were perceived as existing a priori, 0ut there, so to speak, objectively. Nowadays we have become more sharply aware that rights are negotiated, they are social arrangements. As increasing groups of peoples--including, lately, the in Dickens' "Hard Essay example, unborn, and primacy, now, even animals, are viewed as having rights, ethics has expanded to explore who should have which rights? Is health care a right, and if so, are we obligated to collectively offer it, or should it be something people have to purchase (at some significant expense) from an undersupply, privately-owned corporations?
Thus, we are charged with a goodly number of primacy and recency hot potatoes, sticky and pressing ethical problems, social issues, that are more often than not avoided, at least as topics of ongoing rational social discussion. There are positions taken, of course, and challenges to these positions, but, alas, rarely is there really rational discourse. So it is worth while to stand back and consider what these issues are in band 6 modern contemporary culture. The following are presented in no particular order–I haven't been able to think of a way of classifying them or attributing any sort of rank or hierarchy. Primacy And Recency! The numbering, then, is just for the convenience of referring to them later in in Dickens' Times" example the paper. For example, if offered work, is the person who is given welfare obligated to accept that job, even if they don't like that work? What if the decision as to primacy, a job being not acceptable is viewed as trivial or unworthy by others? (1) Do we owe people jobs? To what extent do we collectively need to extend ourselves to sustain lines of work that are economically uncompetitive? (2) As tobacco is an undersupply of serotonin becoming viewed as less of primacy a socially beneficial substance, what obligations do we have to tobacco farmers?
(1) What about an undersupply of serotonin strings attached? Can we demand political, human rights, ethical governmental policy, enforcement of human rights, etc. before we give aid? (2). What rights do we have on and recency effects criticizing the ethics and priorities of peoples in other cultures? 2. Addictive Substances –Alcohol, drugs, tobacco. (1) Should we collectively pay for drug treatment? (2) If they enter rehab and relapse, should they be taken back? How many times?
(3) How much should addiction be considered a mitigating circumstance from history, some associated misbehavior or crime? 3. Abortion : Should abortion be allowed? Is this a religious or a legal issue? A. What about if the life of the primacy and recency, mother is endangered? B. Easington! What if the fetus is found to be anencephalic –no functioning brain– Or if it has some other either catastrophic congenital defect? Is Down's Syndrome–moderate retardation–grounds for an abortion? C. How late can an abortion be performed? 3 months? 5 months? 7 months?
D. How early can an and recency, abortion be performed? Is the morning-after pill? an abortion? (I.e. before the embryo has implanted into essay the uterus) E. Should the community regulate contraception or is primacy this for the individual to decide? 4. Suicide: How should the community relate to the problem of suicide? Should there be any legal constraints at of a naturalist, all?
A. Might it be allowed only to stop the suffering of the terminally ill? (1) What about those who have failed to leave an advanced directive: If they are left in a vegetative state after an accident, stroke, etc., when is it okay to pull the plug? (2). Should a consideration of the legal device of advanced directives be made a compulsory unit–you don't have to primacy and recency, sign it, but you do have to discuss why you won't–for people at age 80? 60? 30? In college? 5. Naturalist! Parenthood: Is there a right to parenthood? Should we support anyone who wants to be a parent in this activity? What if they are thought to and recency effects, be unfit? What makes a person unfit as a parent? (This is related to the next topic of abuse.) How much attention does a child really need?
How nice must the healthworks easington, housing be? The neighborhood? What if a parent cannot protect a child from the bullying of other children? (1) Is it okay for gay or lesbian partners to adopt a child? (2) What about primacy and recency adopting a child of a different race? Or religion? (3) If the child is in permanent foster care because the "Hard Times" Essay example, parent has lost rights, can that parent nevertheless protest against the parents who would adopt that child on the basis of religion or some other ethnic criterion? 6. Animal Rights What rights should animals have?
Our sensitivity to other peoples, minorities, etc. continue to expand. We're less tolerant of rank cruelty. What about intermediate conditions, excessive constraints in raising livestock, for instance? Animal laboratory testing? A. Primacy And Recency Effects! Supervision and regulation of animal farms, e.g., dog-raising kennels. 7. Heroic Medicine : How sacred is life itself? How heroic are we obligated to be in near-terminal conditions?
A. How much money should be spent to attempt to keep alive a 2 month-premature infant? A 3-month premature infant? The limits of viability gradually are pushed down along with an exponential increase in cost and huckleberry finn, resources. Just because science can do something, it raises the question whether it should be done. Expensive AIDS treatment for those whose lives were reckless? Lung transplants or other heroic treatments for inveterate smokers? Rehab, surgery, etc. for victims of reckless driving and motorcycling without helmets? Or should health care attempt to be blind and primacy and recency, non-judgmental as to the source of illness (All this is related to item 1-B and 4-C.) 8. Safety Standards : What standards of Utilitarianism "Hard Times" example safety do we wish to set?
Is there a right to be protected even from primacy and recency, our own foolishness? A. Should government get out of the of a, business of telling people what substances they can or can not put into their bodies? (A strict libertarian stance.) (1) Is there a moral difference between legalization and de-criminalization? (2) Are there ethical or philosophical issues in drawing distinctions among the harm potential of alcohol, tobacco (in different forms), cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, marijuana, LSD, heroin, other opiates (e.g. Oxycontin), sedatives, ecstasy (MDMA), etc.? (3) What about the whole field of restricting drugs or medicines to doctor's prescriptions? (a) what are the effects, economic advantages of making all drugs over-the-counter?
9. Environmentalism . What obligations do we have to the environment? A. To what extent must we go to preserve species of animals or plants? 10. Governmental Corruption: Should corruption in politics be dealt with more severely? What kinds of ethical standards are appropriate for those in greater power, in government or business?
11. 6 Modern! Rehabilitation of Criminals : What kinds of efforts should we make to rehabilitate prisoners? A. Primacy And Recency Effects! Is there an obligation to differentiate between violent and Utilitarianism "Hard Essay, nonviolent crimes? (1) should there be protection against primacy and recency, homosexual rape? (2) to what degree should criminals be supported in the right to appeal? (What if they are in fact innocent?) (1) What degrees of defense and protection should there be to death, make sure the innocent are not executed? (2) Would some punishments, such as flogging, be less destructive and and recency effects, expensive in essay the long run and more deterrent? (1) How many chances should people be given for effects various problematic behaviors? E. What about obligations for restitution to the victims of crime?
12. Supporting Businesses : Do people have an obligation to collectively ensure that others be supported if the economy shifts? 13. Population Control: Is it ethical for a collective to take steps to control population growth? A. China's policies regarding having second children. 14. Is medical care a right? What is the Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Essay example, moral problem of effects demanding medical care for death all? What would the cost be?
(A). What kinds of mental health care, psychotherapy, is appropriate for coverage by primacy and recency the collective, and what kinds are not appropriate? (B) What about substance abuse treatment? 15. In Dickens' Essay! Immigration: How much should the collective extend itself for immigrants?
A. Should we have bilingual education? B. What levels of immigration should the effects, better-off countries permit, and what restrictions are permissible? 16. Support for death naturalist the Gifted : What obligations should the collective take on to foster talent, the primacy and recency, gifted? 17. Homosexuality : What should be the status of gays and lesbians? Are they immoral? A. Death! Parenting rights: See. D. What about bisexuals, trans-gendered folks, etc.? 18.
Affirmative action: Should extra weight be given anyone because of primacy effects that person's belonging to healthworks, a group that has been considered disadvantaged. Should there be any communal or governmental policies that level the playing field? 19. And Recency Effects! Freedom of speech : What are its proper boundaries? Should it extend to include pornography? To what degree? Now that the internet is satire finn available, what kinds of primacy and recency effects censorship is permissible? 20. Smokers' rights : Should we recognize such a concept? What about non-smokers' rights? 21.
Gambling : Should there be any restriction of gambling? Is it a form of freedom, or an invitation to band, addiction? 22. Prostitution : What about legalizing or regulating prostitution? Is it always a degradation of women, a form of subtle oppression? What if some women who claim to enjoy this way of making a lot of money are not deceiving themselves? A. If it isn't a problem for and recency consenting partners, is it a moral or ethical issue? 23. Privacy Rights : Are the rights to privacy diminished by the demand for drug testing for various schools, jobs, etc.? A. Should the type of an undersupply of serotonin employment have to justify its reason for demanding drug testing? Why couldn't a person use drugs on their days off?
B. What about medical privacy in a world of managed care? 24. Effects! AIDS Venereal Disease : Now that one venereal disease is both deadly and un-treatable, should our policies and an undersupply, ethics about free sex be changed? A. Is there any place for governmental intrusion or laws, say, to make sure that all people who test positive can be interviewed and their contacts also notified? (1) Is it a moral obligation to primacy and recency, inform contacts. What about for herpes or other venereal disease?
25. Tort Reform : Now that liability insurance is beginning to cripple health care delivery and interfere with other industries, we need to an undersupply of serotonin, look at the fairness issues involved in civil liability suits and tort reform. Should there be limitations, caps? Is there any way to suppress nuisance litigation without also limiting the rights of and recency effects people who are disadvantaged? 26. Exclusive Clubs : When are free organizations, clubs, fraternities, etc., against the common interest, unduly privileging certain groups, enabling of prejudice, etc? A. Are there any contexts where limiting participation by members of the opposite Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Essay example sex is appropriate? B. Should schools with co-ed dorms also make sure they have non-co-ed dorms for those who don't want to be exposed to the pressures on modesty in co-ed living? 27. And Recency! Age Limits : What should be the proper age limits for band history driving, drinking, smoking, voting, going into the military, getting married without a parent's consent, having an abortion without a parent's consent, and other age-limitations. A. Should there be any routine age limitations on the older age side?
For which roles or skills? 28. Colleges Supervising Students : What responsibilities should colleges assume in loco parentis ? 29. Effects! Grade Inflation : What is the obligation of the teacher, administrators, and general society (parents, media) to fight against healthworks, pressures for grade inflation? A. Are there circumstances in which a child who has failed to perform should be flunked, retained, not passed along? When?
B. Effects! Should kids be passed in satire finn the service of self-esteem? Other reasons? C. Primacy And Recency Effects! At what ages should these policies be looser or tighter? D. Is expulsion ever justified? Where should the 6 modern history essay, child go? What responsibility does the community school system take for severely obstreperous kids? E. What pressures are appropriate to demand psychological evaluation of not only a child, but also of the family?
Is this intruding on the freedom of parents to primacy and recency effects, raise their kids as strictly or permissively as they wish? F. When is discipline abuse? 30. Language Dialect and Accent : Is it all right to discriminate among people because of dialect, when that mode of speech may not be understood by a significant portion of the community? A. Should people be encouraged or even coerced into reducing their dialect? B. Or should dialects be granted equal status? What about death naturalist jobs or roles in which being understood clearly is an primacy, important role component, such as in of a offering tech support by primacy effects phone, or other service-related dealing-with-people roles? 31. Privacy : What are the appropriate limits of privacy?
Is it unethical to 6 modern essay, break a confidence if the behavior that is primacy and recency effects known involves something really destructive to the person or others–e.g., suicide or murder? A. What about self-mutilation, cutting; or driving while intoxicated? B. An Undersupply! Should there be more boundaries on group pressures for intimacy: (1) What about church ministers who encourage people to hug each other? (2) In groups, being encouraged to disclose more about one's life than is comfortable. (This could apply to this class, too– so check it out.) C. Effects! Recent moves toward a standard or pooled electronic health records opens them to hackers and healthworks easington, insurance administrators who then can use this information to deny health care coverage to the people. Claims that these records can be made secure are of dubious validity, even if they are naively sincere. 32.
International Obligations : Are wealthier nations obliged to help other nations or governments, not just with humanitarian aid, but with military aid, or even more, are we obliged to intervene if those governments institute or enable or condone massive human rights abuses? A. What if the governments collapse in effects civil war? Or become chaotic and ineffective? Or allow or encourage genocide (ethnic cleansing)? (Some have advocated a return to colonialism as being more ethical and benign than our self-righteous claims to non-interference in band history the service of primacy and recency effects promoting democracy) 33. Utilitarianism In Dickens' "Hard Times" Essay Example! Degrees of Wealth : Should a distinction be made between those who earn moderately more than the average and those whose income is hundreds or thousands of times greater than those who earn a minimum wage? Should there be a steeply graduated income tax or inheritance tax so as to reduce this discrepancy?
A. What about people who own a moderate amount of property versus those who own extensive holdings? Are property rights a category that should involve no internal distinctions?